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4. Substantivos terminados em F ou FE, geralmente é feito com a troca do F ou FE por VES. AULA 09 : PLURAL OF NOUNS Exemplos: wife – wives knife – knives life – lives wolf – wolves leaf – leaves loaf – loaves half – halves calf – calves thief – thieves self – selves shelf – shelves sheaf – sheaves

Regra geral: usa-se o S ao singular da palavra. Exemplos: notebook – notebooks table – tables river – rivers eraser – erasers REGRAS ESPECÍIFICAS: 1. Substantivos que terminam em S, SS, SH, X, CH e Z usam o plural ES:

ATENÇÃO! Exemplos: dwarf – dwarts ou dwarves scarf – scarfs ou scarves elf – elfs ou elves

bus – buses class – classes Brush – brushes box – boxes Church – churches topaz – topazes

5. Plurais irregulares: Exemplos: Man (homem) – men (homens) ** Woman (mulher) – women (mulheres) Child (criança) – children (crianças) Tooth (dente) – teeth (dentes) Foot (pé) – feet (pés) Goose (ganso) – geese (gansos) Mouse (rato) – mice (ratos) Louse (piolho) – lice (piolhos) Ox (boi) – oxen (bois) Die (dado) – dice (dados) Sheep – sheep (ovelhas) Deer – deer (veados) Fruit – fruit (frutas) Fish – fish (peixes)

Exceções: Palavras terminadas em CH, mas tem o som de K. O plural é formado apenas com o acréscimo de S. Exemplos: monarch – monarchs epoch – epochs Patriarch – patriarchs matriarch – matriarchs 2. Substantivos terminados em Y: a) Vogal + Y, recebe apenas o S final. . Exemplos:

**   

Day – days boy – boys

Roman – Romans Norman – Normans German – Germans

b) Consoante + Y, recebe como plural o IES final.

6. Palavras de origem estrangeira com terminação?

Exemplos:

• IS trocamos por ES

story – stories city – cities

Exemplos:

3. Substantivos terminados em O*:

basis – bases thesis – theses

Exemplos:

• UM trocamos por A

negro – negroes potato – potatoes

Exemplos: médium – media datum – data

* piano – pianos photo – photos solo – solos kilo – kilos dynamo - dynamos

• US trocamos por I Exemplo: nucleus – nuclei • IX trocamos por ICES Exemplo: appendix – appendices

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EXERCISES I ( EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA )

EXERCISES II (EXERCÍCIOS DO ALUNO) Passe para o plural os substantives entre parênteses:

PLURAL OF NOUNS: 01. John and Paul are young___________ (man) . Exercício 01: 02. The ____________ ( bus) are at the corner go to Praça da Sé Enumere a 2ª coluna de acordo com a 1ª: 03. “They are pretty ___________ “ ( woman). “ I think so”. 1)teacher......................... (

) primo

2)cousin...........................(

) casa

04. The American __________ _______ (salesman ) are waiting for huge profit this year.

3)pencil ...........................(

) primos

05. Those _________________ (house ) are next of my house.

4)house ...........................(

) casas

06. The _________________( child ) are in the garden.

5)teachers .......................(

) professor

07. The __________________ ( clock) are on the wall.

6)cousins .........................(

) lápis

08. The _________________ ( orange) are on the desk.

7)pencils ..........................(

) professores

09. They are ____________________ (Frenchman).

8)houses ..........................(

) lápis

10. The ______________ (watch ) belong to Walmir. 11. Salvador has three hundred and forty five _______ (church)

Exercício 02: Enumere a 2ª coluna de acordo com a 1ª:.

12. In the old times the world were ruled by _________________(monarch).

1) glass ..............................(

) prato

Read the text below and answer the questions:

2) dish ................................(

) igreja

3) bus ................................ (

) copos

4) church ............................(

) ônibus (pl)

5) box .................................(

) caixas

6) glasses ...........................(

) prato

1.

7) dishes .............................(

) ônibus (sing)

8) buses ..............................(

) caixa

9) churches .........................(

) pratos

10) boxes ............................(

) igrejas

On an airplane trip, I sat next to a woman and her five-year-old grandson. When I mentioned that I was a teacher, she asked him to count backward. He started: “20, 19 , 18 , 17 ...” “That was wonderful”, I said. “Did you learn that in school?” “No, at home. From the microwave”, he answered. (Reader’s Digest, July 1994). 13. This is a _____________ story. a) sad b) love c) humorous d) horror e)detective

EXERCÍCIO 03:

14. According to the text, the boy a) is not very young. b) is travelling with his mother. c) teaches Mathematics. d) has a microwave at home. e) likes airplanes.

Passe para o plural os substantivos indicados entre parênteses: Walmir is good teacher. 1. They are good __________________ ( teacher )

15.Read the following sentence: “She asked him to count backward.” The sequence which replaces the words She / him respectively is : a)My / I b)Our / us c)You / yours d)They / their e)He / them

That girl who is in red is my cousin, too. 2. Oscar and Joana are my _________ (cousin ). 3. I put my 6 _______ (pencil ) on the desk yesterday morning. 4. The ____________ (glass) are in the kitchen near the yellow cup.

