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The Holy See: a face of another globalization La Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione La Santa Sede: una cara de otra globalización

Pax Romana ICMICA / MIIC International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs Mouvement International des Intellectuels Catholiques Movimiento Internacional de Intelectuales Católicos


The Holy See: a face of another globalization La Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione La Santa Sede: una cara de otra globalización

We would like to acknowledge, with much appreciation, some people and institutions, whom, without their support, involvement and economic aid, this book of our 60th Anniversary would not have been possible: Abaroa S.A., MISSIO (Aachen), Javier & Begoña, Bianca Nicolini, Jordi Pérez Colomé, Jordi Llisterri and the team of El Ciervo and Foc Nou. And we also would like to take this opportunity to thank the support received during those 60 years from partner institutions and agencies. They are, among others, the Swiss Catholic Bishops Conference, Fastenopfer (Swiss Catholic Lenten Campaign), Bishop of Fribourg, Geneva and Lausanne in Switzerland; Comité Catholique Contre la Faim et pour le Développement (CCFD) in France; the German Catholic Bishops Conference, MISEREOR, MISSIO, Adveniat and Renovabis in Germany; CORDAID, CMC/AMA and Porticus in Netherlands; Development & Peace and Rights & Democracy in Canada; Entraide et Fraternité in Belgium; Istituto per le Opere di Religione, Pius XII Foundation, Pro Africa Foundation in Rome; UNESCO in Paris; Pax Romana Catalonia; Bishop of Bilbao, Misiones Diocesanas, City Council of Mungia, City Council of Bilbao, Basque Government, BBK, Iberdrola, etc. in the Basque Country and numerous benefactors. Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC


Project editor / Coordinatrice editoriale / Coordinadora editorial: Bianca Nicolini

Título original: The Holy See: a face of another globalization / La Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione / La Santa Sede: una cara de otra globalización © PAX ROMANA. ICMICA/MIIC International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs Mouvement International des Intellectuels Catholiques Movimiento Internacional de Intelectuales Católicos 3 rue de Varembé, 4th Floor CP 161, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Tel: (41 22) 823 0707 / Fax: (41 22) 823 0708 international_secretariat@paxromana.org http://www.paxromana.org/ Edition / Edizione / Edición: El Ciervo 96, S. A. Calvet, 56. 08021 Barcelona (España) taller@elciervo.es ISBN: 978-84-87178-32-0 Depósito legal: B-29.920-2008


Summary Introduction / Introduzione / Introducción................................

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Program / Programma / Programa ..............................................

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Session of the 60th anniversary ................................................

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Pax Romana, memory and future. Giorgio Campanini ................

17

Salutations ....................................................................................

30

Our movement and the development of the Catholic Social Tradition. Kevin Ahern ..............................................................

33

A laity movement. Josep Maria Carbonell ....................................

40

The Needs of Today’s Church & Society. Lawrencia Kwark..........

45

El caminar del MIIC en América Latina: entre certezas e interpelaciones. Carmen Lora ....................................................

54

Holy Mass and presentation of the new statues ................

60

Holy Mass of the 60 Anniversary. Josef Clemens ........................

61

Ceremony of presenting the Decree of approval by the Holy See of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC´s reformed Statutes. Josef Clemens ..............................................................................

66

Study session ................................................................................

68

La Santa Sede, una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione. Antoine Sondag ......................................................................................

69

Verso una nuova “cattolicità”: Essere Chiesa in un mondo globalizzato. Salvador Pié-Ninot ................................................

73

Special Session on Human Rights International Protection and Promotion of Human Rights – Challenges for the United Nations Human Rights Council: Jurist Catholic Perspective. Eugeni Gay Montalvo ..................................................................

95

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Introduction of the Special session on Human Rights. Jean-Mathias Goerens ..................................................................

98

The Holy See: a face of another globalization. The work for human rights. Fortunatus Nwachukwu ......................................

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Las ONG y su rol de representaci贸n de la sociedad civil ante los organismos internacionales. Nuria Sastre ............................

124

Mechanisms of the new Human Rights Council. Santiago Ripol ....

132

Catholic contribution to the UN Human Rights Council and to the current challenges on Human Rights. Otmar Oehring ........

138

NGO participation in the United Nations Human Rights Council: NGO perspective. Budi Tjahjono ................................

143

The work for Justice and Peace. Renato Raffaele Cardinal Martino ........................................................................

151

Missione ecclesiale in ambito educativo. Loreto Ballester ............

160

Globalizaci贸n y justicia. Mario Cayota ........................................

169

Building bridges or moats? The cultural underside of exclusion. Fernando Franco, SJ ....................................................................

176

Globalization of solidarity. Duncan MacLaren ............................

183

International organizations and global governance. Pietro Parolin ..............................................................................

191

A Korean Experience of the Globalization Era. Seong Bosco ........

209

The World Campaign for the Reform of International Institutions. Manel Manonelles ..................................................

215

Closing session. Federico Lombardi, SJ ..........................................

223

Statues of ICMICA........................................................................

228

Statues of ICMICA International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs................................................

231


The Holy See: a face of another globalization

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Introduction

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ixty years ago some old students of IMCS-Pax Romana –some of them being founders of Pax Romana after the First World War– decided to create this international meeting space of Catholic intellectuals and cultural professionals. In order to celebrate this anniversary, a study session was held in Rome, with the theme: “The Holy See: A Face of Another Globalization” from May 19th to 23rd 2007. The main contributions are collected in this volume. Sixty years ago, in 1947, the violent and bloody European conflict was still recent. Pax Romana had to renew itself. It renewed itself by strengthening its organisation of students and by creating a new branch of intellectuals and professionals. It was a necessary step to ensure the continuity of the students and, above all, to affect the cultural and political world in a more effective and decisive way. Sixty years ago, Pax Romana renewed its will to be an organisation of Catholic laity present in the student world but also in the cultural and professional world. Today, in our present context, Pax Romana-ICMICA confirms its will to continue keep on being an association of professionals but, also, with a stronger will to be present at the international level. The international agenda has always been present in our organisation life, and it has become even more important since the 50s. Starting in this decade, Pax Romana began a stronger expansion into Latin America and in Asia, it established its presence in North America and started its expansion into Africa, as well. In this decade, Pax Romana really beamer an international organisation. Over the past few days, we have seen that many things have happened during the past sixty years: from the Second Vatican Council –fundamental in our short history– to the crisis of European Christendom, from a world divided into two blocks to a globalised world, from the “update” to a sort of ecclesial “restorationism”. From our beginning, where we were the first and only international Catholic NGOs in the world –with a remarkable presence within the institutions of the United Nations– to being one Catholic NGO among many in the present context. Today, sixty years later, Pax Romana, in spite of our weaknesses, although we probably do not have the same ecclesial and international influence we had in other decades, keeps on being a network of groups


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and movements present in more than seventy countries; it keeps on sharing common values, a way of being Church, a way to understand the mediation between faith and culture, between faith and politics, a way to understand what evangelisation means. We are a living an engaged reality, which appears, in this globalised world, as an international and ecclesial network which contributes to building a fairer and common world, a more inclusive and compassionate world, a more peaceful world, a world more open to dialogue and to Gospel values. This double presence in the church and in the world is what gives sense to the existence and to the continuity of Pax Romana. Talking about “The Holy See: A Face of Another Globalization” is a way to understand that the Church has something very important to say in the current process of globalization. As never before seen, the “catholic” word, universal, discovers the reality of a world open to universality and able to be built up globally. As never before seen, the global-local dialectics reinforces itself in order to be able to act in a very effective way. And Pax Romana in this context wants to contribute to building another vision of globalization. Never had the Church been so universal. The double presence in the Church and in the world is what gives sense to the existence and to the continuity of Pax Romana.

Introduzione

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0 anni fa vecchi studenti del MIEC-Pax Romana –ed alcuni di loro fondatori di Pax Romana dopo la I Guerra Mondiale– decisero di creare questo spazio di re-incontro internazionale degli intellettuali ed esperti della cultura cattolici. Per dare maggior risalto alla commemorazione, dal 19 al 23 Maggio del 2007 si è svolta a Roma la Sessione di Studio “La Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione”. In questo volume sono raccolti i principali interventi. Nel 1947, 60 anni fa, era recente il sanguinante conflitto europeo. E Pax Romana doveva rinnovarsi. Lo fece rafforzando la sua organizzazio-


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ne di studenti e creando un nuovo ramo di intellettuali ed esperti. Era un passo necessario per assicurare la continuità degli studenti e, soprattutto, per influire in maniera incisiva e decisiva sul mondo culturale e politico. 60 anni fa Pax Romana rinnovava la propria volontà di essere un’organizzazione del laicato cattolico presente nel mondo studentesco, ma anche presente nel mondo culturale e professionale. Oggi, con queste giornate, Pax Romana conferma la propria volontà di continuare ad essere un’associazione di esperti ma, in più, con una maggior voglia di presenza internazionale. L’agenda internazionale è sempre stata presente nella vita della nostra organizzazione, ed in modo ancor più importante a partire dagli anni ‘50. Effettivamente, da questo decennio, Pax Romana inizia una forte espansione in America Latina ed in Asia, consolida la sua presenza in Nord America ed inizia, inoltre, la sua espansione in Africa. Pax Romana diviene veramente un’organizzazione internazionale. Come è stato constatato durante queste giornate, in 60 anni sono accadute molte cose: dal Concilio Vaticano II –fondamentale nella nostra piccola storia– alla crisi del Cristianesimo europeo, da un mondo diviso in due blocchi ad un mondo globalizzato, dall’ “aggiornamento” ad un certo “restaurazionismo” ecclesiale. Da essere una delle prime ONG cattoliche del mondo con una presenza significativa all’interno delle istituzioni delle Nazioni Unite ad essere una ONG cattolica in più. Oggi, 60 anni dopo, Pax Romana, nonostante le nostre debolezze, sebbene probabilmente non abbiamo più il peso dei decenni passati nelle sfere internazionali ed ecclesiali, continua ad essere un network di gruppi e movimenti presenti in più di settanta paesi, in cui si condividono valori comuni, un modo di essere Chiesa, un modo di intendere la mediazione tra fede e cultura, tra fede e politica, di comprendere ciò che vuol dire evangelizzazione. Siamo una realtà viva, impegnata, che si presenta, in questo mondo globalizzato, come un network ecclesiale ed internazionale che contribuisce a costruire un mondo più giusto e solidale, un mondo più inclusivo e compassionevole, un mondo più pacifico e dialogante, un mondo più aperto ai valori del Vangelo. Parlare de “La Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione” è un modo per capire che la Chiesa ha qualcosa di molto importante da dire nell’attuale processo di globalizzazione. Come mai prima, la parola “cattolica”, universale, si trova davanti alla realtà di un mondo aperto all’universalità ed in grado di costruirsi in modo globale. Come mai prima, la


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dialettica globale-locale si rafforza per poter agire in maniera davvero efficace. Ed in questo contesto Pax Romana vuole contribuire a costruire un’altra immagine della globalizzazione. Mai la Chiesa era stata così universale. La duplice presenza nella Chiesa e nel mondo è ciò che da senso all’esistenza ed alla continuità di Pax Romana.

Introducción

H

ace 60 años que antiguos estudiantes del MIEC-Pax Romana –algunos de ellos fundadores de Pax Romana después de la I Guerra Mundial– decidieron construir este espacio de reencuentro internacional de intelectuales y profesionales de la cultura católicos. Para resaltar su conmemoración del 19 al 23 de mayo de 2007 se celebró en Roma la Sesión de Estudios “La Santa Sede: una cara de otra globalización”. Sus principales aportaciones se recogen en este volumen. En 1947, hace 60 años, era reciente la sangrante confrontación europea. Y Pax Romana debía renovarse. Se renovó fortaleciendo su organización de estudiantes y creando la nueva rama de intelectuales y profesionales. Era un paso necesario para asegurar la continuidad de los estudiantes y, sobre todo, para incidir de manera más decisiva en el mundo cultural y político. Hace 60 años Pax Romana renovaba su voluntad de ser una organización del laicado católico presente en el mundo estudiante pero también presente en el mundo de la cultura y el mundo profesional. Hoy, con estas jornadas, Pax Romana confirma su voluntad de seguir siendo una asociación de profesionales pero, además, con una mayor voluntad de presencia internacional. La agenda internacional ha estado siempre presente en la vida de nuestra organización, y de manera todavía más importante a partir de los años 50. En efecto, a partir de esta década, Pax Romana empieza una fuerte extensión en América Latina y en Asia, consolida su presencia en Norteamérica y empieza, también, su exten-


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sión en África. Pax Romana se convierte verdaderamente en una organización internacional. Como se comprobó en estas jornadas, durante 60 años han pasado muchas cosas: desde el Concilio Vaticano II –fundamental en nuestra pequeña historia– hasta la crisis del cristianismo europeo, de un mundo dividido y enfrentado en dos bloques hasta un mundo globalizado, desde el “aggiornamiento” hasta un cierto “restauracionismo” eclesial. De ser una de las primeras ONG católicas del mundo con una presencia significativa en las instituciones de las Naciones Unidas a ser una ONG católica más. Hoy, 60 años más tarde, Pax Romana, a pesar de nuestras debilidades, aunque probablemente ya no tenemos el peso de otras décadas en las esferas internacionales y eclesiales, continúa siendo una red de grupos y de movimientos presente en más de setenta países, compartiendo unos valores comunes, una manera de ser Iglesia, una manera de entender la mediación entre fe y cultura, entre fe y política, de entender lo que quiere decir evangelización. Somos una realidad viva, comprometida que se presenta, en este mundo globalizado, como una red eclesial e internacional que contribuye a construir un mundo más justo y solidario, un mundo más inclusivo y compasivo, un mundo más pacífico y dialogante, un mundo más abierto a los valores del Evangelio. Hablar de “La Santa Sede: una cara de otra globalización” es una manera de entender que la Iglesia tiene una palabra muy importante que decir en el actual proceso de globalización. Como nunca la palabra “católica”, universal, se encuentra ante la realidad de un mundo abierto a la universalidad y en condiciones de construirse universalmente. Como nunca, la dialéctica global-local se refuerza para poder actuar de manera verdaderamente eficaz. Y en este contexto Pax Romana quiere contribuir a construir otro relato de globalización. Nunca la Iglesia había sido tan universal. La doble presencia en la Iglesia y en el mundo es lo que da sentido a la existencia y a la continuidad de Pax Romana.


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60th Anniversary Pax Romana

PROGRAM 60th ANNIVERSARY PAX ROMANA ICMICA/MIIC 1947 – 2007 Rome, 19-23 May 2007 60th Anniversary: “Pax Romana-Memory and future” Study Session: “The Holy See: a face of another globalization” 93rd Session of the International Council (23rd-25th May 2007)

Saturday, May 19th SESSION OF THE 60TH ANNIVERSARY: “PAX ROMANA, MEMORY AND FUTURE” Hotel Divino Amore – Casa del Pellegrino. Roma 16:00 Opening by Mary Mwingira, Former President of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC 1992-2000 Introduction by Lidia Tresalti, President of Friends of Pax Romana and Coordinator of the Organizing Committee of the 60th Anniversary Prayer by Fr Antoine Sondag, Ecclesiastical Assistant of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC Welcome by Renato Balduzzi, President of MEIC – Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC– Italy Special message by Ramón Sugranyes de Franch, Former President of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC and 1st Secretary General in 1947 Keynote Speech: Prof. Giorgio Campanini, Professor of History of Political Doctrine in the University of Parma; Member of MEIC, former member of Laureati Cattolici, FUCI and regular collaborator of the Catholic Action.


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Panellists: Kevin Ahern, President of Pax Romana International Movement of Catholic Students-IMCS/MIEC Josep Maria Carbonell, President of the Audiovisual Council of Catalonia, Former Vicepresident of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC for Europe and Former President of Pax Romana IMCS/MIEC Lawrencia Kwark, Asia-Pacific desk in CCFD-Comité Catholique contre la Faim et pour le Dévelopment, Former Vicepresident of Pax Romana IMCS/MIEC Carmen Lora, Editor of Páginas, Director of Centro de Estudios y Publicaciones, Lima and Member of MPC (Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC – Peru)

Sunday, May 20th 10:30 Holy Mass of the 60th Anniversary, chaired by Mgr. Josef Clemens, Secretary of Pontifical Council for Laity. Basilica Papale di San Pietro, Cappella del Coro 12:00 Angelus

Monday, May 21st 10:00 New Statutes of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC: Ceremony of presenting the Decree of approval by the Holy See of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC´s reformed Statutes, according to the Canon Law Code, chaired by Mgr. Josef Clemens, Secretary of Pontifical Council for Laity Pontifical Council for Laity. Cittá del Vaticano


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60th Anniversary Pax Romana

10:00 Alternative programme at the same time: Meeting with the Comunitá di Sant´Egidio, with Fr Matteo Zuppi, Priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere and member of Comunitá di Sant’ Egidio Santa Maria in Trastevere. Roma. 11:00 Thanksgiving Prayer in Santa Maria in Trastevere. Guided visit to Santa Maria in Trastevere

STUDY SESSION: “THE HOLY SEE: A FACE OF ANOTHER GLOBALIZATION” Augustinianum – Istituto Patristico. Aula Magna. Roma 15:00 Theologian introduction by Prof. Salvador Pié-Ninot, Pontificia Università Gregoriana (Roma) / Facoltà di Teologia della Catalogna (Barcellona): “Towards a new “Catholicity”: Being Church in a globalized world” 15:30 Special Session on Human Rights “International Protection and Promotion of Human RightsChallenges for the United Nations Human Rights Council: Jurist Catholic Perspective” (in cooperation with the International Secretariat of Catholic Jurists-Pax Romana MIJC) Session chaired by Eugeni Gay Montalvo, Magistrate of the Spanish Constitutional Court and President of the International Secretariat of Catholic Jurists, Pax Romana-MIJC Introduction by Jean-Mathias Goerens, Vice-president of the Administrative Court of Luxembourg, Counsellor of the Constitutional Court of Luxembourg, Member/Conciliator of the


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Court of Cociliation and Arbritation within OSCE and Member of ALUC-Pax Romana Luxembourg “The Holy See: a face of another globalization – The work for the Human Rights” by Mgr. Fortunatus Nwachukwu, Secretariat of State, Holy See Communications: UN Responsability in the protection and promotion of Human Rights and the participatory role of the NGOs Nuria Sastre, Lawyer, President of the Centre d´Estudis Francesc Eiximenis Pax Romana ICMICA-Catalunya, Former President of the Group de Juristes Roda Ventura Mechanisms of the new Human Rights Council Santiago Ripol, Legal Counsel of the Spanish Constitutional Court, Lecturer in International Law at the Pompeu Fabra University Catholic contribution to the UN Human Rights Council and to the current challenges on Human Rights Otmar Oehring, Head of the Human Rights Office – Pontifical Mission Society (MISSIO) in Aachen (Germany) and member of Bund Neudeutschland (Pax Romana – Germany) Principal challenges for the Un Human Rights Council and in the work for the Human Rights at the international level Budi Tjahjono, Main Representative of Pax Romana before United Nations in Geneva and Former President of Pax Romana IMCS/MIEC

Tuesday, May 22nd 9:30 Study Session on “The Holy See: a face of another globalization-The work for Justice and Peace”


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Session chaired by Bill Neville, Former President of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC 1987-1992 1st part: Cardinal Renato Raffaele Martino, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People 2nd part: Communications on Justice and Peace: • Loreto Ballester, General President, Teresian Association • Mario Cayota, Ambassador of Uruguay in the Holy See • Fernando Franco, SJ, Director of the Social Justice Secretariat (SJS) of the Society of Jesus • Duncan MacLaren, Secretary General of Caritas Internationalis 15:00 Study Session on “The Holy See: a face of another globalization - international organizations and global governance” Session chaired by Mary Mwingira, Former President of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC 1992-2000 1st part: Mgr. Pietro Parolin, Under-Secretary, Relations with States of the Secretariat of State 2nd part: Communications on international organizations and global governance • Seong Bosco, Ambassador of Korea in the Holy See • Manel Manonelles, UBUNTU-World Forum of Civil Society Networks • Sergio Marelli, Secretary General of FOCSIV-Volontari nel Mondo 17:30 Closing session Paul Ortega, Secretary General of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC Closing speech of the Study Session “The Holy See: a face of another globalization - A face to be announced and communicated” by Fr Federico Lombardi, SJ, Director-General of the Holy See Press Office


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Wednesday, May 23rd 10:00 General Audience with the Holy Father. Piazza San Pietro

May, 23rd in the afternoon, 24th and 25th 93rd Session of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC: Hotel Divino Amore. Rome


Session of the 60th anniversary


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Pax Romana, memory and future Giorgio Campanini Professor of History of Political Doctrine in the University of Parma

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early on the day after the foundation of ICMICA, the intellectual branch of Pax Romana (in April 1947), one of the movement’s greatest inspirational founders, Jacques Maritain, gave the opening speech at the UNESCO General Conference in Mexico City that can be considered in some way the new movement’s “program of action.” In this famous speech on The Possibilities of Cooperation in a Divided World 1, the French philosopher theorized that a unique practical way to achieve the peace (as voie de la paix) is the acknowledgement of common and universal values-starting from a basic understanding of human rights. Such an acknowledgement can serve as the basis of civil and peaceful cohabitation within a single country or between countries and peoples, as a way to definitively eliminate the threat of War. Only a few months before, Maritain presented a similar topic at a conference of Pax Romana in Rome, which was exploring the creation of ICMICA. In his presentation entitled, The Relationship Between Christianity and Civilization, he suggested that the fundamental task or the “new frontier” for Catholic intellectuals should be to work together to fulfill their responsibility towards history. This vocation of service to man, which John Paul II spoke about many years later in talking about man and the Church2, represents a central thread to follow in order to understand the whole history of Pax Romana. Retracing its past means, to at the same time both remembering its history and asking about its future.

1

The speech given on November 6th 1947 during a UNESCO Conference in Mexico City, was firstly quoted in the papers of the conference, then reported in J. Maritain, Le philosophe dans la Cité, Alsatia, Paris, 1960 (Italian translation by A. Pavan, Il filosofo nella società, Morcelliana, Brescia, 1976). It was later presented as “La voie de la paix” in Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, Œuvre complètes, Edit. Universitaires Fribourg (Suisse)-Edit. St. Paul, Paris, vol. IX, 1987, pp. 143-64.

2

John Paul II, Redemptor Hominis, Rome, 1979: “This man” –the Pope asserted in his first encyclical letter of his Pontificate– “is the way for the Church, a way that, in a sense, is the basis of all the other ways that the Church must walk” (n. 14).


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Sceneries of 1921 and 1947 Pax Romana, in its “student” expression of 1921 (which will be followed by the “intellectual expression” in 1947), emphasizes –as seen by its chosen name– the young intellectual Catholics’ need to heal the deep injuries of the First World War. The movement was born in a context of radical opposition among people from both sides of the conflict who fed from the same Christian sources. They were theoretically inspired to the same values and celebrated the same liturgies (they also celebrated with solemn pontifical Masses their respective victories over each other on their respective sides of the Rhine). Pope Benedict XV’s continuous calls for peace3 is evidenced that the self-proclaimed Christian West had drifted away from the original Evangelical spirit, thus showing the necessity to rebuild European culture on new foundation. Following the First World War, a new and more serious threat was starting to move into the European societies: the rising totalitarian menace in the presence of a dramatic crisis of democracies, victims of the First World War. Thus, a new field of action emerged for Catholic intellectuals: the construction of peace not only beyond nationalisms, but in the presence of the new totalitarianisms. The aggressiveness of these new totalitarianisms was more and more evident and was expressed not only in the old forms of military expansionism, but also in a new modality, through ideological manipulation. This created a new setting for intellectual engagement, representing a new phase that would have started, even for people with Catholic culture, after the end of the Second World War. In this period around the First World War, intellectuals had shown their dedication and engagement in politics. Julien Benda, for example, was stigmatized then for his (then) famous work of La trahison des Clercs4, where he denounced the tendency of many intellectuals –from Péguy to 3

On the theme cf. AA.VV., by G. Bruni, Benedetto XV e la pace, Morcelliana, Brescia, 1990. On the Catholic Culture of these years cf. G. Campanini, “La cultura cattolica negli anni di Benedetto XV”, in AA.VV., La Chiesa e la modernità, S. Paolo, Milano, 2005, pp. 277-293.

4

J. Benda, La Thraison des Clercs, Grasset, Paris, 1927. On the French cultural climate of those years, cf G. Campanini, Intellettuali e società nella Francia del Novecento, Massimo, Milano, 1995. Moreover, cf. D.L. Shalk, The spectrum of political Engagement: Mounier, Benda Nizan, Brasìllach, Sartre, Princeton, University Press, New York, 1979 and H.R. Lottman, La “Rive gauche” Intellettuali e impegno politico, Comunità di Milano, 1983.


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Gabriele D’Annunzio– to make their “engaged” choice, betraying their vocation: the objective research of the truth. Nothing comparable to what happened in the twenties occurred in the thirties, when many intellectuals “entered the field”, at least in those countries not yet subjugated to totalitarianism. One of the provoking moments may be the event that instigates an almost worldwide organized and widespread engagement of intellectuals, the Spanish Civil War where personalities among the most prestigious in the world lined up, including Hemingway, Orwell, Malraux, Claudel, Bernanos, and Ortega y Gasset. The engagement of Catholic intellectuals had a great importance, above all in France with J. Maritain, E. Mounier, F. Mauriac and Luigi Sturzo himself, at that time in exile in London but often present in France. It also had an impact in relation with the drama of Spanish Catholic conscience, wellreflected in the dramatic writings of the conservative (but democratic at the same time) George Bernanos in Les grands cimetières sous la lune5. What kind of behavior to assume in radical contrast with a republic, the Spanish one, unable to guarantee religious freedom, entirely dominated by the most virulent anticlericalism, motionless spectator of Catholic slaughter and a military rebellion led like a Holy War (almost similar to the new Guerre Sainte that Maritain and his friends severely contested) but actually expression of conservative power orientated towards a democratic institutional fall to establish a new dictatorship? The global events of the thirties, including the impetuous establishment of totalitarianisms almost everywhere and the consciousness that even intellectuals had to take part in defense of democracy, civil freedoms, and religious values, are the background where, the war ended and a new intellectual engagement would have developed, the one of Pax Romana. It is not a coincidence that the ones who had been directly involved in the intellectual engagement in the thirties, including J. Maritain and the Spanish researchers mentioned above, had been the inspirational 5

About Spanish events cf. AA.VV., by L. La Puma and T. Bertone, Gli intellettuali e la Guerra di Spagna, Micella, Lecce, 1988. Specifically on Sturzo cf. AA.VV., editor by G. Campanini, I cattolici italiani e la guerra di Spagna, Morcelliana, Brescia, 1987. It is important to note that many of the future leaders of ICMICA-Pax Romana (Joaquín Ruiz Giménez, Ramón Sugranyes de Franch, Felix Martí, etc) were directly, and often dramatically, involved in the Civil War. In this way we can affirm that the happening after the “alzamiento de Franco” of 1936 has been one of the ideal premise of the future engagement of ICMCA Pax Romana for peace and human rights. A valuable account of the Civil War is that by R. Sugranyes de Franch, Dalla Guerra di Spagna al Concilio - Interview by H. Rague (1998), Italian translation Rubbettino, Soveria Mannelli, 2003 (moreover, cf. chapter on “Pax Romana”, pp. 99-128).


20

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and concrete founders of the “intellectual branch” of Pax Romana. The passage from an essentially student movement, mostly focused on education and formation to, to an intellectually-engaged movement, was due to the reality of the times. The idea of engagement that began to emerge around 1935 in France and that would have asserted itself soon in other European languages represented the ideal fundament of “Pax Romana”. The new branch of the movement was aware of the impossibility to limit itself to only one educational assignment and at the same time of the necessity to work for peace in the world, based in the defense and the full realization of those human rights that had been the main object of devastation of the totalitarian regime, through a more direct cultural engagement in society.

New expectations of the second post-war period During the Second World War, with a lot of difficulties and big sacrifices, some Pax Romana basic initiatives (still limited to student area) had been kept alive.6 Nevertheless, once the civil freedom was recovered, in the brisk climate of the period immediately after the fall of totalitarianism, those who were not young students anymore and were coming to civil and professional engagement had to face the problem of identifying new forms of presence. So it was decided to bring to life an intellectual branch, in addition to the student one. As a result, the International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs (ICMICA)7 was 6

For the history of the first student phase of Pax Romana, cf. AA.VV., by E. Pochon and R. Sugranyes de Franch, Pax Romana, 1921-1961, Bergier, Fribourg (Suisse), 1961, where the first steps of the student organization are retraced. From the meetings in Fribourg in January, 1921, it gradually developed and expanded itself; however, it had to clash with authoritarian or totalitarian regimes in many countries that started to impose themselves above all in Europe, from the twenties.

7

The need to develop the intellectual branch was long discussed within Pax Romana. However, this project could only be defined at the end of the Second World War. Fribourg was, once more, the place where this project formally took shape thanks to a preparatory meeting held between 2th and 4th January 1947, that brought to the approval of a statutes scheme and to the proclamation of a Foundation Congress. Leading the way to this Foundation Congress was a conference from April 9th-15th, 1947 in Rome. The “ICMICAPax Romana” Statutes were approved on April 11th, and the day after it was signed and approved by the Substitute State Secretariat G.B. Montini, the great “Patron” of the initiative. For an exhaustive chronicle of these events, cf. Coscienza (body of the Italian graduated Catholics movement), February 1947, year 1, n. 2-4. Moreover, cf. R. Sugranyes de Franch, “Pax Romana, l’azione internazionale e il Concilio Vaticano II”, in AA.VV, Vittorio Veronese, un laico nella Chiesa e nel mondo, AVE, Rome, 1994, particularly page 82.


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added to the International Movement of Catholic Students (IMCS), and together they share the name Pax Romana. Consequently, with the creation of ICMICA in 1947, Pax Romana became a “bipolar reality” articulated into two different branches, respectively oriented to the intellectual education and to the presence of intellectuals in the Church and in the society. Some reflections on this presence have already been outlined:8 however it is in great measure incomplete. These notes want simply to provide some other contributions, without any claim of completeness. The strongest appeal which Catholic intellectuals –gathered up under the sign of Pax Romana– wanted to answer to, was the promotion of a renewed meeting of Church with modernity, after the dramatic incomprehension and misunderstandings that had characterized the relationship between Christianity and modern culture since the French Revolution.9 The fall of totalitarianisms (and being profiled the Soviet model crisis, which would have been abandoned only beyond 40 years later) set favourable conditions for a renewed dialogue in Western countries. In the specific ecclesiastical context, 1947 coincided with the fortieth Anniversary of Pope Pius X’s encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis (1907), through which he severely condemned modernism and opened a phase of Church history characterized by a deep distrust for modern culture. The direct opposition toward evolution, the persistent distrust toward democracy, the extreme caution used to look at a moderate acceptance of the historical method for studying Scriptures and so on, had put Catholic culture in a harshly hostile position compared to modern culture. This generated a long-lasting intellectual narrowness which only after the end of the Second World War would have started to be overcome. An important contribution to this new relationship with modern culture was the opening given by Pius XII during the initial phase of his Pontificate, who though his radio messages during the war, expressed openness to democracy and human rights.10 8

Cf. also AA.VV., by M. Trisconi, Mémoires engagées - Memorias comprometidas - Memories of committed persons, published for the fiftieth anniversary of Pax Romana, Edition “Pax Romana” , Fribourg (Suisse), 1997, with important contributions of L.E. Xircenei J. Ruiz Giménez, R. Goldie, R. Sugranyes de Franch, M.L. Paronetto and others. Moreover cf. AA.VV., Pax Romana, 1921-1961, quoted.

9

For a complete description and further information about these problems, cf. AA.VV., by G. Campanini, La Chiesa e la modernità, quoted.

10

In the wide literature on this Pontiff we only draw attention to the subject of “the relationship with modernity”, the volume by A. Riccardi, Pio XII, Laterza, Bari, 1984.


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A more courageous opening toward intellectuals and the acknowledgement of the importance of their contribution to Church life were at the same time the necessary consequence and the preliminary condition of this renewed relationship between Church and modernity. Precisely in this direction ICMICA-Pax Romana organized since its foundation a series of long-rang initiatives and above all with regular congresses on a diversity of related themes from Christian Universalism (Luxembourg, 1949) to Moral and Social Aspects of Population (Venice, 1953) and from Inter-religious Dialogue (Manila, 1951) to Human Problems of Economic Development (Bombay, 1964). The big series of papers of these meetings testify to their importance and value. It will be enough for this occasion –awaiting a meditated global analysis of this set of cultural initiatives– to underline the lucidity and foresight with which Pax Romana faced promptly and prematurely themes that only many years later would have reached the attention of the political community and of the Church. These initiatives took up key issues that are still relevant in our world today, including the crisis of nationalisms, inter-religious dialogue, the limits of development and the relationship between ethics and economics. However, we must ask ourselves whether Christian community has not been, above all in the years prior to the Second Vatican Council, a little bit neglectful in front of these solicitations that sometime represented a kind of more lucid intellectual exercise, rather than a rigorous –and for some ways prophetic– analysis of reality of the contemporary world. All these important international conferences characterized Pax Romana’s twenty-year period from the foundation of the intellectual branch to the end of the Council. In the next years R. Sugranyes de Franch helped to bring in a new phase in the history of the movement. The partition between the two phases is marked by the World Congress celebrated by ICMICA-Pax Romana in Lyon in 1966, just after the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council. According to Sugranyes de Franch, a first phase of ICMICA-Pax Romana’s engagement ended with the Council. This phase was finalized essentially to give Catholic intellectuals (but in prospective the hierarchical Church) the tools for a more suitable reading of modern world. After the Council a second phase was opened, which still exists today. This phase pays more attention to intra and extra-ecclesial dialogue, to meeting among cultures, to the formation of consciences. “Maintenant –Sugranyes wrote in 1983, but formulating a still actual thesis in some aspects– les manifestations massives ne sont plus de mise dans Pax


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Romana. À la désaffection que beaucoup ressentent pour les parades spectaculaires et triomphalistes, s’ajoute une raison pratique: pour une organisation effectivement mondiale il est financièrement impossible de transporter d’un continent à l’autre un nombre considérable de congressistes. Il a fallu donc espacer les rencontres mondiales et réduire la participation à des délégués représentatifs”.11 That did not prevent ICMICA-Pax Romana from organizing other international meetings (Philadelphia, 1968; Mexico City, 1979; London, 1983; and so on) but those congresses would not represent the epicenter of its activities. These congresses lost their great importance for two additional reasons, one outside and one inside the Church. From the first point of view, it is important to notice the high number of meetings promoted by international organizations (particularly by UNESCO and the UN). From the ecclesiastical point of view, it is important to remember in particular the World Congresses for the Lay Apostolate, where qualified intellectual Catholics participated. This has to be remembered in particular –even for the fundamental contribution that Pax Romana intellectuals gave to it– as the first worldwide congress of the laity in the Church in Rome in 1951. Both Vittorio Veronese –from Pax Romana– and Giovanni Battista Montini –all along closed to intellectual Catholics– had a key-role for the promotion of this meeting. Pax Romana intellectuals gave an important contribution to this and to the following World Congresses for the Lay Apostolate, helping to lay the course for the Second Vatican Council. In particular, they contributed to the development of a new relationship between Church and modernity on the one hand, and to a careful consideration of the role of the laity in the church on the other.12 The partial fulfillment of the objectives that Pax Romana had set since the beginning, however, was in part also the cause of the subsequent crisis. This was due to three main reasons.

11

R. Sugranyes de Franch, “Le mouvement international des intelectuels catholiques au bout de quarante ans”, in Pax Romana, 1921-1981, quoted, p. 9.

12

These themes were at the core of the work of the man who can be considered the greatest Catholic intellectual of the first part of XX century, J. Maritain, whose closeness with the future Pontiff (G.B. Montini introduced his work in Italian culture), and his close cooperation with Pax Romana have to be underlined. Maritain himself made an important report on the theme “Human civilization and the Church” at the worldwide Congress mentioned above in 1951. Then, on December 8th 1965, he was charged with reading the message of the Council “Aux hommes de la pensée et de la science”. On the subject cf. AA.VV., by G. Galeazzi, Montini e Maritain tra religione e cultura, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Rome, 2000.


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First, there was a rediscovery of the role and importance of the local Churches (Pax Romana had encouraged and in some way prepared this, through its activity on the ground.) This rediscovery was manifested in part by the focus on national and continental episcopal conferences. This new vision of the Church obviously caused some problems to a movement that, since the beginning, had wanted to be considered as universalistic and that now had to face peculiarities and, consequently, differences. The second reason of the crisis was represented by the approach of the Second Vatican Council toward the cultural problem. The Council, particularly in Gaudium et Spes, had strongly revaluated culture and intellectual research, putting in evidence the close relationship between culture and life, between intellectual research and engagement in community. It seemed that the reasons for intellectuals to have a proud autonomy from other groups were failed and that they should operate as worshippers among worshippers, in their own communities. Finally, there was the situation that resulted from the movements of the different liberation theologies, to which Pax Romana could not be indifferent. Due to its strong presence in Latin America and its involvement in the development of Liberation Theology in that context,13 a renewed actively-militant engagement (not different, even though in a different context, from that of the thirties) developed within Pax Romana and resulted in a partial overtaking of the classical figure of the Catholic intellectual. These difficulties that in the “second phase” of Pax Romana slackened its progress and many efforts were made to try to overcome them. With the dawning of the 21st Century, new perspectives were developing. Many of the controversies over the role of Catholic intellectuals’ stopped and new roles began to emerge for the engagement of Pax Romana. The recent historical lessons might offer us important appeals for the revival of an intellectual engagement still essential for both Church and Society.

13

The already mentioned work Mémoires engagés makes frequent allusions at these issues, in particular in the chapter by F. Martí, “Memoria y Futuro” (pp. 112 ss.), where he refers to subjects of the theology of liberation and complains of what is defined the “actual clima eclesiástico de restauración”, in relation to the context of the nineties (quoted, p 112).


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Towards future Examining quickly the engagement of ICMICA-Pax Romana during these sixty years, we can distinguish three phases. The first phase, which goes from its foundation until the Council, is maybe the most lively and dynamic period. The second phase is the one of the following forty years, less characterized by important International Conferences, more careful to establish steady relationships among worldwide Catholic intellectuals (paying particular attention to Africa and Asia) and more concerned about ecumenical and inter-religious dialogue. Presently, a kind of third phase of ICMICA-Pax Romana seems to be outlined, linked to factors both in the Church and in society. Within the Church, we see many developments relating to the conclusion of John Paul II’s long and important Pontificate. Within society, we are facing an increased secularization of western society, the emergence of new religious conflicts, the more and more pervasive intrusion of science in everyday-life, the emerging of fundamental “anthropological issues” (humanity and its significance and presence in the world have been brought into question). In the background of all these realities, there are, quoting Balthasar’s expression, two “serious cases”14 for the Christian conscience and specifically for how many in the Church leadership question the problem of the role of the intellectual research. The first “serious case” is represented by the need of re-establishing, and in same way to re-legitimate, the role, the importance and the meaning of a Catholic culture recognized in its own dignity as a meeting between sense and faith. Catholic culture should not be relegated to the edge of a closed and self-sufficient secular society. At the same time, we see the development of an “intimistic Church”, which transforms the right primacy granted to contemplation on one side, and to the hardworking commitment for man on the other side, into the concreteness of his actions enclosed in parenthesis or in a detached indifference toward the intellectual activity, toward the patient and passionate research of the truth. At this point there is the risk that in both the Church and society there is no place for a real service of intelligence. In this current situa-

14

Cf. H.U. V. Balthasar, Cordula, oder der Ernstfal, (1966), It. Tr. Cordula, ovverosia il “caso serio”, Queriniana, Brescia, 1993.


