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Revisiting disease triangle: The role of social environment in community biosecurity management I Wayan Mudita PhD Student, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT biosecurity built on science


The problem ...  A disease requires a virulent pathogen, a susceptible host and favourable environment to develop  In dealing with the environment, current research on biosecurity focuses on the role of biophysical environment  Aim: to investigate the role of social environment in the management of huanglongbing (HLB aka citrus greening) on citrus biosecurity built on science


Huanglongbing (HLB)

biosecurity built on science


Mixed methods approach IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS (1)

 Social capital:

FIELD OBSEVATION AND PCR TEST (2) GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT (3) HOUSEHOLD BIOSECURITY SURVEY (4)

CORRELATED VARIABLES

HOUSEHOLD SOCIAL CAPITAL SURVEYS (4)

CORRELATED VARIABLES

aspects of social structures and processes that can be used to achieve group interests

 A large number of variables was constructed for data analysis biosecurity built on science


Data Analysis EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA) MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS (MRA) CORRELATED VARIABLES

CORRELATED VARIABLES

INDEPENDENT FACTORS

INDEX

 EFA: to extract a smaller number of independent factors out of a large number of variables  MRA: to determine factors influencing the index (community biosecurity index) biosecurity built on science


What did growers say?  Some growers suspected that HLB was involved  The government did not provide enough information about pest and disease identification and management  The government allowed officers to get involved in grafted seedling business for personal interests biosecurity built on science


Result of field observation and PCR test  Symptoms of HLB and other diseases were widespread  HLB vector, the asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) was also found  PCR test showed that production trees, mother trees, and certified grafted seedlings were HLB positive biosecurity built on science


How did the government respond?  TTS District government denied the finding  The test was not done at an endorsed laboratory  TTU District government agreed to the finding and started an eradication campaign  The provincial government did not deny, but considered the finding unofficial  The central government quarantine accepted that HLB contributed to the decline  Since Jan 2012 HLB has been included in the list of quarantine diseases for West Timor biosecurity built on science


Distribution of Grafted seedlings from West Timor

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Citrus biosecurity at the community level  “Factor 2” explained most of variances in the dataset  It included variables:  Budwood as a mean of disease transmission  Grafted seedlings as means of disease spread  Use of infected grafted seedlings as an important cause of mandarin decline

 Index of community biosecurity (CBI) biosecurity built on science


Factors influencing community biosecurity  Social capital factor: personal relations and involvement in decision-making  Relation with the government and community leaders  Decision-making regarding citrus development in the region

 Other forms of capital:  Main sources of household cash income  HLB incidence and maintenance  Mandarin cropping systems biosecurity built on science


To summarize …  HLB does need susceptible citrus and suitable climate to develop and spread, but bad biosecurity governance has made it more destructive • Bad biosecurity Social environment governance limits the capacity of the local communities to maintain social capital • This social Susceptible HLB environment turns Citrus the disease triangle into a disease Suitable Biophysical Environment tetrahedron biosecurity built on science


Thank you For more information, please email: mudita.undana@gmail.com

Acknowledgment: Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity Charles Darwin University Nusa Cendana University Kupang First Class Quarantine Station NTT Province Seed Supervision and Certification Unit

biosecurity built on science

Revisiting disease triangle: the role of social environment in community biosecurity management  

Plant diseases develop because of the presence of virulent pathogens, susceptible hosts and a favourable environment. We refer to these inte...

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