GABARITO: 01. Men 02.buses 03.women 05. Houses 06. Children 07.clocks 09.Frenchmen 10.Çwatches 11.churches 12.monarchs 13. C 14. D 15. E

5. These are my new ___________ (dish ), please take care of them. 6. Luan and Maurício are young ________. (man )

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04.salesmen 08.oranges

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husband (esposo, marido) - wife (esposa, mulher) AULA 10: Gênero dos Substantivos - Gender of Nouns

nephew (sobrinho) - niece (sobrinha)

Há três gêneros de substantivos em Inglês:

king (rei) - queen (rainha)

Masculino (masculine): boy (menino), man (homem), waiter (garçom), brother (irmão), groom (noivo); Feminino (feminine): girl (menina), woman waitress (garçonete), sister (irmã), bride (noiva);

(mulher),

Neutro (neuter): boat (barco), shirt (camisa), person (pessoa), lawyer (advogado ou advogada), shark (tubarão).

lord (lorde) - lady (dama) host (anfitrião) - hostess (anfitriã) bachelor (solteirão) - spinster (solteirona) monk (monje) - nun (freira) wizard (bruxo) - witch (bruxa) dog (cachorro) - bitch (cadela)

Divisões do Gênero dos Substantivos

horse (cavalo) - mare (égua)

1. A maioria dos substantivos que se referem a pessoas e a suas profissões/funções são neutros, isto é,tem a mesma forma para o masculino e para o feminino. Exemplos:

bull (touro) / ox (boi)

doctor lawyer

- advogado / advogada

monarch

-o

monarca / a

teacher

monarca

- professor / professora

cook

- cozinheiro / cozinheira

student

// cow (vaca)

- médico / médica

- aluno, o

driver translator

-o

estudante / aluna, a

estudante

motorista / a -o

motorista

tradutor / a

tradutora

guest - o convidado / a convidada Observações: - O substantivo ship (navio), os nomes de navios e, às vezes, de carros, podem ser tratados como femininos. Exemplos: The ship struck a big rock which almost destroyed her. (O navio bateu numa grande rocha que quase o destruiu). A ship "was nearer and dearer to the sailor than anyone except his mother". What better reason to call his ship "she"? (Um navio era mais próximo e querido para ele do que qualquer pessoa, com a exceção de sua mãe. Que razão melhor do que essa para chamar seu navio de "ela"?) Look at his BMW. She is (Olha a BMW dele. Ela é uma belezura.)

a

beauty.

- O substantivo moon (lua) é considerado feminino: The moon and her glorious beams enchanted everyone. (A lua e seus raios gloriosos encantaram a todos.)

roster (galo) - hen (galinha) drake (pato) - duck (pata) ram (carneiro) - ewe (ovelha) 2.2. Gênero através de Sufixação (terminações diferentes): prince (príncipe) - princess (princesa) waiter (garçom) - waitress (garçonete) baron (barão) - baroness (baronesa) actor (ator) - actress (atriz) god (deus) - goddess (deusa) lion (leão) - lioness (leoa) grandfather (avô) - grandmother (avó) executor (executor) - executrix (executora) prosecutor (promotor público) - prosecutrix (promotora pública) hero (herói) - heroine (heroína) sultan (sultão) - sultana (sultana) czar (tzar) - czarina (tzarina) 2.3. Gênero através de prefixação: Adiciona-se man ou maid para pessoas, he ou she para animais e cock ou hen para aves. manservant (criado) - maidservant (criada) he-bear (urso) - she-bear (ursa) cock-pigeon (pombo) - hen-pigeon (pomba) From http://www.solinguainglesa.com.br/conteudo/substantivo8.php

2. Existem, no entanto, substantivos que se referem a pessoas e animais e que apresentam uma forma para o masculino e uma forma diferente para o feminino:

2.1. Gênero com palavras diferentes: boy (menino) - girl (menina) man (homem) - woman (mulher) brother (irmão) - sister (irmã) son (filho) - daughter (filha) uncle (tio) - aunt (tia) father (pai) - mother (mãe) groom (noivo) - bride (noiva)

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24. bull ________________ 25. husband ________________

EXERCISES (EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA)

26. bachelor ________________

I. Dê o feminino de:

27. lord ____________________

1. prince_________________

28. gander _________________

2. father_________________

29. friar ____________________

3. steward _______________

30. brother _________________

4. man ______________ ___ 5. husband ______________

EXERCÍCIOS ( EXERCÍCIOS PARA O ALUNO)

6. brother _______________

TEXT 02 Danger comes from the Forest

7. son __________________

Many different species of mosquitoes carry some of the world‟s most common and most infectious diseases. Yellow fever is one of these diseases. It is often transmitted by the Haemagogus mosquito in humid forest regions and got its name from the person‟s yellowish appearance after being infected. Born in the African Continent, the fever is an old disease which came to the new world in the 16th century. It was considered a dangerous disease for a long time. Even in the past century, in 1905, an epidemic in New Orleans killed one hundred thousand people. The number of yellow fever cases in Brazil has increased in the last three years, mainly because of the ecotourism in the Amazon area where you can find the largest species of mosquitoes. Adapted from

8. student _______________ 9. wizard _______________ 10. baby ________________ II. Dê o Gênero correto de cada substantivo( alguns substantivos são masculinos outros femininos): 1. widow _________________

http://www.netcolony.com/travel/brazil/riodejaneiro2.htm.

2. duchess ________________ 3. bride __________________

01. According to the text, yellow fever a) originated in the north of Brazil. b) comes from very dry regions. c) is a rare infectious disease. d) destroys international ecotourism. e) killed many people in the last century.

4. heir ___________________ 5. monk __________________ 6. heiress ________________ 7. executor _______________

02. The passage tells us that a) Haemagogus is not the only mosquito which transmits diseases. b) one hundred thousand tourists visited the Amazon Forest last year. c) there was an epidemic in Africa in the 16th century. d) people infected by all kinds of mosquitoes get yellow colouring. e) you cannot find an old disease in the new world.