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tion, which is typical of a world driven by effective concrete results and products, we face the problem of the elaboration of a solid Catholic culture promoted for its quality and its translatable capability (this is an aspect that overtops the one of its visibility). In this perspective it becomes very important to overcome the isolation, in which a lot of Catholic intellectuals involved in the cultural field face. If the first essential link is the one between believers operating in the same national context,15 an essential connection at the international level, as the typical one of the Pax Romana tradition, seems to be still necessary. The second “serious case,” is within the Church. This is represented by the question of the “audience” that Catholic intellectuals are supposed to have (and instead rarely have) with their ecclesiastical hierarchies at both the universal and local (national and continental) Church levels. There is the risk the only “intellectuals” consulted and listened to by Church officials, once again, are the clerics, and above all the theological clerics, with only a marginal reference given to the laity (including lay theologies, lay philosophers and artists, literary men, scientists, etc). The creation of the Pontifical Councils for culture, laity, family, overcame this gap a little, but there is still a lot to do.16 Nevertheless, international institutions variously connected with the Holy See as Papal Academies do not wholly overcome this gap. Moreover, there is a risk of considering the only laity to be consulted as being the leaders of movements and associations. It is more difficult to develop contact with the many intellectuals, who even though they belong to a movement like Pax Romana, work individually making a kind of “intellectual community.” Through its different contributions, this community could greatly enrich the life of Christian community by above all providing the tools for an up-to-date reading of the recurring “signs of the times.” The 15

The “Cultural Project” of the Italian Church promoted by the Episcopal Conference, was born from the necessity to establish closer connections among intellectuals with a Christian inspiration. Thanks to the “Forum” annually promoted, this Cultural Project made important contributions for a more vigorous renewal of the culture of Christian inspiration. See particularly the volume, about the 7th Forum, Cattolicesimo italiano e futuro del Paese, Dehoniane, Bologna, 2006.

16

For an interesting remark on this issue, from the unique point of view of a member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, cf. R. Goldie, From a Roman Window, (1998), it. ed. Da una finestra romana - Cinque decenni: il mondo, la Chiesa, e il laicato cattolico, AVE, Roma, 2000. It is interesting to read the passages where the author talks about hierarchy’s irregular but constantly increasing (and hidden) attention to the theme of the laity (“sometimes taking two steps forwards and one backwards”). Often the “valorisation” of laity, particularly of women, sounds more like a slogan than a concrete approach to diversity” (quoted, p. 205).


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methodological indication supplied almost 50 years ago from the Second Vatican Council seems to still be current, but it needs to be always verified and renewed. We are not simply talking about an adjustment of statutes and norms or a fulfillment of a more effective organizational plan. The real challenge is to try to make ICMICA-Pax Romana, according to the nice expression of Félix Martí –“un movimiento de laicos corresponsables en la vida de la Iglesia católica y como un movimiento de profesionales que viven el Evangelio para humanizar el mundo, manifestar el amor de Dios para todos los seres humanos y acompañar sus legítimas aspiraciones históricas”.17 This challenge deals with developing in the Church, a reality of authentic co-responsibility with the laity. It means creating, through the service to beauty and truth, places of real expression of God’s love for humans. And it also means promoting the humanization of the world and helping the realization of proper human aspirations, starting from the full acknowledgement of human rights. This represents a very ambitious task, but a fundamental one for testing the capacities of “Pax Romana” to weigh on history. In the same way of thinking, R. Sugranyes de Franch summarized ICMICA-Pax Romana’s purposes more than ten years ago as “researching, according to Christian principles, the solution for modern world problems and diffusing it; deepening, according to the faith and Catholic morality, the human and social problems of academic, artistic, literary and scientific professions; putting intellectual and moral resources in the service of the international community, in order to build in the world a peace based on justice and Christ’s charity.”18 We might add three additional tasks: promoting the meeting among Catholic intellectuals from different places in the world to help build an authentic universality of the Church, supporting ecumenical and interreligious dialogue with intellectuals of other confessions or religions and proposing itself as datum-point for members in the hierarchy, for a better and deeper comprehension –following the Gaudium et Spes– of human beings’ needs and hopes of today. The attention on this universalistic dimension of ICMICA-Pax Romana should never make us forget its European origins and underva-

17

F. Martí, “Memoria y futuro”, in Mémoires engagés, quoted, pp. 123-13.

18

R. Sugranyed de Franch, “Pax Romana, L’azione internazionale e il Vaticano II” (1993), in AA.VV., Vittorio Veronese, un laico nella Chiesa e nel mondo, quoted, p.82.


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lue the importance of its contribution to the construction of a new Europe, a kind of “model”, in view of other aggregations aimed at placing the deep unity of the world in a favourable light and at achieving a steady and definitive peace. Vàclav Havel, President of Czech Republic in 2002, during a memorable speech in Rome made a reference on the responsibility of Europe. A great intellectual, Havel, spoke about old Europe as a continent crushed “between Orient and thin air” chronically threatened from the outside and corroded by its own insecurity from the inside. Europe also is afflicted by a sort of competition syndrome both with the Orient and with the United States, while at the same time trying to overcome the temptation of nihilism. “It is not time” –wondered Havel– “for Europe to think seriously of its own civilization?”.19 Thinking critically of our own civilization (this is valid not only for old Europe) is not just a task and a responsibility of politicians equal to their historical mission. It is also an engagement for the intellectual class fully and clearly conscious of their role. Assuming this task could be one of the ways to which Pax Romana can be directed in the future.

L

’intervento ripercorre le tappe dell’impegno di Pax Romana dalla sua nascita ad oggi. Viene ricostruito il quadro storico degli anni ‘30 e ‘40, caratterizzati dall’engagement degli intellettuali. Tale forma di impegno civile e professionale porta all’istituzione, accanto al ramo studentesco dell’associazione del 1921 (Movimento Internazionale degli Studenti, MIEC), quello intellettuale del 1947 (Movimento degli Intellettuali Cattolici, MIIC). La prima fase di questo nuovo ramo, che va dalla fondazione al Concilio Vaticano II, è vivace e dinamica. La sfida stimolante è quella di favorire un rinnovato incontro della Chiesa con la modernità. É il periodo di numerosi Convegni internazionali, i cui temi affrontati testimoniano la lucidità e la lungimiranza di Pax Romana. La seconda

19

V. Havel, L’Europa e il mondo, (Conference held on April 4th 2002 in Rome - Palazzo Giustiniani, pro manuscripto, pp.1-2). On this theme, cf. AA.VV., by V. Strazzeri, Identità e diritti in Europa, Messaggero, Padova, 2004, and AA.VV., L’Europa crocevia - Memoria, cultura, responsabilità delle chiese, Studium, Roma, 1992 (see also the contribution by F. Martí, “L’Europa crocevia”, pp. 37-48).


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fase, quella del successivo quarantennio, è più attenta all’instaurazione di stabili relazioni fra gli intellettuali cattolici di tutto il mondo e maggiormente preoccupata per il dialogo ecumenico ed inter-religioso. Si profila ora quella che può essere considerata la terza fase dell’associazione: quella legata sia a fattori interni alla Chiesa, sia a mutamenti intervenuti nella società. Vi è l’esigenza di rifondare il ruolo ed il significato di una cultura cattolica intesa come momento di incontro tra ragione e fede; vi è il problema dell’”udienza” che gli intellettuali laici dovrebbero avere da parte delle gerarchie ecclesiastiche. La sfida che si prospetta è quella di sollecitare costantemente la Chiesa ad una “autentica corresponsabilità laicale” e di adoperarsi per un mondo più umano e giusto, manifestazione dell’amore di Dio per gli uomini. Un compito assai ambizioso, ma che costituisce un fondamentale banco di prova della capacità di Pax Romana di incidere sulla storia.

L

a intervención recorre las etapas del compromiso de Pax Romana, desde su nacimiento hasta hoy. Reconstruye el cuadro histórico de los años 30 y 40, caracterizados por el engagement de los intelectuales. Esta forma de compromiso civil y profesional lleva a la institución, junto a la rama estudiantil de la asociación de 1921 (Movimiento Internacional de los Estudiantes, MIEC), la intelectual de 1947 (Movimiento de los Intelectuales Católicos, MIIC) La primera fase de esta nueva rama, que va desde su fundación hasta el Concilio Vaticano II, es vivaz y dinámica. El desafío que les estimula es el de favorecer un encuentro renovado entre la Iglesia y la modernidad. Es un periodo de numerosos congresos internacionales, cuyos temas atestiguan la lucidez y la capacidad de previsión de Pax Romana. La segunda fase, que abarca los sucesivos 40 años, presta más atención a la instauración de relaciones estables entre los intelectuales católicos de todo el mundo, a la vez que se preocupa más por el diálogo interreligioso y ecuménico. Se perfila en estos momentos la que puede considerarse la tercera fase de la asociación, aquella vinculada a los factores internos de la iglesia, y a los cambios sociales. Se topa con la exigencia de reformar el rol y el significado de una cultura católica entendida como punto de encuentro entre razón y fe; y con el problema de la “audiencia” que los intelectuales laicos deberían tener por parte de las jerarquías eclesiáticas. El desafío que se presenta es el de solicitar constantemente a la Iglesia “una auténtica co-responsabilidad laical” y un esfuerzo por un mundo más humano y justo, manifestación del amor de Dios por la humanidad. Un deber bastante ambicioso, pero que constituye un banco de pruebas fundamental para Pax Romana y su capacidad de incidir en la historia.


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Salutations

Salutation de François Lapierre

U

n mot à la veille des célébrations du 60e anniversaire du MIIC Pax Romana pour te dire que je suis avec tous par la prière et l’amitié. Je découvre toujours plus comment l’expérience du mouvement m’a habitué à voir la vie quotidienne et ses combats comme le lieu de l’expérience de Dieu. Je vous souhaite beaucoup de bonheur dans ces célébrations. Uni dans le Christ,

Salutation de Ramon Sugranyes de Franch

S

oixante ans déjà, comme le temps passe! Cette reflexion banale me vient inévitablement à l’esprit lorsque j’essaie de me rappeler les évenements qui ont entouré la naissance de Pax Romana-MIIC. C’était à Rome, pendant la semaine de Paques de 1947. Du point de vue institutionnel, le MIIC est l’enfant du MIEC. En 1946, Pax Romana, après la guerre, pouvait se permettre de reunir à Fribourg un congrès mondial. C’était son XXe congrès qui marquait les vingt-et-cinq ans de son existence comme mouvement international des étudiants catholiques. C’était comme une renaissance. Et alors beaucoup qui y avaient collaboré comme étudiants éprouvaient le désir de prolonger leur idéal apostolique dans leur vie d’adultes et proposèrent au congrès la création de deux branches: d’une part celle des étudiants, qui avait existe jusqu’alors, d’autre part le mouvement de ceux qui avaient été étudiants qu’on apella des intectuels. Sa constitution eut done lieu a Rome, in avril 1947. L’accueil que noua y avons reçu fut spectaculeire. Notre maître a penser, Jacques Maritain, alors ambassadeur de France auprès du Saint Siège, accepta d’y participer et prononcea une admirable conférence. Ensuite, il oueu la bonté d’inviter a sa table, dans l’ambassade de France, le président nouvellent élu


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Roger Millot, le vice-président Vittorino Veronese, futur Directeur general de l’UNESCO, un futur cardinal, l’Abbé Charles Journet, et rien de moins qu’un futur Pape, Monseigeur Montini. Vous comprendrez que je garde un bon souvenir de ce diner.. Au cours de notre aaaemblée constitutive, le philosophe Etienne Gilson formula cette excellente définition: “la finalité propre de Pax Romana est d’organiser dans le monde la fraternité des esprits qui mettent l’intelligence au service de Dieu”. Ce qui n’est pas peu diré! A l’instar de ce qu’était Pax Romana, il s’agissait donc d’un mouvement essentiellement laïque destiné à agir dans le monde de la culture: “évangélisation de la culture et inculturation de l’Evangile”, tel est le but du MIIC, comme l’a défini l’Ábbé Bonaventure Pelegrí, qui fut notre aumônier. Cette phrase résume admirablement l’idéal du Mouvement: évangéliser la culture d’un mónde de plus en plus irréligieux et inculturer l’Evangile dans toutes les cultures du monde.

Saludo de Fèlix Martí

Q

ueridos amigos: Deseo unirme a la celebración del 60 aniversario de Pax Romana MIIC que ha reunido en Roma a tantas personas representativas de la vida de nuestro movimiento y de su historia. Me parece que es una buena ocasión para reafirmar nuestra vocación de cristianos dialogantes en el interior de la Iglesia católica y en relación con las culturas de nuestro tiempo. Creo que, desde nuestras intuiciones fundacionales, seguimos practicando una fidelidad que no se limita a repetir o propagar las doctrinas ya establecidas sino a contribuir, desde nuestras experiencias como profesionales activos en los diversos ámbitos culturales, a la renovación de las reflexiones teológicas teniendo en cuenta las nuevas perspectivas científicas y filosóficas, así como las nuevas sensibilidades en el campo de los valores y de los derechos humanos. Creemos que la conciencia cristiana se enriquece con el reconocimiento del pluralismo de las expresiones de la fe y que se vigoriza con las innovaciones intelectuales y pastorales al servicio de nuestras comunidades creyentes. Por otra parte, reafirmamos nuestra responsabilidad en el diálogo intercultural e interreligiosos, que es uno de los signos de los tiempos en el marco de una saludable preocupación general por los desequilibrios ecológicos del planeta Tierra y de una renovada alarma


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por la demasiado larga espera de los pobres en sus deseados procesos de liberación. Hoy Pax Romana MIIC se renueva con estas viejas y nuevas fidelidades a la Iglesia y al mundo contemporáneo.

Salutation from Manuela Silva

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ear Friends, I would like to congratulate you assembled, these days, in Rome, to celebrate a festive date –the 60th anniversary of Pax Romana. I would wish to be present there too, but, at the same dates, I am running a national conference of the Portuguese National Commission Justice and Peace and this fact retains me home. I know, through my own past experiences, how pleasant and encouraging are the regular meetings of Pax Romana where, besides the enlightens of the debates and exchanges of experiences and projects, we may meet friends from all over the world. This time, the meeting is in Rome, a place that reminds the very beginnings of the Movement and the importance of the symbolism of the universality that was, always, a distinctive mark of Pax Romana. The theme chosen for the study session is also challenging and, since now, I become the most curious about the main conclusions of this session. In fact “globalization” is a keen theme for the construction of our common future. Inquiring about the role of the church on the world scene is, in my view, a most appropriate theme for a forum of christian professionals and intellectuals. May the Lord bless you and all the work you are doing in Rome, these days, as well as in your own countries. Many of them I visited in the past when I served the Movement as its president. I keep good memories of these visits and meetings. I shall pray for all of you and for the future of Pax Romana. Yours faithfully in Christ.


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Our movement and the development of the Catholic Social Tradition Kevin Ahern President IMCS-Pax Romana-MIEC

The importance of Catholic Social Thought for our movements

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ompendium, 550. “The Church’s social doctrine must become an integral part of the ongoing formation of the lay faithful. Experience shows that this formative work is usually possible within lay ecclesial associations. The Church’s social doctrine sustains and sheds light on the role of associations, movements and lay groups that are committed to the Christian renewal of the various sectors of the temporal order”.

The Social Tradition of Our Church 4 Elements to the Catholic Social Tradition H. Büchele. Official Catholic Social Teaching and Social Doctrine 1. Social Pronouncements of popes, patriarchs, Councils or Colleges of Bishops: • Social encyclicals. • Second Vatican Council (Gaudium et Spes). • Compendium on the Social Doctrine of the Church. Official Catholic Social Teaching 2. Social Pronouncements of local and regional churches represented by bishops and bishops’ conferences Un-official Catholic Social Teaching 3. Scientific and academic discourse including the work done by theologians


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Un-official Catholic Social Teaching and Catholic Social Action 4. The work of groups, movements and prophetic individuals • The work of our movements • The witness of key leaders St. Vincent de Paul, Mother Theresa, Pier Giorgio Frasatti, etc

The Social Tradition and our Movements The spirituality and actions of MIEC and MIIC Pax Romana, and other Catholic Action movements (un-official Catholic Social Teaching) have both been inspired by official Catholic Social Teachings and have contributed greatly to its development.

The Seeds of modern Catholic Social Thought Reality of 19th Century Europe Rise of new capitalistic economies • Fall-out the French Revolution • Threat of Communism • Loss of the Church’s temporal power and the birth the Italian State Response of Lay Groups to this Reality The Fribourg Union • A group of lay intellectuals in Fribourg, Switzerland, predecessor to MIIC • Linked closely with the International Union of Catholic Students –the predecessor organization to MIEC-Pax Romana


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A new approach: the birth of Modern Catholic Social Teaching In 1891, the Church and the world were greatly impacted by the encyclical letter of Pope Leo XIII: RerumNovarum, On the Condition of the Working Classes Rerum Novarum (Of New Things) is seen as the foundational text of modern Catholic Social Teaching. Rerum Novarum-inspired by lay movements In seeking to develop a response to the social challenges of capitalism and the growth of communism among urban workers, Pope Leo XIII asked the Fribourg Union to help draft the text. Rerum Novarum thus can be seen to have come in part from the work of Catholic movements (un-official CST).

Six concrete contributions of our movement to Catholic Social Thought 1. Peace and Solidarity Pax Romana was founded in the wake of the First World War • 1921 Pax Romana Congress in Fribourg • 1939 Pax Romana Congress in New York MIIC was formed in the wake of the Second World War • 1946 Congress in Fribourg • 1947 Meeting in Rome


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2. Human Rights Recognizing the dignity of each and every human person, created in the image and likeness of God, our movements helped the Church to accept the idea of human rights and their corresponding duties or responsibilities. 3. Support for the Community of Nations Long before the Holy See joined the United Nations, our movement was actively present first in the League of Nations and then in the creation of the United Nations. 4. Liberation Theology The MIEC and MIIC in Latin America laid the foundations for the response known as Liberation Theology (supported by the Latin American Bishops’ Confreres). In our movements is where terms like the “preferential option for the poor” were first developed. Small Christian Communities.


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5. Vision of the Laity The MIEC and MIIC were active in promoting the importance of the Lay Apostolate. • World Congresses of the Lay Apostolate • Second Vatican Council • Pontifical Council of the Laity 6. Inter-religious Dialogue As our movements sought to address the concrete issues of the day, more and more interreligious work developed. The first Vatican approved high-level inter-religious event was organized by Pax Romana and UNESCO in 1959 in Asia.

Deepening our actions into the future 1. Renew our Intellectual Tradition Deepen and develop new contacts with universities (look at creating small groups inside several key target institutions). Keep our work with young professionals while developing new outreaches to university professors and PhD students, especially in the fields of ethics, international relations, theology, etc. 2. Develop a global debate on the future of Catholic Social Thought How can Catholic Social Thought relate to the contemporary problems we face? How can we, and the Church more broadly work to develop ethical citizens in our world today? What are the new issues that need to be addressed (ecology, terrorism, dialogue, etc)? 3. Deepen the relationship with MIEC As the younger sister to MIEC, MIIC should deepen its outreach to MIEC all around the world. MIIC and MIEC should work together towards the 90th anniversary of Pax Romana in 2011. Develop a joint vision of global governance.


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’intervento analizza il rapporto tra Pax Romana e la Tradizione Sociale della Chiesa. Le fonti ufficiali della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa ispirano il pensiero e le azioni di Pax Romana e di tutti gli altri gruppi, movimenti o singoli individui che costituiscono le fonti non-ufficiali della stessa. A sua volta, il lavoro di questi studiosi contribuisce in larga misura allo sviluppo delle fonti ufficiali della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. Nata dall’Unione di Friburgo (gruppo di intellettuali laici predecessore del MIIC) e dall’Unione Internazionale degli Studenti Cattolici (predecessore del MEIC), Pax Romana apporta oggi sei contributi concreti allo sviluppo della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa nei seguenti campi: 1) Pace e solidarietà

4) Teologia della liberazione

2) Diritti Umani

5) Visione della laicità

3) Supporto al lavoro delle Nazioni Unite

6) Dialogo interreligioso

L’intervento si conclude con i propositi per il futuro, dedicati in particolare al rinnovamento della propria tradizione intellettuale, allo sviluppo di un dibattito globale sul futuro della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, all’intensificazione dei rapporti tra MIIC e MEIC.

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l documento analiza la relación entre la Pax Romana y la tradición social de la Iglesia. Las fuentes oficiales de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia inspiran el pensamiento y las acciones de Pax Romana y del resto de grupos, movimientos o individuos que constituyen las fuentes no oficiales de la misma. A su vez, el trabajo de estos investigadores contribuye, en buena medida, al desarrollo de las fuentes oficiales de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia. Nacida de la Unión de Friburgo (grupo que precede a los intelectuales laicos del MIIC) y de la Unión Internacional de Estudiantes Católicos (que precede al MEIC), Pax Romana aporta, hoy en día, seis contribuciones concretas para el desarrollo de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia en los siguientes campos:


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1) Paz y solidaridad

4) Teología de la liberación

2) Derechos humanos

5) Visión de la laicidad

3) Ayuda al trabajo de las Naciones Unidas

6) Diálogo interreligioso

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El escrito concluye con propósitos para el futuro dedicados, particularmente, a la renovación de la propia tradición intelectual, al desarrollo de un debate global sobre prospectiva de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia y a la intensificación de las relaciones entre MIIC y MEIC.


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A laity movement Josep Maria Carbonell Former President of Pax Romana IMCS/MIEC

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’m really delighted to be with you today, here in Rome, in this meeting, for the celebration of the 60th anniversary of Pax Romana-ICMICA, the professional and intellectual branch of Pax Romana. A few months ago, I was in Paris with Kevin (and also with some friends who I can see now in this meeting in Rome), during the celebration of the 85th anniversary of the students branch of Pax Romana, the IMCS. Yes, we were in Paris with IYCS, with students and professionals, seniors, from all over the world, celebrating the foundation of Pax Romana in 1921. At that meeting in Paris, I spoke about my years at IMCS in a joint presentation with René Remond, an important French historian who took the floor on behalf of the old members of IYCS. My first words are in memory of René Remond who unfortunately died some weeks ago. He represented a generation of big personalities such as Ramon Sugranyes de Franch, Joaquin Ruiz Giménez, our dear friend Morrain, Krishnner, Pelegrí,... Great people, a great generation. In some way, the founders of our movement. They will be for all of us a generation that has given a testimony of life, a testimony of hope, a testimony of a way of living the faith within the society, a way of living the faith within the Church. I’ve been a member of Pax Romana for more than 33 years, and saying that I now realise that I’m 50 years old. This means that more than half of my life has been connected with Pax Romana. Firstly with the students, later with the young professionals and now with the seniors members. As I said in Paris, a few months ago, where we celebrated the 85th anniversary of IMCS, that was a miracle. I want to start by saying the same thing: Yes, celebrating the 60 anniversary of ICMICA is also a miracle. For all those who had known all the difficulties that ICMICA and IYCS have been through for more than 20 years, it’s really a sign of hope that today IMCS and ICMICA are still active. More than that, we are a fact, a Roman Catholic Church reality in more than 50 countries within 5 continents.


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The essential bedrockcs are still the same. The essential intuitions, the essential behaviour remain the same. Which are, in my opinion, the essential elements that have been achieved by Pax Romana during these last years? 1. We have been a Roman Catholic Lay movement and the key word is Lay movement. Perhaps we were the first Lay movement. In fact, we were the founders of the ICO’S. Our charisma was, and is still today, the Lay condition. We are secular people but we are committed people. We are committed to the problems of the world. We have gathered a Lay catholic students, intellectuals and professionals who want to be committed to their societies. 2. But, how do we want to be present? What are the mediations? How do we understand the way of being present within society? Indeed, if we reviewed the last –at least– 40 years, we would be able to see a continuity in our history. In this short history, we must accept that Pax Romana was refounded after the II World War. The quest for peace, the social justice, the contribution of philosophers like Maritain, Mournier, Marcel, politicians like Schuman, De Gasperri, Monet, theologians like Chenú, Congar, Rahner have contributed to building during the 60’s and the 70’s the personalism doctrine which still contains, in my opinion, the essential elements of our commitment and vision. I have talked about the refoundation of Pax Romana during the 50’s. During the 70’s, the other big event was the II Vatican Council. 3. The II Vatican Council is the truthful, essential, central, definitive event that gave us the essential content of our reality as a movement. Yes, the II Vatican Council gave us the best of what we are. I do think that it would be really good to go back to the essential purposes of the II Vatican Council and to re-read those affirmations in the framework of the third millennium and from that, to renew the vision of the future of the movement. 4. Of course, ICMICA has incorporated, since 1980, voices coming from the Third World. The voices and the reality of those groups of the Church which were involved with the strongest realities. For us, the optim for the poor coming from the Theology of Liberation of South America, represents an element of our identity. A way of being part of the Church. A perspective of evangelisation. An orientation for our social justice.


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Also, from the Third World came the reality of new cultural challenges for the catholic faith in societies where other religions are present. In Africa and Asia, where Catholicism is growing, we are tackling the dialogue with other religions and the acculturation in countries where the Catholic western culture is really weak. 5. Now, in this Third Millenium, in the 85th (or 60th anniversary), I would like to suggest some elements for the future: a) Despite not having the strength of past decades, Pax Romana (ICMICA and IMCS) is still one of the most important lay catholic movements of the Roman Catholic Church across the world. They have, indeed, also a very important presence within the United Nations network as a international NGO. We do need to reinforce the capacity of our organisation, the capacity of working together among the different national federations. The globalization obliges us to perform in a more global and effective perspective. We should be more flexible, more audacious. Our background is important enough, we are talented, we have a great capacity to gather students, professionals and intellectuals from all over the world. We need to move closer, to get more capacity of being present in the public sphere, in order to have a voice in our societies. b) I am convinced that we need to reinforce our relationship with IMCS students. In this framework, I ask myself: would this not be a great opportunity to create a joint Secretariat of IMCS and ICMICA? In these difficult moments I think that we should combine our efforts in order to work together. On the other hand, I also feel that we should think of the possibility to establish an alliance with Catholic Universities in order to create a powerful network in different countries. c) Finally, we have been, since our foundation, a lay movement with a clear commitment of evangelization. We are, indeed, a group of laics inside the Catholic Church, with the aim of being a part of it, and also with the aim of being a “frontier� movement, a dialogue movement, and a movement committed to its professional and cultural environment, in order to promote social justice and human rights. I think we should make an enormous effort of interpretation in order to identify this axis of identity within the new international context, and to make


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“public signs” of our Christian belief and our way of understanding the faith. To sum up, we should make an effort to offer, to promote and to visualize our message, our identity, within a world which is too confuse, too complex, and disconcerting. Now more than ever we can be a movement of identity, commitment and hope.

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el giorno del 60º anniversario della sua costituzione, Pax Romana ICMICA è uno dei piú importanti movimenti all’interno della Chiesa Cattolica, attivo in piú di 50 paesi nei 5 continenti. Con i suoi elementi costitutivi di sempre (un movimento “laico” costituito da gente “impegnata”), essa vanta un ruolo specifico nell’ambito delle Nazioni Unite quale ONG internazionale. Alla base del suo impegno vi è la dottrina personalista di filosofi quali Maritain, Mounier, Marcel; di politici come Schuman, De Gasperi, Monet; nonchè di teologi, tra cui Chenu, Congar e Rahner. Fondamentale per il contenuto del movimento sono stati il Concilio Vaticano II e la teologia della liberazione dell’America Latina, che hanno contribuito a dare al movimento una prospettiva di evangelizzazione ed un orientamento verso la giustizia sociale. Tuttavia, non si può omettere che entrambi i rami di Pax Romana (ICMICA e IMCS) hanno riscontrato innumerevoli problemi negli ultimi decenni. Per superare le sfide che il mondo attuale propone il testo parla di un rinnovamento: maggiore flessibilità ed unità interna, più attività nella sfera pubblica, più voce nella società. Si auspica una rilettura degli insegnamenti del Concilio Vaticano II alla luce del terzo millennio. Per raggiungere tale obiettivo é necessario uno sforzo da parte di tutti i suoi membri per promuovere quel messaggio che, in un mondo così confuso, complesso e disorientato, può rappresentare un fondamentale momento di identità, impegno e speranza.

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el 60º aniversario de su constitución, Pax Romana ICMICA es uno de los movimientos más importantes en el interior de la Iglesia católica, está activo en más de 50 países de los cinco continentes. Con sus elementos constitutivos de siempre (movimiento “laico” de gente “implicada”), juega un papel espe-


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cífico dentro de las Naciones Unidas como entre las ONG internacionales. En la base de su implicación se encuentra la doctrina personalista de filósofos como Maritain, Mounier, Marcel; políticos como Schuman, De Gasperi, Monet, y teólogos como Chenu, Congar y Rahner. Fundamentales para el contenido del movimiento han sido el Concilio Vaticano II y la Teología de la Liberación de América Latina, que han contribuido a darle una perspectiva de evangelización y una orientación hacia la justicia social. Sin embargo, no podemos omitir que ambas ramas de Pax Romana (ICMICA e IMCS) se han encontrado con inumerables problemas durante las últimas décadas. Para superar los desafíos que el mundo actual propone, el texto habla de una renovación: mayor flexibilidad y unidad interna, más actividad en la esfera pública, más voz en la sociedad. Auspicia un relectura de las enseñanzas del Concilio Vaticano II a la luz del tercer milenio. Para conseguir tal objetivo es necesario un esfuerzo por parte de todos sus miembros, para así promover un mensaje que, en un mundo tan confuso, complejo y desorientado, pueda representar un momento fundamental de identidad, implicación y esperanza.


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The Needs of Today’s Church & Society Lawrencia Kwark CCFD (Catholic Committee Against hunger and for Development) Asia Desk and former Vice-president of IMCS Pax Romana

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ear Friends, honorable guests and representatives of various movements of Pax Romana, It is a great honor for me to be in this panel to celebrate 60th anniversary of movement, “Pax Romana, Memory and Future”. On this occasion, I would like to thank in a very special way to Mr John Lokenga, President of ICMICA Pax Romana and Paul Ortega, General Secretary of ICMICA Pax Romana, and all other friends & invitees for the invitation extended to me. To start, I would like to quote a sociologist, Mr Maurice Halbwachs who died in the Buchenwald concentration camp, during the Second World War, who said that the act of remembering is not a natural process but an act determined by the social context. It is a process of selection and redefinition of what we want to remember that is influenced by the present needs. So for me, according to Maurice Halbwachs, the meaning of today’s gathering of Pax Romana in Rome is also to determine what are those needs of the Pax Romana today that need to be remembered? To ask ourselves on how we are compelled by the needs of present time and the social context of Church and the World? What are the present needs of Pax Romana MIIC/ICMICA in doing of remembrance in today’s social context of Globalization? But I also want to recognize that the doing memory is an act of celebration. It is a way to celebrate our faith, especially as a lay catholic movement, to celebrate what Pax Romana had been to so many people, to Church and to society in the particular social context of its history and its past, and to remember all those actors who had been engaged with our movement, with a mission to serve Church and Society to become more human. And in this occasion, I also want to remember that our act of celebration and remembrance go to all those who are not here with us, in particular those who have left us including Patricio Rodé, who will be remembered in the life of our movements.


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And this particular celebration of 60th anniversary means in South Korea, a country of my origin, that you have completed one cycle of life so to be reborn in order to have a new cycle of life. So the life after 60th years of its existence is a new beginning and new life. And I found a significance of this Korean tradition in today’s celebration of Pax Romana here in Rome. When we are reflecting about “the Holy See: a face of another globalization”, it is certainly time to think about the new life of Pax Romana, and this could be a process of very careful reflection and selection of its life & memory that will respond to the needs of present time determined by the today’s social context: Globalization. And certainly this effort to celebrate new life of Pax Romana after its 60th anniversary in today’s social context and the act to select its memory within today’s needs will guide us the future. With this brief introduction on how I would like to share my contribution in this panel, I wish to share with you all about what I want to select in its 60th years of Life and its memory of Pax Romana ICMICA. As it was already said, my act of doing this remembrance will be certainly determined by what I perceive as the needs of present time and the challenges posed by the social context of our time : Globalization. As it was said already by previous panelists, Mr. Kevin Ahern, President of IMCS Pax Romana, and Mr. Josep Maria Carbonell, President of the Audiovisual Council of Catalonia, former Vice-President of ICMICA Pax Romana for Europe and former President of IMCS Pax Romana, we have to remember three pillars of contributions that Pax Romana ICMICA made during its life that has been influenced by the needs of Church and Society in its history: 1. to the promotion of Peace and solidarity among people & civilizations especially as an international movement of lay people born in a particular social context after the 2nd World War, Pax Romana has built its 60 years of history with a intuition to contribute for the building of New World, where the culture of Peace and Solidarity will prevail, 2. to the History of Human Rights Development as a unique catholic organization, who played an important role to bring International Standards of Human Rights focused on the Dignity and Rights of every human being at global level such as the UN system and also in different continents, thanks to many key prominent members of Pax Romana, 3. to the Catholic Social Teaching of the Church as a lay movement during the 2nd Vatican Council and its history of development of prophetic voice of Church to take side with poor, in particular in the development of Liberation Theology in LA and in other continents, for which various movements of Pax Romana have actively contributed with


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the value of Solidarity and option for the Poor. Certainly this great tradition and the history of Pax Romana are the memory of its 60 years of life to be remembered and to be celebrated. And this tradition and memory has to continue even though Pax Romana will have a new life. I, as a woman and lay person of movement who come from an Asian reality, working in Europe for an organization of International Solidarity and who has shared a little less than half of 60 years of our movement’s history, I can testimony that certainly these 3 pillars of inspiration and tradition of Pax Romana movements have greatly influenced my identity as a lay person and also as a committed catholic and citizen in the society. I like many other ordinary members of Pax Romana movements who, although they had never played a significant role in any of these 3 pillars (Promotion of Peace and Solidarity in a context of post war, History of Human Rights development in international arena such as UN and the development of Catholic Social Teaching in the History of Catholic Church), have to be remembered also for their invisible contributions in all these areas. Their names are unknown to the historians but to work for the Peace and Solidarity among People had been a major inspiration to so many individual members of Pax Romana movements who are involved in a modest way in all corners of this Globe. This particular inspiration had not been only a guiding value to so many members in last 60 years of history but to so many who live in a new social context of Asia today, where the tolerance and the respect of Others are ignored on daily base, and often in the name of their faith and religion. And this new reality where the religious belonging and identity serve as a ferment of the growing conflicts & violence rather than a value of solidarity and peaceful coexistence is not a new but certainly its intensity and scope have become global phenomena. So in today’s context, where the religious fundamentalism and growing intolerance to others prevail in so many Asian realities as well in other continents, this Act of remembrance of our Memory & the contribution of our movements towards the culture of Peace and Solidarity have a particular meaning and the significance to all of us. The present needs of Asian social context motivate us what should be remembered in our history & tradition, as a movement’s contribution that will shape our future. So there is no need of new tradition to be reinvented for the future of Pax Romana’s movements, but for the today’s Asian reality, certainly we need to make it known & visible this tradition of movements to the realities of Asia and make it accessible to the new generation so our inspiration for the Peace and Solidarity became a reality in Asia today.


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The second area of present needs of social context in Asian realities is certainly the promotion and respect of Human Rights. In Asia, there are still so many groups of human communities such as Minorities, Indigenous populations, Children in difficult situation (street children, working children and trafficked children, etc.), Dalits –people who are known as untouchables living in South Asian countries– and their basic rights are being denied and ignored on daily basis. In most of South Asian countries, where the dignity of human being of more than 300 millions of Dalits is systematically denied and their human personality is totally ignored. Of course, the respect of equal Rights of Women in most of Asian countries where Patriarchal culture prevail, still remains as a major challenge of Human Right community. For all these Human Rights issues, where the role of our movements is crucial and expected, this remembrance of Pax Romana’s memory in the field of Human Rights will help us to shape the future of our movements. The vital force and the power of the contribution made by Pax Romana’s movements towards those HR challenges are certainly not only coming from its advocacy and lobby actions developed at the International level such as the System of United Nations. But more importantly, they are coming from various actions and contributions made by our members who are involved at the very grass root level with the most marginalized and poor. Especially in today’s context of Globalization, the logic for the money prevails instead of the dignity of human person, and in particular the poor; the most important contribution of our movements to the Human Rights community will come from this conviction: that the very concrete solidarity is expressed in our daily life from taking side with the poor, in a spirituality that has shaped the tradition and memory of our movements, “option for the poor”. The principle of our work in Human Rights arena is based on this solidarity for the poor based on social justice and the zeal to restore the dignity of so many who are ignored in today’s context of Globalization, a context where their most important value as human being is forgotten. The third pillar of the memory of Pax Romana movements, is based on our identity as a lay movement who played critical voices within the Church, and our contribution to the Development of Catholic Social Teaching of the Church. And certainly it still remains as one of the major challenge to our movements today. Especially in 2007, a year when we, not only as a family of Pax Romana movements but also as a community of Universal Church, who celebrate the 40th anniversary of Popurolum Progressio, the face of development today in the context of Globalization,


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poses a radical question and doubt to all of us ; how to shape development today that will be centered on Human person and particular on poor? And this preoccupation that our movements shared 40 years ago with Church leaders and intellectuals remain as one of the most urgent needs and challenges of the present time and for the future of Pax Romana. Especially the challenge of Globalization today question the identity of our movement as an international movement, as we all are asking to ourselves on what meaning of internationality we should give to the future of our movements for the huge task of Development in Globalizing world today. How to be global in sharing of responsibilities globally but also locally where the majority of our members are committed in order to meet this huge task whether that is the whole question of sustainable Development, environment, trade, Human Dignity and Rights for all and for all people, Peace and solidarity among nations, etc. But personally, I wish to add few more aspects to the memories of our movements. In addition to all these important pillars of work and contribution that our movements made, I also appreciate our movements as being a space of inter-generational dialogue and solidarity practiced among different generations. Where the different faces of identity of our movements had been important, as an intellectual movement, as a lay movement and also as a professional movement. All these dimensions of the identity of movements had never been a uniform in different countries and among different generations. For some, being an intellectual movement rather than a mass of professionals has been a major task of movement but to others, as a committed lay movement within the Church rather than in the society has been a major mission of the movement. But today, probably in so many countries, to be a good professional movement guided by the spirituality of Option for the poor is almost an impossible task for our movements. And this space of inter-generational dialogue among different experiences of life and praxis of movements has been a very important aspect of the memory of Pax Romana. So for me, it is important to remember that all those contributions of our movements to face the challenges of the time within the Church and the Society throughout the history of our movements were possible because our movements have provided a space to build a movement of inter-generational dialogue, a working method which shaped our tradition and spirituality of movements where different roles played by different generations are recognized and respected. This inter-generational dialogue and solidarity, which has not been always easy and in times, it


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has been a source of tensions and conflicts within the movements, has allowed us to remain as a family of Pax Romana. This role of movement as a space of inter-generational dialogue and solidarity should not just be remembered as the memory of past, but certainly as an urgent need to shape the future of our movements. Last but not the least; I want to share that I also learnt from the life of our movements, what are the challenges of inter-cultural and interreligious dialogue in today’s realities of Church and the Society. In Asia, as I already mentioned above, these challenges are crucial and urgent in building of a more Peaceful society where tolerance, respect of others and solidarity will remain as the values of Asia. Even in the history of our movements, the reality of inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue has not been always easy and even difficult in times. And this task will constitute a major pillar of the work for the future of movements whose identity as an international movement needs to have a new sense and significance. Our movements could be a laboratory where Globalization is not a reality where one cultural model will be imposed on others (whether it is a question of Development, Peace, Democracy and Human Rights), but the concrete life experience as being international movements of inter-religious & inter-cultural and inter-generational dialogue and solidarity could help Church and society to develop a new perspective of being a family and caring humanity in today’s globalizing world. This tradition and treasury of our movements have to be the basis where we build the future of our movements, so the wisdom and re-newred strengths will come from movements life to humanize the Church and the Society in the context of Globalization. Therefore we all know that in one way or the other, our movements have profoundly influenced our ways of being, doing and making choices in our lives. We are no longer the same intellectuals and professionals after we shared the life of our movements and we could not stay as same Catholics & lay people in the Church. We have been influenced and transformed constantly by our movements and this process of conversion is still an on-going process of our strengths & living force to face new realities within the Church and the Society whether that is the Globalization or something else. But all these remembrances of the memory and the tradition of our movements do not mean that we do not see any new challenges for the future of movements. Certainly compared to the early years of the foundation of Pax Romana ICMICA, today, in this Globalized society as well as in the Church, we are no longer the unique international movement


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who live this vocation as an international and lay movement committed to those values that I have already mentioned above. We are probably no longer recognized as the influential movement who state, propose & live and do this prophetic mission within the Church nor in the Society. In fact, despite of so many great contributions that our movements made to the Church and to the Society, Pax Romana has remained an unknown movement, with low visibility who talks to today’s intellectuals and professionals, Church leaders and also to the decision makers of our society. Not only to today’s major stakeholders and role players but also to the new generation who will take the future in their hands. So my question today in this panel, yes, we need to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Pax Romana ICMICA and all its memories with you all here in Rome reflecting on the role of Vatican and the Church in this context of Globalization, but what could be our re-newed life of movements for the future? What specific role Pax Romana could play that will be critical, relevant, prophetic and value-added contribution to the Church and to the Society in this particular social context of Globalization? What our movements can offer to the newly globalized Church and globalizing world? I do not have a clear answer to this important question, as it is not an easy question. But what seem to be clear to me is that we can no longer take it granted even though we have a great history, tradition and memory of our movements. One of the urgent task and present needs rely certainly on our capacity to explicit what has been our history, tradition and memory, make it more visible and accessible to the Church, to the Society and above all to the new Generation. There are certainly more competitions, more offers coming from various church movements and civil society organizations, compared to 60 years ago. Therefore we need to communicate who we are, what do we do and what we have contributed during last 60 years to the Church and to the Society so showing with confidence that we are ready to take up new challenges, in a collective manner as movements, in a respectful way by being and practicing inter-cultural, inter-religious and inter-generational movements within the Church and the society. And this could be a new life after 60 years of glorious life of movements as Pax Romana ICMICA, to become more attractive, proud but relevant in today’s context and capable to re-new life of movement to those future generations within the Church and the Society. I want to express once again my deep gratitude to the movements of Pax Romana and sincere thanks to the organizers of this celebration of


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60th anniversary of Pax Romana ICMICA for the wonderful opportunity given to me to share my small contribution in this panel. Thanks for your attention.

