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Banana Fusarium Wilt Tropical Race 4

Rachel Meldrum PhD Candidate biosecurity built on science Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity


Fusarium wilt  Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  3 races: race 1, race 2, race 4 - Race 3 is pathogenic to Heliconia spp.

 Race 4 infects Cavendish - ‘Subtropical’ race 4 - ‘Tropical’ race 4 (TR4) biosecurity built on science


Symptoms

Internal symptoms

External symptoms biosecurity built on science


Disease cycle Formation of chlamydospores Death of plant: chlamydospores into soil Colonisation of spores in xylem Germination of chlamydospores in soil Infection of roots Inoculum applied biosecurity built on science


Distribution  International - South East Asia - 1980s+

 Australia - Northern Territory - 1997+

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International

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Impact  Malaysia and Indonesia production destroyed  NT production decline  Similar climate and terrain in NQ - ????

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Research Project  1. Banana weevil borer  2. Surface sterilants  3. Alternative hosts  4. Gene analysis biosecurity built on science


Research Project  1. Banana weevil borer - Vector pathogen?

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Banana Weevil Borer  Banana weevil borer - (Cosmopolites sordidus)

 Inhabit banana plantations internationally

1cm

 Transport pathogen? biosecurity built on science


Research Project  2. Surface sterilants - Effect on Foc TR4 spores

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Surface Sterilants  Exposure time 30s

100

1min

80

Water Farmcleanse Bleach Sporekill

15min

40 20 0

30s 15min

Fa W rm a cl ter ea ns e B le S ach po re ki ll

-

5min

60

Graph showing the effect on Foc TR4 spores exposed to surface sterilants for various times

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Research Project  3. Alternative hosts - Cover crops?

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Disease cycle Formation of chlamydospores Death of plant: chlamydospores into soil Colonisation of spores in xylem Germination of chlamydospores in soil Infection of roots Inoculum applied

Banana biosecurity built on science


Disease cycle Formation of chlamydospores Death of plant: chlamydospores into soil Colonisation of spores in xylem Germination of chlamydospores in soil Infection of roots Inoculum applied

Sorghum biosecurity built on science


Research Project  4. Gene analysis - Pathogenicity genes

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Foc 01213/16

Foc 0120

Foc 01211

Foc 0129

Foc 0128

Foc 0125

Foc 0124/5

Foc 0124

Pathogenicity genes

SIX1 gene

SIX7 gene

SIX8 gene

Meldrum et al. (2012) The presence of putative pathogenicity genes in isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 1-7, DOI: 10.1007/s13313-012-0122-x

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Foc 01213/16

Foc 0120

Foc 01211

Foc 0129

Foc 0128

Foc 0125

Foc 0124/5

Foc 0124

Pathogenicity genes

SIX1 gene: General pathogenicity gene

SIX7 gene: Race 4 specific gene

SIX8 gene: Race 4 specific gene

Meldrum et al. (2012) The presence of putative pathogenicity genes in isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 1-7, DOI: 10.1007/s13313-012-0122-x

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Acknowledgments - Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity - Northern Territory Government (Department of Resources) - University of Queensland

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Thank you  For more information, please email r.meldrum@crcplantbiosecurity.com.au

biosecurity built on science

Epidemiology and biology of Fusarium wilt tropical race 4  

Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and is regarded as one of the most widesp...

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