8. poet __________________ 9. vixen _________________ 10. landlord ______________ 11. cock _________________ 12. mother _______________

03. The purpose of the text is a) to criticise. b) to advise. c) to advertise. d) to inform. e) to entertain.

13. tom-cat ______________ 14. waiter _______________ 15. bitch ________________ 16. jew _________________

04. In “ the fever is an old disease which came to the new world in the 16th century.", the word old……………………. . a) qualifies disease. b) functions as a verb. c) is a noun. d) is a preposition . e) exerts a function of adverb

17. earl _________________ 18. host ________________ 19. beau _______________ 20. bridegroom __________

GABARITO: 1.E, 2.A, 3. D, 4.A

21. child _______________ 22. son ________________ 23. lover _______________

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C. NOMES PRÓPRIOS TERMINADOS EM S AULA 11: GENITIVE CASE / POSSESSIVE CASE ( „S )  The friend of Charles  Charles's friend / Charles‟ friend.  The laws of Moses  Moses' Laws. law = lei

The doll(s) of the girl = The girl's doll. doll(s) = possuído // the girl = possuidor  FORMAÇÃO: POSSUIDOR + '(S) + COISA POSSUÍDA

Com nomes clássicos, bíblicos ou históricos, terminados em S, como: Jesus, Sócrates, Brahms etc., usamos apenas ( ' )

Observe que na formação do caso possessivo (genitivo), eliminamos a preposição OF e o artigo THE que precede a coisa possuída.

D. CASO GENITIVO COM LUGARES Harry has gone to the dentist's. (Harry foi ao seu dentista.)

A.

POSSUIDOR NO SINGULAR OU NO PLURAL NÃO TERMINADO EM S

O caso genitivo é muito usado, elipticamente, quando se refere a um lugar muito conhecido, ou facilmente subentendido.

The hat of the gentleman. E. DUPLO POSSESSIVO hat = possuído // the gentleman = possuidor (singular) A play of Shakespeare's. The gentleman's hat  the gentleman = possuidor // hat = possuído

O uso do caso genitivo com a preposição of constitui uma construção idiomática em inglês. Esta construção tem um sentido semelhante a "one of Shakespeare's plays". A diferença é que "a play of Shakespeare's" poderia ser dito ainda que Shakespeare tivesse escrito uma única peça.

The hats of the gentlemen. hats = possuído // the gentlemen = possuidor (plural não terminado em s)

A criticism of Fellini # A criticism of Fellini's = crítica sobre Fellini The gentlemen's hats. A criticism of Fellini's = crítica feita por Fellini FORMAÇÃO: WATCH OUT! possuidor > pessoa  The opinion of my uncle. uncle = tio  My uncle's opinion.

 possuidor (singular ou plural não terminado em s) + 's + coisa(s) possuída(s)

possuidor > animal  The tail of the dog. tail = cauda  The dog's tail.

SPECIAL CASES A. VÁRIOS POSSUIDORES

BUT: possuidor > coisa  The color of the dress. O caso genitivo é usado especialmente com nomes de seres humanos e alguns animais. Com nomes de coisas usa-se, de preferência, a construção com OF.

a) Tom and Dick's farm  a mesma fazenda pertence a ambos. b) Tom's and Dick's wives  cada um tem sua própria esposa. FORMAÇÃO:

EXCEPTIONS  Usa-se o caso genitivo com palavras que indicam QUANTIDADE, TEMPO e ESPAÇO.

a) havendo mais de um possuidor, acrescentamos 'S ao último, quando todos são possuidores de um mesmo elemento. b) havendo mais de um possuidor, e cada um tendo sua própria coisa possuída, acrescentamos 'S a todos.

A kilo's weight of sugar = a kilo of sugar

S B. SUBSTANTIVOS COMPOSTOS E NOMES PRÓPRIOS ACOMPANHADOS DE TÍTULOS

Two shillings' worth of sweets = two shillings of sweets Today's news = notícias de hoje. A month's work = trabalho de um mês

a) The books of my brother-in-law. My brother-in-law's books. (brother-in-law = cunhado)

Five hundred miles' distance. A meter's walk = caminhada

b) The reign of Alexander the Great.

B) USOS IDIOMÁTICOS

Alexander the Great's reign.(reign = reino) (great = grande)

The earth's shape = a forma da Terra The sun's rays = os raios do Sol The moon's face = a face da Lua The sea's color = a cor do mar The wind's force = a força do vento Brazil's beauties = as belezas do Brasil

FORMAÇÃO: a) os substantivos compostos são tratados como substantivos simples. b) quando o possuidor for representado por um nome próprio, acompanhado de um sobrenome ou título, apenas o último elemento recebe o 'S.

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EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA

EXERCÍCIOS DE CASA

01. Complete the sentences with ‟ or ‟s:

01. Write the apostrophe ( ‘ ) or (‘s): Example: I met _______ sister yesterday. (Mandy)

a. Billy ___blue car is in the garage.

Answer: I met Mandy's sister yesterday.

b. Mr. John ___ secretary is here. c. They sell ladies ___clothes in this store. 1) This is

book. (Peter)

d. The doctor____kids are very nice. 2) Let's go to the

e. The women ______boyfriends are late. f. My friends____cousins are beautiful.

3) The

g. We love Grandma_____cookies.

4)

h. The engineer____sunglasses are broken.

. (Smiths) room is upstairs. (children) sister is twelve years old. (John)

i. I don‟t like boys_____sneakers.

5) and stickers. (Susan - Steve)

j. Bring the baby_____toys.

6)

shoes are on the second floor. (men)

7) My

2. Rewrite the sentences using the Genitive Case:

bags have blue

car was not expensive. (parents)

8)

CD player is new. (Charles)

a. The skirts of the women are white. 9) This is the

b. The tail of the horse is not short.

10) These are the

c. The offices of the doctors are beautiful.

bike. (boy) pencils. (boys)

02. Make the possessive form of the nouns given. Example: My brother's house is in London. (brother)

d. The books of the students are new. 1. My

e. The toys of the babies are funny. f. The hat of Mrs. Sally is red.

shirt is purple. (friend)

2. The

books are on the desk. (girls)

3. It's

birthday on Monday. (John)

4. Do you have

g. The dress of my sister is old.

5. The (children)

h. The leg of the chair is broken.

bags are in the bedroom.

6. My

office is next to mine. (boss)

7. Your uncle is your (father)

3. Correct the sentences:

newspaper? (today)

8. Your aunt is your (mother)

brother.

sister.

a. Julie closed the store‟s window. 9. My (friends)

birthdays are next month.