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elebrando il 60° anniversario di Pax Romana ICMICA, l’intervento esamina i tre pilastri che hanno storicamente ispirato il movimento, alla luce delle nuove sfide del mondo globalizzato (e con particolare attenzione alle realtà asiatiche): 1) Promozione della pace e della solidarietà nel contesto post-bellico. Nel contesto di oggi, dove il fondamentalismo religioso e l’intolleranza prevalgono in molte realtà, è fondamentale ricordare il contributo del movimento per la costruzione di una cultura di pace e solidarietà. Di fronte alle sfide attuali, è essenziale coinvolgere le nuove generazioni. 2) Storia dello sviluppo dei diritti umani nella scena internazionale. Per la promozione ed il rispetto dei diritti umani in Asia, il ruolo di Pax Romana è cruciale. I suoi membri operano non solo attraverso attività di advocacy e lobby, ma sono accanto al povero e all’emarginato. Lavorano per le minoranze, le popolazioni indigene, i bambini di strada, i Dalits (i cosiddetti “intoccabili”), i cui diritti fondamentali vengono ignorati e negati quotidianamente. 3) Sviluppo della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa nella storia della Chiesa Cattolica.Il terzo fondamento si basa sull’identità di movimento laico che ha apportato –ed apporta tuttora– un notevole contributo allo sviluppo della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. In un’epoca in cui tutti si domandano come dare un volto umano allo sviluppo, tale tradizione può costituire la base per un rinnovamento che renda Pax Romana un laboratorio in cui la globalizzazione sia sinonimo di solidarietà e di dialogo intergenerazionale, inter-culturale, inter-religioso.

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elebrando el 60° aniversario de Pax Romana ICMICA, el documento examina los tres pilares que han inspirado al movimiento históricamente, a la luz de los nuevos desafíos del mundo globalizado (poniendo particular atención en las realidades asiáticas): 1) Promoción de la paz y la solidaridad en el contexto postbélico. En el contexto


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de hoy, donde el fundamentalismo religioso y la intolerancia prevalecen en muchas realidades, es fundamental recordar la contribución del movimiento para la construcción de una cultura de paz y de solidaridad. Delante de los desafíos actuales, es esencial implicar a las nuevas generaciones. 2) Historia del desarrollo de los derechos humanos en la escena internacional. Para la promoción y el respecto de los derechos humanos en Asia, el papel de Pax Romana es crucial. Sus miembros no solamente operan a través de las actividades de advocacy y lobby, sino que también están al lado del desvalido y del marginado. Trabajan para las minorías, las poblaciones indígenas, los niños de la calle, y los dalits (“los llamados intocables”), cuyos derechos fundamentales vienen ignorados y negados a diario. 3) Desarrollo de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia en la historia de la Iglesia católica. Este tercer pilar se basa en la identidad del movimiento laico que ha aportado –y aporta aún– una notable contribución al desarrollo de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia. En un tiempo en el que todos se preguntan cómo dar un rostro humano al desarrollo, tal tradición puede constituir la base para una renovación que haga de Pax Romana un laboratorio en el cual la globalización sea sinónimo de solidaridad y de diálogo intergeneracional, intercultural e interreligioso.


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El caminar del MIIC en América Latina: entre certezas e interpelaciones. Carmen Lora Editora de la revista Páginas

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l comenzar mi intervención quiero agradecer a la directiva del MIIC esta invitación que me honra y me da la gran alegría de compartir este Panel. Quiero también recordar a amigos entrañables: Buenaventura Pellegrí y Patricio Rodé, compañeros de ruta en el MIIC de América Latina y el Caribe. Y también recordar a Monseñor Oscar Romero que supo jugar un papel central en la vida de su país desde el anuncio del Evangelio, poniendo su capacidad intelectual y de reflexión al servicio de los más pobres, opción que supuso el martirio. Estoy segura que hoy estos amigos están presentes entre nosotros El MIIC en América Latina cobra consistencia como movimiento hacia la segunda mitad de los años 70. Anteriormente había habido contactos más bien esporádicos y personales con el MIIC Internacional. 1. Una primera nota a destacar es que el MIIC nace y bebe de la experiencia de los movimientos de acción católica universitaria tanto del MIEC como de la JEC a los cuales pertenecimos la primera generación que formó el MIIC. Ello aporta como una característica importante del Movimiento la metodología del Ver, Juzgar Actuar como instrumento de formación y maduración en nuestra experiencia de fe, de comunidad y de Iglesia. 2. Una segunda nota, como lo recuerda Mari Carmen Uribe, nuestra primera Secretaria Latinoamericana es que somos una generación marcada por los desafíos que vienen de la irrupción de los pobres en la escena del continente, irrupción en el sentido de hacerse escuchar y tornarse visibles pues su existencia es secular en el continente, pero estuvo como oculta, soterrada. Acontecimientos políticos de la década de los sesenta ocurridos en todo el Continente y el


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Caribe fueron interpelaciones muy importantes a nuestras comunidades universitarias. Encontrábamos una profunda contradicción, hasta hoy presente, entre un continente mayoritariamente católico y una presencia de relaciones de dominación muy estructuralmente arraigadas no sólo en lo económico sino en lo social y lo cultural y por lo tanto en lo político. Esta tensión no sólo interpelaba a nuestros movimientos. La Iglesia en su conjunto lo estaba, y la Conferencia del episcopado Latinoamericano en Medellín es justamente la expresión de una Iglesia que busca estar abierta a los signos de los tiempos para orientar su misión. Esa experiencia universitaria y nuestras primeras prácticas en el ámbito intelectual, profesional y político estuvieron marcadas por una experiencia dura de persecución para muchos de nuestros primeros militantes que fueron asesinados, presos y torturados en Brasil, Argentina y Chile y buena parte de Centro América, se encuentran entre los más golpeados. Fue también frecuente la experiencia del exilio. Es justamente entre un grupo de personas exiliadas acogidas en México y militantes de es país que surge la primera comunidad del MIIC hacia 1975. 3. Esta búsqueda estuvo acompañada en todos esos años de una certeza que expresa una tercera nota del Movimiento: el Mensaje de liberación que anuncia el Evangelio tiene una multidimensionalidad que no se agota en lo político. La comunidad debía trabajar lo que Gustavo Gutiérrez1 que había sido asesor latinoamericano de MIEC, nos recuerda en su primer libro: los diversos niveles de liberación. A la importancia de comprometerse por generar estructuras sociales y económicas más justas, el Mensaje de Jesús nos llama a una liberación humana, a generar formas de vida coherentes con los valores evangélicos y a una liberación del pecado, liberación esta última que es en última instancia expresión gratuita del amor de Dios al enviar a su hijo entre nosotros. Tener presente esta multidimensionalidad no ha sido fácil, pero sí puedo decir que la afirmación de su exigencia ha sido auténtica en nuestras comunidades y creo que es uno de los elementos que debe seguir inspirando al movimiento en su caminar. Un expresión de esta apuesta fue dedicar tiempo y esfuerzos a apoyar a las comuni1

Gutiérrez, G. (1971) Teología de la liberación, Perspectivas, Lima: centro de Estudios y Publicaciones.


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dades que surgían en Cuba, en medio de muchas dificultades pero acompañadas por una Iglesia valiente y perceptiva de lo que constituye su misión en una sociedad con escasos márgenes de acción. El Primer Encuentro de 1979 que coincide con una Asamblea Mundial del MIIC realizada en México marca un momento importante en el sentido de traer a la discusión y reflexión comunitarias la tarea definir con mayor precisión a qué estamos llamados los y las profesionales del movimiento en una realidad como la de América Latina y el Caribe. Siempre siguiendo el método de Ver, Juzgar, Actuar, sentimos que el Señor nos pedía cómo concretar nuestro compromiso de manera coherente. Si bien muchos de los miembros del movimiento encontraron posibilidades en la década de los 80 y 90 de asumir compromisos políticos que daban cuenta de una apuesta por construir la justicia desde diversas inserciones políticas, y que dieron y dan testimonio en ese ámbito, sentíamos que nuestras inserciones profesionales en la empresa privada, en las universidades, en instituciones no gubernamentales podía tener el riesgo de orientar nuestros aportes hacia los sectores que de alguna manera detentaba el poder político y económico de nuestros países. ¿Cómo hacer para poder nuestra formación y aporte al servicio de lo que marcaba nuestra perspectiva como comunidad eclesial: estar marcados por una opción preferencial por los pobres? Esta pregunta introduce una cuarta nota: 4. Mantener vigente otro instrumento que había marcado nuestras vidas: la perspectiva de la educación popular que significó para el sector universitario y profesional de América Latina descubrir que las preguntas fundamentales, las más importantes y las más desafiantes al qué hacer profesional e intelectual provienen en nuestro continente de la vida cotidiana de los pobres., de sus preguntas directas en los múltiples espacios que se generaron desde el trabajo pastoral y desde la educación en el ámbito no gubernamental, pero también de los diversos movimientos populares que surgieron durante esos años en toda América latina, con los rostros diversos que ya la Conferencia de Puebla anunció pero que siguieron diversificándose: las mujeres, los pueblos originarios, la viven afroamericana, los jóvenes y hasta en algunos casos los enfermos de tuberculosis o de sida. ¿Cómo creamos condiciones de escucha para aprender de la experiencia de esas personas que tienen que garantizar día a día el sustento de sus vidas? ¿Y qué


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repuesta da nuestro conocimiento, nuestros análisis a esas situaciones tan concretas y dolientes, y también tan portadoras de dinamismo y esperanza? No perder de vista como interlocutor central de nuestro quehacer profesional e intelectual a ese pueblo que vive en pobreza pero que tiene mucho que decirnos y enseñarnos, ha sido un derrotero central, lo es ahora y deberá serlo en el futuro del movimiento. 5. El fin de siglo trajo consigo un cambio epocal que tuvo repercusiones muy complejas y contradictorias en nuestro continente. El gran poder económico impuso formas de pensar e interpretar la realidad que han hecho carne en grandes sectores de la población que hoy consideran que las salidas colectivas no van más y que es necesario pelear en el presente la posibilidad individual de salir adelante. No es posible en este estrecho tiempo ni es materia de esta exposición detenerme sobre las características de este cambio de época. Sólo señalar que para las comunidades del MIIC en América Latina ello exige explorar nuevos caminos: 1) Seguir apostando a generar espacios de pertenencia, probablemente más móviles y flexibles que antes, que permitan acoger, contener y acompañar la experiencia de vida de de profesionales que hoy tienen identidades y trayectorias más diversas y en un contexto de globalización que se inserta en la propia identidad personal, en eso que Alberto Melucci llamó el planeta interno.2 En este campo, nuestra experiencia comunitaria está desafiada a comunicar la Buena Nueva en la trama de relaciones humanas que son cada vez más delgadas –o líquidas en palabras de Zygmunt Bauman3– y que cuestionan profundamente la vigencia de las formas de relación de la época anterior en la que aprendimos a vivir en comunidad, y en la que muchas formas de vida social se fueron forjando. Quiero poner sólo un ejemplo: la familia, institución básica y central en nuestra América Latina y Caribe y que ha sufrido modificaciones radicales ¿Cómo tender puentes de comunicación, interpelantes y aco-

2

Melucci, A. (1996) The inner planet en The Playing self. Person and meaning in the planetary society, Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press, pp. 57-70.

3

Bauman, Z. (2006) Vida líquida, Barcelona: Paidós.


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gedores a la vez, con esas nuevas formas de vida familiar. En ello está el desafío más cercano: nuestras propias familias y las que nuestros hijos están formando. 2) Otro de los rasgos del cambio de época es la enorme importancia que adquiere el conocimiento como arma de poder. América Latina, y en particular la región andina, ha perdido mucho terreno en este ámbito. Los intelectuales y profesionales que integramos el MIIC nos sentimos interpelados a contribuir a recuperar el terreno perdido y este debe ser un rasgo fundamental en la tarea del movimiento hacia el futuro. Conectarnos al conocimiento de punta para, a su vez, vincularlo a las posibilidades de contribuir a propuestas que mantengan una enfoque humano en la construcción de la sociedad, poniendo la economía al servicio de las personas y no al revés. ¿Cómo generar posibilidades de futuro en nuestros propios países que no expulse a nuestra juventud como hoy lo hace? Hoy esta pista tiene formas de concreción variadas, ya no sólo se juega en el ámbito de la política partidaria, sino en el de los espacios técnicos que trabajan políticas públicas y también en el terreno comunicacional. 3) Hoy el movimiento está desafiado a dar cuenta de su esperanza en una sociedad cada vez más descreída y cínica en su manera de operar. El Evangelio nos enseña que la esperanza cristiana no es una actitud pasiva. Siguiendo el camino de Jesús, estamos llamados a construir la esperanza en que otro mundo es posible. Para ello es necesario estar alerta quizás ya no como en el pasado al tronar de movimientos populares fuertes, sino a la suave brisa que como en la experiencia de Elías reveló a Yahvé. Hoy debemos estar atentos y atentas a pequeños signos que como esa suave brisa, puedan orientar nuestro caminar como comunidad en medio de un pueblo lleno de riquezas pero que vive hoy una enorme desigualdad y aislamiento que puede destinarlo a una suerte de no viabilidad, o de continente muerto. Es un gran desafío para el MIIC de América Latina y el Caribe, pero también lo es para la Iglesia por ser el continente con una población católica y cristiana tan significativa.


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his paper analyzes the development of Pax Romana-ICMICA (MIIC) in Latin America. MIIC started to be a movement in Latin America around the second half of the 1970s. In the beginning it was formed by a generation which testifies on behalf of the poor. Because of these ideals, it is persecuted, murdered, tortured or exiled. The first community of the MIIC arose among a group of people exiled in Mexico around 1975. Four years later, during the first Latin American meeting and the World Assembly of MIIC, they clarified their assignments and the goals of the professionals of the movement. In the 1980s and 1990s some of the members faced the big challenge, not to be influenced by the political or economic power. The challenge of how to maintain “the preferential option for the poors”? For them, they looked to popular education as a way to overcome this challenge. We must never lose sight that the central interlocutor of the professional work of the movement are people living in poverty. The present moment, is a time of radical change that brings complex challenges in the continent and forces the movement to explore new courses. The challenge that the MIIC faces today is to address the people “full of wealths but living in a huge inequality and isolation”.

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’intervento analizza lo sviluppo di Pax Romana MIIC (ICMICA) in America Latina. Inizia ad essere un movimento verso la seconda metà degli anni ‘70. Al principio è composto da una generazione che è stata testimone dell’irruzione dei poveri sulla scena del continente e che ha subito persecuzioni, è stata assassinata, torturata o esiliata a causa dei propri ideali. La prima comunità del MIIC sorge proprio tra un gruppo di persone in esilio in Messico, intorno al 1975. Gli incarichi e gli obiettivi degli esperti del movimento vengono definiti solo quattro anni più tardi, durante il Primo Incontro e l’Assemblea Mondiale del MIIC. Negli anni ‘80 e ‘90 alcuni membri si sono trovati ad affrontare una grande sfida: quella di non lasciarsi influenzare dal potere politico od economico. Come mantenere allora “l’opzione preferenziale per i poveri”? Attraverso l’educazione popolare è la risposta suggerita dal testo. Non si deve mai perdere di vista l’interlocutore centrale del lavoro professionale del movimento: il popolo che vive in miseria. L’intervento considera la fine del secolo come un cambio epocale che ha portato ripercussioni complesse nel continente ed ha costretto il movimento ad esplorare nuovi percorsi. La sfida che affronta oggi il MIIC è quella di dedicarsi a questo popolo “pieno di ricchezze ma che vive in un’enorme disuguaglianza ed isolamento”.


Holy Mass and presentation of the new statues


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Holy Mass of the 60th Anniversary Josef Clemens Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Laity

Welcome

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ear brothers in the priesthood! Dear brothers and sisters in Christ! I am very happy to be able to celebrate this morning this Holy Mass of thanksgiving for the 60th anniversary of the Foundation of the International Movement of Catholic Intellectuals, MIIC-Pax Romana. I send you greetings on behalf of our President, Archbishop Stanislaw Rylko and our undersecretary Professor Guzmán Carriquiry, who are at this moment in Aparecida, Brazil for the V Conference of Bishops of Latin America and the Caribbean, and from all of the staff of the Pontifical Council for the Laity. All of us would like to express our best wishes with the classic formula of congratulation in Latin: “Pax Romana-vivat-crescat-floreat-ad multos annos, feliciter!” On a personal note: Pax Romana was the first Catholic International Organization that I came across –more than thirty years ago– while doing research in my doctoral thesis in moral theology on the foundation of human rights, due to the fact that Pax Romana had organized in the sixties an international congress on this theme.

Homily Dear brothers in the priesthood! Dear brothers and sisters in Christ! The profound significance of today’s Gospel with the words of Jesus’ priestly prayer from the 17th chapter of John, offers us a vivid reflection that we cannot pass over. The Lord’s solemn spiritual testimony that culminates in his prayer for unity enables us to understand the importance, also the indispensableness of this characteristic of the Church.


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The Pope at the service of Unity The Pontifical approval of lay associations, ecclesial movements, and new communities, expresses and reinforces their union with the chair of Peter and links their members in a special way to the successor of Peter. The Holy Father’s concern for the unity of the Church touches a dimension of primary importance and on behalf of the Pope, our Pontifical Council for the Laity concerns itself with the lay associations within the Church. Even the place of our celebration today, the Basilica of St. Peter, which is constructed upon the tomb of the prince of the apostles, expresses our link with St. Peter and his successor. One of the classic descriptions of the duties of the Pope as universal pastor of the Church, places, after the pastoral care of the flock of God, the task of fostering unity among the community of believers. In fact, the “triplex munus petrinum” defines the obligations of the Pope with these three imperatives: 1) “pascere agnos, pascere oves”, 2) “ut omnes unum sint”, and 3) “confirma fides” or in Lord’s words to St. Peter: “Feed my sheep”(Jn. 21: 15,17); or or the gospel of Luke, “strengthen your brothers in their faith” (Lk. 22:32). The second element of the triple mandate entrusted to Peter and his successors is taken from the priestly prayer of Jesus in the gospel of John: “that they may all be one” (Jn. 17:21), as we previously mentioned. What does this tell us about unity? What does it specifically tell us, members of Pax Romana and friends of the ecclesial associations? The unity in the preaching of the “word” In these six gospel verses, Jesus repeats three times his great desire for unity. The first time he says: “I pray not only for them, but also for those who will believe in me through their word, so that they may all be one” (Jn. 17:20). In these words, the Lord prays for the unity between the believers of the first and second generation, who are the “fruit” of the preaching of his disciples (cfr. Jn. 17:20). This preaching must be a continuation of all that Jesus had taught them; he is and must remain, the only point of reference for them. In this way, we can speak of the necessity of a “material” unity with Jesus’ teaching. These words allow us to understand that it is here where a


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split or division could arise if there should be introduced or taught another “new” doctrine, as has happened many times throughout the Church’s history, and has consequently created division. In this sense, introducing a totally “new beginning” or a “new revelation” would inevitably signify a rupture with the will of Jesus, and subsequently, an interruption with the “apostolic tradition”. Unity as the condition for the credibility of the Christian message The second time Jesus mentions unity, he considers it a condition for the credibility of the nucleus of the gospel message. “So that they may all be one, as you, Father, are in me and I in you, that they also may be in us, that the world may believe that you sent me” (Jn. 17:2223). The unity of the disciples is rooted in the union of the divine persons. Because of this, it is not the result of a human effort, but rather, receives its strength and consistency from above. This profound unity that is rooted in God facilitates one’s assent in believing in the Son of God, because the unity of the community is sustained by and reflected in the unity between the one who sends and the one who is sent. Unity rooted in the union between the Father and the Son and their love The third time, the Lord prays: “I have given them the glory you gave me, so that they may be one, as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may be brought to perfection as one, that the world may know that you sent me, and that you loved them even as you loved me” (Jn. 17: 22-23). Here the Lord points out another aspect of the foundation of unity –the communication of the divine glory and the love of the Son to his disciples. At the same time, he points out the very measure of unity –the unity of the Father and the Son, the oneness of this reciprocal love and the love of the Father of the disciples of the Son. Here, we can speak of an “existential” unity between Jesus and the Father. In summary, today’s gospel presents unity as: 1) a fruit of fidelity to Christ’s preaching in the apostolic tradition, as 2) a condition for the credibility of Jesus’ preaching as Son of God, and 3) as the foundation of unity in the love of the Father.


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The testimony of unity in the love for our neighbor Among the goals and objectives of Pax Romana listed in the Directory of International Associations of the Faithful we find, “to collaborate in the Church’s work of evangelization through the testimony and practice of the Gospel values”. Jesus’ priestly prayer helps us to understand that the community of Jesus’ disciples is by its very nature a missionary community. It is a community that evangelizes by means of the “word”, that is, by a “correct preaching” (catechism, formation), but also by a “correct practice” (bearing witness). In his prayer to the Father, Jesus has before his eyes the great community of believers of future times, and sees the risk of possible divisions and factions. Jesus knows the weakness of man and also the effort of the devil who seeks to divide and to scatter. Here we are reminded of the parable of the Good Shepherd where the wolf catches and scatters them (cfr. Jn. 10:1-21, 13). Just as unity is a sign of the work of God, so division is a sign of the work of the devil. Jesus also reminds us that unity is the condition and the method that assures the fruitfulness of our missionary efforts. Especially in a world that is filled with so many divisions, the unity of the disciples of Christ can help people “to believe” as it makes Christ near and contemporary to each man and woman who seeks the path of life. In this sense, the unity of the disciples of Christ is not an “external element” that merely facilitates organization within the Church, or an attractive feature. Rather, it is the indispensable gift that enables them to accomplish their mission of bearing witness that Jesus has been sent by the Father, that is, that he is the Son of God. In other words, unity is not “optional” but essential! Consequently, unity is not only “essential” within your community, but also, with the local Church community as well as for the universal Church. We live in a world that provides us with an unlimited market of ideas and philosophies –a pluralism of “Weltanschauungen”. We live in a world that tends to be ever more uniform and organized with regards to its exterior aspect, but with regards to its interior aspect, it is ever more divided. On the international level, there are more and more factions when it comes to agreeing about those values which form the foundation of a peaceful coexistence. The Church is called by the Lord to differentiate itself from this market of ideas by the following characteristics: unity in its teaching, in its


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common testimony, and in particularly, in love for ones neighbor. According to the very prayer of Jesus, none of these elements can be missing if we want to be “his” community and remain faithful to his word. Pax Romana has been very engaged in, and continues to be today, working for justice and defending human rights, which are signs of the love of Christ towards the weak and marginalized. Your efforts are inspired by the Lord’s example and are a continuation of his work. In this sense, you are also a sign of the unity of the Church, which is rooted in the love of the divine persons and you take your strength and example from this love of God. • Let us pray in this holy celebration for the unity of the one Church Christ. • Let us pray for the Holy Father who has been entrusted the task of united all of the faithful in the one body of Christ. • Let us pray for all of those members of your Movement, that they may participate in the building of unity on the one body as collaborators in the universal apostolic ministry of the Holy Father, opening the doors to Christ. • Let us pray for all Christians, that they may find in prayer and the word of Jesus the indications that are needed in order to fulfill the will of the Lord: “that they may all be one”. Amen.


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Ceremony of presenting the Decree of approval by the Holy See of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC´s reformed Statutes Josef Clemens Secretary of Pontifical Council for Laity

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ari amici di Pax Romana, ieri ho avuto la gioia di celebrare la S. Messa nella Cappella del Coro della Basilica di San Pietro per tutti voi, membri del Movimento Internazionale d’Intellettuali Cattolici, branca dei laureati di Pax Romana, che siete convenuti in questi giorni a Roma a motivo del 60° anniversario della fondazione del vostro Movimento, avvenuta proprio in questa stessa città, l’11 aprile 1947. Oggi ho il piacere d’incontrarvi di nuovo in Vaticano. Questa volta è nella sede del Pontificio Consiglio per i Laici. Desidero porgervi, innanzi tutto, un cordiale benvenuto a questa che, lo sapete bene, è sempre la vostra casa. L’incontro di oggi ha lo scopo di procedere alla lettura e consegnarvi il decreto che approva lo Statuto modificato dell’associazione. A nome dei Superiori di questo Dicastero della Curia Romana sono a manifestarVi la nostra soddisfazione per essere arrivati alla felice conclusione di questo lavoro che ha impegnato tante buone energie, al fine di adattare la normativa particolare della vostra associazione al diritto universale della Chiesa. Vorrei sottolineare che l’aggiornamento del vostro Statuto, come pure degli Statuti di altre entità cattoliche che è tuttora in corso, ha lo scopo essenziale di far diventare questa norma giuridica un valido strumento adatto alle necessità attuali e future della vostra associazione, che da sessant’anni opera efficacemente per il dialogo tra la fede cristiana e la cultura, in vista dell’evangelizzazione, nonché per l’inculturazione del Vangelo di Gesù Cristo nel mondo del lavoro intellettuale, nella famiglia e, in genere, nell’intera società. Tutti noi siamo ben consapevoli che il processo di riforma degli Statuti che oggi si conclude formalmente è stata una preziosa opportunità per


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allacciare ancora di più i rapporti tra il Pontificio Consiglio per i Laici e il Movimento Internazionale d’Intellettuali Cattolici. Per questo motivo ringraziamo il Signore e, da parte del nostro Dicastero, vi ringrazio ancora una volta. Mentre Vi auguro che continuiate a portare copiosi frutti di santità e di servizio alia Chiesa, rinnovo i nostri più fervidi auguri per i sessant’anni di vita della vostra associazione.


Study session


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La Santa Sede, una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione… Antoine Sondag Cappellano Internazionale di Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC

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a globalizzazione è un processo senza un leader, guidato solamente dagli imperativi della tecnologia, dell’economia o, peggio ancora, della finanza. L’utilitarismo è divenuto un re. Da lungo tempo ormai questa è una realtà. In molti hanno espresso il desiderio di avere una globalizzazione della solidarietà, complementare e correttiva rispetto alla globalizzazione di tipo economico-finanziaria. Altri ancora hanno fortemente richiesto forme di regolamentazione più efficaci per questa cieca globalizzazione in atto. A tal fine sono state proposte diverse possibili soluzioni: il rafforzamento delle Istituzioni Internazionali già esistenti; la creazione di nuove; il consolidamento dell’influenza della società civile, al fine di stabilire un maggiore equilibrio rispetto all’enorme potere delle imprese multinazionali; il rispetto per la diversità culturale e/o linguistica, per evitare l’omogeneizzazione delle culture; etc. In questo mondo non è facile sviluppare una visione o proporre idee di cambiamento. Di conseguenza, c’è bisogno di fermarsi un attimo ad osservare e stilare una lista delle priorità. Non è affatto inutile fare una pausa di riflessione per esaminare dettagliatamente una delle più antiche istituzioni del nostro mondo globalizzato: la Chiesa Cattolica. Tale Chiesa risulta globale nei suoi principi sin dalle sue origini. Per fornire una piccola dimostrazione, la Chiesa è riuscita a raggiungere molti angoli del pianeta senza attendere la rivoluzione tecnologica o l’abbassamento del costo dei trasporti. A dir la verità la Chiesa Cattolica ha iniziato a trasformarsi in una chiesa mondiale verso il 1965, in concomitanza con la fine del Concilio Vaticano II. Quello rappresentò un momento cruciale per la Chiesa Cattolica anche da un punto di vista demografico, dal momento che il numero dei cattolici che vivevano nei paesi poveri –come l’America Latina, l’Africa e l’Asia– hanno superato quelli che vivevano in Europa ed in Nord America. Una rivoluzione silenziosa, appena notata, che, a partire dal Concilio


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Vaticano II, gettò le fondamenta teoretiche del processo di “de-occidentalizzazione” della Chiesa. La Chiesa Cattolica intrattiene relazioni diplomatiche con 177 Stati o Istituzioni Internazionali, dall’Albania sino allo Zimbabwe, includendo il Giappone e l’Unione Europea. Prima del pontificato di Giovanni Paolo II, tale numero di Stati non superava il 91. Inoltre, la Santa Sede costituisce l’unico Osservatore Permanente presso le Nazioni Unite dopo che la Svizzera ha deciso di divenirne membro. Ma qual è esattamente il potere di questo strano “osservatore” attivo nella scena internazionale? Con i suoi edifici storici ed antichi, le tradizioni ed istituzioni, così come le basiliche, i musei, le biblioteche, gli archivi segreti o non, i suoi (meravigliosi) giardini, l’Esercito Svizzero Pontificio… corriamo il rischio di vedere la Santa Sede solamente come una testimonianza di un glorioso passato. Spesso dimentichiamo che la Santa Sede costituisce anche un’anticipazione di un futuro diverso. E’ un modello di un soft power come menzionato dal politologo americano J. Nye? Soft power? Cosa possono fare le armi nucleari e le divisioni corazzate contro il terrorismo? Questo è il motivo per cui Nye parla di “potere flessibile” come della capacità di raggiungere gli obiettivi usando le armi della persuasione, attrazione, impressione, piuttosto che quelle della forza e della costrizione. Grazie a questa capacità di influenzare, anziché usare la forza, oggi siamo in grado di avere un contrappeso al potere economico e politico. La Santa Sede rappresenta l’incarnazione migliore di questa nuova forma di influenza adottata dal mondo post-moderno. Tutto ciò dimostra, inoltre, che l’antico potere basato sulla forza e le armi ha i suoi limiti, ed è proprio lì che emergono i nuovi poteri intellettuali, culturali o spirituali. La Santa Sede ha la capacità di gestire simboli più di chiunque altro. Le Congregazioni della Dottrina della Fede, per il culto divino e la disciplina dei sacramenti, per la causa dei santi… Non si dovrebbe sottovalutare il potere dei simboli nel mondo attuale, specialmente nell’era dei media globali. Per i Cristiani i simboli non costituiscono dettagli superficiali, essi ci permettono altresì di instaurare legami con il mondo reale, tra uomo e uomo e tra uomo e Dio. Simboli: non costituiscono l’opposto della realtà. L’illusione rappresenta l’opposto della realtà, ma la realtà cammina mano nella mano con il simbolo per gli esseri umani, esseri di parole, simboli che noi siamo. La capacità di innovazione della Santa Sede ci viene illustrata dalla creazione dei Pontifici Consigli, istituiti all’indomani del Concilio Vaticano II: il Pontificio Consiglio per i Laici, per la Promozione


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dell’Unità dei Cristiani, della Cultura, per il Dialogo Inter-Religioso, della Giustizia e della Pace… Da alcune decadi, la Santa Sede è divenuta uno dei più attivi sostenitori-difensori dei Diritti Umani. Tuttavia, qual è l’impatto con la realtà presente, a Ginevra per esempio, dove il Consiglio per i Diritti Umani delle Nazioni Unite tiene le sue sessioni? Che tipo di riconoscimento è dato dagli esperti che si occupano della tutela dei diritti umani, dai giuristi, o dalle ONG specializzate? Non dovremmo limitarci a parlare della Santa Sede solamente come un’immagine erronea della Roma Cattolica. Sarebbe necessario citare anche le Università, le Sedi Superiori degli ordini religiosi, etc…. Si possono forse ignorare i Gesuiti, i Domenicani, i Salesiani, i Francescani, ed anche Sant’Egidio e… molti altri? E noi, che siamo un’associazione interna alla chiesa, anche se abbiamo il nostro Segretariato Internazionale a Ginevra (la Roma Protestante), non dovremmo dimenticare che Roma è altresì la sede centrale di alcune grandi associazioni –come la Caritas Internationalis– ed il luogo di lavoro dei giornalisti, i ben noti Vaticanisti… Qual è il legame tra la Santa Sede e le Associazioni Cattoliche? Questa costituisce una domanda che appartiene a Pax Romana da quando siamo un’associazione all’interno della chiesa. E potremmo forse dimenticarci che Roma costituisce anche la sede centrale di altre Istituzioni italiane? Ed anche della FAO? È richiesta molta creatività per stabilire un vincolo sofisticato e sottile quale è quello che lega l’Italia ed il Vaticano (incomprensibile a tutti tranne che ad un italiano, a mio avviso) Per evitare l’obiezione di aver dimenticato una persona o un’istituzione, è necessario dare uno sguardo al sito web del Vaticano: www.vatican.va. Lì è possibile trovare quasi tutto, ed è consultato quotidianamente da circa 500.000 visitatori, in una delle sue sei lingue. Il Vaticano: tradizione e modernità; un centro spirituale costruito sulla tomba dell’apostolo S. Pietro; due mila anni di storia frenetica… tutto questo e molto di più. Con le sue profonde radici da preservare, la Santa Sede si lascia sedurre dai miraggi della modernità; è effettivamente antica, ma potrebbe adattarsi all’età post-moderna meglio dei nostri Stati, che pretendono di essere moderni. La Santa Sede, un faccia di un’altra globalizzazione?


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his paper is a prayer which examines “one of the oldest globalized institutions in the world”: the Catholic Church. The phenomenon of globalization is a process without any leader, guided only by the power of technology, economy, finance, and utilitarianism. In such a world, the Holy See can represent a face of another globalization. The paper illustrates the unique contribution of the Church: it has been global in its principles since its origins. From the political point of view, the Holy See maintains diplomatic relationships with 177 States or International Institutions, being the only Observer State within the United Nations. From the cultural and artistic point of view, its heritage is remarkable, as it is rich of buildings, churches, basilics, museums, libraries, etc. From the social point of view, the Holy See has become, over the past recent decades, one of the most active defenders of Human Rights. Furthermore, the creation of the Pontifical Councils demonstrates its ability to innovate itself. The Church represents therefore a model of “soft power”: it can achieve its goals by using the weapons of persuasion, attraction, impression, rather than the ones of the force and constraint. The Holy See is indeed ancient, but it might be more modern than some States which pretend to be modern.

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l documento es una plegaria que examina una de las más antiguas instituciones del mundo: la Iglesia católica. El fenómeno de la globalización es un proceso sin líder, se guía solamente por los imperativos de la tecnología, de la economía, de las finanzas, del utilitarismo. En un mundo así, la Santa Sede puede representar la cara de otra globalización. El texto ilustra algunas peculiaridades de la Iglesia, que resulta global en sus principios y orígenes. Desde el punto de vista político, la Santa Sede mantiene relaciones diplomáticas con 177 estados o instituciones internacionales, constituyendo el único Observador Permanente en las Naciones Unidas. Desde el punto de vista cultural y artístico, el patrimonio es notable, puesto que es rica en edificios, iglesias, basílicas, museos, bibliotecas. Desde el punto de vista social, la Santa Sede se ha convertido, desde hace algunas décadas, en uno de los más activos defensores de los derechos humanos. Además, la creación de los Consejos Pontificios demuestra su capacidad para alcanzar objetivos usando las armas de la persuasión, atracción, más que la fuerza de la constricción. La Santa Sede es efectivamente antigua, pero podría ser que fuera más moderna de lo que algunos estados que pretenden ser modernos son.


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Verso una nuova “cattolicità”: essere Chiesa in un mondo globalizzato Salvador Pié-Ninot Pontificia Università Gregoriana (Roma) / Facoltà di Teologia della Catalogna (Barcellona)

1. La missione e diaconia della Chiesa nel mondo

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a missione della Chiesa è la radice “ontologica” del suo essere, di modo che la missione dà senso alle dimensioni di comunità e di società che è la Chiesa nel mondo. La chiave di questa impostazione diaconale si trova nella seguente affermazione conciliare: “tutto ciò che di bene il popolo di Dio può offrire all’umana famiglia, scaturisce dal fatto che la chiesa è l’“universale sacramento della salvezza” (GS 45, con citazione di LG 48). Ecco, quindi, l’asse ecclesiologico della missione e diaconia della Chiesa nel mondo in chiave innovativa per il suo riferimento alla Chiesa come ‘sacramento’ che il Vaticano II ha messo in rilievo in modo particolare con la Costituzione Pastorale Gaudium et Spes sulla Chiesa nel mondo contemporaneo. Si tratta della comprensione della Chiesa come “la forma storica, sociale, visibile e pubblica, che prende la volontà divina di salvezza totale. Questo carattere proviene, per la Chiesa, da Cristo, in quanto egli è il principio, il centro e il fine dell’universo e della storia umana”.1 Di fatto, il testo iniziale di questa Costituzione Pastorale contiene già in sé tutto un programma nell’affermare il carattere amichevole del dialogo della Chiesa con il mondo attuale, con questa, che è una delle più belle formulazioni conciliari: “le gioie e le speranze, le tristezze e le angosce degli uomini d’oggi, dei poveri e di tutti coloro che soffrono, sono pure le gioie e le speranze, le tristezze e le angosce dei discepoli di Cristo, e nulla vi è di genuinamente umano che non trovi eco nel loro cuore” (GS 1). Inoltre, il legame di questa Costituzione con la LG risulta

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Y. Congar, GS 45: Cristo, Alfa e Omega; Y. Congar/M. Peuchmaurd (eds.), La chiesa del mondo di oggi II; S. Pié-Ninot, IntrodEccle, 117-127 (La Chiesa radicata nella missione), e Misión, DicEcle, 724-730.


