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Description and Classification of Structural systems 1 – DESCRIPTION OF a) Foundation and Footings. The extension of the college rests of a 150mm reinforced concrete floor slab. In comparison to the extension, the rest of the building lies on existing footings. Other structural systems in place are the excavated concrete binding piers underneath the slab. Deep pad footings are also located around the structure. There are also edge beams and internal beams listed on these plans, which also provide stability for the slab structure. These beams are located within the slabs. The edge beam is located on the outer side of the slab while the internal beams are found within the middle pier of the slab b) Primary Structure The primary structure of the building is the buildings framework.

All the necessary structural beams and columns used to keep the building standing make up the primary structure. There are two parts to the primary structure, the horizontal and vertical elements. The horizontal element in this renovation is the single story roof. This is made up of rood beams (RB), ceiling joists (CJ) and Canopy Beams (CB). Rafters are also part of the primary structure as they support the load of the roof. These essential beams and supports are connected to wall plates and columns supporting the structure. The vertical structure consists of columns supporting the roof of the Queens college extension. Wall plates make up the rest of the walls for the extension.


c) Secondary Structure The secondary structure is the cladding and exterior fittings around the primary structure. This structure does not support the main loads of the building. The main vertical secondary structure of the extension is the precast concrete panels that are attached to the wall plates. These are 150 min panels of concrete. Windows and doorframes are also included in the secondary structure of the building. Other parts of the secondary structure include the bluestone steps and the vinyl covering in the bar and laundry areas. Along with this there is extensive lighting and electrical wiring running throughout the primary structure.

c) SECONDARY STRUCTURE ( HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL )

Verandah Windows & door Courtyard & tables


3 - IDENTIFICATION, DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

f) Steel - window-capping - handrail (stainless steel)

Ramp

k) Perforated rheinzink -Roof structure around courtyard

a) TimberLINING BOARDS - turn room FLOOR•A1 Entry •A16 Entry 2 •A13 Hall •A14 Bistro •A18 Decking • A14 Gym b) Brick – FLOOR - A1 Entry c) Tiles – FLOOR - A4 Central tower (bluestone) •A17 Gym (rubber tiles) d) Rubber – FLOOR - A5 Turn room e) Concrete-WALL (precast concrete panel) on the south eastFLOORING (exposed aggregate concrete) FOOTINGS & STUMPS

g) Glass- door- windows (glass blocks in hall & tv room) h) Vinyl- FLOOR - emporium & bar •band room & stage

4 - IDENTIFY 3 STRUCTURAL JOINTS a) Typical footing/wall connection• non-bearing concrete blinding to replace poor soil• shows placement and dimension of precast panel, steel rondo stud, plasterboard• dowel bar connect footing to wall b) Sliding door jamb• shows placement of internal and external of the door as well as location of channel and flexible c) This is a close up of the block window joinery to be used in the fitting of the block windows. This shows the concrete wall panels with the expansion material to be used, mortar thickness as well as structural elements like the steel rod bracing. 5 – Identify and explain the use of different structural fixings Concrete – in this project concrete has been used in many different ways, For example, concrete has been used to improve the reactivity of the soil, no steel is used in this concrete it merely


acts as a extra footing for the building to ensure the ground is able to withstand the load of the building. Bolts – You can see in the drawings that it is specified that precast concrete wall panels will be bolted tother Weld- During a site visit you can see that the steel had been welded in certain parts Screw – On the inside of the concrete wall panels there is a timber framing, screws and nails are used for the timber to be held together

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6 - SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMETNAL ANALYSIS Carbon Footprint - Concrete is a key element in this constructing, it is used for both footing systems as well as pre cast walls and exposed aggregate concrete flooring, Whilst concrete is a mineral take from the earth depending how well planned its use is it can be either a sustainable or unsustainable. The concrete manufacturing business accounts from almost 5% or the worlds man made C02 emission so concrete does have a relatively high carbon foot print (The Cement Sustainability Initiative: Progress report, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, published 1 June 2002) Embodied Energy It is commonly said that a large building complex ‘s energy consumption usually takes about 4-5 years to surpass the energy used in its constructing, it is not merely the

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electricity used to power tools or fuel to power machines but also the energy used to produce materials. Concrete Concrete whilst it is a mineral from the earth, it does contain extremely large amounts of embodied energy, the mining, refining and Steel Another mineral mined, steel also requires refining and moulding for it to be made into a usable form for this particular building, refining which can have huge embodied energy costs Timber Timber whilst it does grow by itself, plantations have extensive maintenance and also there is embodied energy in the transportation and milling of timber to get it to constructing sites and into a usable material

Recyclability Its actually surprising how many materials in a building can be recycled, most of a building can actually be recycled although sometimes it proved more economically efficient to simply dump in land fill - Concrete can be recycled, it can be broken up again and mixed with cement and reused as well as the steel reinforcement which is funning through the concrete - Steel can be melted down and re moulded - Glass can also be recycled, although it is typically dumped -



Constructing journal week 5