10. A

tail is long. (monkey)

b. The pupils‟s dog is sleeping right now. GABARITO: 01)

c. The name's of the book is Twilight.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

d. Jacket‟s John is here. e. The house‟s gate is closed.

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PETER‟S SMITHS‟ CHILDREN‟S JOHN‟S SUSAN‟S / STEVE‟S MEN‟S PARENTS‟ CHARLES‟S / CHARLES‟

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AULA 12: . Formação dos Adjetivos Comparativos e Superlativos

1.1. Adjetivos Curtos (Shorter adjectives)

o o

1.1.1. Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de uma sílaba adicionamos -er para a forma comparativa e -est para a forma superlativa.Vamos a alguns exemplos:

colder

coldest

old

older

oldest

fast

faster

fastest

small

smaller

smallest

weak

weaker

weakest

o 

Adjective Comparative -ER Superlative -EST One Syllable cold

o

o o o o 

1.1.2. Existem adjetivos de uma sílaba que terminam com uma única consoante após uma única vogal. Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dobramos a consoante final. Exemplos

o Adjective Comparative -ER Superlative -EST One Syllable sad

sadder

saddest

thin

thinner

thinnest

wet

wetter

wettest

big

bigger

biggest

o o o

flatter flattest flat 1.1.3. Quando temos adjetivos de uma ou mais de duas sílabas que terminam com a vogal -y precedida por uma consoante formaremos os comparativos e superlativos trocando a consoante final y por i. Exemplos:

good - better - best: In this situation, he had a better chance of winning in 18 holes. It is just that the better cheese is pricy. The best player this season would be the one who added the most points. Bali wins best exotic destination award from English magazine far - further* - furthest ou menos comum far - farther* farthest: The supermarket is farther down the road than I thought The shop is closed until further notice. He had traveled to the farthest frontier. Bali wins furthest exotic destination award from English magazine old - older - oldest são as formas regulares, mas elder eldest também são usados para comparar idades de uma pessoa, especialmente de membros de uma família. Eles não podem ser usados com than. E como adjetivos só podem ser usados antes do substantivo (noun): This website for older adults was developed by the National Institute on Aging. The following tables list only the oldest verified people in ordinal rank, such as oldest person or oldest man. She is the elder of my two sisters. Jack is the eldest of three.

*O uso de farther e further frequentemente causa confusão sobre quando se deve usar um ou outro. Uma regra recente estabelece que farther deve ser usado para distâncias físicas e further para avanço ou progresso não físico ou metafórico. Em muitos casos, porém é difícil estabelecer a diferença. 1.2. Adjetivos de duas ou mais sílabas (Longer adjectives)

Adjective Comparative -ER Superlative -EST More Syllable spicy

spicier

spiciest

busy

busier

busiest

icy

icier

iciest

slippery

slipperier

slipperiest

dirty

dirtier

dirtiest

1.2.1. Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de duas ou mais sílabas (longer adjectives) adicionamos os quantificadores more e less para as formas comparativas e most e least para os adjetivos superlativos. Vamos a alguns exemplos: Adjective Comparative Superlative More Syllables MORE or LESS MOST or LEAST more delicious most delicious delicious less delicious least delicious

1.1.4. É importante observar que alguns dos adjetivos mais comuns em inglês tem formas irregulares de comparativos e superlativos. Adjective Comparative Superlative

arrogant

more arrogant less arrogant

most arrogant least arrogant

tense

more tense less tense

most tense least tense

bad

worse

worst

good

better

best

cooperative

furthest farthest

more cooperative most cooperative less cooperative least cooperative

far

further farther

perfect

oldest eldest

more perfect less perfect

old

older elder

most perfect least perfect

bad - worse - worst:

Yesterday was his worst day of year

o o o

It’s the worst summer I can remember. This was my first and worse experience riding a bus. The weather got worse during the day.

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EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA

EXERCÍCIOS DE CASA

01. Complete as frases usando o grau comparativo de superioridade ou o grau superlativo dos adjetivos dados entre parênteses.

TEXT O 01:

a) Marlene is................................ than Gisele. (beautiful) b) Marlene is......................................................... girl in her class. (beautiful) c)Mila is................................................................ than her sister (intelligent) d)João is............................................... man in Brazil (rich) e)This car is........................................... than a Fusca (fast) 02. Escolha a alternativa correta para completar as frases: 1. Gino is a very good student. He is_______ student in my school. a) the worse b) the goodest c) the badest d) the best 2. Complete a frase “Your accent is ____________ I have ever heard” com o superlativo de superioridade do adjetivo bad. a) worse than. b) the worst. c) the worse. d) worst than. 3 Marque a alternativa que completa adequadamente a frase “Brazil is the ___________ country in South America”. a) larger. b) more large. c) largest. d) most large.

01. A gravura acima é um(a): a) anúncio b) menu receita médica e) lista

c) receita

d)

02. Pela figura podemos dizer que NAILS em português é: a) esmalte b) telefone c) unhas e) cabelos

d) lábios

TEXT 02:

4. Complete a frase “The teacher is ____________ the doctor” com o comparativo de superioridade do adjetivo interesting. a) the interestingest. b) the most interesting. c) more interesting than. d) interestinger than. 5. Marque a alternativa que completa adequadamente a frase “Last week I was ______ this week”. a) busier than. b) busyer than. c) the busiest. d) the busyest. 6.Bob is _____________than Homer. a) youngest b) more young c) younger d) young

03. The woman at the shop ( A mulher na loja): a) conhece seu marido por acaso b) decide comprar duas perucas c) muda de idéia de repente d) tenta convencer sua amiga a comprar uma peruca e) afirma que a peruca está cara demais

7. Homer is_____________than Alice. a) old b) older c) oldest d) old

04. The meaning of WIGS in PORTUGUESE is: a) cabeleireiro b) fofoqueiras c) ridículo d) assovio e) perucas

GABARITO: 01. A 02. C 03. C 04. E

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Atenção para a exceção: open => opened AULA 13: THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE Este tempo verbal é utilizado para expressar uma ação completa ou evento ocorrido em algum ponto no passado.

trim => trimmed clap => clapped grin => grinned Exceções: verbos terminados em x ou w.