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molto chiaro quando poco avanti essa afferma che il Concilio è giunto a formulare questa Costituzione Pastorale “dopo aver penetrato più a fondo il mistero della Chiesa” (GS 2). Così, dunque, la missione e diaconia della Chiesa nel mondo ha le sue radici nella sua realtà di “sacramento universale della salvezza” (LG 48, citato in GS 45), che ha sviluppato nel corso della sua storia e che il Concilio Vaticano II ha voluto aggiornare (l’aggiornamento di Giovanni XXIII). A. La triplice dimensione teologica della Missione della Chiesa La LG presenta il tema della missione della Chiesa in modo piuttosto austero nel contesto della universalità del Popolo di Dio (cf. LG 13-17), e alla conclusione si presenta il testo più significativo di questa Costituzione sulle tre dimensioni teologiche della missione della Chiesa, che richiamano la relazione classica tra il dono di Dio della grazia (sanans, elevans, consumans), e la natura umana. In effetti questo testo parte dal mandato missionario di Mt 28,18-20, che deve arrivare “fino ai confini della terra” (At 1,8) e dall’urgenza di questo mandato (“Guai a me, se non annunzio il Vangelo!”: 1 Cor 9,16), per concludere con termini che propongono l’obiettivo specifico di questa missione, e cioè: “mandare senza sosta araldi del Vangelo, fino a quando non siano pienamente costituite le nuove chiese, e queste non siano in condizione di continuare, a loro volta, l’opera dell’evangelizzazione” (LG 17). Inoltre, l’Evangelizzazione insieme al verbo evangelizzare usati scarsamente in LG (8.17.27.35), viene preziosamente decritta mediante la triplice dimensione nella quale opera il dono di Dio della grazia “perché ogni germe di bene che si trova nel cuore e nella mente degli uomini o nei riti e nelle culture proprie dei popoli, non solo non vada perduto...” (LG 17). È qui che viene presentata questa triplice dimensione teologica della Evangelizzazione radicata nel dono di Dio ed espressa come: 1) dimensione di “purificazione” e “liberazione” (“sanetur”: gratia sanans); 2) dimensione di “elevazione” e “maturazione” (“elevetur”: gratia elevans); 3) dimensione di “perfezione” e “pienezza” (“consummetur”: gratia consumans). In questo modo (LG 17, e nei tre verbi paralleli di LG 13: purificat, roborat et elevat), si raccoglie la tradizione teologica sulle relazioni tra natura e grazia, tra creazione e redenzione, nella quale il dono di Dio


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assume la triplice dimensione di “purificare” (la gratia sanans di Agostino), “elevare”, e “portare a compimento” (la gratia elevans e consumans della teologia scolastica del s. XIII).2 La chiave cristologica di questo orientamento si manifesta nel testo citato di GS 45 dove si afferma con una formulazione storico-antropologica felice, che “il Signore è il fine della storia umana, il punto focale dei desideri della storia e della civiltà, il centro del genere umano, la gioia di ogni cuore, la pienezza delle loro aspirazioni”. Già all’interno del Vaticano II, il tema specifico della missione della Chiesa, come anche il tema della diaconia della Chiesa nel mondo, trovarono ciascuno uno spazio proprio. Così, il primo tema venne impostato brevemente in LG 17, ed è stato sviluppato nel “Decreto sull’attività missionaria della Chiesa”, l’AG. Da parte sua, il tema della missione o diaconia della Chiesa nel mondo ha trovato il suo luogo proprio ed ampio in una specifica “Costituzione pastorale sulla Chiesa nel mondo contemporaneo”, la GS, nella quale risuonano motivi già abbozzati nel cap. IV della LG dedicato ai laici. B. La missione della chiesa secondo la “Gaudium et spes”: il “cordiale” dialogo con il mondo: In modo del tutto nuovo, viene usata la qualificazione di Costituzione Pastorale per la Gaudium et spes, con la seguente spiegazione: “Viene detta ‘pastorale’ appunto perché sulla base di principi dottrinali intende esporre l’atteggiamento della Chiesa in rapporto al mondo e gli uomini di oggi. Pertanto, né alla prima parte manca l’intenzione pastorale, né alla seconda l’intenzione dottrinale” (nota iniziale, n° 1).3 La novità teologica più rilevante, e nel contempo unica in tutto il Vaticano II, è la “sintesi cristologica della antropologia” presente in GS 22, che è il punto di partenza teologico della missione della Chiesa nel mondo, poiché “in realtà solamente nel mistero del Verbo incarnato

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Cf. M. Schmaus, Dogmatica cattolica, Milano, 1959-1966, vol. V, § 201; § 203; P. Fransen, “Il nuovo essere dell’uomo in Cristo”: MyS 9, 409-488 (428): “pertanto, nell’efficacia della presenza divina della grazia, si possono distinguere due aspetti: la ‘grazia di santificazione’ e la grazia di ‘elevazione’.

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Cf. K. Rahner, “La problematica teologica di una costituzione pastorale”, in La Chiesa nel mondo contemporaneo. Commento alla costituzione pastorale “Gaudium et spes”, Brescia 1967, 61-83; cf. S. Madrigal, “Las relaciones Iglesia-mundo según el Concilio Vaticano II”, in G. Uribarri [Ed.], Teología y nueva evangelización, Madrid, 2005, pp 13-95, e J. Joblin, “L’Église dans le monde. Actualité de la constitution pastorale GS”: Gregorianum 87 (2006) 580-596.


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trova vera luce il mistero dell’uomo” (nonnisi in mysterio Verbi incarnati, mysterium hominis vere clarescit), perché “con l’incarnazione, il Figlio di Dio si è unito incerto modo (quodammodo) ad ogni uomo” (GS 22). Si tratta di trovare una idea di umanità (“Humanitas-Idee”: J. Ratzinger) che sia la base del dialogo con i non credenti, per cui non è strano che diventasse “centro di gravitazione del magistero di Giovanni Paolo II”.4 Con riferimento al punto di partenza ecclesiologico-storico, la GS apporta una formula propria, quale è la “giusta” autonomia del mondo. Si tratta, in effetti, di una delle affermazioni centrali del concilio sulla comprensione del mondo in chiave di “giusta autonomia”, che supera, così, le affermazioni diffuse nella storia della Chiesa sulla potestà del potere spirituale su quello temporale, vuoi in modo “diretto” (secoli XII-XIV...), vuoi in modo “indiretto” (fino agli inizi del secolo XX).5 L’autonomia di cui si parla non è assoluta, ma relativa perché è relazionata con il suo Creatore, secondo quanto si precisa in questo modo: “se per autonomia delle realtà terrene intendiamo che le cose create e le stesse società hanno leggi e valori propri, che l’uomo gradualmente deve scoprire, usare e ordinare, allora si tratta di un’esigenza legittima, che non solo è postulata dagli uomini del nostro tempo, ma anche è conforme al volere del Creatore. Infatti è dalla loro stessa condizione di creature, che le cose tutte ricevono la propria consistenza, verità, bontà, le loro leggi proprie e il loro ordine; e tutto ciò l’uomo è tenuto a rispettare, riconoscendo le esigenze di metodo proprie di ogni singola scienza ed arte... Se invece con l’espressione “autonomia delle realtà temporali” si intende che le cose create non dipendono da Dio, che l’uomo può adoperarle senza riferirle al Creatore... tali opinioni sono false” (GS 36). Una espressione nuova nel magistero è quella dei “segni dei tempi”, visti come referente e come metodo per questo dialogo sollecito e cordia4

Commenta a ragione, H.-J. Sander, “GS”: HThK Vat II 4, 2005, pp. 826-886(859: “Würdigung”); cf. J. Ratzinger, “Artikel 22 (GS)”: LthVat.II 3, 1968, pp. 350-354 (350); la monografia decisiva di T. Gertler, Jesus Christus - die Antwort der Kirche auf die Frage nach dem Menschsein, Leipzig 1986, e “Mysterium hominis in luce Christi”, in G. Fuchs/A. Lienkamp [Edd.], Visionen des Konzils. 30 Jahre Pastoralkonstitution “Die Kirche in der Welt von heute”, Münster 1997, 51-71; L. Ladaria, “L’uomo alla luce di Cristo nel Vaticano II”, in Vaticano II. Bilancio e prospettive, 939-951; C. Aparicio V., La plenitud del ser humano en Cristo, Roma 1997, e A. Cordovilla, “Gracia sobre gracia. El hombre a la luz del misterio del Verbo encarnado”, in Teología y nueva evangelización, 97-143(123-126).

5

Cf. A. Losinger, “Iusta autonomia”. Studien zu einem Schlüsselbegriff des II. Vatikanischen Konzils, Paderborn 1989, e R. Tononi, “Storia ed ‘eschaton’ nella GS”: Quaderni Teologici 8, 1998, pp. 131-162.


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le con il mondo. Si tratta di una espressione che ha le radici nei vangeli (cf. Mt 16,4; Lc 12,54-56) e che appare come una nuova categoria teologica soprattutto a partire dal Vaticano II (cf. GS 4.11.44; PO 9; UR 4; AA 14). In realtà, è stato Giovanni XXIII ad usarla per la prima volta nella bolla di convocazione del Concilio Vaticano II (25.12.1961) e nella Enciclica Pacem in terris (1963), espressione che Paolo VI ha ripetuto nella sua Enciclica programmatica Ecclesiam Suam (1964), e che il Vaticano II utilizza con queste parole: “per svolgere questo compito (la missione di Cristo di servire e non di essere servito), è dovere permanente della Chiesa di scrutare i segni dei tempi e di interpretarli alla luce del Vangelo, così che, in un modo adatto a ciascuna generazione, possa rispondere ai perenni interrogativi degli uomini sul senso della vita presente e futura e sul loro reciproco rapporto. Bisogna infatti conoscere e comprendere il mondo in cui viviamo, nonché le sue attese, le sue aspirazioni e la sua indole spesso drammatica” (GS 4; cf. GS 44).6 Il discernimento dei questi segni dei tempi è un compito ecclesiale, in quanto “il popolo di Dio... cerca di discernere... quali siano i veri segni della presenza o del disegno di Dio” (GS 11). Non senza motivo, il grande promotore conciliare di questa espressione, M.-D. Chenu commentava: “l’espressione segni dei tempi prende significato ed estensione non solo grazie ai contesti letterari della redazione conciliare, bensì grazie al tessuto stesso della dottrina –e del metodo–, lì dove appunto la Chiesa si definisce nella sua relazione consustanziale con il mondo e la storia. Si tratta, in verità, di una categoria “costituzionale” che decide le leggi e condizioni della evangelizzazione a partire dal momento in cui il cristiano si sente coinvolto negli “eventi”, posto di fronte, come è, alle domande, alle speranze, alle angustie degli uomini, suoi fratelli, credenti o non credenti”.7 Su questa linea, G. Alberigo conclude e con ragione che “la GS 6

Cf. l’importante bilancio recente di G. Ruggieri, La teologia dei “segni dei tempi”: acquisizione e compiti, e G. Moretto, “Reazione alla relazione di G. Ruggieri. La teologia dei ‘segni dei tempi’ e la sua ‘Wirkungsgeschichte’”, in G. Canobbio [Ed.], Teologia e storia: l’eredità del ‘900, Milano 2002, 33-77 e 78-86; cf. anche X. Quinzá Lleó, “Signos de los tiempos. Panorama bibliografico”: Miscelánea Comillas 49 (1991) 253-283;.

7

“I segni dei tempi”, in Y. Congar/M. Peuchmaurd (eds.), La Chiesa nel mondo contemporaneo, Brescia 19672, 85-102, dove sottolinea la possibile ambiguità del suo uso; nel bollettino “Segno dei tempi”: Concilium 1967, scrive: “l’insistenza sui segni dei tempi è in i relazione con la viva coscienza che ha la Chiesa di esistere e vivere entro un processo storico”; cf. le riflessioni di P. Bordeyne, “Ambiguïtés de la mémoire et mémoire de l’ambiguïté: quelques observations sur le concept de signes des temps” in Revue d’étique et de théologie morale 212 (2000) 51-70, e L’homme et son angoisse. La théologie morale de Gaudium et Spes, Paris, 2004.


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si colloca nell’economia globale del Vaticano II come un autentico segno dei tempi”.8 Da parte sua e con formulazione originale, K. Rahner presenta la teologia specifica che scaturisce dalla categoria “segni dei tempi” che egli qualifica come una cosmologia ecclesiologica pratica”.9 Per un altro lato, la maggior parte degli studi teologici postconciliari tendono ad una forma di “ermeneutica della storia” (cf. Cl. Boff, J.M. Hurtado, L. GonzálezCarvajal, H.J. Pottmeyer, R. Fisichella, H. Schmidinger, G. Ruggieri, J. da Cruz Policarpo, H.-J. Sander...).10 Da fatto, a livello teologico, la categoria dei “segni dei tempi” assume elementi decisivi della teologia della storia interpretata a partire dall’Incarnazione (cf. GS 22), perché per il credente ogni accadimento umano ha una dimensione significativa e rivelatrice profonda da quando Cristo “uomo perfetto è entrato nella storia degli uomini” (GS 38). Qui si percepisce l’impronta della teologia dell’Incarnazione come chiave della comprensione del cosmo e della storia, proposta da M.-D. Chenu come esperto della Gaudium et Spes.11 8

“La costituzione nel magistero globale del Concilio”, in G. Baraúna (ed.), La chiesa nel mondo di oggi, Firenze 1966, pp. 172-195(195).

9

Teología de la Renovación I, Salamanca, 1972, pp. 182-187.

10

Cf. Cl. Boff, Segni dei tempi, Roma, 1983; J.M. Hurtado, Los signos de los tiempos como lugar teológico (Diss.), Münster, 1979; L. González.Carvajal, Los signos de los tiempos, Santander, 1987; H.J. Pottmeyer, “Normen, Kriterien und Strukturen der Überlieferung” e “Zeichen und Kriterien der Glaubwürdigkeit des CHristentums”: HFTh2 4, 104-106.277; R. Fisichella, “Segni dei tempi”: DTF 1107-1115; DTE, 906s.; H. Schmidinger [Ed.], Zeichen der Zeit. Erkennen und Handeln, Innsbruck, 1998; J. da Cruz Policarpo, O Evangelho e a História. Ler os Sinais dos Tempos, Lisboa, 2003, pp. 440, nuova edizione di “Sinais dos tempos”. Génese histórica e interpretação teológica, Lisboa, 1971, con un bilancio nuovo: “Trinta años despois”, pp. 417-434, e l’articolata riflessione recente di H.-J. Sander, “Das singulare Geschichtshandeln eine Frage der pluralen Topologie des Zeichen der Zeit”: HThK Vat.II 5, 2006, pp. 134-147.

11

M.-D. Chenu, promotore della espressione “segni dei tempi” sottolinea il loro fondamento nel vederli come “degli addentellati, ‘potenze obbedienziali’ come dice il linguaggio classico dei teologi”, e porta come esempio Tommaso d’Aquino quando afferma che “l’anima è naturalmente capace della grazia; in effetti, proprio perché è fatta ad immagine di Dio, essa è capace di Dio in virtù della grazia” (cf STh I-IIae, q. 113, a.10, in “I segni dei tempi” in La Chiesa nel mondo contemporaneo, Brescia, 1967, pp. 85-102(99 in nota); non senza ragione, G. Turbanti conclude che la GS riflette “la scelta ispirata da Chenu, di una interpretazione della storia alla luce dell’incarnazione”, G. Baraúna (ed.), Un Concilio per il mondo moderno. La redazione della costituzione GS del Vaticano II, Bologna, 2000, 809; impostazione chiaramente presente quando M.-D. Chenu conferma che “il fatto dell’incarnazione ha in realtà molte conseguenze per una teologia del cosmo-universo”, in Y. Congar/M. Peuchmaurd (eds.), La Chiesa nel mondo di oggi, Firenze, 1966, pp. 331350(350); cf. in questa medesima linea “La ‘dottrina sociale’ della Chiesa”: Concilium 10/1980, pp. 137-145.


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Il Sinodo del 1985 sul Vaticano II, diede una valutazione sfumata della GS, sottolineando i mutamenti sperimentati nel mondo durante i primi venti anni postconciliari, mutamenti che pongono alcuni segni dei tempi entro altre coordinate. In questo contesto, afferma “la grande importanza e la grande attualità della Costituzione Pastorale Gaudium et spes. Nello stesso tempo, tuttavia, avvertiamo che i segni del nostro tempo sono parzialmente diversi da quelli che c’erano al tempo del Concilio, in quanto sono aumentate le angustie e le ansie. Oggi, infatti, crescono ovunque la fame ,l’oppressione, l’ingiustizia e la guerra, le torture e il terrorismo ed altre forme di violenza di ogni tipo. Tutto questo ci obbliga ad una riflessione teologica nuova e più profonda, che interpreti questi segni alla luce del Vangelo” (D. 1) Successivamente, in occasione dell’anno del Giubileo, A. Scola porrà questa valutazione che parte dalla teologia della croce, come chiave di rilettura critica della GS.12 Si osservi, infine, che nel corso di questi anni postconciliari, l’antropologia cristocentrica della GS è diventata patrimonio comune, tanto che il testo chiave di GS 22 è senza alcun dubbio il testo conciliare più citato dal magistero e dalla teologia in questi quaranta anni. Con precisione, W. Kasper commenta: “si può dire che il Concilio Vaticano II ha fatto propria progressivamente la moderna svolta antropologica. Ma dando all’antropologia un fondamento e una finalizzazione cristologica –che trova la sua massima espressione nel n° 22–, la GS adotta una posizione critica nei confronti dei modelli teorici e pratici dell’antropologia. Per cui l’antropologia è superata dalla cristologia. La quale indica come obiettivo degno dell’uomo, una umanizzazione attraverso la divinizzazione che non può essere realizzata dall’uomo”.13

12

Cf. A. Scola, “Gaudium et Spes: dialogo e discernimento nella testimonianza della verità”, in R. Fisichella [Ed.], Il Concilio Vaticano II. Ricezione e attualità alla luce del Giubileo, Milano, 2002, pp. 82-114(113), dove nonostante tutto conclude che: “si può ben dire che con la GS il Vaticano II ha messo in moto un novum nella Chiesa”; cf. la panoramica di S. PiéNinot, “La Constitución Pastoral GS: sus grandes temas y trayectoria en el postconcilio español”, in A. González M. [Ed.], Iglesia, Teología y Sociedad, Salamanca, 1988, pp. 137140, e il dettagliato bilancio di H.J. Sander, “GS”: HThK Vat.II 4, 2005, pp. 826-886 (“Würdigung”); cf. le bibliografie di C. Aparicio V., “Bibliografia recente sulla GS”: Ricerche teologiche 12, 2001, pp. 147-151, e V. de Cicco/A. Scarano, La Chiesa nel mondo contemporaneo. La recezione della GS, Napoli, 2002, pp. 163-176.

13

“La antropología teológica de la GS”: Laicos hoy n° 39, 1996, pp. 45-55 (54s.it.?) e “L’uomo e la Chiesa nel mondo moderno. La Costituzione pastorale Gaudium et Spes”, in B. Forte [Ed.], Fedeltà e rinnovamento. Il Concilio Vaticano II 40 anni dopo, Milano, 2005, pp. 87-106 (101s.).


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C. Il decreto sulle missioni Ad Gentes: tutta la Chiesa è missionaria:14 Anche se si tratta solo di un Decreto conciliare, l’inizio dà una definizione emblematica: “La Chiesa pellegrinante è per sua natura missionaria” (AG 2). Così’, dunque, l’attività missionaria include tutto quello che la Chiesa deve realizzare per mandato del Signore come continuatrice della sua missione e del suo Spirito, e per questo si precisa che “la missione della Chiesa si realizza attraverso un’azione tale, per cui essa, obbedendo all’ordine di Cristo e mossa dalla grazia e dalla carità dello Spirito Santo, si fa pienamente e attualmente presente a tutti gli uomini e popoli, per condurli con l’esempio della vita e la predicazione, con i sacramenti e i mezzi della grazia...alla piena partecipazione del mistero di Cristo” (AG 5). Cristo appare come la chiave che spiega la missione, e tra i mezzi di essa non si pensa solo alla “evangelizzazione” come primo annuncio, ma anche alla testimonianza, alla predicazione, ai sacramenti, e agli altri mezzi di salvezza, delineando in questo modo una missione totalmente teologico-cristologica. In questo contesto, in relazione specificamente alle cosiddette “missioni (straniere)”, si afferma che “il fine proprio di questa attività missionaria è l’evangelizzazione e l’impianto della Chiesa nei popoli o gruppi nei quali ancora non ha messo radici” (AG 6). Oltre a ciò, si parte da una chiara ecclesiologia di comunione a tal punto che la famosa espressione “la comunione delle chiese” (communio ecclesiarum: AG 38) viene usata per la prima ed unica volta nel Vaticano II proprio in questo Decreto, anche se il suo “luogo teologico” più caratteristico si trova nel binomio di LG 23 (in quibus et ex quibus). Per questo nel capitolo III si sottolinea che quando una chiesa locale è già “impiantata”, con ciò non è chiuso il compito della sua missione, perché “la chiesa particolare deve rappresentare nel modo più perfetto la Chiesa universale per cui deve avere piena coscienza di essere anch’essa inviata”: E ancor più, si afferma che “è assai conveniente che le giovani Chiese partecipino quanto prima di fatto alla missione universale della Chiesa inviando anch’esse dei missionari a predicare dappertutto l’evangelo” (AG 20). 14

Cf. J. Schütte [Ed.], L’activité missionnaire de l’Église. Decret “Ad gentes”, Paris, 1967, con due collaboratori di spicco: J. Ratzinger, “La mission d’après les autres textes conciliaires”, pp. 121-147 (Nuovo Popolo, pp. 405-434), e Y. Congar, “Principes doctrinaux (ns.2-9)”, pp. 185221; cf. J. López-Gay, “La reflexión conciliar: del Ad Gentes a la Evangelii Nuntiandi”, in O.M.P.E., La misionología hoy, Estella, 1987, pp. 171-193(171-181: “AG”); A. Santos, Teología sistemática de la Misión. Progresiva evolución del concepto de misión, Estella, 1991, pp. 309381, nonché quello più recente di P. Hünermann, “AG”: HThK Vat.II, 4, 2005, pp. 219-336, in particolare la sua ampia e articolata “Introduzione” (“Einleitung”, pp. 223-252).


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Questa ecclesiologia di comunione apre nuovi orizzonti alla missione, nel senso che i valori delle chiese locali “sono atti a favorire lo sviluppo di questo senso di comunione con la Chiesa universale”, perché deve “mantenersi l’intima comunione delle giovani Chiese con tutta la Chiesa” (AG 19). In questo modo, la categoria “comunione delle chiese” colloca tutte le chiese –anche quelle giovani (cf. AG 16.18.21.22)– ad un medesimo livello, tenendo conto della comunione decisiva con il centro di unità che è la Chiesa di Roma, qui ricordato con una citazione implicita di Ignazio di Antiochia (Rom, inizio), dato che “le nuove chiese particolari, abbellite delle loro tradizioni, avranno il proprio posto nella comunione ecclesiastica, intatto restando il primato della cattedra di Pietro, che presiede all’assemblea universale della carità” (AG 22). In tal modo, in tutto questo Decreto conciliare, il fine della missione della Chiesa viene sintetizzato in uno dei suoi testi più profondi, nel quale appare la sua triplice dimensione più costitutiva, dato che “l’attività missionaria non è nient’altro e niente di meno che la manifestazione, cioè l’epifania e la realizzazione del progetto di Dio nel mondo e nella sua storia, nella quale Dio, attraverso la missione attua chiaramente la storia della salvezza” (AG 9). Da tutto questo, deriva chiaramente la necessità della Chiesa per la salvezza nonché la sua funzione esplicita nella storia della salvezza. Per questo, si afferma che oltre alla fede “anonima” –concetto non usato ma comunque presente– di coloro che senza colpa ignorano il Vangelo, è “necessario” annunciare il Vangelo esplicitamente per permettere la maturazione dell’umanità, che si consegue unicamente con Cristo. Ciò viene espresso in un testo parallelo alle due citazioni conciliari classiche su questa problematica: LG 16 e GS 22, che dice: “benché Dio, attraverso vie a lui note (viis ipsi notis) possa portare gli uomini, che senza loro colpa ignorano l’evangelo, alla fede, senza la quale è impossibile piacergli, è tuttavia compito imprescindibile della Chiesa ed insieme diritto, evangelizzare, sicché l’attività missionaria conserva in pieno oggi come sempre la sua validità e necessità” (AG 7).15

15

Cf. G. Masson, Decreto sull’attività missionaria della Chiesa, Torino, 1966, pp. 11-29 (“Centocinquant’anni di missione –Cento anni di ecclesiologia– Cinquant’anni di missiologia”); sulla salvezza, cf. tra le altre, la monografia di F.A. Sullivan, Salvation Outside the Church?, New York, 1992 (trad.it?), e la ricerca di Fr. Fernandez, In Ways Known to God. A Theological Investigation on the Ways of Salvation spoken of in Vatican II (tesi UPS), Shillon, 1996.


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Nota della teologia postconciliare sulla missione della Chiesa nel mondo: Nel contesto della ricezione dei Documenti conciliari, le teologie postconciliari si sono diversificate in diversi accenti a partire dal chiaro orientamento della GS centrata su una teologia della storia e del cosmo basata sulla “incarnazione”. Ecco ora un breve schema delle prospettive più rilevanti dopo il Vaticano II, che ha come punto teologico-pastorale di base la realizzazione pratica della teologia della incarnazione resa presente mediante la testimonianza nella vita (parola che ricorre nel Vaticano II 133 volte; cf. R. Latourelle, P. Ricœur, KL. Hemmerle, P. Ciardella/M. Gronchi, M. Neri, P. Martinelli, S. Pié-Ninot, A. Dulles...).16 A/ Sulle forme di questa testimonianza nella storia: si possono individuare questi orientamenti: 1) Testimonianza attenta alla dimensione politica della fede e della Chiesa (J.B. Metz, J. Moltmann...); 2) Testimonianza impegnata nella liberazione umana e religiosa (G. Gutiérrez e teologie della liberazione...); 3) Testimonianza cosciente della istanza pubblica della missione ecclesiale (D. Tracy...).17 B/ Sulla Cristologia e il pluralismo interreligioso (cf. documento della CTI 1996):18 1) Esclusivismo ecclesiocentrico; 2) Inclusivismo cristocentrico; 3) Pluralismo geocentrico.

16

Cf. R. Latourelle, Le témoignage chrétien, Montréal, 1971; P. Ricœur, “L’herméneutique du témoigange”, in E. Castelli [Ed.], Le témoignage, Paris, 1972, pp. 35-61; P. Ciardela/M. Gronchi [Edd.], Testimonianza e verità, Roma, 2000, con il testo di Kl. Hemmerle (pp.302323); M. Neri, La testimonianza in H.U. von Balthasar, Bologna, 2001; P. Martinelli, La testimonianza, Milano, 2002, così come lo sviluppo di S. Pié-Ninot, La teologia fondamentale, pp. 471-648 (“La Chiesa: la credibilità basata sulla testimonianza”) e “Testimonio”: DicEcle, pp. 1049-1051, e il più recente A. Dulles, “The Rebirth of Apologetics”: First Things n° 143, 2004, pp. 18-23(22: “criteria for evaluating religious testimony: convergence, firmness, novelty, transformation, and illuminative power”).

17

Cf. G. Martínez, Confronting the Mystery of God. Political, Liberation and Public Theologies, New York, 2001 (con analisi di J.B. Metz, G. Gutiérrez e D. Tracy).

18

Cf. CTI e la sintesi di C. Aparicio V., Diálogo entre religiones. Identitad y apertura, Madrid, 2005.


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C/ Sulla Ecclesiologia si presentano queste opzioni: 1) La missione “senza” Chiesa (J.C. Hoekendijk...; cf. G. Coffele, J.C. Hoekendijk. Da una teologia della missione a una teologia missionaria, Roma 1976; 2) La missione come ‘processo ecclesiogenetico’ (E. Nunnemacher, “Regno di Dio”: Dizionario di Missiologia, Bologna 1993, 351-357; Teologia della Missione, Roma 1993...); 3) La missione nel contesto della mondializzazione, come “possibilità” del passaggio da Babele a Pentecoste (Cl. Geffré, De Babel à Pentecôte. Essais de théologie interreligieuse, Paris, 2006...). D. L’Esortazione Apostolica Evangelii Nuntiandi di Paolo VI (1975): l’Evangelizzazione come il nuovo nome della missione della Chiesa: Questo documento magisteriale è quello che ha avuto la maggiore ripercussione ecclesiologica sulla Chiesa postconciliare. In effetti, i suoi apporti più significativi sono chiari: per esempio il nuovo concetto di evangelizzazione, la relazione tra l’evangelizzazione e la promozione e liberazione umana, la centralità della Chiesa locale, l’unione tra lo Spirito e l’evangelizzazione... In questo modo viene presentata una visione integrale del concetto di evangelizzazione, intesa come un processo globale di tutta la missione della Chiesa, per cui la missione ecclesiale e l’evangelizzazione appaiono come due concetti equivalenti e sinonimi.19 In questa chiave si colloca l’affermazione centrale dell’Esortazione: “si è potuto così definire l’evangelizzazione in termini di annuncio del Cristo a coloro che lo ignorano, di predicazione, di catechesi, di battesimo, e di altri sacramenti da conferire. Nessuna definizione parziale e frammentaria può dare ragione della realtà ricca, complessa e dinamica, qual è quella dell’evangelizzazione, senza correre il rischio di impoverirla e perfino di mutilarla. E’ impossibile capirla, se non si cerca di abbracciare con lo sguardo tutti gli elementi essenziali” (EN 17).

19

Cf. M. Dhavamony [Ed.], Evangelisation, Roma, 1975, con C.M. Martini, D. Grasso, R. Latourelle, J. López-Gay, J.B. Lotz, J. de Finance..., e l’Esortazione Apostolica di Paolo VI “Evangelii Nuntiandi”. Storia, contenuti, ricezione, Brescia, 1998; cf. D. Grasso - segretario ‘speciale’ del Sinodo - “Quarta Synodus Episcoporum”: Periodica 64, 1975, pp. 27-60; R. Laurentin, L’évangélisation après le quatrième Synode, Paris, 1975; J. Guiteras, Evangelització, Montserrat, 1985; il commento minuzioso di J. Saraiva Martins [Ed.], L’annuncio del Vangelo oggi: commento all’Esortazione Apostolica di Paolo VI, Evangelii Nuntiandi, Roma, 1977; e J. López-Gay, “La reflexión conciliar: del Ad gentes a la Evangelii Nuntiandi, in La misionología, hoy, pp. 181-193 (EN).


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Poco più avanti viene descritto il duplice momento dell’evangelizzazione, che inizia con la testimonianza che “è essenziale e in generale costituisce il primo momento”, in quanto la buona novella “deve essere anzitutto proclamata con la testimonianza” (EN 21), che viene qui descritta in modo sperimentale e vivo. Ma in secondo luogo, viene messo in evidenza che lo sviluppo pieno dell’evangerlizzazione si ha solo se la testimonianza “è esplicitata da un annuncio chiaro e inequivocabile del Signore Gesù”, perché “la buona novella proclamata con la testimonianza di vita dovrà dunque essere presto o tardi annunziata dalla parola di vita. Non c’è vera evangelizzazione se il nome, l’insegnamento, la vita e le promesse, il Regno, il mistero di Gesù di Nazareth, Figlio di Dio non siano proclamati” (EN 22). La questione della missione evangelizzatrice nel crocevia della storia, viene esaminata accuratamente nel capitolo III, con una chiarezza forse ancora non superata da alcun documento successivo. In effetti, in primo luogo si riconosce che il messaggio che porta l’evangelizzazione coinvolge tutta la vita (cf. EN 29), per cui è un messaggio di liberazione (cf. EN 30), in quanto che “tra evangelizzazione e promozione umana –sviluppo, liberazione– ci sono infatti dei legami profondi. Legami di ordine antropologico...legami di ordine teologico...legami dell’ordine eminentemente evangelico, qual è quello della carità” (EN 31). Per questo, la Chiesa, anche se “rifiuta di sostituire l’annuncio del Regno con la proclamazione delle liberazioni umane” (EN 34), “collega” liberazione umana e salvezza in Gesù Cristo, anche se non le identifica mai (cf. EN 35), e “si sforza di inserire sempre la lotta cristiana per la liberazione nel disegno globale della salvezza che essa stessa annunzia” (EN 38).20 Infine, e per la prima volta in un testo magisteriale, viene citato e precisato il concetto di “secolarizzazione” come espressione che traduce “la legittima autonomia delle cose temporali” della GS, con questa formulazione: “la secolarizzazione è lo sforzo in sé giusto e legittimo, per nulla incompatibile con la fede o la religione, di scoprire nella creazione, in ogni cosa o in ogni evento dell’universo, le leggi che li reggono con una certa autonomia, nell’intima convinzione che il Creatore vi ha posto 20

Cf. la EN nel numero monografico, “Evangelizzazione nel mondo di oggi”: Concilium 4/1978, 13-180 (Ph. Perkins, A. Canoczy, N. Mette, D. Amalorpavadass, M. Zago...); sulla teologia della liberazione, cf. lo sfumato studio di G. Canobbio, “La dimensione politica della missione della Chiesa”: Quaderni Teologici 10, 2000, pp. 157-197(170-179); sulle Istruzione della CDF (1984.1986), cf. L.A. Gallo, “Magisterio eclesial y teología latinoamericana de la liberación”, in F.-V. Anthony [Ed.], Seguire i percorsi dello Spirito, Roma, 1999, pp. 139-160.


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queste leggi. Il recente concilio ha affermato, in questo senso, la legittima autonomia della cultura e particolarmente della scienza (cf. GS 59)” (EN 55). E. L’Enciclica Redemptoris Missio di Giovanni Paolo II (1990):21 il rilancio della missione ad gentes: Occasione concreta della pubblicazione di questa Enciclica è stato il venticinquesimo anniversario del decreto conciliare Ad Gentes. Il centro di questo documento papale è precisamente il rilancio della “missione ad gentes” (RMi 3). Si constata, in effetti, che difficoltà esterne ed interne hanno indebolito l’impulso missionario della Chiesa verso i non cristiani, per cui tra gli scopi della Enciclica c’è quello di “dissipare dubbi e ambiguità circa la missione ad gentes” (RMi 2), circa la quale nel capitolo IV si affferma emblematicamente: “la missione ad gentes conserva il suo valore”. In effetti, affermare che tutta la chiesa è missionaria come diceva AG 2, non esclude la specificità della missione ad gentes; come dire che tutti i cattolici devono essere missionari, non esclude che ci siano “missionari ad gentes e a vita per vocazione specifica” (RMi 32). Uno dei punti più suggestivi di questa Enciclica è la descrizione di tre tipologie di cristianesimo attuale con relativa risposta da parte della missione della Chiesa: 1) l’attività pastorale: paesi che hanno “comunità cristiane che hanno adeguate e solide strutture ecclesiali” e che vivono con fervore, nelle quali si svolge l’attività pastorale che è la forma concreta di realizzare la missione della Chiesa; 2) La nuova evangelizzazione: paesi di antica cristianità o chiese giovani, in cui s’è perso il senso vivo della fede e delle esigenze del Vangelo; in una tale situazione, è necessaria, di conseguenza, una nuova evangelizzazione. 3) Le missioni ad gentes: paesi o gruppi nei quali Cristo e il suo Vangelo non sono conosciuti o mancano comunità mature per poter incarnare ed annunciare la fede agli altri; “è questa, propriamente, la missione ad gentes” (RMi 33). L’Enciclica, inoltre, sottolinea l’identificazione di Gesù con il Regno di Dio che “non può essere disgiunto né dal Cristo né dalla Chiesa”, e che 21

Cf. il commento di uno del suoi redattori “secondi”, J. López-Gay, Haced discípulos a todas la gentes. Comentarios y texto de la encíclica “Redemptoris Missio”, Valencia, 1991, pp. 7-22 (Introduzione).


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non è un programma soggetto a libera elaborazione, ma è innanzitutto una persona che ha il volto e il nome di Gesù di Nazareth (cf. RMi 18). Nello stesso tempo si ricorda la profonda unità tra Cristo e lo Spirito Santo, nel senso che “quanto lo Spirito opera nel cuore degli uomini e nella storia dei popoli, nelle culture e religioni, assume un ruolo di preparazione evangelica e non può non avere riferimento a Cristo, Verbo fatto carne per l’azione dello Spirito” (RMi 29). Ed è qui, che viene inserita una formulazione innovativa, nell’affermare che “se non sono escluse mediazioni (salvifiche) partecipate di vario tipo e ordine, esse tuttavia attingono significato e valore unicamente da quella di Cristo e non possono essere intese come parallele o complementari” (RMi 5). Questo sottile riferimento alle “mediazioni parziali” partecipate, viene dallo stesso Concilio Vaticano II che nel trattare di Maria afferma con sfumatura: “l’unica mediazione del Redentore non esclude, ma suscita nelle creature una varia cooperazione, che è partecipazione all’unica fonte” (LG 62). Orbene, in RMi 5, questo riferimento viene fatto con maggiore ampiezza, infatti si dice “di qualsiasi tipo e ordine”, per cui la CDF, nella Dichiarazione Dominus Jesus dell’anno 2000, sottolinea che “la teologia oggi è invitata ad esplorare se e come anche figure ed elementi positivi di altre religioni rientrino nel piano divino di salvezza ... E’ da approfondire il contenuto di questa mediazione partecipata” (n° 14).22 In questo percorso, emerge progressivamente un “concetto integrale” (comprehensiveness) della missione e diaconia della Chiesa nel mondo, che supera le sue possibili polarizzazioni tra proclamazione del Vangelo, impianto e propagazione della Chiesa, azione sociale, impegno di liberazione... Di fatto “non esiste alcun ordine di grado precostituito, bensì bisogna partire da un reciproco rapporto paritario. Oltre a ciò, tale concezione della missione supera la separazione tra “missione interna”, o evangelizzazione o neo evangelizzazione tra battezzati e “missione “esterna” tra non battezzati... Quanto più la Chiesa diventa realmente una chiesa mondiale, tanto più multiforme diventa anche il cristianesimo e tanto più urgente diventa la risposta da dare a tale interrogativo”.23

22

Cf. M. Bordoni, “L’universalità della salvezza in Cristo e le mediazioni partecipate”: PATH 2, 2003, pp. 375-399; M. Serretti [Ed.], Le Mediazioni partecipate e l’unica mediazione di Cristo, Roma, 2004; sulla Dominus Jesus, cf. S. Pié-Ninot, “CDF: Documentos Eclesiológicos”: DicEcle, 232s.

23

G. Collet, “Teologia della missione o delle missioni?”: Concilium 1/1999, pp. 135-144 (143.144)


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F. Le Esortazioni Postsinodali in occasione del Giubileo (2000): “La Chiesa ‘in’ Europa, Asia, Africa, America e Oceania”: l’unica Missione della Chiesa “in-carnata” in ciascuno dei cinque Continenti: Nella Lettera Apostolica di inizio del nuovo millennio (NMI, 6.I.2001) la Chiesa viene invitata a far penetrare il Vangelo nelle diverse culture, e a lavorare perché lo stesso Vangelo si faccia promotore di una civiltà nuova dell’amore, che porti “il volto di tante culture e di tanti popoli nei quali è stato accolto e ha messo radici” (n° 40). E’ per questo motivo, che i cinque sinodi continentali conle rispettive Esortazioni Apostoliche del Papa hanno dato come risultato una rinnovata immagine della Chiesa Cattolica presente e pellegrinante “in” ciascun Continente,24 da qui: Ecclesia in Africa: la sua missione evangelizzatrice verso l’anno 2000 (14.IX.1995) Ecclesia in America; l’incontro con Cristo vivente, via per la conversione, la comunione e la solidarietà in America (22.VI.1999) Ecclesia in Asia: Gesù Cristo, Salvatore e la sua missione di amore e di servizio in Asia: “perché abbiamo la vita e l’abbiamo in abbondanza” (6.XI.1999) Ecclesia in Oceania: Cristo e i popoli dell’Oceania: seguire la sua via, proclamare la sua verità, vivere la sua vita ((22.XI.2001) Ecclesia in Europa: Gesù Cristo vivente nella Chiesa, fonte di speranza per l’Europa (28.VI.2003). Queste cinque Esortazioni Postsinodali costituiscono un’ampia e articolata esplicitazione della missione della Chiesa nell’orizzonte del Vaticano II. Precisamente in un momento in cui l’immagine della Chiesa universale e della sua cattolicità è quanto mai rilevante, accompagnata dalla globalizzazione, in particolare quella mediatica, questi cinque documenti magisteriali sottolineano la necessità di in-culturazione concreta della Missione della Chiesa, a partire dalle situazioni effettive degli abitanti di ciascuno dei rispettivi Continenti.

24

Cf. J.-P. Schotte, “I sinodi continentali per la nuova evangelizzazione”: Seminarium 41, 2002, pp. 333-350, e il numero monografico: “Giovanni Paolo II e la via della Chiesa all’alba del terzo millennio”: PATH 4, 2005, pp. 3-27, con studi di ciascuna di queste Esortazioni Postsinodali: si noti la rilevanza ecclesiologica della Ecclesia in Africa che parte dalla immagine della Chiesa come famiglia, cf. C. McGarry, “The Church as Family in Africa”, in F. Chica/S. Panizzolo/H. Wagner [Edd.], Ecclesia Tetii Millenni advenientis (FS A. Antón), Asti, 1997, pp. 238-251; su questa immagine, cf. la monografia di F. Bechina, Die Kirche als “Familie Gottes”, Roma, 1998; cf. inoltre il commento più generico, a partire dall’America Latina, ad opera della “Pontificia Commissio pro America Latina”, Iglesia en América. Al encuentro de Jesucristo vivo, Vaticano, 2001.


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A partire da ciò, si accresce e si attualizza la significatività che il Nuovo Testamento dà alla espressione “Chiesa di Dio”; quando si rifersice ad un luogo concreto, aggiunge la preposizione in (in Tessalonica, in Corinto...), esprimendo in tal modo la missione e la diaconia incarnata del Vangelo annunciato dalla Chiesa in un luogo e uno spazio concreto. Questo comporta l’attenzione specifica a ciascuna realtà continentale, e analogamente si ripercuote a livello sub-continentale, regionale, nazionale, locali, e metropolitano, diocesano, parrocchiale...Nel contempo, è qui che il Ministero Petrino, “insieme con” (una cum: LG 22) i vescovi presenti in ciascun Sinodo continentale, “conferma i suoi fratelli” (Lc 22,32) nella unità “cattolica” di tutte queste realtà ecclesiali come Chiesa santa di Dio in ciascun Continente e nelle sue diverse latitudini in cui si trovano i suoi uomini e le sue donne.

2. Verso una nuova ‘cattolicità’ dell’essere Chiesa in un mondo globalizzato? “La globalizzazione non è, a priori, né buona né cattiva. Sarà quello che la gente farà di essa. Nessun sistema è un fine in se stesso, e è necessario insistere sul fatto che la globalizzazione, come qualsiasi altro sistema, deve essere al servizio della persona umana, della solidarietà e del bene comune” (Giovanni Paolo II, alla “Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali”, 27.III.2001). 1) Globalizzazione e la universalità della fraternità del Regno di Dio: Già il Vaticano II ricorda che “l’umanità vive oggi un periodo nuovo della sua storia, caratterizzato da profondi e rapidi mutamenti...che hanno i loro riflessi anche nella vita religiosa” (GS 4). D’altra parte, le prime parole della LG sono chiaramente un messaggio universale per tutto il mondo globalizzato: in effetti, la Chiesa è presentata non solo “come un segno o sacramento della intima unione con Dio”, ma anche “della unità di tutto il genere umano” (LG 1). Si tratta di una formula equivalente alla categoria biblica di Regno di Dio, e per questo il Vaticano II afferma che “la Chiesa a questo soltanto mira, che venga il Regno di Dio” (GS 45). Questa grande utopia della famiglia umana è presente nella tradizione biblica. In effetti, “la formulazione più perfetta di una umanità uguale è quella di Paolo ai Galati: ‘non c’è più giudeo né greco, non c’è più schiavo né libero, non c’è più uomo né donna’ –Le tre grandi


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barriere della razza/religione (giudeo-greco), dell’economia e dei mezzi di produzione (schiavo-libero) e del genere (uomo-donna) scompaiono”.25 In questo contesto, si comprende la missione e la diaconia della chiesa, descritta da J. Ratzinger come “fratellanza cristiana (che) compie il dovere verso il tutto, soprattutto con la missione, l’agape e la sofferenza”.26 2) Globalizzazione e la responsabilità sensibile al dolore –o “principio di compassione”– in relazione con il nostro mondo: Le tradizioni bibliche su Dio e le narrazioni neotestamentarie su Gesù conoscono una immagine ineludibile di responsabilità globale. Questo universalismo è primariamente orientato all’universalismo della sofferenza presente nel mondo, perché il primo sguardo di Gesù era per la sofferenza degli altri. A partire da questo contesto e da questa analisi, appare il “principio di compassione” come espressione della sensibilità per il dolore, che non è un sentimentalismo o un culto reso al dolore: è bensì un’espressione di quell’amore intenso di Gesù quando parlava della indivisibile unità dell’amore di Dio e del prossimo, sicché la passione di Dio è “compassione” e “sofferenza-con”, come percezione e assunzione partecipata del dolore dell’altro (J.B. Metz).27 La prima enciclica di Benedetto XVI, Deus caritas est (25.XII.2005), evidenzia in questa chiave ecclesiale gli stessi elementi, in questi termini: “la Chiesa è la famiglia di Dio nel mondo. In questa famiglia non deve esserci nessuno che soffra per mancanza del necessario. Al contempo però la caritas-agape travalica le frontiere della Chiesa: la parabola del buon Samaritano rimane come criterio di misura, impone l’universalità dell’amore che si volge verso il bisognoso incontrato ‘per caso’ (cf. Lc 10,31), chiunque egli sia” (n° 25b), perché “il programma del buon Samaritano, il programma di Gesù, è un ‘cuore che vede’” (n° 31b).

25

J.L. Dicre, “L’utopia della famiglia umana nella tradizione biblica”: Concilium 5/2001, pp. 115-125(125), e la precisa sintesi di A. Toniolo, “Unità della famiglia umana, compassione e solidarietà”: Credere oggi n° 83-96.

26

J. Ratzinger, La fraternità cristiana, pp. 94-105(94).

27

Cf. in questo senso, il più recente J.B. Metz, “Compassion als Weltprogramm des Christentums”, in Memoria passionis, Freiburg, 2006, pp. 166-172; ed anche in “Proposta di programma universale del cristianesimo nell’età della globalizzazione”, in R. Gibellini [Ed.], Prospettive teologiche per il XXI secolo, Brescia, 2003, pp. 389-402; cf. H. Haker, “‘Compassione’ come programma mondiale del cristianesimo”: Concilium 4/2001, pp. 77-98.


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Verso la “globalizzazione della solidarietà” (Pastores gregis, 63): “Questa globalizzazione abbisogna di redenzione...E’ quanto vogliamo fare subito: offrire un ‘principio di redenzione/ salvezza’ che generi un dinamismo capace di superare i mali della globalizzazione (redenzione) e generare i beni (salvezza)”. Questo principio trova la sua chiave nella parola “solidarietà” che dice sostegno, vicinanza, difesa del debole, e per questo è “la tenerezza dei popoli”, secondo la bella espressione di P. Casaldáliga. “Globalizzare umanamente non significa che possano ‘entrare tutti’ –che non sarebbe poca cosa–, ma pure ‘essere tutti’, ognuno quello che è, con la gioia di sostenersi vicendevolmente”.28 In questo contesto si manifesta l’”opzione preferenziale per i poveri”, che secondo G. Gutiérrez è “la cosa più essenziale del contributo della vita della Chiesa dell’America Latina e della teologia della liberazione, alla Chiesa universale”.29 “L’opzione preferenziale per i poveri” è una formula divulgata dalla III Conferenza Generale dell’Episcopato Latinoamericano di Puebla nel 1979, e ripresa da Giovanni Paolo II nelle Encicliche Sollicitudo rei socialis del 1987, e Centesimuns annus del 1991: quest’ultima la esplicita così: “si tratta di una opzione che non vale solo per la povertà materiale, perché nella società moderna si trovano molte forme di povertà, non solo economica, ma anche culturale e religiosa. Nei paesi occidentali c’è la povertà multiforme dei gruppi emarginati, degli anziani, degli ammalati; nei paesi in via di sviluppo si intravedono all’orizzonte crisi drammatiche, se non vengono prese in tempo misure coordinate a livello internazionale” (n° 57). Non senza ragione, l’Esortazione postsinodale Pastores gregis (2003) mira alla solidarietà nella globalizzazione, quando stimola le riunioni continentali dei vescovi, le quali “contribuiscono molto a promuovere tra le Conferenze episcopali delle diverse nazioni questa collaborazione che, in questo tempo di ‘globalizzazione’, risulta tanto necessaria per affrontare le sue sfide e avviare una vera e propria globalizzazione della solidarietà” (n° 63). L’esperienza di questa nuova cattolicità della Chiesa come “globalizzazione della solidarietà”, si realizza in modo concreto nella partecipazio28

Cf. J. Sobrino, “Redenzione della globalizzazione. Le vittime”, Concilium 5/2001, pp. 135147(137.145), con la citazione di Casaldáliga.

29

Cf. “Situazione e compiti della teologia della liberazione”, in Prospettive teologiche per il XXI secolo, pp. 93-11(101s.), e “La koinonía eclesial”: Angelicum 81, (2004), pp. 851-866 (864866: “Acordarse de los pobres”).


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ne alla missione delle chiese locali e delle loro parrocchie e comunità nelle quali “anche se spesso piccole e povere o viventi nella dispersione, è presente Cristo per virtù del quale si raccoglie la Chiesa, una, santa, cattolica e apostolica” (LG 26). E’ questa la forza della dimensione universale della Chiesa: a partire dalla realtà delle chiese locali, si può sperimentare e proporre una nuova cattolicità in un mondo globalizzato come testimonianza e offerta della piena fraternità umana in Cristo. Conclusione: da Babele a Pentecoste? La sfida della cattolicità della Chiesa –come comunione di chiese– tra la unità e la pluralità: La Chiesa nell’ora della globalizzazione non realizza la sua vocazione universale, se non serve da paradigma per l’unità della famiglia umana nella precisa chiave della realtà teologica e ultima della quale è “sacramento, o segno e strumento della unione intima con Dio e della unità di tutto il genere umano” (LG 1). Di conseguenza, nel contesto della mondializzazione attuale e del “policentrismo culturale” (J.B. Metz), è necessario che appaia con chiarezza la sua “unità”, attorno a ciascuna chiesa locale unita a quella del vescovo di Roma che presiede alla “comunione universale della carità, che è la Chiesa” (LG 13). Ma nello stesso tempo, bisogna che si manifesti con vigore –tanto più che attualmente è la più deficitaria– la pluralità della Chiesa Cattolica come cattolicità –vale a dire come universalità e globalità– della “comunione delle chiese” (LG 23; AG 38), in cui ognuna di esse mette in risalto la specificità che ciascuna chiesa di Dio pellegrina e “inculturata” rappresenta in un luogo e uno spazio concreto di un paese, di una cultura, di un popolo... In questo modo, la Chiesa può superare un duplice pericolo, quale è quello di vivere una universalità globalizzatrice sempre più monolitica, o quello di cadere in una situazione tanto radicalmente dispersa che porti alla confusione di Babel. La Chiesa di Pentecoste, la Chiesa di Gesù Cristo, narra e attesta il medesimo Vangelo di Cristo nella diversità delle culture, e per questo ha la straordinaria vocazione di essere paradigma di fraternità universale (LG 1) Per questo, si può concludere con M.P. Gallagher augurandosi speranzosamente: “La globalizzazione, è una nuova versione di Babele, un universalismo radicato nel potere che produce solo frammentazione? O si può trattare di una eco di Pentecoste “che porta insieme unità e diversità, e produce amore e libertà?”.30

30

“Le dimensioni culturali della globalizzazione”: La Civiltà cattolica 3.673, 2003/III, 58.


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Nota bibliografia su globalizzazione e Chiesa: R. Gibellini [Ed.], Prospettive teologiche per il XXI secolo, Brescia, 2003 (in particolare: J. Motlmann, J.B. Metz, R. Schreiter...), i numeri monografici, K.-J. Kuschel/D. Mieth [Edd.], “Alla ricerca di valori universali”: Concilium 4/2001 con F. Schlüsser Fiorenza, H. Küng...; J. Sobrino/F. Wilfred [Edd.], “La globalizzazione e le sue vittime”: Concilium 5/2001, con L. de Sebastián, G. Gutiérrez, M. Amalados, J.I. González Faus...; D. Mieth/M. Vidal [Edd.], “Fuori del mercato non c’è salvezza?”: Concilium 2/1997, con G. Baum, F. Hourtat, E. Dussel...; “Globalizzazione e chiesa”: Credere oggi n°139, 2004, con A. Toniolo, C. Molari..., con la documentazione e la bibliografia incluse; R.J. Schreiter, The New Catholicity. Theology between the Global and the Local, New York, 1997; [Ed.], Mission in the Third Millennium, New York, 2001; P. Hünermann [Ed.], Das II. Vatikanum. Christliche Glaube im Horizont globaler Modernisierung, Paderborn, 1998, con F.-X. Kaufmann, G. Ruggieri, K. Gabriel, H. Hoping, G. Alberigo, J. Komonchak...; J.B. Metz, “Unità e pluralità. Problemi e prospettive dell’inculturazione”, e P. Rottländer, “Un unico mondo. Possibilità o pericolo per la Chiesa mondiale?”: Concilium 4/1989, pp. 102-113 e pp. 137-150; Cl. Sedmak, Lokale Theologien und globale Kirche, Freiburg 2000; J. Werbick, “Globalisierung: Kirche und Kirchen”: LThK3 11 (2001) 111-113; Th. Ruckstuhl, “Ecclesia universalis”. Das sakramentale Univesalitätsverständnis als hermeneutischer Schlüssel für die Kirche in der Moderne, Frankfurt 2003, dove la comprensione sacramentale della universalità si visualizza in tre forme: la Chiesa come organizzazione che offre “servizi religiosi” (cf. in questo senso M. Kehl, Dove va la Chiesa?; come “società di contrasto” (concetto emergente a partire dal 1980, negli USA come “Counter-Community” o “Community of Character”, e in Germania come “Kontrastgesellschaft”, cf. G. Lohfink, La Chiesa che Gesù voleva: “La Chiesa come società di contrasto” e M. Kehl: LThK 6: 332s.), e come società in forma di grande “rete” che crea relazione, ma senza coartare la libertà (cf. in questo senso, M. Hochschild, “Wo liegt die Zukunft der Kirche? Vom Milieu zum Netzwerk”: Antonianum n. 74, 1999, pp. 687-724; una raccolta rivista dei suoi scritti sulla globalizzazione con una sintesi, appare nel più recente J.B. Metz, Memoria passionis. Ein provozierendes Gedächtnis in pluralistischer Gesellschaft, Freiburg, 2006, pp. 158-211 (“Im Zeitalter des ‘Globalisierung’”).

Invocazione conclusiva: concludiamo con una invocazione tratta dalla più antica preghiera per la Chiesa, che si conosca: quella della Didachè: “Ricordati Signore della tua Chiesa, liberala da ogni male, rendila perfetta nel tuo amore, e santificata raccoglila dai quattro venti nel tuo regno che ad essa preparasti!” AMEN!+++


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T

his paper examines the evolution of the Church’s mission in history and how it can address a globalised world. The triple theological dimension of the Church’s mission (of “purification” and “liberation”, of “elevation” and “maturity”, of “perfection” and “fullness”) of Lumen Gentium introduces the theme in a rather austere way. In Gaudium et Spes the mission becomes a “cordial dialogue with the world”. According to this Pastoral Constitution, the world has its own autonomy, “created things and societies themselves enjoy their own laws and values which must be gradually deciphered, put to use, and regulated by men”, in conformity with the will of the Creator. The Counciliar Decree Ad Gentes defines the whole Church’s mission as “missionary”, outlining a fully theological and Christological mission. Paul VI’s Apostolic exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi has a great recoil on the post-council Church,because of its new concept of evangelization. The Apostolic exhortations of the Jubilee propose a renewed image of the Catholic Church, present and active worldwide. In this course, that involves numerous Church’s magisterial documents, a comprehensiveness of the Church’s mission in the world emerges progressively. It overcomes its possible polarizations among Gospel proclamation, propagation of the Church, social action, engagement of liberation.

E

l documento reflexiona sobre la evolución de la misión de la Iglesia en la historia y sobre cómo esta fuerza hace propuestas en un mundo globalizado. La triple dimensión teológica de la misión de la Iglesia (de “purificación”, “liberación” y “elevación”; de “madurez”, “perfección” y “plenitud”) contenida en la Lumen Gentium presenta el tema de la misión de la Iglesia de un modo más bien austero. En la Gaudium et Spes la misión resulta “un cordial diálogo con el mundo”. Según esta constitución pastoral, el mundo obtiene autonomía, las “cosas son creadas, y la misma sociedad tiene leyes y valores propios que el hombre tiene que descubrir gradualmente, usar y ordenar”, de acuerdo con la voluntad del Señor. El decreto conciliar Ad Gentes define el conjunto de la misión de la Iglesia como “misionaria”, delineando de este modo una misión totalmente teológico-cristológica. Una gran repercusión eclesiológica sobre la Iglesia postconciliar la ha tenido la Exortación Apostólica Evangeli Nuntiandi de Pablo VI, ofreciendo un nuevo concepto de evangelización. Las Exortaciones Apostólicas en ocasión del Jubileo proponen una renovada imagen de la Iglesia católica, presente y pelegrina en todos los Continentes.


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En este recorrido, que implica numerosos documentos del magisterio de la Iglesia, emerge progresivamente un concepto integral de la misión y diaconía de la Iglesia en el mundo, que supera las posibles polarizaciones entre proclamación del Evangelio, implantación y propagación de la Iglesia, acción social, empeño de liberación.


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Special Session on Human Rights International Protection and Promotion of Human Rights - Challenges for the United Nations Human Rights Council: Jurist Catholic Perspective Eugeni Gay Montalvo Magistrate of the Spanish Constitutional Court and President of the International Secretariat of Catholic Jurists

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a presentación en Roma del Decreto de aprobación, por parte de la Santa Sede, de los reformados Estatutos de Pax Romana, para acomodarlos al actual Código Canónico en la Solemne Ceremonia presidida por Mons. Josef Clemens, Secretario del Pontificio Consejo para los Laicos, ha supuesto la renovación de una verdadera comunión de Pax Romana con la Santa Sede y la adecuación de nuestro Movimiento a las exigencias de los tiempos de manera que, en la larga y rica tradición del derecho canónico, que tanta influencia ha tenido en la cristiandad y en los ordenamientos de los distintos Estados a lo largo de los siglos, ha armonizado de nuevo nuestras normas con las del vigente Código. Tuvimos ocasión de escuchar en ese Solemne Acto las calurosas palabras de Mons. Clemens y el mensaje que en la noche anterior le transmitió para nosotros el Santo Padre, con quien, según nos dijo, tuvo una cena privada. Y pudimos, por nuestra parte, corresponder agradecidos para reiterar nuestro compromiso con los nuevos retos que tiene planteados la Iglesia en nuestros días y, al renovar el empeño evangelizador que impulsa hoy a los laicos, significamos la figura de nuestro añorado Presidente, Patricio Rodé, en quien encontramos una autentica y ejemplar manifestación de lo que debe ser. La ocasión que se nos brindaba no podía obviar la necesidad de la presencia de los juristas y por eso el Secretariado Internacional de Juristas Católicos –Pax Romana– MIJC, organizó una sesión especial dedicada a los Derechos Humanos, expresión de un sentimiento largamente anhela-


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do por la Humanidad, que se encarna hoy en la defensa de la dignidad de la persona. Las distintas ponencias e intervenciones que a continuación se recogen son fruto de la reflexión de quienes fueron sus ponentes y en ellas se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de adecuar el Derecho a las exigencias de ese sentimiento o conciencia jurídica internacional que propugnó en diciembre de 1948 la promulgación de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos, de Naciones Unidas, fuente de una serie de textos jurídicos que han ido transformando la propia realidad jurídica y social de la Comunidad Internacional, así como de las propias realidades jurídicas de los diversos estados modernos, cada día más interrelacionados, y por ende, más necesitados de la Solidaridad. Los juristas de Pax Romana estamos seriamente comprometidos en propagar, como todos los cristianos, el mensaje evangélico de Jesús, pero no cabe duda que en la construcción permanente del Reino, nuestro compromiso es trabajar por una transformación de las estructuras jurídicas para que se fundamenten en la dignidad de la persona, es decir, la dignidad de todos y cada uno de nosotros. Y mediante ella el reconocimiento de la diversidad, característica del género humano, que exige de la solidaridad o, para ser más precisos, de la Caridad, donde la solidaridad se transforma en Amor. Sin duda, en el transcurso de los tiempos el Derecho ha ido evolucionando hacia contenidos más respetuosos con la libertad, la igualdad y la solidaridad como principios necesarios, en igual medida, para poder afirmar y proteger la dignidad de cada cual. Sin embargo el derecho como herramienta jurídica, únicamente debe responder a la necesidad de conseguir un desarrollo armónico de la convivencia humana en paz; en definitiva, en establecer las reglas de juego por las que deben discurrir las relaciones humanas tanto a nivel individual como a nivel colectivo en sus más variados aspectos, hasta que el reconocimiento y la protección de la dignidad humana se hagan plenamente efectivos para todas las personas y, así, la justicia deje de ser una aspiración para convertirse en una realidad. Más todo ello puede parecernos utópico y como desgraciadamente el empeño para hacer realidad las utopías no ha resultado precisamente halagüeño para la humanidad, se hace preciso ser muy prudentes frente a quienes dogmáticamente las sostienen como ideario político para hacerlas realidad aquí y ahora. Nosotros debemos ser conscientes que ese ideal es nuestra esperanza y que la obra del hombre y de la mujer en la Tierra no es otra que la de ser solidarios con aquellas generaciones de las que somos herederos y de


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cuya historia estamos obligados a extraer sabias consecuencias, así como de aquellas generaciones que están por venir; por lo que la aventura del género humano no es otra que la de la propia solidaridad de todas las generaciones en el empeño por consolidar la dignidad de cada cual. Nadie es señor de la Historia, ni nadie mayor que su Maestro.

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his Special Session on Human Rights represents the expression of a strong feeling, widely shared by the whole humanity: the defence of human dignity. Catholic jurists perceive that law cannot be a static body of rules but must adapt itself to change, changed requirements and present needs. In particular, the commitment taken by Pax Romana jurists is to work for a transformation of legal structures, so that they can be based on respect of everyone’s dignity, acknowledgement of the humankind’s diversity, on solidarity and, therefore, on charity. The task of law as a legal instrument consists in achieving a harmonic and peaceful cohabitation, in which living within the law implies the acknowledgement of human dignity and the fulfillment of a concrete and enforced justice. The aspiration is to create an intergenerational solidarity, towards past generations, whom man is the heir of, and towards the future ones.

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a Sessione Speciale dedicata ai Diritti Umani rappresenta l’espressione di un forte sentimento, largamente condiviso dall’umanità: la difesa della dignità dell’uomo. Tra le fila dei giuristi cattolici si avverte la necessità di conformare il diritto ai cambiamenti ed alle esigenze attuali. In particolare, l’impegno che hanno assunto gli esperti di diritto di Pax Romana è quello di lavorare in favore di una trasformazione delle strutture giuridiche affinché si basino sul rispetto della dignità di ogni persona, sul riconoscimento della diversità del genere umano, sulla solidarietà e, quindi, sulla carità. Il compito del diritto in quanto strumento giuridico consiste nel raggiungere una convivenza umana armonica e pacifica, in cui il rispetto per le regole comporti il riconoscimento della dignità umana e la realizzazione di una giustizia concreta e applicata. L’aspirazione è quella di creare una solidarietà intergenerazionale, nei confronti delle generazioni passate, di cui l’uomo è erede, e di quelle future.


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Introduction of the Special session on Human Rights Jean-Mathias Goerens Ancien président de l’ALUC, Luxembourg

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ntroduire le sujet des Droits de l’Homme en quelques lignes n’est évidemment pas chose facile. Force est de se limiter à des références générales tout en essayant d’en déduire quelques incitations se rapportant peut-être plus spécialement à une approche possible par une réunion telle que la nôtre. Vous ne m’en voudrez pas, introduction oblige, de faire le rappel des principaux textes de droit positif qui furent adoptés depuis plus de deux cents ans dans différentes parties du globe : Il y a les deux textes les plus anciens adoptés dans les grands contextes historiques de l’Indépendance des Etats Unis et de la Révolution Française, la Déclaration américaine 1776 et la Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen 1789. A l’issue de la tourmente de la 2e guerre mondiale il y eut, dans le cadre des Nations Unies, la Déclaration universelle des Droits de l’Homme issue de plume de René Cassin, futur Prix Nobel de la Paix. Plus près de nous, la Convention européenne de sauvegarde des droits de l’Homme du Conseil de l’Europe, la Charte des droits de l’Union Européenne arrêtée au traité de Nice et qui attend toujours d’obtenir force de loi et le traité instituant la Commission africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples qui, comme celui instituant la Cour Internationale de Justice, n’évoque pas seulement les droits de l’Homme, mais aussi ceux des Peuples, –l’Histoire lui en fournit une légitimation certaine. La matière des droits de l’Homme, souvent sans être spécialement nommée, figure par ailleurs dans des chapitres spéciaux de nombreuses Constitutions nationales. De la réflexion philosophique est issue à chaque fois la détermination du contenu des Droits qui fut adopté au niveau politique ; la formulation propre à leur fournir un énoncé juridiquement applicable a été l’œuvre des juristes.


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Le contenu de la plupart de ces textes est sensiblement le même, encore qu’il y ait une évolution vers ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler les droits de 2e et de 3e génération. Reconnaître, de la part du Pouvoir, des droits fondamentaux, tels que ceux que nous appelons Droits de l’Homme peut historiquement être considéré comme un pas énorme : en dotant le citoyen de droits fondamentaux énoncés dans un texte normatif de haut rang, le Pouvoir s’engage soi-même à reconnaître et à respecter ceux-ci: Patere legem quam fecisti! L’évolution s’est donc faite vers un ‘droit à l’Etat de droit’, idée comprise dans l’article 28 de la Déclaration universelle des Droits de l’Homme qui porte que “toute personne a droit à ce que règne, sur le plan social et sur le plan international, un ordre tel que les droits et libertés énoncés dans la présente Déclaration puissent y trouver plein effet”. Les Droits de l’Homme impliquent bien sûr, comme toute règle de droit, des sanctions : Le philosophe aura dit que la justice sans la force est impuissante et que la force sans la justice est tyrannique. L’effectivité de la mise en œuvre des droits ainsi protégés par les textes qui les énoncent doit être garantie par des possibilités procédurales permettant au citoyen se sentant victime d’une violation de ses droits de réclamer la constatation et la réparation du tort et, le cas échéant son indemnisation. De manière concrète, il convient, par exemple, de relever que la Convention européenne est directement applicable et qu’elle peut, en dehors de tout recours à la Cour de Strasbourg, être invoquée devant toute juridiction des Etats signataires (cette démarche constituant d’ailleurs une condition de recevabilité du recours devant la Cour des Droits de l’Homme). Il faut faire la part des choses et –les hommes n’étant, malheureusement, pas ce qu’ils devraient être– constater qu’il y a un besoin de la règle de droit contraignante et protectrice, la liberté en elle même n’étant pas tout. La loi doit protéger l’un contre des excès que pourrait engendrer la liberté de l’autre dont la liberté cesse là où commencent les droits du prochain. Dans la recherche des orientations que devraient prendre les droits et libertés visées, les excès ne furent ni ne sont pas exclus : Mme Roland, en montant à l’échafaud pendant les années de la Terreur, ne s’écria-t-elle pas : “Liberté, que de crimes commet-on en ton nom!”.


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Et j’ai trouvé, sans pouvoir en fournir la référence, cette sentence de Lamennais –de laquelle s’accommoderait bien St. Yves, patron des juristes: “Entre le riche et le pauvre, c’est la liberté qui opprime et la loi qui protège”. L’Etat s’en trouve donc dans son action et dans la liberté de l’exercice de ses fonctions de gouvernance limité par l’existence et la reconnaissance d’un ensemble de droits reconnus aux citoyens et qui ne sauraient subir d’entraves. C’est, pour l’essentiel, ce qui caractérise l’Etat de droit qui, par le biais des conventions et institutions internationales devrait pouvoir s’installer universellement au profit non seulement des personnes mais aussi des peuples. Et dans ce contexte, je cite le Juge Ranjeva, vice-président de la Cour internationale de Justice de La Haye disant que la CIJ est, elle aussi, devenue une juridiction des droits de l’Homme ‘sans le dire’, par le fait que, dans sa jurisprudence, elle se réfère expressément aux droits fondamentaux tels qu’énoncés dans la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme et de la violation desquels elle conclut au comportement fautif d’un Etat (cf. note ci dessous). Il est admis que les Droits de l’Homme , tels que définis par les différents textes ont une portée universelle ce qui, au-delà de toutes diversités de culture, devrait en garantir une acceptation générale. Nous n’en sommes pas là, il s’en faudrait de beaucoup. Pax Romana serait une tribune avec vocation à aborder le sujet et à en discuter des détails. Mais ne faut-il pas aussi parler des mentalités ? Mentalités et états d’esprit qui, peut être surtout dans les pays d’Occident, vont trop souvent en sens unique : La revendication sans le sens de la contrepartie, l’affirmation par chacun de ses droits sans prise de conscience de ses devoirs. Mais dire ‘j’ai le droit’ implique de réaliser que ‘j’ai le devoir’. Il y a, à côté des droits fondamentaux, des devoirs fondamentaux qui y sont connexes et qui en sont inséparables. Réclamer un droit pour soi devrait impliquer le respect de ce même droit pour autrui, pour ‘son prochain’, comme nous disent les Textes. Les droits engendrent des devoirs. Il y a entre droits et devoirs une relation de celles que le juriste dit synallagmatiques, c’est à dire constituées de prétentions et d’obligations réciproques découlant les unes des autres et se légitimant mutuellement. Il y a aussi et par ailleurs lieu d’exiger de qui réclame le respect de ses droits une attitude de loyauté vis-à-vis de l’autre et, aussi, vis-à-vis de l’autorité légitime.


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Ma génération, je suis de ‘47 comme le MIIC, a grandi sous des mentalités de devoirs et d’interdits. Ma jeunesse a connu les années de Mai ‘68 où il était “interdit d’interdire”. Simultanément est apparue la mouvance de la théologie de la libération qui a revendiqué des droits et la possibilité de mise en œuvre de ces droits, jusque-là ‘théoriques’, au profit des plus démunis, personnes et Etats confondus. Des initiatives telles que celles du commerce équitable’ et des micro-crédits vont en ce même sens. Depuis lors et de nos jours, les aspirations vont vers les droits de la Nature, assortis des devoirs concernant le développement durable, devoirs envers cette nature et envers les générations futures. Il y a donc, quant à tous ces droits (et devoirs !) matière à réflexion et à action. Le MIIC en pourrait être une tribune de choix. Je conclurai par un proverbe d’optimisme que nous a rapporté le bâtonnier Mario Stasi de Paris, lors d’un récent congrès sur “Justice et Droits de l’Homme”*, proverbe africain que je cite avec d’autant plus de plaisir qu’une amie africaine préside à notre colloque et que ce sera l’Afrique qui accueillira la prochaine Conférence mondiale du MIIC: “Marche, l’horizon est toujours plus loin, mais il n’est pas d’exemple que la nuit ne se change en aurore”. “Justice et Droits de l’Homme”, congrès de l’Institut International de Droit d’Expression et d’Inspiration Françaises, IDEF, Paris 2003 qui a inspiré la présente communication. Actes du Congrès disponibles sur le site www.institut-idef.org

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his paper begins by offering a brief excursus of the main documents adopted, during the history, to recognize human rights: from the American Declaration of 1776 to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 to the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950. The two Treaties establishing the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the International Court of Justice, as well as numerous national Constitutions, are also important.


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In the content of these texts we can note, although they always deal with fundamental rights, an evolution toward the second and third-generation human rights, toward that structure of the State defined “Rule of Law” according to which no one is above the law. The effectiveness of human rights law is guaranteed by sanctions provided for lawbreakers. At the same time, the legislator must guarantee that individual liberties do not trample on other people’s rights. The paper continues by stating that every right implicates a duty: asking for a right to be recognised means in fact that everybody must respect it. The paper concludes by mentioning the rights to nature, from which duties towards next generations spring.

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’intervento si apre con un excursus dei principali documenti adottati, nel corso della storia, a riconoscimento dei diritti dell’uomo: dalla Dichiarazione Americana del 1776 alla Dichiarazione dei Diritti dell’Uomo e del Cittadino del 1789, dalla Dichiarazione Universale dei Diritti dell’Uomo del 1948 alla Convenzione europea per la salvaguardia dei diritti dell’uomo e delle libertà fondamentali del 1950. Importanti sono anche i due trattati istitutivi della Commissione Africana dei diritti dell’uomo e dei popoli e della Corte Internazionale di Giustizia, così come numerose Costituzioni nazionali. Nel contenuto di questi testi, sebbene si tratti sempre di diritti fondamentali, si nota un’evoluzione verso i diritti di 2ª e di 3ª generazione, verso quella forma di stato definita “Stato di Diritto” secondo la quale nessuno è al di sopra della legge. L’efficacia delle norme in materia di diritti umani è garantita attraverso sanzioni previste per i trasgressori. Allo stesso tempo, il legislatore deve garantire che le libertà del singolo non prevarichino i diritti altrui. L’intervento continua affermando che ogni diritto implica un dovere: chiedere il riconoscimento di un diritto infatti significa che questo debba essere rispettato da tutti. In conclusione, vengono menzionati i diritti della natura, da cui scaturiscono doveri nei confronti delle generazioni future.


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l documento se abre con un excursus de los principales documentos adoptados, en el curso de la historia, para el reconocimiento de los derechos del hombre: de la Declaración Americana de 1776 a la Declaración de los Derechos del Hombre y del Ciudadano de 1789; de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Hombre de 1948 a la Convención europea para salvaguardar los derechos del hombre y de las libertades fundamentales de 1950. También son importantes los dos tratados institutivos de la Comisión Africana de los derechos del hombre y de los pueblos y de la Corte General de Justicia, así como numerosas Constituciones nacionales. En el contenido de estos textos, si bien tratan siempre de derechos fundamentales, se nota una evolución hacia los derechos de 2ª y 3ª generación, hacia aquella forma de estado definida como “Estado de Derecho” según el cual nadie está por encima de la ley. La eficacia de las normas en materia de derechos humanos está garantizada a través de sanciones previstas por los transgresores. Al mismo tiempo, el legislador debe garantizar que la libertad del individuo no transgreda los derechos de los otros. El documento continúa afirmando que cada derecho implica un deber: pedir el reconocimiento de un derecho, en efecto, significa que este debe ser respetado por todos. En conclusión, vienen mencionados los derechos de la naturaleza, de los que surgen deberes para con las generaciones futuras.


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The Holy See: a face of another globalization. The work for human rights Fortunatus Nwachukwu Desk Officer for human rights at the Second Section of the Secretariat of State of the Vatican

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have been asked to speak on the theme, “The Holy See: A Face of Another Globalization. The Work for Human Rights”. I will begin with three scenarios that reflect the reality of globalization. I will not dwell on the concept of globalization as such, but on its relationship with the Holy See and the activities of the Holy See in the field of human rights. Finally, I will try to situate these activities within the wider context of the Mission of the Church, whose core is founded on the concept of charity –of Trinitarian love.

Globalization: Drum Beats Some twenty years ago, an Italian friend of mine, from Rome, boasted that Chinese restaurants and American fast food chains, like McDonalds, would never find their footing in Italy. Italians, he argued, love their own cuisine and are renowned champions in Mediterranean culinary arts. I could not doubt him. Indeed, according to an African proverb, one does not abandon the dance of the masquerade in order to watch a child’s play. However, recently, my friend and I passed by a McDonald’s centre in Rome which was crowded not only by tourists, but also by Italian boys and girls. He had to admit, with much disappointment, that his prediction had been wrong. Most Italian cities, like Rome, have become hosts to many of the restaurants and food chains my friend disparaged, and many of them count Italians among their loyal clients…. In 1995 in Accra, Ghana, a young priest commenting on the biblical text of Genesis 2,24 (“Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh”) during a marriage


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ceremony, emphasized that marriage is a union between a man and a woman. After the Church event, one of the community leaders pulled him aside and told him that the point was superfluous. He said: “No one in Africa questioned that fact of marriage –only Westerners do.” Yet, today, in less than twenty years, the reality has so changed that the same community leader might not make a similar assertion with the same ease…. A few days ago, I read about the Spanish coast guards bringing ashore some illegal immigrants and preparing themselves for the arrival of many more. The news recalled the annual tragicomic drama that plays itself out in the Mediterranean sea as young people from the southern hemisphere head for the northern Mediterranean coasts in search of better prospects they have seen and heard about on the television. They are often so desperate that they are ready to brave any danger and threat in what they consider a fight for survival. And some do end up in very tragic ways. In the north, the dramatic effort to stop the apparently unstoppable flow of these migrants often assumes comical proportions. The migrants are needed to cover particular shortfalls in the local workforce, yet their presence and their difference are viewed as disturbing the harmony the society has been accustomed to. They are needed and yet unwanted, an ambivalence that echoes the enigmatic strides in the dance of a soothsayer. These are only a few examples of the rapidly changing realities and behavioural patterns of our world and societies. We have been accustomed to hearing scientists conceive of the world in terms of its large dimensions and distinctions, as produced by the original Big Bang. Today we are witnessing a new “Big Bang” that has provoked a virtual implosion of our universe, breaking down its large dimensions and distances, challenging commonly accepted distinctions and shrinking our world into a global village, or more accurately, into a global family. A central factor responsible for this new reality is the revolution of the information and communications technologies (ICTs), whereby information reaches the various parts of the planet at the speed of light, sound and waves, overcoming the barriers of space and time. Another element is the rapid advancements in transportation systems, which facilitate the movement of persons. Equally important is the collapse of the Berlin Wall, in 1989, and of the political and socio-economic blocs it represented. That event heralded the elimination of the opposition between the first and second worlds. It also led to the mobilization of


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the immense human, political and economic energy, which had previously been frozen by the division of the world into opposing blocs.1

Globalization as “Togetherness” The shrinking of our world and of space and time has had dramatic consequences. Previously particular and geographically circumscribed realities are mutating into global matters which quickly reincarnate into new local spheres worldwide. This is globalization, an embrace of the universal or global and the particular or local in all spheres of life.2 People are adopting new concepts and patterns of living not only from conviction, but also from sheer curiosity and fashion. No society or culture is spared. All are challenged. On the negative side, migration tends to grow out of control and become breeding ground for human traffickers and smugglers. Facilitated movement and communication are exploited by networks of crime and terror. On the positive side, hiding places for criminals are withering away and international solidarity is improving. One need only think of the expression of international solidarity in distressful situations like the great tsunami of 2004 in Southeast Asia. In fact, the speed and volume of worldwide response evoked by the tsunami disaster dwarfed anything that has been known of international magnanimity. Neither the generous reaction to the Ethiopian famine some years earlier nor the response to the SARS outbreak soon after the tsunami comes close in comparison. Rightly has Pope Benedict XVI observed that although the “togetherness” created by globalization “at times gives rise to misunderstandings and tensions, yet our ability to know almost instantly about the needs of others challenges us to share their situation and their difficulties”.3 I leave to others the task of elucidating the full significance of the phenomenon of globalization, its many facets, challenges, dangers and prospects. Literature on the theme is abundant,4 since the phenomenon is still 1

Cf. Giampaolo Crepaldi, Globalizzazione. Una prospettiva cristiana, Edizioni Cantagalli, Siena, 2006, p. 11.