I took a bubble bath yesterday. (TO TAKE) The maid washed the dishes. (TO WASH) We had chicken for dinner last night. (TO HAVE) A partir deste conceito, podemos utilizar o Simple Past para listar uma seqüência de acontecimentos. What did you do yesterday?

wax => waxed bow => bowed fix => fixed tow => towed Para verbos terminados em "y", remova o "y" e acrescente "ied". try => tried

I woke up, took a shower, ate my breakfast and went to the office. fry => fried

O Simple Past é também utilizado para expressar a duração de alguma ação ou evento, normalmente acompanhado de expressões relacionadas ao tempo.

apply => applied

I traveled to India a couple of months ago. ANOTAÇÕES

We were roommates for 2 years. They were together at the party. O Simple Past pode também expressar alguma rotina ou hábito, o qual teve início e término no passado. I read many books when I was in school. His mother used to be a teacher. They always sent me a Christmas card. Existem algumas expressões indicadoras deste tempo verbal, sendo as mais comuns: last night, ...years ago, yesterday, when I was 15 years old, in 1978. We went out for dinner last night. I saw my friend Joe for the last time 5 years ago. I talked to my cousin Sarah yesterday, after a long time. I started collecting stamps when I was 25 years old. My sister was born in 1975. Para formar sentenças no Simple Past, usamos as seguintes regras: Afirmativa: Adicione "ed" ao verbo, a não ser quando se trata de um verbo irregular. Jane played bowling with us yesterday. She went home after that. Interrogativa: Use o verbo auxiliar "did" e o verbo principal no infinitivo. Did you work for that company last summer? Where did they go for the holidays? Negativa: Adicione "not" depois do verbo auxiliar e use o verbo principal no infinitivo. Did not, didn't. I didn't go to the party last Saturday. She did not do it properly. Importante: O verbo "to be" é uma exceção nas formas interrogativa e negativa. She was not home when I arrived. Were you at the restaurant? Algumas regras para o Past Tense Forms de verbos regulares: Para a maioria dos verbos, adicione "ed" ao infinitivo. I work => I worked Para a maioria dos verbos em que as três últimas letras forem uma consonante, uma vogal e outra consoante, dobre a última consoante e acrescente "ed". stop => stopped

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EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA

EXERCÍCIOS DE CASA

01. Mude a forma verbal para o Simple Past: Which sentences/questions are correct?

A)

1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client.

1) Which negative sentence is in the Simple Past?

R. They did'nt sing a song.

2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space.

They didn't sing a song.

R.

They don't sang a song. 2) Which sentence is in the Simple Past?

3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full. She has read a book.

R. She read a book.

4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations.

She reads a book.

R.

3) In which sentence is the Simple Past used correctly?

5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them."

Steven forgetted his homework.

R.

Steven forgot his homework. Steven forgots his homework.

6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours.

4) In which sentence is the Simple Past used correctly?

R. The hotel room was very nice.

7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car. The hotel room were very nice.

R.

5) Which question is in the Simple Past?

8. Then we see a small grocery store.

Did you saw her?

R.

Did you see her?

9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches.

Have you seen her? 1) Which verb forms are correct?

R. lived

10. That is better than waiting for two hours.

planed

R.

tried

Corrija osw erros nas frases a seguir:

2) Which sentences/questions are in the Simple Past?

1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper.  2. My pet lizard was died last month.  3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room.  4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal.  5. What was happened to your leg? 

He didn't learn for school. I fell from the tree. I've found a pen. GABARITO:

A) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

THEY DIDN‟T SING A SONG SHE READ A BOOK STEVEN FORGOT HIS HOMEWORK THE HOTEL ROOM WAS VERY NICE DID YOU SEE HER

B) 1. LIVED / TRIED 2. HE DIDN‟T LEARN… / I FELL FROM THE TREE

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AULA 14: TEXT COMPREHENSION TEXT 01: OUR HOT PLANET An apparently innocent gas is being pointed as responsible for the heat wave that is threatening our planet. By the year 2050 it may have reduced good farmland to deserts, causing the worst famine in human history. Great forests can be burned to death, the melting of the glacial ice can inundate coastal areas and the incidence of skin cancer can reach epidemic proportions. This sounds like something out of a bad science-fiction movie, but many people believe that there is more science than fiction in it. In other words, it can actually happen. The evil gas is methane. It results from the decomposition of organic matter and also from the burning of wood or fossil fuels. Each year, more than 500 million tons of methane invade the atmosphere which is already flooded with a number of equally harmful gases: chloro-fluorcarbon, manufactured chemicals, and the more popularly known carbon dioxide. As these gases fill our atmosphere they create the phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect, or global warming. They act as atmosphere filters, permitting sunlight to enter the atmosphere but preventing the heat it generates from radiating back into space. The Earth's temperature thus increases - with potentially catastrophic effects. Methane concentration in the atmosphere has doubled over the last 150 years. As the Earth's population grows, the methane levels rise. Over the past decade they have risen 1 percent a year, three times faster than the carbon dioxide levels. Everything goes up, as the population goes up. The heating trend is thus probably inevitable. It will affect food supply, and this suggests that we may be approaching - or maybe we have already surpassed - the capacity of the planet to support human life. It is just a matter of time - maybe 20, maybe 100 years -before the problem becomes really serious. This is like a race, scientists say. Can science respond quickly enough to avoid the social and economic catastrophe that global warming will provoke? Research is now in progress all over the world to try and find a solution to this and many other problems that affect the Earth's atmosphere. One important thing to have in mind is that these problems are not the problems of one country or one continent. Whatever the cause, whatever the source, they will affect the entire population of the world. Whatever is happening on the other side of the planet will eventually affect us all. 01. In paragraph 1 the author states that a) in the next century there will be farms in the desert b) epidemic diseases will spread all over the world c) high temperatures will provoke inundations d) hunger will be a serious problem by the end of this century e) the number of persons with skin cancer will be smaller 02. a) b) c) d) e)

According to the 2nd paragraph, methane is a gas derived from organic substances isn't as harmful as carbon dioxide has to connection with the greenhouse effect weighs over 500 million tons is widely used to burn fossils and wood

03. a) b) c) d) e)

The greenhouse effect is provoked by the incineration of methane only doesn't allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere is also know as the global warming phenomenon doesn't permit the temperature of the Earth to rise makes the sunlight heat radiate back into space

04. a) b) c) d) e)

Methane concentration in the atmosphere has provoked a high rate of population growth has increased more than level of carbon dioxide has caused total destruction to the atmosphere is decreasing at the rate of 1 percent a year has been kept under control the past decade

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05. a) b) c) d) e)

The heating trend is a consequence of food supply problems has already surpassed all admissible levels will increase Earth‟s capacity to support human life is directly connected to population growth can easily be stopped by scientists

06. According to the last paragraph, atmospheric problems a) b) c) d) e)

can be the cause of a worldwide disaster will become serious within precisely half a century will depend entirely on their source ; can never be taken seriously by scientists will probably affect only some countries

TEXT 02 AROMATHERAPY: DOES IT WORK? M o d e r n a r o m a t h e r a p y, introduced in France in 1928, relies on scented oils (sometimes with massage) to help you feel better, physically and emotionally. Certain oils are designated for certain problems. If you want proof that aromatherapy delivers on its promises you won‟t find much. Some scientists draw a line between aromatherapy and “aromachology”, a new name for the scientific study of odors‟ effect on mood, emotion and behavior. But what they‟ve learnt so far seems to confirm some of the claims for aromatherapy: - Lavender is relaxing, can boost your mood and may improve the quality of sleep, particularly for women. - Heliotropin, a vanilla–like scent, relaxes anxious patients undergoing MRIs. - Lemon-balm oil dabbed on the faces and arms of elderly nursing-home patients with dementia can be calming. - Rosemary can perk you up and reduce anxiety. So is aromatherapy worth trying? Sure, if you would enjoy a fragrant massage. (Make sure the aromatherapist is well trained; used improperly, the oils can cause burns, allergic reactions, headaches, nausea, and can aggravate asthma.) The bottom line? If it works for you, it works. 07. The words in BOLD letters in the above text refer respectively to: a) the reader, aromatherapy, scientists, aromatherapy. b) nursinghome patients, aromatherapy, scientists, aromatherapist. c) the reader, promises, behavior, aromatherapy. d) proof, the reader, scientists, aromatherapy. e) scientists, aromatherapy, odors, asthma. 08. The above text affirms that aromatherapy: a) is an equivalent of aromachology. reliable. c)has a tranquilizing effect. not rely on scents. e) is not worth trying.

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b) is completely d)does

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EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA

EXERCÍCIOS DE CASA TEXTO 01:

TEXT 01: “STOPPING BY WOODS* ON A SNOWY EVENING” Global Handwashing Day October 15, 2009 Although people around the world wash their hands with water, very few wash their hands with soap at critical moments. Global Handwashing Day will be the centerpiece of a week of activities that will mobilize millions of people across five continents to turn handwashing with soap before eating and after using the toilet into an ingrained habit. This could save more lives than any single vaccine or medical intervention, cutting deaths from diarrhea by almost half and deaths from acute respiratory infections by about a quarter. (Adaptado de

Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. The woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep. ROBERT FROST

01. The poet is attracted to the woods because: a)he knows the owner of the woods. b)snow is falling. c)the owner‟s house is in the village. d)the owner of the woods cannot see him. e)his horse is tired.

http://www.globalhandwashingday.org/Global_Handwashing_Day_2nd_Edition.pdf. Acessado em 16/07/2009.)

01. Segundo o texto 01, a campanha descrita pretende incentivar a) as pessoas a lavarem suas mãos mais frequentemente. b) as pessoas a lavarem as mãos antes de ir ao dentista. c) um hábito que poucas pessoas têm, mas que é vital para evitar algumas doenças. d) as pessoas a lavarem as mãos com sabão líquido. e) milhões de pessoas através dos cinco continentes a lavarem as mãos com sabão após as refeições.

02. The poet does not stop in the woods because: a)he is afraid of the dark woods. b)it is a cold winter night. c)he does not love nature. d)he is sleepy. e)he has many responsibilities. 03. Which of the following groups of words consists only of adjectives: a) house, lovely, deep, snow. b) lovely, dark, deep, snowy. c) sleep, dark, know, snowy. d) watch, dark, deep, fill. e) lovely, keep, snowy, deep.

02. De acordo com o texto, o hábito mencionado pelo autor a) poderá reduzir significantemente as taxas de mortalidade infantil. b) é preventivo e muito mais eficaz que qualquer intervenção médica. c) Global Handwashing Day é uma campanha destinada à população norte-americana. d) irá reduzir mais da metade das mortes causadas por diarréia. e) nos induz a sempre lavarmos as mãos antes de tomarmos sopa.