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Compare the description of globalization as “una razionalità ‘compositiva’, ‘comprensiva’ e sintetica, capace di includere diversificando e di diversificare includendo; di articolare mantenendo I legami e di legare permettendo le articolazioni; di dare regole che non eliminino l’assunzione di responsabilità e di promuovere responsabilità in un contesto regolato”. Giampolo Crepaldi, Globalizzazione. Una prospettiva cristiana, op. cit., p. 104.

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Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est, 25 December 2005, p. 30.

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A single search on the web (19 May 2007) turned up 26,600,000 entries under the word “globalization”.


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“work in progress” and attracts the curiosity and fantasy that are commonly associated with anything novel.5 In the words of Pope John Paul II, it is “a new phenomenon, which needs to be known and evaluated by careful and precise analysis, because it is strikingly ambivalent”.6 Such ambivalence and the difficulty in reaching a precise understanding of the phenomenon make it both fascinating and frightening, and provoke diffidence among peoples. In effect, rich nations, concerned about being “invaded” by migrants from poorer countries, orchestrate policies aimed at blocking such a threat, while poor nations fearful of their economies being asphyxiated by those of the rich countries, build alliances to block the envisaged “aggression”. At times reactions born of such fear are ludicrous. For example, one might well ask: To what extent is a Chinese presence in Africa better for the fragile economies of that continent than the traditional presence of Western countries? Or, what is the sense in building real or virtual walls in the sea or in the desert, in the hope of arresting the migration of hungry and desperate persons? What are the chances of woman persuasively denying her pregnancy by simply placing her hands over her stomach? The fact is this. As attention is focused on the negative consequences of the new phenomenon, mutual suspicion grows not only in bilateral relations but also in the international intergovernmental arena.7 The need then arises for a party whose intervention is devoid of the same political, social and economic self-interests of the

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It has been noted that the subject of globalization was explicitly treated for the first time by an official document of the Church in the Encyclical Centesimus annus (1991), paragraphs 27 and especially 58, although in the earlier social Encyclical Sollicitudo rei socialis, Pope John Paul II had reflected at length on the phenomenon, without adopting the word “globalization”. Cfr. Giampaolo Crepaldi, Globalizzazione. Una prospettiva cristiana, op. cit., pp. 9-11.

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“E’ un fenomeno nuovo, che occorre conoscere e valutare con una indagine attenta e puntuale, poiché si presenta con una spiccata caratteristica di ambivalenza”, John Paul II, Discorso all’Udienza ai dirigenti di sindacati e di lavoratori di grandi società, 2 maggio 2000, n. 3.

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A typically negative analysis is that given by S. George, co-director of Transnational Institute, Amsterdam, during a seminar entitled Povertà, esclusione e conflitti sociali: minacce attuali alla pace. S. George argues that the current globalization: 1) transfers wealth from the poor to the rich; 2) transfers sovereignty from democratic States to non democratic international organizations; 3) generates more losers than winners and has no plan for the winners. Cf. Sebastiano Mosso, “Globalizzazione, una sfida per la pace: solidarietà o esclusione?”: La Civiltà Cattolica 1999, pp. 558-570, 560. The article of S. Mosso summarizes the acts of a Seminar organized at Milan on 29-31 October 1998 by the International Institute “Jacques Maritain”, in collaboration with the Fondazione Carialo and the Fondazione Mondo Unito (Vatican City) on the theme of the article.


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other States and players; a party that is capable of creating common grounds. This is the habitual locus of the diplomacy of the Holy See.

The Holy See as a Face of Another Globalization. In dealing with globalization, the Holy See is on familiar grounds. The reality it represents, the Catholic Church, is in a certain sense a prototype of the new phenomenon. By its name, its universal demographic, geographical, doctrinal and cultural outreach, the Catholic Church bears some authentic seeds of the global “togetherness” entailed by globalization. The breaking down of separating and discriminatory walls is not foreign to its vocabulary, as the following words of St Paul remind us (Eph. 2,14-16): For he (Jesus Christ) is our peace, who has made us both one, and has broken down the dividing wall of hostility, … that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby bringing the hostility to an end. It is not surprising, therefore, that official Catholic documents have tended to look at globalization from the point of view of the opportunity it provides for the Church’s mission of charity. This is the face of globalization which the Holy See and the Catholic Church seek to incarnate, the face of hope and opportunity. I have already referred to Pope Benedict’s observation that our ability to know almost instantly about the needs of others challenges us to share their situation and their difficulties. The same point is made by the Second Vatican Council in the Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity Apostolicam Actuositatem (no. 8): Mercy to the poor and the sick, and charitable works and works of mutual aid for the alleviation of all kinds of human needs, are held in special honour in the Church. Today these activities and works of charity have become much more urgent and worldwide, now that means of communication are more rapid, distance between men has been more or less conquered, people in every part of the globe have become members of a single family. Charitable action today can and should reach all men and all needs.8

8

Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity Apostolicam Actuositatem, 18 November 1965, no. 8.


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One area where the needs of all peoples are addressed is in the context of human rights. In fact, a core element in the Mission of the Church, which the diplomacy of the Holy See promotes, is the mission of charity. Such a mission is naturally expressed in our globalized world through the notion of human rights as rooted in the dignity that belongs to each human being as creatures made in the image and likeness of God.

Human Rights in a Globalized World Human rights have come to occupy a central place in contemporary reflections, debates and policies. They have even been considered a possible point of departure in writing the history of these last centuries, a history “that has gradually proposed placing the human person and his rights at the centre of reflections and actions in the juridical, political, cultural and religious orders; a tendency that is easily evident within individual States, in the Community of Nations, as well as in the more specific domain of religions and their orientation –often reciprocal inclination– towards dialogue and mutual understanding”.9 Such a view finds an actualization in the effort to classify human rights according to three “generations”. While the “first generation” is conceived to include the civil and political rights that arose following the revolutions of the 18th century, the “second generation” is applied to the economic, social and cultural rights that respond to the social questions of the 19th century. The rights of these two generations refer to the human person in his or her individuality, dignity and liberties. The “third generation” rights (peace, development, ecology), which are still under discussion, refer to the individual in his or her quality as a member of the global human family and their realization generally implies global political initiatives and action.10 Such classifications are certainly useful, but the concept of human rights goes beyond them. Some trace the origin of the concept from the theories of natural law as contained especially in the studies of 9

Vincenzo Buonomo, “La chiesa promotrice della cultura dei diritti umani” in: Seminarium, n. 3, 2006, pp. 553-596, 553-554.

10

For a more elaborate presentation of, and additional bibliography on, this classification, cf. Paolo Conversi, La “capacità” della società civile di promuovere uno sviluppo umano sostenibile. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Rome, Pontifical Gregorian University, 2003, pp. 91-99.


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Sophocles, Aristotle, the Stoics and Thomas Aquinas.11 Others commence with the 287 decisions of the Hammurabi Code (about 1700 B.C. in Babylon) concerning issues such as family rights. Many others refer to the following: the Magna Carta (12 June 1215) of the Anglo-Saxon world that protected the individual freedoms of the nobility from the arbitrary actions of the King; England’s Petition of Rights (1628) and similar initiatives born of the philosophical quest of the 17th century like the American revolution and, later in the 18th century, the French revolution, with the 1776 Declaration of Independence, as well as the famous Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789. This latter Declaration, revised and amended in 1793 and 1795, has been described as “a document with a secular mission written by an abbot”.12 With it were introduced the more modern human rights like “presumed innocence, freedom of expression and religion, and the right to combat oppression”.13 The reference to the Hammurabi Code is certainly an attempt to counter the criticism of cultural relativism that anchors the Universal Declaration of Human Rights solely in a Western genealogy. Other efforts in this regard have tried to link the Universal Declaration with traditional laws in Africa, like the gacaca law “introduced under King Cyilima I Rugwe in approximately 1350 [was] based on mediation by the elders such that the parties could maintain the dignity of the injured person”, as well as “Hong Duc, the penal code of the LE dynasty of the 15th century Vietnam, [which] already guaranteed equality between men and women in terms of civil and property rights”.14 Generally, most initiatives mentioned in the “genealogy” of the Universal Declaration are national. The international awareness of human rights or their assumption as an international responsibility is relatively recent. In response to the fears and uncertainties that gripped humanity especially after the first and the second world wars of the last century, States were drawn together by a certain humanitarian spirit “to

11

cf. Paolo Conversi, La “capacità” della società civile di promuovere uno sviluppo umano sostenibile, op. cit. p. 88.

12

The drafting of the document is attributed to Abbot Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès. Cf. Alain Sigg, International human rights law, international humanitarian law, refugee law: Geneva from early origins to the 21st century, the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Berne 2003, pp. 19 & 61.

13

Alain Sigg, op. cit. p. 27.

14

Ibid.


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propose, debate and define the rules for realizing the dream of a more equitable world”.15 It is in the context of such international meetings that human rights, as they are known today, have taken shape, beginning especially with the United Nations Charter, adopted on 26 June 1945, and reaching a culmination in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. Yet, the Universal Declaration, for all its importance as a turning point, is only a new beginning. The expression “human rights” continues to be the object of confusion. While some wish to limit it to “international human rights law”, as distinct from “international humanitarian law” and “refugee law”, others prefer to employ the expression broadly to encompass the three divisions as complementary dimensions of the same reality. The reason for the confusion and continued debate, according to Alain Sigg, lies in the fact that “the concepts of human rights and personal dignity arose long before conventions and international treaties had anchored them in universal protection according to the three above-mentioned subdivisions”.16

The Holy See and Human Rights For the Holy See and the Catholic Church “the movement towards the identification and proclamation of human rights is one of the most significant attempts to respond effectively to the inescapable demands of human dignity”.17 Certainly the Catholic Church recognizes the positive value of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, described by Pope John Paul II as “a true milestone on the path of humanity’s progress”.18 However, the Church’s Magisterium does not stop at the historical declarations or awareness of these rights. It sees their affirmation as an effective recognition and universal promotion of innate human dignity which is “a characteristic inscribed by God the Creator in his creature”. More precisely, for the Church’s Magisterium: “the roots of human rights are to be found in the dignity that belongs to each human being”; their ultimate source “is 15

Alain Sigg, op. cit. p. 7.

16

Ibid.

17

Second Vatican Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, I. See also, Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004, p. 152.

18

John Paul II, Address to the 34th General Assembly of the United Nations, 2 October 1979, 7: AAS 71, 1979, pp. 1147-1148.


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not found in the mere will of human beings, in the reality of the State, in public powers”, but in the human being and in God the Creator, for which these rights are “universal, inviolable and inalienable”; human rights are “to be defended not only individually but also as a whole: protecting them only partially would imply a kind of failure to recognize them”; “together they form a single whole, directed unambiguously towards the promotion of every aspect of the good of both the person and society”.19 Furthermore, the Magisterium of the Church has articulated a list of human rights in the Encyclical Centesimus Annus of Pope John Paul II, which is consistent with and complementary to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The list includes the following: “the right to life, an integral part of which is the right of the child to develop in the mother’s womb from the moment of conception; the right to live in a united family and in a moral environment conducive to the growth of the child’s personality; the right to develop one’s intelligence and freedom in seeking and knowing the truth; the right to share in the work which makes wise use of the earth’s material resources, and to derive from that work the means to support oneself and one’s dependents; and the right freely to establish a family, to have and to rear children through responsible exercise of one’s sexuality. In a certain sense, the source and synthesis of these rights is religious freedom, understood as the right to live in the truth of one’s faith and in conformity with one’s transcendent dignity as a person”.20 One peculiarity of the teaching of the Holy See on human rights and their application concerns the gap between the “letter” and the “spirit” of human rights. A purely literal application of rights can unfortunately fortify existing imbalances in society. In view of this and of “the privilege accorded by the Gospel to the poor”, the Church teaches that “the more fortunate should renounce some of their rights so as to place their goods more generously at the service of others” and that an excessive affirmation of equality “can give rise to an individualism in which each one claims his own rights without wishing to be answerable for the common good”.21 The peculiar approach of the Church would therefore entail enriching the letters of human rights with the spirit of charity. 19

Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004, pp. 152-154.

20

John Paul II, Encyclical Letter “Centesimus Annus”, 47. See also Address to the 34th General Assembly of the United Nations, 2 October 1979, p. 13.

21

Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 23. Cf. also Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, op.cit., no. 158.


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The Holy See and the Work for Human Rights Until now I have used the expressions the Holy See and the Catholic Church almost interchangeably. Some clarification is needed, however, because they are not equivalent. In spite of the immense literature that exists on the identity of the Holy See, it is still not uncommon at international gatherings to hear people speak of Holy Sea or Holy Seat . This latter expression “Holy Seat could be deceptive since it is the literal translation of Sancta Sedes (Latin), Santa Sede (Italian), Saint-Siège (French) and even the German Heiliger Stuhl, while on the contrary a holy “see” doesn’t seem to make sense. However, the issue comes into focus when one considers the Greek word, episcopos, translated into English as “overseer”. From it comes the Latin, episcopus, translated as “bishop”. So, while the Latin languages would speak of a “siège Episcopal” (French) or “sede episcopale” (Italian), the English use “Episcopal see”, in reference to the “see” of the “Overseer” (Bishop). In this sense, the Apostolic See therefore refers to the “overseeing” charge entrusted to and received from the Apostles, in relation to the universal Church. More specifically, the expression is applied to the Pope (the “Overseer” of the Church of Rome and of the Universal Church) and, depending on the nature of things and the context, the Roman Curia, in their role as the central administration of the Catholic Church.22 The Vatican City guarantees the territorial sovereignty of the Holy See. Consequently, although the Holy See and the Catholic Church constitute distinct juridical persons, they are intrinsically linked and “possess the same title of subjectivity”.23 All this calls to mind the atypical nature of the Holy See as a juridical subject in international relations as compared to that of other States. Another important point is that, in international relations, it is the subject that presents itself to the international community, bearing its own juridical structure. Although such relations are guided by the principles of International Law, the internal juridical constitution of the subject remains central. Generally, no subject accepts an international agre-

22

Cf. Code of Canon Law, 1983, can. 361.

23

Fortunatus Nwachukwu, Canons 364 and 365: The Holy See and the State of Israel. An Example of the Logic of Pontifical Diplomacy. Romae, Pontificia Studiorum Universitas A S. Thoma Aq. In Urbe, 1996, p. 33. See also, especially for its bibliographical richness on the subject, Jude Okolo, The Holy See: A Moral Person. The Juridical Nature of the Holy See in the Light of the Present Code of Canon Law, Rome, 1990.


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ement that runs radically contrary to its juridical constitution and ends. In most cases, the internal juridical body of norms that stipulates the principles and ends set the pace of the subject in international negotiations. In line with this principle, the Holy See participates in international relations or negotiations, and carries with it the identity of the Catholic Church from which the Holy See draws its own subjective juridical self-definition. The Holy See pursues, in such relations, the spiritual good of Christians and all humanity, their salvation and the promotion of their dignity, as well as peaceful cooperation among human beings. As the central government of the Catholic Church, the same internal universal laws and norms of the Catholic Church also underlie the comportments of the Holy See.24 The aforementioned discussion applies also with regard to the activities of the Holy See in favour of human rights. In fact, the entire pastoral activity of the Church could be presented as work in favour of human rights, since all such activity is aimed at the spiritual good of all persons, their salvation and the promotion of their dignity, as well as cooperation among peoples. To avoid the ambitious and impossible task of covering all such activities, I shall limit the consideration here to the activities of the Holy See in relation with international initiatives and cooperation.

The Holy See and International Organisations As States have increased their efforts towards common action, both at the United Nations and at other international or regional intergovernmental organisations, the Holy See has also intensified its participation within these forums. Currently, it is officially represented at thirty-three International and regional Intergovernmental Organizations and Bodies, at the levels of ambassador, observer, special delegate, or occasional observer. The tasks of the Holy See representatives usually include the following: monitoring the work in progress, especially when projects are introduced in view of creating new binding norms; informing the Holy See about the activities and initiatives of the organizations, particularly with regard to their possible consequences for the educational, health and other services offered by the local Churches; supporting and promo-

24

Cf. Fortunatus Nwachukwu, Canons 364 and 365. The Holy See and the State of Israel, op. cit., pp. 34-35.


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ting the participation of non-governmental organizations that draw their inspiration from the social doctrine of the Church. The overriding aim, however, is always to take advantage of the opportunities available through dialogue, which notably include that of introducing a spiritual perspective into the normally difficult and complex debates, as well as that of promoting higher ethical values in support of social cohesion and the common good.25 The Holy See is there to remind everyone to keep the human person at the centre of concern and to promote respectful cooperation as the best means to this end.

The Holy See and International Human Rights Instruments Due to the important stature of the United Nations among International Intergovernmental Organizations (IIGOs), it would be appropriate to recall some important milestones as regards the Holy See’s relationship within this entity. The first is the exchange of Notes, dated respectively 16 and 28 October 1957, which determined that the Representatives accredited by the Secretariat of State to the different sessions and the various organs of the United Nations represented the Holy See and not the Vatican City State. The second is the accreditation of a Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations headquarters at New York, in 1964, and to its Geneva Office in 1967. The third is the unanimous adoption, in 2004, at the General Assembly of the Resolution 58/314, which formally defined the participation of the Holy See as an Observer State in the works of the United Nations, granting it practically all the rights of the Member States, except the right to vote, a position that corresponds to the desire of the Holy See to remain super partes.26 With regard to human rights, the interventions of the Holy See are based on the fact that much of the contents of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights correspond to the social doctrine of the Church. The Preamble of the Charter presents a plethora of linguistic examples: “the dignity and worth of the human person”, 25

Cf. Joseph Joblin, s.j., “L’Eglise et la construction de l’ordre international”: La Documentation catholique, N. 2373, 4 février 2007, pp. 120-128.

26

Silvano Tomasi, c.s., “The Diplomatic Representations of the Holy See to the United Nations and Other International Organisations”, no. 3. Discourse presented on 16 May, 2007, as part of the Course for Diplomats of the Mediterranean and the Middle East Countries on: “The Catholic Church and the International Policy of the Holy See”, organized at the Gregorian University, Rome, by the “Istituto Internazionale Jacques Maritain” and the “Fondazione La Gregoriana”.


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“the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small”, “justice and respect for obligations”, “social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom”, “tolerance and… peace with one another as good neighbours”, “international peace and security”, “economic and social advancement of all peoples”. Evidently, one of the principal concerns of the founding Fathers of the United Nations Organization was the protection and promotion of human rights. In fact, art. 1 and art. 55 of the United Nations Charter clearly stipulated as one of the goals of the organization to “promote… universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion”. In response to that concern the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) created, in 1946, the Commission on Human Rights, in pursuant to art. 68 of the Charter. Soon afterwards, in the same year, the Commission was authorized by the United Nations General Assembly to draft the Universal Declaration. At the Commission the decision was taken to establish a Bill of Human Rights comprising a Declaration of general principles and a Convention that would be legally binding on the States. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948, while the Convention was born with the two International Covenants: the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, both of which were adopted and opened to signature, ratification, and accession on 16 December 1966. Ten years later, when the two Covenants entered into force with the submission to the Secretary-General of the 35th ratification and accession instrument by the States, in accordance with art. 49, the first human rights dream of the United Nations was realized.27 The establishment of the Bill of Human Rights was accompanied and followed by a veritable array of human rights instruments and mechanisms within the United Nations System, created through the Commission on Human Rights and in collaboration with the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights. The Human Rights Council (HRC) constituted barely a year ago, is intended not only to continue the

27

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was later reinforced with two Optional Protocols. The first authorizes the Committee on Human Rights to examine complaints received from individuals subject to its jurisdiction, while the second aims at abolishing the death penalty. Cf. Alain Sigg, International human rights law, international humanitarian law, refugee law, op. cit. pp. 44 & 63.


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works of its predecessor, the Commission on Human Rights, but also to reinforce and improve on them, namely by eliminating the weaknesses that had come to plague the Commission, especially with regard to overpoliticisation and selectivity. At the forefront of the “human rights explosion” stand out the nine core international human rights instruments, some of which have complementary optional protocols dealing with particular concerns, and each of which is equipped with a committee of experts (called monitoring bodies) who monitor the implementation of the provisions of the particular instrument. Then follow the myriad of universal instruments relating to human rights and dealing with a broad variegation of themes. The various instruments differ in status. In general, declarations, guidelines, standard rules and recommendations have no legal binding effect, but their moral force in providing practical guidance for States in their conduct is undeniable. On the other hand, covenants, statutes, protocols and conventions are legally binding on the States that are parties to them (by ratification and accession). Reproduced below is a table setting out the core international human rights instruments, the dates of their entry into force and, in abbreviated form, the respective monitoring bodies. No attempt has been made to offer a similar list of the universal instruments. These are so numerous that not even the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has been able to provide an exhaustive list of them on its website.28 As regards the Holy See, it generally participates in the preparatory work –consultations, debates, negotiations, etc.– leading to the creation of most of these instruments, according to the principles indicated above with regard to the activities of its representatives at the IIGOs. However, it has only acceded to three of the Core Instruments: the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1 May, 1969); the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (26 June, 2002); and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its two Optional Protocols respectively on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (20 April, 1990 and 24 October, 2001, respectively).

28

Cf. the website of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/index.htm


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The participation of the of the Holy See in the preparatory consultations and negotiations leading up to the creation of an international instrument usually signals the importance it attaches to the issue at stake. The Holy See offers moral support to the process by its very presence and sometimes makes concrete contributions during the debates. Accession is considered when the final product is consistent with the social doctrine of the Church, and after taking into account the possible implications for the peculiar nature of the Holy See. If, on the contrary, the final document contains elements which are incompatible with the doctrine of the Church, then full accession to the instrument is excluded as a possible option. Exceptions exist to this general rule, when declarations and/or reservations can clarify the Holy See’s position. For example, the Holy See has acceded with declarations which have clarified its overall position on the Convention on the Rights of the Child,29 and on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.30 Similarly, it has acceded with reservations which have deli-

29

Declaration: “The Holy See regards the present Convention as a proper and laudable instrument aimed at protecting the rights and interests of children, who are ‘that precious treasure given to each generation as a challenge to its wisdom and humanity’ (Pope John Paul II, 26 April 1984). “The Holy See recognizes that the Convention represents an enactment of principles previously adopted by the United Nations, and once effective as a ratified instrument, will safeguard the rights of the child before as well as after birth, as expressly affirmed in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child [Res. 136 (XIV)] and restated in the ninth preambular paragraph of the Convention. The Holy See remains confident that the ninth preambular paragraph will serve as the perspective through which the rest of the Convention will be interpreted, in conformity with article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 23 May 1969. “By acceding to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Holy See intends to give renewed expression to its constant concern for the well-being of children and families. In consideration of its singular nature and position, the Holy See, in acceding to this Convention, does not intend to prescind in any way from its specific mission which is of a religious and moral character.” On the Optional Protocol regarding the involvement of children in armed conflicts, the Holy See made the following Declaration: “The Holy See, with regard to article 3, paragraph 2, of the Protocol, declares that, for what concerns the Vatican City State, the Regulations of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, approved in 1976, establish that the recruitment of its members is only voluntary and that the minimum age is set forth at 19 years.”

30

Declaration: “The Holy See considers the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment a valid and suitable instrument for fighting against acts that constitute a serious offence against the dignity of the human person. In recent times the Catholic Church has consistently pronounced itself in favour of unconditional


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neated its interpretation of certain provisions in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and which have highlighted the particular nature of the Holy See.31

respect for life itself and unequivocally condemned “whatever violates the integrity of the human person, such as mutilation, torments inflicted on body or mind, attempts to coerce the will itself” (Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et spes, 7 December 1965). The law of the Church (Code of Canon Law, 1981) and its catechism (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1987) enumerate and clearly identify forms of behaviour that can harm the bodily or mental integrity of the individual, condemn their perpetrators and call for the abolition of such acts. On 14 January 1978, Pope Paul VI, in his last address to the diplomatic corps, after referring to the torture and mistreatment practised in various countries against individuals, concluded as follows: “How could the Church fail to take up a stern stand ... with regard to torture and to similar acts of violence inflicted on the human person?” Pope John Paul II, for his part, has not failed to affirm that “torture must be called by its proper name” (message for the celebration of the World Day of Peace, 1 January 1980). He has expressed his deep compassion for the victims of torture (World Congress on Pastoral Ministry for Human Rights, Rome, 4 July 1998), and in particular for tortured women (message to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, 1 March 1993). In this spirit the Holy See wishes to lend its moral support and collaboration to the international community, so as to contribute to the elimination of recourse to torture, which is inadmissible and inhuman. The Holy See, in becoming a party to the Convention on behalf of the Vatican City State, undertakes to apply it insofar as it is compatible, in practice, with the peculiar nature of that State.” 31

Reservations: “a) [The Holy See] interprets the phrase `Family planning education and services’ in article 24.2, to mean only those methods of family planning which it considers morally acceptable, that is, the natural methods of family planning. “b) [The Holy See] interprets the articles of the Convention in a way which safeguards the primary and inalienable rights of parents, in particular insofar as these rights concern education (articles 13 and 28), religion (article 14), association with others (article 15) and privacy (article 16). “c) [The Holy See declares] that the application of the Convention be compatible in practice with the particular nature of the Vatican City State and of the sources of its objective law (art. 1, Law of 7 June 1929, n. 11) and, in consideration of its limited extent, with its legislation in the matters of citizenship, access and residence.”


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The Core International Human Rights Instruments and their monitoring bodies Date

Monitoring Body32

ICERD

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

21 Dec 1965

CERD

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

16 Dec 1966

HRC

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

16 Dec 1966

CESCR

CEDAW

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

18 Dec 1979

CEDAW

CAT

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

10 Dec 1984

CAT

CRC

Convention on the Rights of the Child

20 Nov 1989

CRC

ICRMW

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

18 Dec 1990

CMW

International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (not yet into force) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (not yet into force) ICCPROP1

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

16 Dec 1966

HRC

ICCPROP2

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty

15 Dec 1989

HRC

OPCEDAW

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

10 Dec 1999

CEDAW

OPOptional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the CRC-AC Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict

25 May 2000

CRC

OPCRC-SC

Optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

25 May 2000

CRC

OP-CAT

Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

18 Dec 2002

CAT

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (not yet into force) 32

CERD = Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination; HRC = Human Rights Committee; CESCR = Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; CEDAW =


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Conclusion: The “Trinitarian” Diplomacy of the Holy See The action of a State or an equivalent entity as it officially engages in international relations –bilateral or multilateral– or negotiations is called diplomacy. To be truly official and thus, diplomatic, the action has to emanate from the Authority of the entity. It also has to reflect the juridical self-definition of the State or entity in question, since, as was mentioned above, it is the entity that presents itself to the international community, bearing its own juridical structure, which has to correspond to established conventions and norms. As was stated above, when the Holy See participates in international relations or negotiations, it does so as a distinct entity but one intrinsically related to the Catholic Church, from which it derives its own subjective juridical status. Consequently, the diplomacy of the Holy See belongs to the wider circle of the “external” or international activities of the Church. One of the most recent high ranking official documents of the Church on such activities is the Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est, of Pope Benedict XVI (25 December 2005). In this document, the Pope presents “the Church’s charitable activity as a manifestation of Trinitarian love”.33 Since caritas is the fundamental principle of the Church’s activity, every action of the Church has to be inspired by that same Trinitarian love. This includes the diplomacy of the Church –its action and that of its central government, the Holy See, in international relations– which consequently must be a diplomacy of charity, founded also on the Trinitarian love. Caritas Christi urget nos,34 becomes also Caritas Christi urget diplomatiam ecclesiae, diplomatiam nostram.35 It is beyond the scope of this paper to fully flesh out this argument. However, some pertinent questions may be raised, namely: What place has Trinitarian love in diplomacy and particularly in ecclesiastical diplomacy? What relevance could the three Persons of the Triune God have in the concrete activity of the Holy See and of the Church in international relations? If Jesus came to proclaim the Kingdom of God and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women; CAT = Committee Against Torture; CRC = Committee on the Rights of the Child; CMW = Committee on Migrant Workers. 33

Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus caritas est, 25 December 2005, nos. 19ff.

34

I.e., “The love of Christ drives us on”.

35

I.e., “The love of Christ drives the diplomacy of the Church, our diplomacy”.


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Holy Spirit came as the Advocate to continue and accompany the work of Jesus and to lead to the fullness of truth, and if all the actions of Jesus and the Holy Spirit find their source, point of reference and emanation in the Father, can those Catholic non-governmental organizations engaged at the international forums not find a link, in this thinking, between their work of advocacy and the actions of the Holy Spirit, the Advocate? If they can, could that link not serve as an inspiration for the relationship between the activity of these organizations, the social doctrine of the Church and the official expression of the diplomacy of the Church? The relevance of these questions has already been highlighted in the following affirmation of the Second Vatican Council in the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, Gaudium et spes: The Church ought to be present in the community of peoples, to foster and stimulate cooperation among men; motivated by the sole desire of serving all men, it contributes both by means of its official channels and through the full and sincere collaboration of all Christians.36 The faithful are to play their part “either individually or collectively, in organization set up or on the way to being set up to foster cooperation between nations. Different Catholic international bodies can assist the community of nations on the way to peace and brotherhood;… Organizations of this kind, moreover, contribute more than a little to the instilling of a feeling of universality, which is certainly appropriate for Catholics, and to the formation of truly worldwide solidarity and responsibility”.37 As in the Trinity, the action of the Holy Spirit draws from its common divine essence with the Father and the Son, with whom it shares in the Trinitarian pericoresis, a similar relationship of koinonia, of dialogue and trust, and of unity and diversity, is also possible between the “diplomatic” actions of the faithful, the Social Doctrine of the Church and the Gospel.

36

Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 7 December 1965, no. 89.

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Gaudium et spes, op. cit. no. 90.


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artendo da un’analisi della globalizzazione, l’intervento analizza l’impegno della Santa Sede per i diritti umani. Il riconoscimento e la tutela dei diritti umani costituiscono una delle risposte più significative ed efficaci della Chiesa Cattolica alla costante richiesta di rispetto per la dignità umana. Vari sono i tentativi storici di classificazione di diritti, ma la pietra miliare per il progresso dell’umanità è da considerare la Dichiarazione Universale dei Diritti dell’Uomo del 1948. Tale documento segna il riconoscimento dei diritti umani a livello internazionale. Secondo il Magistero della Chiesa tuttavia, un’applicazione meramente letterale di tali diritti costituirebbe un fallimento, in quanto rischierebbe di rafforzare i già grandi squilibri presenti nella società. La Chiesa invece insegna a rinunciare ad alcuni propri diritti per il bene comune. L’intervento si conclude con un’esame sull’impegno della Santa Sede per ottenere un’azione congiunta con gli attori internazionali. Essa è presente presso le Nazioni Unite ed altri organismi intergovernativi, nazionali o internazionali; monitorizza la realizzazione di progetti; informa il Vaticano sulle attività delle organizzazioni; supporta e promuove la partecipazione di organizzazioni non-governative ispirate alla Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa.

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artiendo del análisis de la globalización, el documento revisa el compromiso que la Santa Sede toma con los derechos humanos. El reconocimiento y la protección de los derechos humanos constituyen una de las respuestas más significativas y más eficaces de la Iglesia católica a la constante petición de respeto por la dignidad humana. Varios han sido los intentos históricos de clasificar los derechos, pero como piedra miliar para el progreso de la humanidad deberíamos considerar la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del hombre de 1948. Tal documento pone en relieve el reconocimiento de los derechos humanos a nivel internacional. Según el magisterio de la Iglesia sin embargo, una aplicación meramente literal de tales derechos comportaría un fracaso, ya que nos arriesgaríamos a reforzar los ya grandes desequilibrios actuales en la sociedad. La Iglesia, en cambio, enseña a renunciar a algunos derechos propios para el bien común. El documento concluye examinando el compromiso de la Santa Sede en el momento de obtener una acción común con los agentes internacionales. La institución está presente en las Naciones Unidas y en otros organismos intergubernamentales, nacionales o internacionales; supervisa la realización de planes; informa al Vaticano sobre las actividades de las organizaciones, y apoya y promueve la participación de las organizaciones no gubernamentales inspiradas en la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia.


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Las ONG y su rol de representación de la sociedad civil ante los organismos internacionales Nuria Sastre Lawyer and President of the Centre d’Estudis Francesc Eiximenis

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as ONG fueron reconocidas por las Naciones Unidas como exponentes de la sociedad civil, a diferencia de los estados, que tradicionalmente fueron desde un principio los únicos sujetos del Derecho Internacional. Este reconocimiento a favor de unos entes distintos a los estados, con derecho a voz, aunque sin voto, representa una voluntad de apertura hacia el conjunto de la sociedad y también a las personas individuales, sujetos indiscutibles de los Derechos contenidos en la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos. No debemos olvidar que la persona humana es , en definitiva, la finalidad última de todo Derecho, pues la genuina misión de los ordenamientos jurídicos de los estados , incluido el ámbito internacional, no es otra que la de garantizar a los ciudadanos el derecho a la vida, a la libertad de pensamiento, de creencias, el derecho al trabajo, a la educación, a dotarse de representantes e instituciones que gestionen el bien común. No quiero con ello decir que los Estados no sean representativos. Lo son, sin duda, pues todos están dotados de instituciones democráticas. Sin embargo, desde un principio se vió la necesidad de que otro tipo de organización no estatal estuviera presente en los organismos de las Naciones Unidas como complemento imprescindible de un tejido social mucho más complejo. Durante todos estos años, las ONG han defendido y trabajado para que la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos fuera una realidad en el mundo. No han reparado en denunciar a los Gobiernos siempre que ha sido necesario y, a la par, han realizado una labor incansable de colaboración con las instituciones internacionales. En la Resolución 60/251, por la que se creó el nuevo Consejo de Derechos Humanos, en su apartado de consideraciones iniciales, se reco-


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noció explicitamente, “las ONG desempeñan una función importante en la promoción y protección de los derechos humanos en los planos nacional, regional e internacional”. Podemos sentirnos orgulloso de este reconocimiento así como del trabajo realizado. Sin embargo, la evolución contínua de las instituciones internacionales, obliga a las ONG a adaptarse constantemente a estos cambios y a disponer de mas movilidad, efectivos y, en definitiva más medios económicos, para llevar a cabo su labor. En este punto, entiendo que las ONG deben afrontar un tema básico cual es su financiación, diversificando sus fuentes y potenciando la autofinanciación por sus propios miembros. La dependencia económica de los gobiernos puede entrar en contradicción con sus reivindicaciones y condicionar gravemente su independencia. Considero que las ONG se deben, principalmente a la sociedad civil. Esta es su principal razón de ser. A ellas corresponde acercarse a las víctimas de las violaciones de derechos humanos, incluyendo naturalmente los económicos y sociales, es decir, dirigir su mirada hacia las bases para escuchar y canalizar sus reivindicaciones ante las instancias internacionales y la opinión pública. Entiendo como base a aquella parte de la sociedad civil, sea individuo o grupo que carece de poder económico o social y cuyos derechos no siempre son respetados. Es dentro de este contexto que pueden detectarse mejor los problemas y encauzar mejor las soluciones, con participación de los afectados y mediante su acompañamiento. En síntesis, considero que las ONG deben estar más cerca de la sociedad civil que de los Gobiernos y deben vigilar constantemente esa distancia, evitando que una profesionalización –a veces conveniente y necesaria– les aleje de su finalidad más importante, También en los paises occidentales, que frecuentemente tomamos como modelo, existe una distancia demasiado grande que separa al ciudadano de tantas organizaciones y gobiernos, que deberían velar por sus intereses más genuinos. Con una simple mirada a nuestro alrededor, percibiremos una creciente desconfianza del ciudadano : – – – – –

en los gobiernos en los poderes económicos en las NN.UU. en las potencias militares incluso respecto de las propias ONG


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Podemos calificarla de una mezcla de desconfianza y rechazo, ante unas estructuras que apenas admiten una intervención personal. Una resignación ante la imposibilidad de influir de un modo real en su funcionamiento, con resultado de una creciente pasividad ante la propia historia individual y colectiva, una creciente indiferencia ante políticos y organizaciones. Ello comporta la misma indiferencia, también ante aquellos principios que hace ya más de cincuenta años, me refiero a la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, han constiutído un avance fundamental para –la dignidad de la persona humana y, su consecuencia más directa, la paz y el respeto entre creencias, paises y regimenes políticos. Vuelven oscuras tendencias, que ven en la violencia –cualquier violencia– una forma efectiva de resolver los conflictos, frente a otras vías, más lentas y dificultosas, que respetando al oponente, buscan con paciencia y tenacidad, soluciones más duraderas y profundas. Desde el abuso de la intervenciones militares, y las violaciones del derecho internacional, a cargo de paises que se autodenominan civilizados, hasta la violencia de género, aflora en nuestras sociedades un fenómeno preocupante: Soluciónes inmediatas a costa de la destrucción del otro.Viscera contra diálogo. El resultado está a la vista: nuevos conflictos armados devastan paises enteros, condenando a muerte o a la miseria a varias generaciones. La gente deja de creer progresivamente en el derecho, que, puede ser vulnerado por los gobiernos o las potencias económicas, cínica e impunemente. Que está ocurriendo en nuestro jardín occidental? Porqué tantos ciudadanos educados en la democracia dejan de participar en las elecciones, asisten pasivamente ante los conflictos o, votan a partidos de pensamiento racista o totalitario? Porqué el número de mujeres asesinadas por sus maridos o compañeros no deja de crecer en los paises occidentales? ¿Són sólo los gobiernos los responsables? ¿O son los parlamentos democráticos, representantes de los pueblos, quienes deciden el presupuesto público? ¿O lo somos todos por permitirlo? Un ilustre jurista de Catalunya, Agustí de Semir, incansable defensor de los derechos humanos y que fué Presidente del Grupo de Juristas Roda Ventura, siempre nos decía “La vulneración de los derechos humanos en cualquier pais se decide en el momento en que se votan los presupuestos en el Parlamento”. Me permito añadir: También se violan cuando, existiendo leyes y constituciones correctas, y hasta presupuestos, el deficiente funciona-


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miento de las administraciones y la burocracia, acaban diluyendo y anulando su principal finalidad, que no es otra que el bien común.

Parece una obviedad y lo es, pero conviene no olvidarla En Europa, paises con sus constituciones impecables en materia de derechos, destinan cantidades exorbitantes a armamento y gastos militares. Fabrican y venden armas –que se sabe seran de nuevo vendidas para alimentar los conflictos bélicos en todas las partes del mundo. La calidad de vida, la educación y la sanidad se resienten. No se encuentra vivienda subvencionada. La gente mira con desconfianza hacia los recien llegados –los inmigrantes– a los que ven como rivales en el reparto de los bienes comunes. Si su nivel de vida es razonable, el ciudadano puede permitirse desconfiar de todo y caer en el escepticismo. Si no lo es, sin duda recurrirá a su instinto y aparecerá la supervivencia a toda costa, violencia incluída.