TEXTO 02:

03. Sobre o cartaz acima, podemos afirmar que:

04. O texto acima corresponde ao modelo de um documento. Tratase de a) Registro Geral (Carteira de Identidade) b) Certidão de Registro de Nascimento c) Certidão de Casamento d) Carteira de Habilitação e) Certificado de Registro e Licenciamento de Veículos 05. Pelo documento, a cor dos olhos da pretensa portadora, seria: a) pretos b) castanhos c) azuis d) verdes e) esverdeados

I. Ao engravidar aos 19 anos, uma certa adolescente não tinha boas perspectivas de futuro. II. As previsões das pessoas em relação à adolescente foram frustradas com o nascimento de sua filha. III. Adolescentes que engravidam aos 19 anos de idade, têm suas vidas arruinadas. IV. O nascimento de uma criança mudou a vida de alguém. V. Quando engravidar aos 19 anos sua vida será bem mais verdadeira e saudável. GABARITO: 01. C 02. B 03. I, II, IV

06. Segundo as informações contidas no documento, a) a portadora nasceu no dia 09 de junho de 1985. b) seu prazo de validade expira em 30 de agosto de 2009. c) ele foi emitido no dia 1º de outubro de 2016. d) ele é válido até 30 de setembro de 2008. e) a portadora nasceu no dia 06 de setembro de 1985.

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Aula 15: PREPOSITIONS

BETWEEN: indica que algo está ENTRE duas coisas. Exemplos:  The restaurant is between a drugstore and a bookstore. (O restaurante está entre a farmácia e a livraria). Observação: AMONG indica que algo está entre mais de duas coisas.

IN: indica que algo está DENTRO de alguma coisa Exemplos:  There is some water in the bottle. (Há alguma água dentro da garrafa)  Look at those people swimming in the river. (Olhe aquelas pessoas nadando dentro do rio).

TO: dizemos: go/ come/ travel (etc) TO + um lugar ou evento

AT: indica o LOCAL EXATO no qual uma coisa está. Exemplos:  There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is? (Há alguém na porta. Eu deveria ir e ver quem é?)  Who is that man standing at the bus stop? (Quem é aquele homem de pé no ponto de ônibus?).  When you leave the hotel, please leave your key at reception. (Quando você deixar o hotel, por favor, deixe sua chave na recepção).  Linda‟s house is the blue one at the end of the street. (A casa de Linda é a azul no final da rua).

Exemplos:  go TO America (ir à América)  go TO bed (ir para a cama)  go TO the bank (ir ao banco) INTO: indica que alguém foi PARA DENTRO de algum lugar. Exemplos:  A bird flew into the kitchen through the window. (Um pássaro voou para dentro da cozinha através da janela).  She got out of the car and went into a shop. (Ela saiu do carro e foi para dentro da loja). FROM: geralmente significa DE.

ON: indica que algo está na SUPERFÍCIE de alguma coisa. Exemplos:  From London (de Londres).  hide from (esconder-se de).  free from (livre de).  fall from (cair de).

Exemplos:  There is a label on the bottle. (Há um rótulo na garrafa).  There is a notice on the door. It says „Do not disturb‟. (Há um aviso na porta. Ele diz „Não incomode‟). BEHIND: indica que algo está ATRÁS de alguma coisa.

ANOTAÇÕES Exemplos:  There is a gas station behind the hotel. (Há um posto de gasolina atrás do hotel).  The parking lot is behind the bank. (O estacionamento está atrás do banco). UNDER: indica que algo está DEBAIXO de alguma coisa. Exemplos:  The wallet is under the newspaper. (A carteira está debaixo do jornal).  The notebooks are under the dictionary. (Os cadernos estão debaixo do dicionário). NEXT TO: indica que algo está PRÓXIMO, AO LADO de alguma coisa. Exemplos:  The comb is next to the hairbrush. (O pente está ao lado da escova de cabelo).  There is a gas station next to the parking lot. (Há um posto de gasolina ao lado do estacionamento). IN FRONT OF: indica que algo está NA FRENTE de alguma coisa. Exemplos:  The briefcase is in front of the television. (A maleta está na frente da televisão).  There is a newsstand in front of the hotel. (Há uma banca de jornal na frente do hotel). NEAR: Indica que algo está PERTO de alguma coisa. Exemplos:  The umbrella is near the keys. (O guarda-chuva está perto das chaves).  The supermarket is near the store. (O supermercado é perto da loja).

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EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA

EXERCÍCIOS DE CASA 1 Complete a frase com as preposições adequadas e depois marque a altenativa com a seqüência correta.

1) Preencha os espaços em branco com a preposição mais adequada:

Kate lived ______ Minas Gerais ________ 20 years.

A) We´ll travel.......our next vacation.

a) in – by. b) on – of. c) in – for. d) at – for

B) She´s.......the Pill. C) They were living........a farm when she was born. D) Don´t give it.........anyone.

2 Marque a alternativa cuja frase esteja correta de acordo com o uso das preposições em destaque.

E) It´s common for him to be absent.......school.......Mondays. F) Don´t lie.....your parents.

a) My birthday is on January. b) I decided to travel by plane. c) They have to work for 8:00 a.m. d) My parents live in Washington Street

G) Are they going to get married........December? H) Don´t worry........me! I) You should take care......your mother.

3. Complete a frase “Sue lives _______ 46 Victoria Street and Paul ________ Gower Street” com as preposições adequadas e depois marque a alternativa correta.

J) He´s good.....driving.

a) at – on. b) on – at. c) in – on. d) at – in.

2) use (in, at, on)

A) There is a napkin______ the table.

4. Complete a frase “Let‟s meet ______ Tuesday ______ four o‟clock ______ the afternoon” com as preposições adequadas e depois marque a alternativa correta.

B) There is a flower _____the dresser. C) There is a pillow______ the bed. D) There is a salesman ______ the door.

a) on – in – at. b) at – on – in. c) in – at – on. d) on – at – in.

E) There is a coffee shop _______ the hotel. F) There is a child ____the chair. G) There is a bedspread ______ the bed.

5. Complete as frases com as preposições adequadas e depois marque a alternativa correta.

H) There is a poster _____ the wall. I) There is a man_____ the subway station.

I – He plays the piano ___________ (por) pleasure. II – She is a friend ___________ (de) them. III – We like to sit ___________ (próximo) the lake.