No obstante, observamos signos de esperanza en la base Mientras las grandes estructuras parecen anquilosarse y pierden su capacidad de ser instrumentos al servicio de las personas, en definitiva, se desnaturalizan.... surgen en la sociedad civil, experiencias extraordinarias, movimientos que, sin apenas organización ni medios, han sabido crear opinión y han puesto de manifiesto ante el mundo, las contradicciones frente a regimenes y gobiernos. Son organizaciones que trabajan por la paz, sin ansia de poder, influencia o de territorio. Me parecen un signo de esperanza. Entre muchísimos, voy a citar algunos de ellos : • La Asociación de Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, surgida espontaneamente hace ya trenta años, en protesta por las desapariciones durante la dictadura en Argentina, y que continúa hoy como testimonio de reivindicación abierta y popular. • El colectivo de mujeres AHOTSAK, que significa voces de mujeres para la paz, surge con motivo del anuncio de tregua en el Pais Vasco, el pasado año 2006. Incluye miembros de distinto signo político y su objetivo es el de cooperar con su opinión y movilización, al proceso de paz. • Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition, colectivo de mujeres de signo católico y protestante, que se unen para luchar por la culminación


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del proceso de paz en Irlanda del Norte. Ellas han contribuído sin duda a promover una opinión social favorable a tal proceso, impensable hace sólo pocos años. En mi opinión, experiencias y grupos como los que he mencionado, se convierten en agentes de derechos humanos y de derecho internacional, sean o no formalmente ONG. Su influencia no puede ser negada ni silenciada. Su incidencia puede convertirse en fundamental en el mundo de las grandes burocracias y de los grandes intereses.

Su voz debe ser escuchada Las ONG debe deben salir al encuentro de estos movimientos y prestarles su ayuda y su experiencia, tenderles la mano, apoyar sus causas.Reducir las distancias, los trámites, los requisitos, ofrecerles sus limitados medios, para difundir sus legitimas aspiraciones. La Iglesia debe sumarse a esta actitud, tendiendo sus manos a los hombres y mujeres de buena voluntad. Nada es más evangélico que el trabajo por la paz y la justicia. Saber concretar este trabajo en cada momento histórico, en cada pais o comunidad, es tarea ineludible de toda la Iglesia. Así, entre todos, y a pesar de las inevitables discrepancias, podremos hacer realidad otra de las finalidades proclamadas en la Resolución ya citada, por la que se crea el Consejo de Derechos Humanos: “trabajar estrechamente en la defensa de los derechos humanos, con la sociedad civil, además de los gobiernos, las organizaciones regionales y las instituciones de derechos humanos“. Debemos llenar de concreción y contenido este acuerdo y nadie mejor que las ONG para llevarlo a cabo, con independencia y libertad.

Para terminar, debo aludir a nuestra condición de juristas Los juristas, tradicionalmente han dedicado sus esfuerzos a elaborar leyes, instrumentos fundamentales para el progreso social. En estos momentos y en la sociedad occidental, veo más necesario la adopción de criterios para su aplicación, en orden a que el espíritu de estas leyes no quede ahogado. Debemos ser conscientes de que somos una minoría privilegiada a quien se han concedido unos talentos, de los que deberemos responder. La legitimidad en definitiva, de nuestras organizaciones cultas y de


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nuestros prestigiosos foros jurídicos existe, siempre y cuando nuestra labor sea capaz de articular respuestas inteligibles y generadoras de esperanza, para los más desfavorecidos en orden a que la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos sea una realidad y no un lujo más de occidente. Como jurista, me siento orgullosa de la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos, que considero una pieza fundamental en la história de la humanidad. De las instituciones que, como las Naciones Unidas trabajan para que los derechos de primera, segunda y tercera generación sean una realidad en cada pais y en sus ordenamientos jurídicos. También me anima la existencia de tantas ONG, entre ellas Pax Romana, que ayudan a fomentar la paz en el mundo. Como creyente y católica, creo en el Evangelio y en los principios revolucionarios que Jesucristo nos aporta: amar a los enemigos, no destruirás la hierba que crece junto al trigo, pondrás la otra mejilla cuando seas agredido... La aplicación de estos principios en el derecho internacional y en este complejo mundo resulta sumamente dificil. La exigencia evangélica y la Declaración de los Derechos Humanos constituyen una utopía, y en esta utopía debemos trabajar todos los hombres y mujeres de buena voluntad, sin distinciones ni discriminaciones, para construir constantemente la paz en el mundo. El camino hacia la utopía, creo que pasa ineludiblemente por manifestar claramente : • Intransigencia frente a las guerras y las causas que la justifican injustificadamente. Contra la industria armamentistica y sus intereses. Contra los presupuestos militares millonarios, en detrimento de la educación, la sanidad y la cultura y otros derechos económicos y sociales reconocidos. • Intransigencia contra la pena de muerte, aún presente en tantos paises que se dicen civilizados. Intransigencia contra la práctica de la tortura. • Intransigencia contra la pobreza y sus causas, que condena, diariamente, a muerte, a millares de personas en todo el mundo, especialmente a los sectores más debiles, niños, mujeres y ancianos, que engrosan nuestras estadísticas del fracaso. • Intransigencia contra la discriminación por motivos religiosos, tanto impidiendo creencias, como justificando su imposición, mediante todo tipo de violencia.


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La lista no terminaría aqui, por supuesto. En cada comunidad humana, podrían añadirse muchas otras intransigencias. Debemos tener todo ello muy presente. Creo que todos somos conscientes que debemos trabajar duro para que el realismo inmovilista no nos convierta en otra raza de cínicos, cultos y concienciados, pero cínicos, en definitiva.

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his paper offers a remark upon the reason for being of the NGOs and their role as representatives of the civil society before the international organizations. The work of NGOs consists in defending, promoting and implementing human rights; denouncing some Governments’ unfair behaviour; colaborating with international institutions. They also have to cushion many citizens’ feeling of mistrust, rejection and resignation towards governments, the military, economic and political power structures United Nations, and even NGOs themselves. There is often a passiveness that causes indifference towards the message of human dignity, peace and mutual respect contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. What is happening in “our Western garden”? Why do so many citizen with democratic education assume a passive behaviour in front of such injustices? The effect of this attitude is clearly visible: violence, violations of the international law, abuse of military interventions and many other worrying phenomena which have started to appear in our societies. However, next to the big structures which become deshumanized, some small movements which work for peace and justice are arising. They are a ray of hope. .The papers concludes with some comments on the figure of the jurist.

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’intervento offre una riflessione sulla ragion d’essere delle ONG e sul loro ruolo di rappresentanti della società civile presso le organizzazioni internazionali. Il lavoro delle ONG consiste nel difendere, promuovere ed implementare i diritti umani; denunciare il comportamento scorretto di alcuni Governi; collaborare con le istituzioni internazionali. Esse devono inoltre mitigare il sentimento di sfiducia, rifiuto e rassegnazione di molti cittadini nei confronti dei Governi; del potere militare, economico e politico; delle Nazioni Unite e delle stesse ONG. Tale passività


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comporta indifferenza verso ciò che la Dichiarazione Universale dei Diritti dell’Uomo afferma, il cui contenuto rappresenta un fondamentale progresso per la dignità umana, la pace ed il rispetto reciproco. Cosa sta accadendo nel “nostro giardino occidentale”? Perché tanti cittadini educati secondo principi democratici assistono passivamente a tali ingiustizie? Il risultato di tale atteggiamento è evidente: violenza, violazioni del diritto umanitario, abuso degli interventi militari e molti altri fenomeni preoccupanti che stanno comparendo nelle nostre società. Tuttavia, accanto alle grandi strutture che divengono disumanizzate, stanno nascendo alcuni piccoli movimenti che lavorano per la pace e la giustizia. Un raggio di speranza. Il testo termina con alcuni commenti sulla figura del giurista.


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Mechanisms of the new Human Rights Council Santiago Ripol Legal Counsel of the Spanish Constitucional Court Lecturer in International Law at the Pompeu Fabra University (Barcelona)

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will talk about the UN Human Rights Council. This is a young institution. It is only 1 year old. But the Council is an old institution, too. It replaced the UN Commission on Human Rights, a body which was set up in 1946. In my presentation I will try to give answer to the 3 following questions: 1) Why do we need an international body responsible for promoting human rights respect? 2) Why was peremptory the disappearance of the UN Commission and its replacement by the HR Council? 3) What is new in the Council? In other words, what does the Council offer us that the Commission couldn’t?

Why a universal body focussed on the protection of HR was need? Before 1945 International Law had neither rules nor institutions dealing with the promotion and protection of Human rights. It was understood that States have not only the best legal title but also the greatest interest in the safeguard of rights and freedoms of their citizens. Unfortunately the Second World War showed us that States could become the worst enemies of people living in their territories. Here we have the reason which led Statesmen, politicians, legal experts, all the persons who prepared the text of the Charter of the United Nations, to include the promotion and protection of HR in the agenda of the Organization. Nevertheless we cannot forget that the promotion and protection of HR was not –is not– the main objective of the United Nations; on the


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contrary, the UN was created for achieving international peace. The UN Charter considers that HR are important for international peace. Reasons are twofold: 1) because we can presume that whether a State is concerned with HR, it will hardly be involved in an international armed conflict; 2) because a situation of gross and systematic violation of HR can be considered, without any doubt, as a threat to international peace. Consequently the Charter of the UN introduced the obligation to the member States of cooperating with the UN institutions (and with the other States) in the promotion and protection of HR. That’s why the Commission on HR was need. The Commission was a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). It was established in 1946 to weave the international legal fabric that protects our fundamental rights and freedoms. Consequently, the Commission has prepared significant legal texts, for instance, the two 1966 Covenants, the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination, etcetera, not to forget the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Commission has also promoted the full implementation of human rights obligations undertaken by States and has set standards to govern the conduct of States. The Commission has developed another role: it tried to give answer to the thousands of letters victims of gross violation of HR sent to the UN. The Commission understood that people who were suffering, for instance, the disappearance of a relative and who were asking for help to the UN, couldn’t be left in their loneliness, without any answer. So, the Commission developed several special procedures. Although the mandates given to special procedure mechanisms vary, they usually are to examine, monitor, advise, and publicly report on human rights situations in specific countries or territories, known as country mandates, or on major phenomena of human rights violations worldwide, known as thematic mandates. Various activities can be undertaken by special procedures, including responding to individual complaints, conducting studies, providing advice on technical cooperation, and engaging in general promotional activities. In brief, the UN Commission on Human Rights has carried out an impressive task. Being things like this, why had the UN Commission to be replaced by a new institution? What was wrong with the Commission? This drives us to the second question of my presentation.


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Why was peremptory the disappearance of the UN Commission and its replacement by the HR Council? The Commission fulfilled the functions already mentioned in the course of its regular session, which used to be held in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. Over 3,000 delegates from member and observer States and from non-governmental organizations were used to participate in these regular sessions. In the course of the session the Commission used to held interactive dialogues with the mandate holders of the special procedures, statements made by invited speakers, the sponsors of draft proposals, procedures concerning decisions taken regarding draft proposals and voting. This important arena for the debate of HR situation all around the world had two main problems: 1. The first one concerned the Organization of its work. It had become difficult within a period of 6 weeks to consider all the questions included in the agenda of the Commission. 2. The second problem was the composition of the Commission, which was not in accordance with its mandate. The Commission on Human Rights was composed by 53 States members of the UN. These States were elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The member States of the Commission had to receive and examine the reports presented by Special rapporteurs, by States, by NGOs, and had to prepare a statement considering the reality of the human rights protection in the examined States and the level of fulfilment of international standards. The problem was that the practice of most of the member States of the Commission was not in accordance with the UN standards. Moreover, political debate invaded the debates. As a consequence, many States and scholars referred to the declining international credibility of the Commission on Human Rights. Politicization, selectivity and double standards were commonly acknowledged to be shortcomings of the Commission. The disappearance of the UN Commission was peremptory.


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What is new in the Council? In April 2006 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted its Resolution 60/251 establishing the Human Rights Council. A brief exam of this Resolution will be enough to give answer to the third (and last) question I proposed at the beginning of my presentation. The Resolution contains, in my view, 4 novelties which concern the status of the Council the organization of its work, its composition and, finally, its competences. A) The Resolution has changed the Status of the Council. Certainly, the Council is a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly, not of the ECOSOC (as the Commission was). This is important in order to emphasize that HR protection is a priority of the UN because the General Assembly is, together with the Security Council, the most important institution of the United Nations. Anyway, this final solution in the status of the HR Council can be considered, in some sense, a lost opportunity. During the negotiations of the Resolution the importance of mainstreaming human rights into United Nations activities and the centrality of human rights within the United Nations system was affirmed by all delegations. There was indeed a proposal to elevate the Commission on Human Rights to a standing Human Rights Council. But this proposal was rejected due to the fact that many delegations considered that the establishment of a Council with higher status and increased authority would accord human rights a higher priority or a greater degree of importance than other issues, such as development. B) A second novelty introduced by Resolution 60/251 concerns the organization of work. According to it the Council shall meet regularly throughout the year and schedule no fewer than three sessions per year, including a main session, for a total duration of no less than ten weeks. In brief, we have now 3 sessions (instead of 1). One of theses sessions –the main session– will have a duration of 10 weeks (instead of 6). C) It is also important to highlight changes made in the composition of the Council. This is the third significant change we can appreciate. The Council shall consist of forty-seven Member States (instead of 53). Anyway, what is really important is that the GA Resolution has introduced 4 requisites that minimize the politici-


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zation, selectivity and double standards that were commonly acknowledged to be shortcomings of the Commission. – the Member States shall be elected directly and individually by secret ballot by the majority of the members of the General Assembly; – although the membership in the Council shall be open to all States Members of the United Nations, when electing members of the Council, Member States shall take into account: 1) the contribution of candidates to the promotion and protection of human rights and 2) their voluntary pledges and commitments made thereto; – the General Assembly, by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, may suspend the rights of membership in the Council of a member of the Council that commits gross and systematic violations of human rights; – members elected to the Council shall uphold the highest standards in the promotion and protection of human rights, shall fully cooperate with the Council and be reviewed under the universal periodic review mechanism during their term of membership. D) Finally, what about the competences of the new body? Here we have the 4th (and last) novelty. Generally speaking the new HR Council will develop the same functions the Commission was carrying out. Well, we should probably tone down this statement. The HR Council has formally gained 2 new responsibilities: 1) to prevent human rights violations and respond promptly to human rights emergencies, 2) to undertake a universal periodic review of the fulfilment by each State of its human rights obligations and commitments. This last task shall be carried on by a peer review cooperative mechanism, based on an interactive dialogue, with the full involvement of the country concerned and with consideration given to its capacity-building needs. The procedural rules of this new mechanism have not been developed yet.


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’intervento esamina il nuovo Consiglio per i Diritti Umani delle Nazioni Unite, che dall’aprile 2006 ha sostituito, tramite risoluzione dell’Assemblea Generale, l’omonima Commissione. Vengono mostrate analogie e differenze tra i due organi. La Commissione, stabilita nel 1946 per promuovere e proteggere i diritti di tutti gli esseri umani, ha elaborato Dichiarazioni, Convenzioni, Trattati; ha promosso il rispetto degli obblighi in materia; ha stabilito standard di comportamento per gli Stati; ha sviluppato procedure speciali con l’obiettivo di esaminare, monitorare, consigliare ed informare sulla situazione afferente i diritti umani in particolari aree. La struttura ed il meccanismo di funzionamento dell’organo tuttavia, non consentivano di realizzare, con risultati soddisfacenti, l’ingente mole di lavoro. Si è così iniziato a parlare di “declino della credibilità internazionale della Commissione”. Le maggiori critiche riguardavano l’eccessiva politicizzazione, la selettività e i double standards. L’intervento si conclude con l’analisi del Consiglio. Sebbene sia fallita la proposta di creare un organo permanente, esso presenta una migliore organizzazione, un diverso numero di membri (con altrettanto diversi criteri di eleggibilità), maggiore competenza ed efficacia.

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l documento examina el nuevo Consejo para los Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas, que desde abril de 2006 ha substituido, tras la resolución de la Asamblea General, la homónima Comisión. Vienen mostradas las analogías y las diferencias entre los dos organismos. La Comisión, establecida en 1946 para promover y para proteger los derechos de todos los seres humanos, ha elaborado Declaraciones, Convenciones y Tratados; ha promovido el respecto de las obligaciones en materia; ha establecido el estándar de comportamiento para los Estados; ha desarrollado procedimientos especiales con el objetivo de examinar, guiar, aconsejar e informar sobre la situación correspondiente de los derechos humanos en áreas específicas. La estructura y el mecanismo de funcionamiento del organismo sin embargo, no han consentido realizar con resultados satisfactorios la enorme cantidad de trabajo. Tanto es así, que se ha empezado a hablar de “decadencia en la credibilidad internacional de la Comisión”. Las críticas más importantes observan la excesiva politización, la selección y los dobles estándares. El documento concluye con el análisis del Consejo. Aunque la propuesta de crear un órgano permanente haya fallado, se ha conseguido una mejor organización, un número variado de miembros (con criterios igualmente varios de elegibilidad), y una mayor competencia y eficacia.


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Catholic contribution to the UN Human Rights Council and to the current challenges on Human Rights Otmar Oehring Head of the Human Rights Office - Pontifical Mission Society (MISSIO) in Aachen (Germany)

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n behalf of the Board and staff of Missio in Aachen –the pontifical mission society in Germany– it is a great honour and pleasure for me to congratulate those responsible at Pax Romana on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the organisation. As a member of a Pax Romana affiliate, the Bund Neudeutschland, I take the liberty of adding my own, very personal congratulations and best wishes. Deviating from the official programme, I am not now going to talk about developments at the United Nations Human Rights Council. I have just returned from a two-week trip to the Middle East, during which some colleagues and I looked into the situation of Christian refugees from Iraq. I would like to tell you something about their situation now. In a nutshell it has to do with the right to life, which is undoubtedly the most fundamental human right of all. There are currently around three to four million refugees from Iraq throughout the Middle East. One in ten of them is probably Christian. While we are naturally concerned by the fate of all refugees, we nevertheless looked at the situation facing Christian refugees, in particular, during our stay. There is a general flight from the terror that reigns in Iraq, which is a direct result of the war in the country unleashed by the USA and the consequent complete collapse of any kind of state order in Iraq. Insiders we talked to –such as the person responsible for the anti-terror campaign in northern Iraq and the governor responsible for the Iraq dossier in the Jordanian Ministry of the Interior– assume that the situation in Iraq will continue to worsen for at least the next three years. They also confirmed that the situation of Christians in Iraq is especially precarious. They have no tribal structures or militias of their own and are completely at the


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mercy of the regime of terror exercised by Islamist groups and outright criminal gangs. The basis for their livelihood –shops, workshops, practices and the like– is being systematically destroyed. Members of the Christian minority groups are regularly abducted; others receive personal hate mail warning them to leave the country within 48 or 24 hours or face death if they fail to heed such well-meant advice. Those who have experienced the practical consequences of such threats respond by leaving Iraq immediately and generally relinquishing everything that is important or of some material value to them. In the present situation houses, shops and practices etc. cannot be sold, since the majority population knows full well that it will acquire these assets anyway. The refugees –and I refer here to the Christians– arrive in the host countries of the region in a traumatised state and often with no more than what they have on their backs. Doctors have diagnosed many cases of post-traumatic stress disorder. None of the main host countries in the region that we visited has ratified the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention. This means that refugees are not recognised as such by these countries. In Lebanon they have no status whatsoever and are simply illegals –with all the consequences that has: no residence permit, no right to medical care, no chance for their children to attend school. Instead, they face the constant risk of being arrested and, worst of all, of being expelled. In Syria they are treated as waffidin, as guests. However, guests are expected to leave after a certain time. Refugees who have entered Syria are allowed to remain for three months. They then have to leave the country again by crossing the border between Syria and Iraq, although they can subsequently re-enter the country for a further three months. The state grants them free medical care and their children can attend state schools. However, they have to provide documentation of the educational level attained –and that is only possible in Iraq. In Jordan, the refugees are also waffidin, guests. In contrast to Syria, however, that applies for a single period of six months only. Entry to the country is refused completely to people between the ages of 18 and 35. Refugees are not given access to the state health care system or the state education system. The biggest problem the refugees face in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan is finding work. None of these three countries is well-off in economic terms and finding a job is difficult enough for the indigenous population. Those in employment earn little more than 80 to 100 US dollars a


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month. Rents of 200 US dollars and more are demanded for a single room, which is often occupied by ten or more people. A family of four needs at least 500 to 600 US dollars a month to survive. In Lebanon, the situation is exacerbated by the fact that employers frequently refuse to pay the wages promised to illegal refugees. Moreover, the way to work is dangerous enough in itself, since detention and, worst of all, repatriation to Iraq poses a constant threat. Refugees in Syria and Jordan are spared this fate at least. No Christian refugee is prepared to contemplate returning to Iraq even if the situation there were to improve. The aim of each and every one of them –and certainly of the majority of Muslim refugees, too– is the West: the USA, Canada, Australia or Sweden. The rest of the world has hitherto been irresponsible enough to close its eyes to the refugee drama unfolding in the Middle East. The hope these people have is of registration with UNHCR –although that really is no more than a hope. It takes at least six months to move from registration to the first interview. Registration itself effects no change whatsoever in the residence status of the refugees in any of the countries we visited. In Lebanon, even a UNHCR document affords no protection from arrest. In Jordan, the six-month residence permit has often elapsed before the first interview with UNHCR can be conducted. This results in the refugees becoming illegals who, when leaving the country at some later stage, are forced to pay a penalty of one dinar or one euro for every additional day they have spent there. Many have already been in Jordan for two and more years. A family of four, therefore, may well have to pay a penalty of several thousand euros when leaving the country. Those who ultimately succeed in finding a place in a host country will be able to cope with such a penalty. However, the chances of getting such a place are slim. From what we heard, the USA is planning to provide 20,000 places initially. Hopes are being pinned on Sweden, because it has already taken in so many refugees. But what about my country, Germany? And yours? The Church throughout the world and the churches in Iraq, in particular, maintain the fiction of a Christian presence in Iraq. Under peaceful conditions that would certainly be desirable and it would certainly be wanted by moderate Muslims. But, given the way things are at the moment, appeals of such a nature –particularly when uttered by Patriarchs who themselves have spent months in a safe haven abroad– are not only at odds with reality, but also barely convincing. Listen for


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just half an hour to the reports of those who have made it to Beirut, Damascus or Amman; who have buried their dead –the victims of terror or military conflict– and then fled the country in panic; who have paid for the release of their kidnapped children and then escaped with them. Having listened to such reports, you will quickly appreciate that these people will never ever return to Iraq. Anyone who has seen the victims of terror and military conflict with his own eyes –and I will spare you the details– finds it very hard to understand why the Chaldean Patriarch, for instance, is still exhorting people to hold out. Statements made abroad –but also increasingly in the region itself– to the effect that the north of Iraq, the area occupied by the Kurds, remains a safe haven, are not really convincing. It is correct that the Kurdish government and, in particular, its Christian Minister of Finance have done a great deal in material terms for the Christians in northern Iraq. But the question is how long that will continue to be the case. The positive attitude of the Kurds to the Christians has to do in part with political calculations and it has hitherto earned the Kurds much premature praise. However, the wave of terror from central Iraq has in the meantime arrived in northern Iraq and especially in the Christian settlements, spreading fear and anxiety. So it is no longer appropriate to talk of a safe haven. What needs to be done? First and foremost, there is no point continuing to hide from reality –that applies to the Western world as much as it does to Church authorities. The international community must encourage the host countries in the region to do what is necessary –in material and other ways– to at least secure the present status quo so that the refugees can wait for better times and a solution to their personal problems without having to live in constant fear in these countries but rather in relatively decent conditions. The Western world, which when seen through Middle Eastern eyes is the Christian world, must live up to its responsibility and take in those who have no future in the region itself. Under certain circumstances, a selective way of proceeding cannot be excluded here in the interests of the Christians from Iraq. The Church in the world and, hence, the Church in Iraq must adapt the position it has taken hitherto in linguistic terms at least and, de facto, in practical terms too. A continued Christian presence in Iraq is certainly desirable. However, it would be irresponsible to expect the entire Christian population of Iraq to accept the role of martyrs or to force that fate upon them.


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’intervento analizza la pericolosa situazione dei rifugiati cristiani che lasciano l’Iraq. Attualmente in Medio Oriente vi sono circa 3-4 milioni di rifugiati scappati da questo paese; di essi, uno su dieci è cristiano. In Iraq i cristiani sono alla mercé del regime del terrore di gruppi islamisti e di bande criminali. Chi sceglie di rimanere convive con minacce di morte o rischia di veder distrutti tutti i propri beni. Chi scappa non trova una buona accoglienza nei paesi limitrofi: viene brevemente presentata la situazione dei rifugiati in Libano, Siria e Giordania. Le possibilità di trovare un lavoro sono nulle. Nessuno dei rifugiati inoltre, contempla la possibilità di tornare in Iraq; tutti, compresi i rifugiati musulmani, sperano di raggiungere l’Occidente: Stati Uniti, Canada, Australia, Svezia. Nonostante questa situazione, la Chiesa mantiene la speranza di una presenza cristiana nel paese a condizioni pacifiche, condivise dai musulmani moderati. Tuttavia, non si può continuare a nascondere la realtá. Ognuno –Chiesa, comunità internazionale, Occidente– è chiamato ad assumersi le proprie responsabilità.

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l documento analiza la peligrosa situación de los refugiados cristianos que abandonan Irak. Actualmente en Oriente Medio hay aproximadamente entre tres y cuatro millones de refugiados que han huido de Irak; de estos, uno de cada diez es cristiano. En Irak los cristianos están a merced del régimen del terror de grupos islamistas y de bandas criminales. Quien escoge quedarse, convive con amenazas de muerte y se arriesga a ver destruidos todos los bienes propios. Quien escapa, no encuentra una buena acogida en los países vecinos: viene brevemente presentada la situación de los refugiados en Líbano, Siria y Jordania. Las posibilidades de encontrar un trabajo son nulas. Ninguno de los refugiados contempla la posibilidad de volver a Irak; todos, incluidos los refugiados musulmanes, esperan alcanzar Occidente: Estados Unidos, Canadá, Australia, Suecia. No obstante, la Iglesia mantiene la esperanza de una presencia cristiana en el país en condiciones pacíficas, compartidas por los musulmanes moderados. Sin embargo, no se puede seguir escondiendo la realidad. Cada cual –Iglesia, comunidad internacional, Occidente– está llamado a asumir las propias responsabilidades.


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NGO participation in the United Nations Human Rights Council: NGO perspective Budi Tjahjono Programme Coordinator of PAX ROMANA ICMICA/MIIC

The basis of Participation:

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he resolution GA 60/251 on the establishment of the HRC mentions the participation of NGOs (OP 11), as observer of the Council, shall be based on arrangements 1) the ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31 and the practise of the Commission on Human Righs.1 This again is emphasised in the Rule 7 of the Rule Procedures of the Council.2 However, It should also be noted for the historical record that in the first meeting of the Council, the voice of NGOs representing the civil society and human rights victims were present through the statements made by four representives3 during the opening of the Council, right after the high level segment. The further participations of NGOs were also made possible during the institutional building process, in which the first President of the Council, Ambassador de Alba (Mexico) held several informal consultations with the participation of NGOs. The following will be some notes on the opprtunity and challenges open for the NGOs in the Human Rights Council.

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‌ the participation of and consultation with observers‌ and national human rights insitutions, as well as non-governmental organisations, shall be based on arrrangements,including the ECOSOC resolution 1996/31 of 25 July 1996 and practise observed by the Commission on Human Rights while ensuring the most effective contribution of of these entities.

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As stipulated in the Res HRC/5/1 on the institutional building of the United Nations Human Rights Council.

3

The four representive of NGOs were Arnold Tsunga (Zimbabwe), Natasa Kandic (Serbia), Sunila Abeysekera (Sri Lanka) and Maria Ocampo de Vasquez (Argentina). They were given the time to speak at the end of the High Level Segment of the 1st Session of Human Rights Council, on 22 June 2006.


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• Regular Session The Council now has the possibility to meets at least three times a year within the regular session and the possibility of having other meeting during the Special Session. For the NGOs, this is a positive developent compared to the Commission, where it met only one session of six weeks in each year. As the main UN body in addressing the violation of human rights, this will enable the NGOs to bring the human rights issue in a more frequent time, without wating for a one year interval in between two session of the Commission. However, this has given an additional challenge for the NGOs outside Geneva on how to be effectively present in different sessions. It is well understood that there is no need to be present in each and every session of the Council. However, there is a need to have a continuous monitoring and having direct engagement with the Council. The presence of Webcast4 has been felt very useful for many national and regional NGOs, to follow the debate. The national NGOs can directly monitor on the statements made by the delegates of their government and make it accountable to the larger public within the country. The extranet which provides the copy of the most of the statements, draft resolutions, and resolutions have also been felt useful in bridging the gap between Geneva and national level. Due to the difficulty to be present in Geneva, the NGOs need to have the information on the session in advance, for a better plan. Thus, the agenda and programme of work of the Council become very important element for the predictability of the discussion. With clear programme of work, the NGOs can decide in which session their presence is needed. As mentioned above, the Resolution 60/251 has mentioned that the basis of the NGO participation is the ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31. It means that the NGOs have the possibility to attend all the sessions of the Council, including making written statements and oral statements. However, the time arrangment for the oral statement was not clearly decided in the first two years of the Council. With the reason of the insitutional building, the Council only provided three minutes for all observers, regardless whether the statement is an individual or joint statement, either from the state observers or other observers. This list of speakers was also limited. Approximately, the numbers of NGOs speaking

4

The Webcast is provided for the regular and special sessions of the Human Rights Council. However, it does not cover the discussion during the informal meeting of the Council.


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under each item of discussion was not exceeding than 10 NGOs. This surely will evolve in the coming session, where the agenda of the session will be more established. However, one of the breakthroughs in the first year of the Council was the allocated time given to NGOs to take part in the interactive dialogue with the mandate holders of the Special Procedures, as well as the reports of the High Commissioner. During the Commission, the participation of the NGOs in this dialogue was not possible. Although, this dialogue is supposed to address questions on the reports, some of the statements were rather on issues which were not related directly to the reports. This is also supposed to be improved in the coming sessions. • Special Session The NGOs also welcomes the capacity of the Council to convoke a special session. One of the criticisms of the former Commission was its incapacity to make a prompt response to the urgent situations. Since its establishment, there has been 5 Special Sessions addressing different urgent human rights situations. The last Special Session was on the Human Rights Situation in Myanmar. In the context of Asia, the experience of the last Special Session on Myanmar was a very important experience. A wide network of international, regional and national NGOs was mobilised to make strong lobby and pressure for convening this special session. The other dimention of the Special Session on Myanmar was also to see how the regional group, in this case Asian Group, take up their position. However, the challenge of the special sessions lays on the follow up and implementation of the resolutions. The NGOs work is not only in making pressure and lobby for convening the Special Sessions, but it should continue in the follow-up and implementation process. The sense of urgency should be underlined, otherwise the Special Session might lose its main objective to respond to the human rights emergencies.5 • Universal Periodic Review (UPR) As the novelty of the Council, UPR mechanism will put all the members of the UN under the scrutiny, starting from the members of the Council. The periodicity of four years will also enable the Council to discuss how the recommendations are followed up by the concer-

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GA 60/251 (para 5c) “Contribute…. and respond promptly to human rights emergencies”.


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ned country. Although the first Working Group of the UPR will only work from 2008, the NGOs welcome this new mechanism as a new opportunity. It has been seen that the UPR process is not merely the work of the Working Group of the UPR and its plenary during the regular session, but the work is also done in the country level. The documents for the consideration during the Working Group derived from the information prepared by the concerned state, the compilation of the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights (OHCHR), and other relevant stake holders.6 In preparing the information, the states are encouraged to prepare the information through a broad consultation process at the national level with all relevant stakeholders. Thus, for the national NGOs, there are at least two opportunities in taking proactive participation, one by taking part in the consultation for the preparation of the State information, and through the additional information submitted to the OHCHR to be summarised for the consideration on the UPR WG. The Council has also given the guidelines for the submission, followed by the guidelines given by OHCHR on the NGOs submission. Since the submission of the other stakeholders will finally be summarized only within the 10 pages, the NGOs need to develop a clear strategy for submission. • Human Rights Council Advisory Committee This Committee is established to some extent to replace the SubCommission on the Promotion and Protection on Human Rights. The Committee has the mandate to provide expertise to the Council in the manner and form requested by it, only upon its request, and in compliance with its resolutions and guidance. It will meet in two session of five days each. This mandate is cleary a decline from the former SubCommission, which had the mandate to initiate a study. Although the modality of this Advisory Committee has been agreed upon by the Council, the selection of the members of this Committee will only be decided in 2008. The first task of the Committee, as stipulated by the A/HRC/6/10 is to prepare the Declaration on the Human Rights Education and Trainning. Regarding the NGOs participation, it is clearly mentioned that the Committee is urged to establish interaction with civil society. The NGOs

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See A/HRC/5/1 Annex 1 para 15.


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are also entitled to participate in their work according to the arrangement of the ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31. This participation has the same nature as in the Sub-Commission.

Conclusion on the NGO Participation As mentioned in the beginning of this paper, the NGOs participation in the Council has come to a new phase. In the first year of Council, the debate was focused on the Institutional Building during the regular sessions as well as the reports, both from the Special Procedures and from the OHCHR. There were also a series of meetings of the informal working group on the insitutional building. However, the space for the NGOs to express their concerns on human rights issues was rather limited, due to the nature of the session. The chance appeared in the discussion of “other issues”.7 It was very difficult for the many national NGOs to be consistently following all the discussions of the insitutional building. The participation of the international NGOs was more visible. As the second year has started and the Council is supposed to start its consideration on the substantial issues, the national and regional NGOs now start to focus on more substantial participation. The preparation of the Universal Periodic Review has become a starting point to make the work of NGOs to be more coordinated, either through joint preparation and consultation at the national level, sharing of information, or defining common priorities. As the UPR is often considered as the novelty of the Council, for the NGOs, the UPR provides an opportunities, first to build strong network focusing on the Council, and secondly to bring the Human Rights Council process to the national level. At the international level, the new Council provides a challenge on how the international NGOs could provide support to the national NGOs. The challenges on logistical arrangment, as well as the expertise in international lobby will be a meeting point for the two levels. The international NGOs also need to assume their responsibility to facilitate and empower the national NGOs. During the Commission on Human Rights, the NGOs without ECOSOC Status could participate through the subsidiary bodies of the Sub-

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In the 2nd - 4th Regular Session, there was allocation time for the discussion on “other issues including initiaves/issues/decisions/resolutions”.


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Commission,8 namely the working groups of the Sub-Commission and its Social Forum. In the Council, those working groups have been transformed in different forms. In the 6th Session of the HR Council, the WG on Contemporary Form of Slavery, the Council has created a Special Rapporteur on the New Form of Slavery, while for the WG on Minorities, the Council decided to establshed a Forum on Minority Issues, while the WG on Indigenous Population is yet to be decided in the following sessions. Regarding the Social Forum, it remains, but now it is a subsidiary body directly to the Council. Thus, the participation of the Non ECOSOC Status NGOs will be made possible through the participation on the Forum on Minority Issues, the Social Forum of the Council. The follow up of the WG on Indigenous Populations is yet to be decided by the Council, however, there are efforts done by the NGOs working on the Indigenous Population to include the particpations of the Non-ECOSOC NGOs. As a final note, there is a new development for the participation of the National Human Rights Institution. In the former Commission, the NHRI could only make intervention during the deliberation of the Agenda Item 18.9 However, as mentioned above, para 11 of GA Res 60/251 mentions clearly the modality of the participation on NHRI. It is further clarified in the Rule of Precedures of the Council, Rule (b).10 It means that they now can participate under all agenda item of the Council, not only limited to one specific agenda only.

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’argomento trattato dall’intervento riguarda la partecipazione delle Organizzazioni Non-Governative nel nuovo Consiglio per i Diritti Umani delle Nazioni Unite.

8

In its last meeting in 2006, the Sub-Commission had three pre-sessional working groups on Minorities, Indigenous Populations, and Contemporary Forms of Slavery. It also had the Social Forum.

9

Item 18 of the Commission on Human Rights was “Effective Functioning of human rights mechanisms”, where one of the sub-item was the national insitutions.

10

Rule 7 (b) of the Rules of Precedure of Human RIghts Council, “Participation of national human rights insitutions shall be based on arrangements and practise agreed upon by the Commission on Human Rights, including resolution 2005/74 of 20 April 2005 while ensuring the most effective contribution of these entities”.


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Durante il primo anno di attività del Consiglio, il dibattito è stato focalizzato soprattutto sui meccanismi di funzionamento dell’organo, lasciando alle ONG uno spazio estremamente limitato per esprimere le proprie opinioni. Con il secondo anno, le ONG nazionali e regionali hanno iniziato a godere di una partecipazione maggiore. In particolare: – Le Sessioni Regolari, più frequenti rispetto a quella annuale della Commissione per i Diritti Umani, permettono alle ONG di far sentire più spesso la propria voce e consentono –previo un costante monitoraggio– di non essere presenti ad ogni sessione; – Le Sessioni Speciali possono essere convocate grazie all’attività di lobby delle ONG; – Le Revisioni Periodiche Universali offrono almeno due opportunità di partecipazione: durante le consultazioni a livello nazionale e attraverso le informazioni aggiuntive sottoposte al Ufficio dell’Alto Commissariato per i Diritti Umani; – Il Comitato Consultivo per i Diritti Umani, infine, è esortato ad interagire con la società civile. Altri piccoli cambiamenti sono citati nel testo, ed altri ancora si sta cercando di ottenere per allargare la base partecipativa delle ONG.

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l argumento tratado en el documento hace referencia a la participación de las organizaciones no gubernamentales del nuevo Consejo para los Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas. Durante el primer año de actividad del Consejo, el debate se ha focalizado sobre todo en los mecanismos de funcionamiento del organismo, dejando a las ONG un espacio estrechamente limitado para expresar sus opiniones. Durante el segundo año, las ONG nacionales y regionales han empezado a disfrutar de una participación mayor. En concreto: – Las Sesiones Regulares, más frecuentes que la sesiones anuales de la Comisión para los derechos humanos, permiten que las ONG puedan hacerse escuchar más a menudo, esto permite –previa una constante instrucción– que no sea necesaria su presencia en cada una de las reuniones. – Las Sesiones Especiales pueden ser convocadas gracias a la actividad de lobby de las ONG.


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– Las Revisiones Periódicas Universales ofrecen por lo menos dos oportunidades de participación: durante las consultas a nivel nacional, y a través de las informaciones adicionales dependientes de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado para los Derechos Humanos. – Por último, se pide al Comité Consultivo para los Derechos Humanos, que interactúe con la sociedad civil. Otros pequeños cambios se citan en el texto, algunos aún se están intentando obtener para aumentar la base participativa de las ONG.