J) There is a woman______ the table. K) There is an English class _____ the school. L) There is a couple______ the park. 3) According to the use of the prepositions, fill the Gaps. I need to get ______ time to the show, they are waiting for me until 10.00 p.m. Will you be ______ time for lunch?

a) in – of – at. b) on – in – by. c) for – of – by. d) for – at – on. 6. Complete as frases com a tradução das preposições entre parênteses nas frases e depois marque a alternativa correta.

I‟ll be there, ______ the end of the month. ______ the end, I‟ll be there.

I – Aspirin is the best drug to fight ___________ (contra) headache. II – Let‟s talk ___________ (a respeito de) your problem. III – There is no rule ___________ (sem) an exception. a) against – near – outside. b) against – about – without. c) upon – about – with. d) over – beyond – without. GABARITO: 1-C ; 2-B ; 3-A ; 4-D ; 5-C ; 6-B

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AULA 16 : TEXT STUDY 04. The words cooking and exciting in text 01, are, respectively: a) noun and noun b) adverb and adverb c) verb and verb d) adjective and adjective e) noun and adjective

CARTOON 01:

01. R 02.

Que tema é abordado pelo anúncio acima?

As palavras too many, too much, too little, too few, são usadas para quantificar determinados substantivos. As palavras precedidas por estes quantitativos têm sentido positivo ou têm sentido negativo?

R 03. R

Qual é a intenção do anúncio acima?

TEXT 01:

05. The Cartoon above show us __________

Brazilian cooking is exuberant and varied, reflecting the history and geography of this big country. In the northeast, there is an exciting mixture of the food of the Guarani Indians, the colonizing Portuguese and African slaves. The “Moqueca de Camarão”, for example, shows the influences of the local indians and of the Africans who were brought in by the Portuguese to work on the sugar plantations. The easiest method of cooking is described below: Press the garlic with the salt and add to the shrimp. Heat the oil in a frying pan and add the onion, tomatoes, coriander, pepper, and lemon juice and cook for 5 minutes. Add the coconut milk and cook again for 5 minutes. Serve with rice.

a) a real situation extracted from a work of a famous British writer. b) how fast Shakespeare was able to adapt himself to new technologies. c) an extract of Hamlet, one of the most famous Shakespeare‟s play. d) how Shakespeare is really living nowadays. e) a very funny situation inspired in a famous quotation of a wellknown English playwright.

ANOTAÇÕES

(Adapted from ORTIZ, Elisabeth Lambert, A Little Brazilian Cookbook. San Francisco, Chronicle Books, 1992).

01. Based on the text, the northeastern food was_______________________ a) not influenced by the indians. b) brought only by the slaves. c) just a result of the Portuguese colonization. d) exclusively imported from Africa. e) a combination of various cultures.

02. The second paragraph of the text is: a) a recipe b) a letter c) a prescription d) an advertisement e) an invitation 03. In the text, the verbs in italics show: a) a purely hypothetical situation. b) a sequence of instructions. c) the narrator is expressing a deep emotion. d) that the author is giving some advice. e) a large number of strict conditions.

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EXERCÍCIOS DE CASA EXERCÍCIOS DE SALA

TEXT

TEXT

REVELL, J.; NORMAN, S. Communication is non-verbal as well as verbal. In: - - - - - In Your Hands . London: Saffire Press, 1999. p. 91.

01. A pesquisa realizada pelo Prof. Mehrabian mostra que a comunicação não-verbal corresponde a uma percentagem igual a a) 48%. b) 62%. c) 45%. d) 93%. e) 7% 02. O gráfico apresentado no texto a) mostra a superioridade da linguagem verbal sobre as demais linguagens. b) detalha percentualmente o "mismatch between verbal and nonverbal". c) quantifica a generalização expressa no título do artigo. d) resume a forma como uma mensagem é interpretada pelo ouvinte. e) explica as razões do resultado da pesquisa. 03. Segundo o texto, ocorre "incongruency" quando há a) diversidade dos recursos utilizados na comunicação não-verbal. b) divergência decorrente da substituição da linguagem verbal. c) discordância entre a linguagem verbal e a não-verbal. d) desarmonia entre expressão facial, postura e o tom de voz. e) harmonia entre expressão facial, postura e o tom da voz 04. No último parágrafo, o autor a) afirma a importância da aparência física e do que se tem a dizer. b) assinala que a primeira impressão é impossível de ser alterada. c) trata da importância do humor para uma impressão duradoura. d) recomenda que se fale devagar para impressionar as pessoas. e) ratifica a importância dos contatos não-verbais. 05. As palavras non-verbal, verbal e psychologist no texto acima, forma formadas, respectivamente, por: a) composição, composição, composição b) derivação, derivação, derivação c) derivação, composição, derivação d) composição, derivação, composição e) derivação, derivação, composição

01. Which another title would be suitable for the text above? a) A Woman who Made a Difference. b) A Woman who Rode on Buses. c) A Woman who Gave up her Seat. d) Women who Accepted Commands. e) A Woman who Always Said “Yes” to Everybody 02. Based on the text above, in 1955 the seats for black people were….. a) at the front of the bus b) in the middle of the bus. c) at the back of the bus. d) all empty. e) never used by white ones. 03. a) b) c) d) e)

Second the text, Rosa Parks….. refused to pay to travel on the bus. refused to seat at the front of the bus. refused to stand up to allow a white person to sit down. agreed that a white person took her seat on the bus. never broke the rules.

04. The text states that when Rosa Parks was arrested, black people…. a) refused to distribute leaflets. b) refused to go to work. c) didn‟t agree with that, but they didn‟t do anything to help her. d) stood quiet and calm. e) refused to use the buses.

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02.C

03. C

04. E

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11.INGLES_PBVEST_MODULO2  

médium – media datum – data REGRAS ESPECÍIFICAS: appendix – appendices 187 • UM trocamos por A negro – negroes potato – potatoes • IX trocam...

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