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The Work for Justice and Peace Renato Raffaele Cardinal Martino President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

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irst of all, allow me to express my gratitude for the opportunity to be with you today. I thank the leadership of Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC for the kind invitation to speak to you today about the hopeful contribution of Catholic Social Teaching to the human family in the work for justice and peace in this age of globalization. Transforming social realities with the power of the Gospel, to which witness is borne by women and men faithful of Jesus Christ, has always been a challenge and it remains so today at the beninning of the third millennium of the Christian era. The proclamation of Jesus Christ, the “Good News” of salvation, love, justice and peace, is not readily received in today’s world, devastated as it is by wars, poverty and injustices. For this very reason the men and women of our day have ever greater need than ever of the Gospel: the faith that saves, of the hope that enlightens, of the charity that loves. The Church is an expert in humanity, and she anticipates with trust and with active involvement the “new heavens” and the “new earth” (2 Peter 3:13), and which she proclaims to every person, in order to help people to live their lives in the dimension of authentic meaning. “Gloria Dei vivens homo”: the human person who fully lives his or her dignity gives glory to God, who has given his dignity to men and women. In this regard, work and human dignity go hand in hand. In 1891 Pope Leo XIII wrote what is considered to be the first “Social Encyclical Letter”, Rerum Novarum. He wrote that Letter as a way to communicate the concern of the Church for the social conditions of the day. In particular, he addressed the state of the industrial world and the situation of human labor and workers. Ninety years later, those concerns, as they had involved and changed, were once again addressed by Servant of God Pope John Paul II in his 1991 Encyclical Letter, Laborem exercens. In the opening lines of Laborem exercens, John Paul II wrote: “I wish to devote this document to human work and, even more, to man in the vast


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context of the reality of work.”1 This centrality of the human person has always guided the Social Doctrine of the Church. From its very beginning, the Church has proven her concern for the welfare of all people not just the believing community, but for all. It begins with the recognition within the Church of the human dignity with which each one of us is endowed. This human dignity comes to us from God the Father, who created us in his likeness and image and binds us together in solidarity as brothers and sisters. Catholic social teaching offers an important vision of an alternative approach to the development of peoples with principles designed to evaluate progress in the cultural and social spheres and to guide implementation. The foundational concepts and principles of Catholic social thought can help to forge a more just globalization and a more integral humanism by developing a social ethic. This ethic is based on the discernment and reading of the Gospels as the source of a moral imagination capable of moving people beyond the status quo, and drawing people to look at social, political, and economic realities with new eyes. We know that the Church’s social doctrine was formed over the course of time, through the numerous interventions of the Magisterium on social issues. The fact that it came about in his manner makes it understandable that certain changes may have taken place with regard to its nature, method and epistemological structure. The Encyclical Letter of Pope John Paul II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, clarifies this decisively when it states that the Church’s social doctrine “belongs to the field, not of ideology, but of theology and particularly of moral theology.” It further states that the Church’s social doctrine is “the accurate formulation of the results of a careful reflection on the complex realities of human existence, in society and in the international order, in the light of faith and of the Church’s tradition.” Allow me, then, to speak about this “reflection” of the Church in the context of the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. This compilation of social doctrine, which describes the care and concern that the Church has shown down through the ages, has been called “the Church’s best kept secret”. I hope that, little by little it will become no secret at all as more people become familiar with the Compendium and the Gospel message of love and concern that Jesus taught to his disciples and to those who gathered to hear his words.

1

Pope John Paul II. Encyclical Letter Laborem exercens, 14 September 1981 (1).


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As I wrote in the Introduction, “Every reader of ‘good will’ will be able to understand the motives that prompt the Church to intervene with her doctrine in the social sector, an area which, at first glance, does not belong to the Church’s competence, and these same readers will see the reasons for an encounter, for dialogue, for cooperation in serving the common good.”2 The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, was presented on 25 October 2004, having been drawn up by the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace at the request of our beloved Servant of God, Pope John Paul II. It was a project first undertaken by my predecessor, Cardinal Francis Xavier Van Thuan. Unfortunately, he was not able to see it completed, as the Lord called him to heaven in 2002. I feel very fortunate to have been able to finish the work and present it to Pope John Paul II before he too was called to the Lord. In fact, when I did present it, the Holy Father’s first reaction was to say, “Ah, FINALLY!” At the present time it has been translated into 33 different languages. The Compendium places social doctrine at the heart of the mission of the Church. It explains, echoing the words of Pope John Paul II in Sollicitudo rei socialis: how the Church, existing in the world and for the world, although not of the world –cannot neglect her mission of breathing Christian life into the world.3 “To the Church belongs the right always and everywhere to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgements on any human affairs to the extent that they are required by the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls.”4 “The teaching and spreading of her social doctrine are part of the Church’s evangelizing mission. And since it is a doctrine aimed at guiding people’s behaviour, it consequently gives rise to a ‘commitment to justice’, according to each individual’s role, vocation and circumstances. The condemnation of evils and injustices is also part of that ministry of evangelization in the social field which is an aspect of the Church’s prophetic role. But it should be made clear that proclamation is always more important than condemnation, and the latter cannot

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“The Church has the right to be a teacher for mankind, a teacher of the truth of faith: the truth not only of dogmas but also of the morals whose source lies in human nature itself and in the Gospel … This right of the Church is at the same time a duty, because she cannot forsake this responsibility without denying herself and her fidelity to Christ: ‘Woe to me if I do not preach the Gospel!’ (1 Cor 9:16)” (Compendium, pp. 70-71).

4

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, (71).


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ignore the former, which gives it true solidarity and the force of higher motivation.”5 When the Church takes an interest in human promotion, when she proclaims the rules for a new coexistence in peace and justice, when she works with all people of good will for creating relations and institutions that are more human, she “teaches the way which man must follow in this world in order to enter the Kingdom of God. Her teaching therefore extends to the whole moral order, and notably to the justice which must regulate human relations. This is part of the preaching of the Gospel”.6 The fact that the Compendium places social doctrine within the proper mission of the Church, on the one hand, means that social doctrine must not be considered as something added on, as something incidental to Christian life; on the other hand, it is an aid in understanding how this doctrine belongs to a community subject. The adequate subject of social doctrine, in fact, is nothing other than the entire ecclesial community. In paragraph 79, the Compendium affirms: “The social doctrine belongs to the Church because the Church is the subject that formulates it, disseminates it and teaches it. It is not a prerogative of a certain component of the ecclesial body but of the entire community; it is the expression of the way that the Church understands society and of her position regarding social structures and changes. The whole of the Church community –priests, religious and laity– participates in the formulation of this social doctrine, each according to the different tasks, charisms and ministries found within her”. Taking up the call by Pope Paul VI in his Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio as well as Pope John Paul II in Sollicitudo rei socialis, the Compendium is put forward as a manifesto for bringing about a new humanism. Presenting it in this way does not seem to involve a forced interpretation –maybe manifesto is seen as too strong a word. In fact, in the introduction, we find the statement that the Compendium has been drawn up in order to promote and sow the seeds for the civilization of an integral humanism in solidarity that is open to Trascendence (cf. No. 7). It is a guide in the sense that within it are found the indications –as they exist both in the mind and in history– of a new society, in order to give concrete expression to the ever pressing requirements of the Gospel and of Christianity.

5

Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Letter, Sollicitudo rei socialis, 30 December 1987, p. 41.

6

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientiae, p. 63.


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Humanity cannot live without prospects for the future, without guiding principles. It is always necessary for the essence of Christianity to be translated into concrete terms, in every context and historical period. This “essence of Christianity” has been addressed many times by Pope Benedict XVI. It is necessary for the riches of the Gospel to take on a new life and to extend into the social and cultural ethos of peoples. In this way, every generation may have hope, so that the commitment of each generation to the growth of civilization may be strengthned. In the current context of globalization, in fact, the Social Doctrine of the Church calls the human family to an integral solidary humanism and implores all to make an investment in the best of individuals and peoples, in the positive energies of history. The Compendium also states that the first contribution that the Church offers the political community is of a religious nature and corresponds to her mission: preserving and promoting in the conscience of all the sense of the trascendent dignity of the human person. As declared in No. 26 of Gaudium et Spes: “The ferment of the Gospel too has aroused and continues to arouse in man’s heart the irresistible requirements of his dignity”. In the message of Christ, the human community can find the strength that will enable people to love their neighbour as another self, to combat all that is contrary to life, to accept the fundamental equality of all, to fight against every form of discrimination, to overcome a purely individualistic ethic in the perspective of civil friendship (cf. Nos. 390-392). In this perspective, religious freedom is a good for society. A secular autonomy that is truly autonomous would guarantee this religious freedom and permit the Church to undertake this task that has a public value, although it is not directly political. Making reference to Gaudium et Spes, the Compendium specifies very well what the proper function of the Church should be with regards to the political order: “The Church is not to be confused with the political community and is not bound to any political system.7 In fact, the political community and the Church are autonomous and independent of each other in their own fields, and both are, even if under different titles, ‘devoted to the service of the personal and social vocation of the same human beings’.8 We can also affirm

7

Cf. Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58, 1966, p. 1099; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2245.

8

Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58, 1966, p. 1099.


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that the principle of secular autonomy and the principle of religious freedom present a specific acquisition of Christianity, an acquisition of great significance on the level of history and culture. The Compendium speaks also of democracy, the political system that, better than any other, fosters participation and therefore mutual solidarity and cooperation within the political community. I would summarize the Compendium’s reflection on democracy in these terms: democracy is an instrument and not an end, nonetheless even if it is only an instrument it must not be reduced to mere procedure: “An authentic democracy is not merely the result of a formal observation of a set of rules but is the fruit of a convinced acceptance of the values that inspire democratic procedures” (No. 407). For this reason, the Compendium understands and promotes democracy as a political system that allows for the protection and development of the human person. The Social Doctrine of the Church also has a word to say about “living in harmony with nature” –an aspect of our work at the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace that is becoming more intense each month. The Compendium speaks of this harmony, with balance and wisdom, in the chapter on safeguarding the environment. The key point put forth by the Compendium is the following: human action with regard to nature must be guided by ethics. The ecological problem must therefore be seen as an ethical problem, since there is a constant interaction between the human person and nature (cf. Nos. 461-465). But nature cannot be understood in an ethical sense if it is considered only from a point of view that idolatrizes it, or if it is understood as a field for the indiscriminate exercise of technology. In the perspective of the Compendium, the ecological emergency is also an anthropological emergency. The way that we relate to the world depends on the way that mankind relates to itself. But we must also add that the way that man looks inside himself depends on how he turns to God. When man wishes to set himself up in the place of God he loses sight of himself and of his responsibility to govern nature (cf. No. 487). Finally I come upon the promotion of peace –not only an essential tool, but as Pope Paul VI wrote in Populorum Progressio, “the new name for development” (76). We can understand the Compendium’s reflection on peace if we make a distinction between peace as the absence of war and peace as life that is fully human. The Compendium is concerned many times with peace in the first sense, but it is concerned even more –infinitely more and constantly so– with peace in the second sense. This, in fact, is the “fullness” of peace, which includes truth, freedom and jus-


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tice, and which alone makes it possible to arrive firmly at peace as the absence of war. I do not believe I am in error in saying that the Compendium always speaks of justice or solidarity, of the unity of the human family, of God’s plan for humanity, of the human rights of every person and the corresponding duties, of the dignity of the human person, peoples and cultures. In the Compendium, therefore, peace also takes on a powerful cultural significance that is very relevant for today. The sense of mutual respect for religious and cultural traditions, dialogue between religions, international cooperation, a culture of openess: these are all fundamental dimensions that foster peace. According to the Compendium, at play here is the ultimate meaning of the building up of human society and, consequently, of peace (cf. Nos. 494-496). As I conclude this presentation, I wish to make a connection between the Compendium and the first Encyclical Letter of our Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI. In fact, placed at the hearth of Deus Caritas Est –especially in paragraphs 26-29– is the Social Doctrine of the Church, explicitly referred to also in paragraph 27 with the historical sketch from Rerum Novarum to Centesimus Annus. In the same place, moreover, reference is made to the publication of the Compendium of the social doctrine of the Church, which has made a “comprehensive presentation” of the entire social teaching of the Church. We can therefore say that the Encyclical Letter takes in not only certain aspects of social doctrine but the whole of the modern Social Doctrine of the Church. Social doctrine is placed within –and not at the margins of– the Christian proclamation that God is love. Social doctrine, accordingly, is connected with the love that, as a theological virtue, is the divine life itself that nourishes the Church in her service to the world, and that, as a human virtue, is that civil and social friendship without which the community bonds between men grow weak and uncertain. Deus Charitas Est proclaims love as the very essence of God, and precisely for this reason it does not fail to consider the human and the social aspects of love, which are illuminated and purified in that light. Within this dialogue between the divine and the human is found the social doctrine of the Church, which must continuously make appeals to that love that comes from divine life while at the same time it must bend down lovingly to the needs of humanity. The connection between the Social Doctrine of the Church and love is therefore very deep. This doctrine is at the service of the individual person known and loved in the fullness of his or her calling, and has as its purpose the care and responsibility for man whom Christ himself has entrusted to the Church. Moreover, the original connection between the


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social doctrine of the Church and God’s love –or God who is love– is found in the decisive and essential fact that this doctrine is the Church proclaming “the truth about Christ, about herself and about man” (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41), and the heart of this proclamation is that God is love. It is no coincidence that the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church begins with the first chapter entitled “God’s Plan of Love for Humanity” and ends with the conclusion “For a Civilization of Love”.

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a dignità della persona umana è da sempre al centro della missione della Chiesa. Nel mondo di oggi, devastato da guerre, povertà, ingiustizia, l’uomo ha più che mai bisogno di ritrovare il messaggio di salvezza, pace, amore e giustizia, fondamento della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. I principi di tale insegnamento sono stati trascritti, per volere di Giovanni Paolo II, nel Compendio della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa (2004). Esso offre un fondamentale approccio alternativo allo sviluppo ed al progresso, con l’obiettivo di dare un volto più umano e giusto alla globalizzazione. L’opera illustra la missione di evangelizzazione della Chiesa, proclama le regole per una coesistenza pacifica, insegna come creare relazioni ed istituzioni piú umane, delinea principi-guida necessari alla famiglia umana per realizzare un umanesimo solidale ed integrale. Ispirandosi alla Gaudium et Spes, il Compendio affronta la relazione tra Chiesa e comunità politica, parla di democrazia come strumento atto alla protezione della persona umana, insegna l’etica del vivere in armonia con la natura. In ultimo, promuove la pace, il dialogo tra religioni, la cooperazione internazionale. L’intervento si conclude con la speranza che la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, anzichè essere “il segreto della Chiesa meglio mantenuto”, diventi un messaggio conosciuto da tutti, ovunque nel mondo.

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a dignidad de la persona humana es, desde siempre, la misión de la Iglesia. En el mundo de hoy, devastado por guerras, pobreza, injusticia, el hombre tiene más que nunca la necesidad de reencontrar el mensaje de salvación, paz, amor y justicia, fundamentado en la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia. Los principios de tales enseñanzas han sido transcritos, siguiendo la voluntad de Juan Pablo II, en el


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Compendio de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia 2004. Este ofrece una aproximación fundamental y alternativa al desarrollo del progreso, con el objetivo de dar un rostro más humano y justo a la globalización. La obra ilustra la misión de evangelización de la Iglesia, y proclama las reglas para una coexistencia pacífica, enseña cómo crear relaciones y instituciones más humanas, delinea principios, guías necesarias para la familia humana dirigidas a realizar un humanismo sólido e integral. Inspirándose en la Gaudium et Spes, el Compendio afronta la relación entre Iglesia y comunidad política, habla de democracia como un instrumento apto para la protección de la persona humana, enseña la ética del vivir en armonía con la naturaleza. Por último, promueve la paz, el diálogo entre las religiones y la cooperación internacional. El documento concluye con la esperanza de que la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia, antes de que sea “el secreto mejor mantenido”, resulte un mensaje conocido por todos, en el mundo entero.


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Missione ecclesiale in ambito educativo Loreto Ballester Direttrice Generale de l’Istituzione Teresiana

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el quadro dell’impegno della Chiesa per la pace e la giustizia, celebriamo i sessant’anni di Pax Romana e teniamo presente, ed evidenziamo con riconoscenza, il consistente apporto, lungo sei decadi, di questa concreta associazione alla missione ecclesiale. Vivissime congratulazioni. Ci è grato, in quest’occasione, ricordare con gratitudine l’impegno del Prof. Patricio Rodé, con il quale l’Istituzione Teresiana ha avuto l’opportunità di mantenere una relazione di vera amicizia e collaborazione. Partecipare a questo incontro mi permette di prendere in considerazione alcuni aspetti dell’impegno per la giustizia e la pace, vissuti con l’incoraggiamento costante della Santa Sede davanti alle sfide del nostro tempo, particolarmente nel campo proprio delle associazioni laicali e della loro prospettiva educativa. La giustizia e la pace si incarnano sempre in realtà concrete che lasciano, nell’ambito delle nostre associazioni laicali e intorno ad esse, il sapore del Regno di Dio e l’urgenza di una missione. Toccano senz’altro, anche le caratteristiche di una spiritualità che mira alla presenza evangelizzatrice nel mondo di oggi. Questo impulso evangelizzatore è la ragion d’essere della Associazione di Fedeli Laici, l’Istituzione Teresiana, con una missione all’interno della missione della Chiesa che si svolge dalla sua fondazione, nel 1911, ad opera di San Pedro Poveda, nei diversi crocevia del dialogo tra la fede e la cultura, con particolare attenzione agli scenari e ai processi educativi. In questa prospettiva vorrei sviluppare due punti. In primo luogo ricorderò alcune espressioni del nostro comune patrimonio ecclesiale, che sono alla base dell’impegno delle associazioni laicali per la giustizia e la pace. Dopo, offrirò alcuni elementi di questa missione vissuta in chiave educativa, di formazione delle persone, di sviluppo di mentalità, nell’ambito della missione svolta dall’Istituzione Teresiana, che si colloca in questa prospettiva, quello, cioè, che chiamiamo un’impostazione socio-educativa.


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A modo di memoria Dinanzi all’evento e alla tematica che ci convoca, diventano particolarmente vive per i laici e per i laici associati le espressioni della Christifideles Laici che fanno riferimento a promuovere la dignità della persona umana, a situarla al centro della vita economico-sociale, a evangelizzare la cultura e le culture, a porre l’azione politica a difesa e promozione della giustizia. Desideriamo accogliere oggi di nuovo queste sfide, evocando chiavi e punti di riferimento tanto significativi, come la Costituzione Gaudium et Spes e l’Esortazione Apostolica di Paolo VI, Evangelii Nuntiandi, e ricordando in modo simbolico il Compendio della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa dell’ottobre del 2006 e la recente Lettera del 28 aprile di Sua Santità Benedetto XVI alla Presidente della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali, Professoressa Mary Ann Glendon. Nella dottrina della Chiesa ci è ricordato che la persona umana costituisce la principale sollecitudine dell’azione sociale dei cristiani. La sollecitudine per la persona umana acquista dimensioni che fanno riferimento ad ogni essere umano ma, evidentemente, anche alla qualità della convivenza tra persone e popoli. La dignità della persona umana è strettamente collegata alla realtà della pace e della giustizia. Conosciamo i grandi rischi a cui è sottoposta l’umanità e ogni persona, quando la propria dignità non è rispettata e quando la convivenza non si orienta al bene comune. Nei giorni di spietata violenza che stiamo vivendo, sappiamo –instancabilmente ce lo ricordano i Papi, come ha fatto Benedetto XVI nell’Angelus di domenica 20 maggio– che la pace è frutto della giustizia e di un amore che spesso comporta il perdono e la riconciliazione. Vediamo in modo particolare la rilevanza di questo pensiero nelle realtà culturali. Ci allacciamo così al pensiero della Costituzione Gaudium et Spes (GS 43), o più semplicemente all’indice analitico del Pontificio Consiglio di Giustizia e Pace. L’impegno sociale e politico dei laici nello spazio culturale è chiamato a garantire a tutti e ad ognuno il diritto a una cultura “conforme alla dignità della persona, senza distinzione di stirpe, di sesso, di nazione, di religione o di condizione sociale” (GS 60). Come diceva recentemente il Cardinale Poupard, evangelizzare una cultura concreta contemporanea significa rendere presente il Vangelo di Cristo non solo nei cuori degli uomini e delle donne, ma anche nell’ ethos culturale predominante. La dignità inalienabile della persona


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umana, il riconoscimento dei diritti umani, deve trovare la sua forma di espressione in ogni cultura e sistema sociale e politico. Pertanto, “Occorre evangelizzare –non in maniera decorativa, a somiglianza di vernice superficiale, ma in modo vitale, in profondità e fino alle radici– la cultura e le culture dell’uomo…partendo sempre dalla persona e tornando sempre ai rapporti delle persone tra loro e con Dio” (EN, 20). Una cultura, quindi, che metta al centro l’essere umano, il primo cammino che la Chiesa deve percorrere –come ci dice la Redemptor hominis–, quell’essere umano creato a immagine e somiglianza di Dio e redento da Cristo, capace di verità, di bellezza e di bene. La Chiesa dinanzi alla sfida delle culture guarda le persone nella loro profonda realtà di figli e figlie di Dio, rivelata in Gesù Cristo. Dovremmo approfondire molto sul significato racchiuso nell’espressione di Paolo VI, quando si riferiva alla Chiesa come “esperta in umanità”.

Un progetto socio-educativo Davanti alle grandi sfide appena ricordate, davanti alle tre grandi sfide a cui accenna Benedetto XVI nella lettera alla Presidente della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali –la prima, l´ambiente e uno sviluppo sostenibile, la seconda, il nostro concetto di persona umana e, di conseguenza, le nostre relazioni reciproche, la terza, che si rapporta ai valori dello spirito– abbiamo molta strada da percorrere. Sappiamo bene che alla radice della povertà di molti popoli si trovano forme diverse di privazione culturale e di mancanza di riconoscimento dei diritti culturali, nonchè disuguaglianze negli strumenti che la conoscenza e lo sviluppo tecnologico necessita. Il cammino dell’educazione e della formazione diventa un cammino ineluttabile. È necessaria, continua Benedetto XVI, una giusta uguaglianza di opportunità, specie nel campo dell’educazione e della trasmissione della conoscenza. E aggiunge, nella lettera citata, una chiara motivazione: “I beni spirituali che sono tipici dell’uomo si espandono e si moltiplicano quando sono comunicati: al contrario dei beni divisibili, i beni spirituali, come la conoscenza e l´educazione, sono indivisibili e più vengono condivisi, più vengono posseduti” Non tutti, però, purtroppo, sono convinti di questo. Il potere è legato alla conoscenza. All’interno del quadro presentato, mi riferisco adesso ad un contributo che incomincia già a dare i suoi frutti in diversi paesi de l’America Latina, dell’Europa, dell’Asia, dell’Africa. Si tratta dell’impostazione


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socio-educativa della missione che l’Istituzione Teresiana promuove sin dagli albori di questo nuovo secolo. È un’ impostazione ereditata dalle dimensioni peculiari della visione educativa di San Pedro Poveda e che compendia queste sottolineature: l’accesso all’educazione come esigenza umanizzatrice; l’interculturalità, come insieme dei processi che costruiscono l’identità e la mentalità comunitaria; un’opzione chiara a favore dei diritti umani come esigenza di inclusione. Tutto questo, evidentemente, nel quadro teologale ed ecclesiale che configura questa azione come una vera missione impegnata con i valori del Vangelo.

L’impostazione socio-educativa a cui mi riferisco – È chiamata non solo a rendersi operativa negli ambiti dell’educazione formale, ma comprende molte forme di presenza proprie dell’azione del laicato nelle strutture della società. Possiamo dire che ogni attività umana è chiamata ad essere educativa, formativa. – Implica un’opzione chiara a favore di un’impostazione inclusiva dell’educazione, un’educazione in dialogo con la realtà umana nel presente, e a favore, in genere, delle relazioni interculturali che segnano la qualità e la fisionomia dei nostri paesi e città. Un’educazione trasformatrice che renda stabili le fondamenta morali della società civile, capace dei cambiamenti necessari. – È cosciente che essere agenti di umanizzazione e di trasformazione presuppone lasciarsi interpellare dagli avvenimenti che configurano sia la società in cui viviamo, sia la globalità del pianeta. Oggi locale e globale sono tra loro in intima relazione. Siamo parte di un tessuto complesso che, al tempo stesso, costruiamo. – È cosciente che in un’epoca di trasformazione e di cambiamenti sociali di grande ampiezza, promuovere una cultura e un’educazione alla pace, promuovere la giustizia oggi articola uguaglianza e differenza, promuovere la solidarietà, costruire una nuova cittadinanza, passano indiscutibilmente attraverso processi educativi in cui ognuno sia agente attivo del proprio sviluppo, e sia considerato, da un punto di vista olistico, nelle sue diverse dimensioni. Processi che favoriscano lo sviluppo delle persona dei gruppi umani attraverso un esercizio disciplinato della ragione pratica e un allenamento della volontà ad aiutare a formare le coscienze, a sviluppare i sentimenti e la capacità di amare. – Si tratta di una proposta educativa accompagnata in primo luogo da un’esperienza attualizzata della fede, vissuta con il coraggio


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dell’impegno e della fortezza dei primi cristiani e di un’irradiazione che è testimonianza della missione ecclesiale ricevuta come Associazione. Non si tratta di evangelizzare le culture a partire da concetti astratti ma anzitutto di animare l’esperienza quotidiana a partire dalla propria vita. È un ministero di tutta la comunità ecclesiale perché nessuno può rimanere indifferente quando è in gioco la piena realizzazione dell’essere umano. Il compito è complesso, è difficile e comporta dei rischi. – Questa impostazione che pone lo sguardo sulla dignità della persona, riguarda al medesimo tempo le azioni educative e sociali e comporta soprattutto la formazione di persone capaci di essere soggetti della propria vita e agenti sociali. È un impegno soprattutto a formare “agenti moltiplicatori”, tutti coloro, cioè, che nel loro campo professionale educano, formano, intervengono nell’organizzazione dei beni e dei servizi. Tutti coloro che si sentono chiamati da una vocazione a fare della loro vita familiare, sociale, professionale, un’opportunità di cambiamento culturale nella prospettiva dell’Evangelii Nuntiandi.

La chiave del processo educativo: l’educatore Anche il nostro impegno nella formazione degli educatori e degli agenti sociali ci conduce alla necessità di dare impulso ad azioni formative. In particolare nella formazione di chi opera nelle strutture statali che, nella maggior parte dei paesi, spesso mancano di stimoli e sono sottoposti a duri dibattiti culturali e politici (volti al loro aggiornamento permanente come agenti di cambiamento e di trasformazione sociale.) Questo grande progetto –che continua la tradizione associativa a partire dai tempi della fondazione– promuove un ampio movimento pedagogico attorno a questa impostazione della missione, e comporta, di conseguenza, il rendere possibile l’esistenza e la creazione di vere comunità di apprendistato.

Dove troviamo l’opportunità per un’impostazione socio-educativa di questo tipo Come esempio simbolico posso elencare alcune esperienze in diversi luoghi del mondo nelle quali, quasi sempre attraverso azioni coordinate, è possibile lavorare a favore della giustizia e della pace nella chiave della impostazione socio-educativa a cui abbiamo accennato:


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– Una residenza universitaria a Betlemme, l’unica femminile che esiste sul posto, che appartiene al Patriarcato, è affidata all’Istituzione Teresiana. Convivono giovani palestinesi musulmane e cristiane. L’équipe è multiculturale; una coppia di sposi palestinese, membri dell’Istituzione, entrambi professori all’Università, costituiscono punti di riferimento importanti. – L’azione in Spagna, a Castiglia e Leon, di una ONG dell’Istituzione Teresiana, con un’azione significativa nell’elaborazione della Legge di Cooperazione e Volontariato. – La comunicazione tra adolescenti e professori, tra genitori, attraverso l’affrattellamento di due centri educativi in contesti culturali diversi: la Bolivia, centro educativo alla periferia di la Paz e la Spagna, centro educativo a Valencia. Questo, all’interno dei programmi di cooperazione internazionale. – Un programma di promozione umana e di sviluppo interculturale a Chicago. Realizzato nelle parrocchie della zona sud di Chicago, accoglie un buon numero di donne e uomini con il fine di agevolare l’integrazione culturale. Forma, dà protagonismo e li rende a loro volta agenti moltiplicatori – Un laboratorio di analisi cliniche a Malabo (Guinea Ecuatoriale). Risponde a necessità sanitarie non coperte dalle leggi del paese e, soprattutto, offre una formazione integrale agli operatori nel campo della salute. – La formazione di animatrici rurali al sud dell’India, nello stato di Karnataka, Diocesi di Karwar. Dà nuovamente alla donna la sua dignità, sviluppa la sua capacità di cambiamento sociale, favorisce l’educazione dei più deboli.

Molte possibilità e anche molte sfide: inventare, creare, scoprire, rischiare... Gli impegni con dimensione educativa, richiedono grande creatività, comportano la necessità di assumere dei rischi (Doc. Istituzione Teresiana, a che cosa ti senti inviata nel secolo XXI? Una ricerca condivisa in ascolto a Dio. Assemblea Plenaria de l’Istituzione Teresiana, luglio 2006): – Creare nuove prassi educative e culturali richiede di unire le forze con altri. In un’epoca segnata da un forte individualismo, puntiamo sullo scambio e sulla collaborazione sia nell’ambito familiare, relazionale o professionale, sia nella partecipazione in organizzazioni


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cittadine, movimenti sociali o associazioni professionali, reti e fori nell’ambito locale e internazionale. – Si rende indispensabile individuare i soggetti sociali emergenti in ogni tempo: la loro dignità, le loro potenzialità, la loro presenza o assenza. Ancora oggi l’attenzione a gruppi socialmente esclusi, la formazione degli educatori, la sensibilità di fronte alla situazione della donna, l’importanza della famiglia, lo sguardo rivolto ai giovani, le necessità e le possibilità degli emigranti, per elencare alcuni di questi soggetti, sollecitano intenzionalità formative, trasformatrici, evangelizzatrici. – E’ indispensabile uno sguardo attento ai nuovi fenomeni sociali e culturali, e ai così detti “nuovi areopaghi”, indicati dalla Redemptoris Missio. È necessario in realtà un lungo cammino non solo di analisi ma anche di attento discernimento.

Parole di conclusione Dinanzi alle sfide che presenta l’impegno per la pace e la giustizia in chiave formativa ricordiamo bene le parole rivolte da Sua Santità Giovanni Paolo II all’Istituzione Teresiana, nel 1990: “un’Istituzione chiamata nelle circostanze attuali ad essere segno e fermento del Regno di Dio, nelle mediazioni educative e culturali”. L’ispirazione di Pedro Poveda –a questo riguardo– appare particolarmente significativa. “Io desidero, sì, vite umane, luoghi dove l’umanesimo regni; ma siccome capisco che queste vite non potranno essere come le desideriamo se non sono vite di Dio, voglio cominciare con il riempire di Dio quelli che devono vivere una vita veramente umana”. Nuovo umanesimo, cui aggiungiamo “procedimenti ispirati all’amore”. “Umanesimo vero” che non snatura l’umano, ma gli dà pienezza. Tali procedimenti partono dalla profonda convinzione ed esperienza che Dio è amore, come splendidamente ci ha ricordato Sua Santità Benedetto XVI. – Desidero chiudere la mia riflessione ringraziando nuovamente per l’opportunità di aver riflettuto sul dinamismo evangelizzatore che racchiude da una parte il messaggio sociale della Chiesa e dall’altra le possibilità delle associazioni laicali di vivere la loro missione evangelizzatrice di fronte alle esigenze cristiane della pace e della giustizia, nel nostro mondo. Grazie ancora a Pax Romana per la strada percorsa. Grazie anche per aver accolto in questa occasione alcune chiamate specifiche della missione ecclesiale, in campo culturale e


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educativo, che sollecitano l’Istituzione Teresiana, e senza dubbio, altre associazioni nella loro peculiare identità.

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oday the commitment for peace and justice presents many educational challenges. This paper examines the evangelizer dynamism enclosed both in the Social Teaching of the Church and in lay associations. The latters have many possibilities to live and develop their mission in terms of education and formative work. In front of the three big challenges of today, mentioned by Benedict XVI (environment and sustainable development, human person and its mutual relationships, and spiritual values), education becomes an essential element. The socio-educational attitude that the Teresian Institution has promoted since its beginning of its mission provides for inclusion, education to dialogue, humanization, and interculturality. It is an evolutionary formation which “steadies the moral basis of civil society, capable to face the necessary changes”. It deals with an educational proposal which requires faith experience and training of people (educators) able to be, at the same time, subjects of their own life and social agents. The paper concludes by showing examples of some experiences set up on a socio-educational activity of this kind.

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l trabajo por la paz y la justicia presenta hoy muchos desafíos en clave formativa. El documento refleja el dinamismo evengelizador encerrado tanto en el mensaje social de la Iglesia como en las asociaciones laicas. Estas últimas tienen muchas posibilidades de vivir y desarrollar su misión en el campo cultural y educativo. Delante de tres grandes desafíos actuales, señalados por Benedicto XVI (ambiente y desarrollo sostenible, la persona humana y sus relaciones recíprocas, los valores del espíritu), la educación se convierte en un elemento imprescindible. El enfoque socio-educativo que la Institución Teresiana promueve desde el inicio de su misión, prevé inclusión, educación para el diálogo, humanización, interculturalidad. Una educación transformadora que “rinda estables los fundamentos morales de la sociedad civil, capaces de cambios necesarios”. Se trata de una propuesta educativa que comporta una experiencia actualizada de la fe y la formación de per-


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sonas (educadores) capaces de ser sujetos de la propia vida y agentes sociales. El documento termina haciendo referencia a experiencias focalizadas en la actividad socio-educativa de este tipo.


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Globalización y Justicia Mario Cayota Ambassador of Uruguay in the Holy See

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uiero comenzar estas reflexiones con una confesión y también una confidencia. Al pensar en la temática que iba a desarrollar para este congreso, me surgieron numerosas interrogantes e inquietudes, y me hice el propósito de no disimularlas, y por el contrario compartirlas con ustedes; quizás por aquello que afirmaba Sócrates, en cuanto a que la sabiduría viene por el preguntar. Y mi primera pregunta, que ya ha sido planteada por otros, es si la globalización es tan novedosa como a veces quiere presentarsele. Sin duda que hoy ella ofrece elementos inéditos, y que en ese sentido, éstos pueden, darle carácter de singularidad. pero en sus componentes más esenciales, es acaso original? Me parece que uno de los ejes de la llamada globalización es la tendencia a la expansión y a la interrelación. Yo no creo que en la dinámica histórica haya leyes ineluctables, como nos enseñaba el marxismo y como también hoy nos enseña el liberalismo económico. En cambio, si me parece, que hay tendencias, –que atención, corren parejas con cierto grado de imprevisibilidad–, pero que en definitiva, sí, se advierten en el curso de la historia, como pulsiones, como fuerzas impulsoras. y una de estas tendencias, creo, es precisamente la dinámica expansiva y relacional que se pueden observar desde siempre en los pueblos. No olvidemos que el mismo Teilhard de Chardin ya se refería a que la humanidad tendía a una complejidad integradora y creciente que operaba no sólo a nivel de los individuos sinó también de las sociedades, al extremo de que él creia ver un desarrollo social que convergía en un punto omega, a través del cual la humanidad llegaría a ser una. Con referencia a esta tendencia a la expansión y unidad, me permito mencionar hechos que todos sabemos, pero que necesito recordar para avanzar en el desarrollo de mis reflexiones. pensemos en los antiguos imperios, no eran acaso formas embrionarias de globalización? el imperio romano, por poner un ejemplo, no integró y relacionó a los pueblos que dominó, incluso, no solo imponiéndoles su comercio, sino su dere-


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cho? Los fenicios no interconectaron con sus actividades comerciales a los pueblos con los que trataban? Avanzando más en el tiempo, las potencias coloniales no integraron a los pueblos que conquistaron? Y no pensemos sólo en los imperios europeos, sinó también en los musulmanes y mongoles, y hasta en el azteca y el inca. En el Brasil, por ejemplo, en ciudades del Estado de Ouro Preto, he visto hermosas pinturas chinas en templos y teatros, que datan del siglo XVIII y cuyos autores eran pintores provenientes de Macao! aqui mismo, en Roma, todos sabemos de donde provenía el oro con que se decoró la espléndida Basilica de Santa Maria Maggiore. No sólo fueron España y Portugal quienes se relacionaron y beneficiaron con América. Con fundada razón, después de prolijos estudios, el historiador y economista Ramón Carande, llegó a afirmar que “España comía y Europa engordaba”. La apertura, el aumento de comunicación, la integración a sistemas de mayor amplitud, también la expoliación que en ocasiones ella conlleva, no es entonces un fenomeno novedoso, en el siglo pasado se abría el Japón a cañonazos, se obligaba a la China mediante una guerra a fumar opio, y en el sur de la América, más precisamente en el Rio de la Plata, –por no citar lo que pasaba en la India y en el Africa–, en 1845, junto con los navíos de guerra de las armadas europeas que se decia venían a defender la civilización, llegaban detrás suyo más de cien barcos mercantes, cargados de los productos que en sus mercados saturados por la revolución industrial no podían ser colocados. También los totalitarismos de diverso signo que proliferaron en el siglo XX, aún cuando no lo consiguieron de modo cabal, buscaron una hegemonía globalizadora. También ciertas modernas potencias, invocando la democracia, no han vacilado en invadir aquellos países que se negaban a integrarse a su sistema, generando en donde lo han conseguido una obligada integración al mismo. A su vez, los organismos financieros internacionales, segun palabras de uno de sus ex directores gerentes, “fueron concebidos como semillas iniciales para la institucionalidad de la globalizacion”. Obviamente, que la irrupción de la actual tecnología, sobre todo en el área de las comunicaciones, los hechos políticos que ningún analista predijo como inmediatos, caso del derrumbe del llamado “socialismo real”, como así la complejidad alcanzada en las relaciones comerciales y de inversión, le confieren un perfil nuevo a la actual gobalización. También el alcance que estos fenomenos tienen para los integrantes de las poblaciones globalizadas.


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Sospecho que a esta altura de mi exposición serán ahora ustedes quienes se están interrogando y preguntando porque he dicho todo lo que hasta aqui he hablado. La globalización, reitero, no es un fenómeno enteramente nuevo, y además, lleva en su seno elementos contradictorios, como lo advirtiera S.S. Juan Pablo II en su exhortación apostólica “Ecclesia in America”: “desde el punto de vista ético, puede tener una valoracion positiva o negativa”. He querido recordar lo que hasta aqui he expresado, para preguntarme, cuál ha sido la actitud que ha tenido y puede tener la Santa Sede, tanto en las pasadas embrionarias globalizaciones como en la presente, cuando debe enfrentarse a los elementos negativos a los que hacía referencia Juan Pablo II. Imposible en el corto razonable tiempo que se me ha asignado, dar una visión de conjunto, y menos todavía, detallada, sobre el tema. Me propongo entonces recordar lo ocurrido en indoafroamerica, cuando la expansión colonial europea se produjo. Es cierto que la iglesia aprovechó tal coyuntura para la predicación del evangelio y expansión de la fe, pero contrariamente a lo que generalmente se cree, a traves de los evangelizadores, denunció y combatió las injusticias que esta expansión antecedente de la actual globalización, conllevaba. No se me oculta que el tema resulta polémico, pero los testimonios que pueden aducirse son numerosísimos, –el que esto afirma, ha escrito voluminosos libros recopilando tales documentos–,1 lo que evidencia que junto con las actitudes cómplices o acomodaticias, existió una corriente profética poderosísima. La Santa Sede se hizo eco de esta corriente y el Papa Paulo II en el año 1537 a través de la bula Sublimis Deus,2 ante los latrocinios y explotación que sufrían los indios, los declarara libres y prohibirá su sometimiento a esclavitud, como asimismo que quienes no sean cristianos pierdan sus bienes. Posteriormente un siglo más tarde, Urbano VIII, en el año 1639, mediante la bula “Commisun Nobis”, dirigida a la situación en el Brasil, asumirá las mismas posturas que su antecesor en la Sublimis Deus.3

1

Cayota, Mario. Siembra entre brumas. Utopia franciscana y humanismo renacentista: una alternativa a la conquista, Montevideo, 1992. Versión italiana: La sfida dell´utopia nel mondo nuovo. Edizioni: messaggero, Padova, 1992.

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Paulo III, Bula Sublimis Deus, Roma, 2.6.1537, en remesal, “Historia general”, pp. 233-235, (lib. 3, cap. 16, 4 y 17, 1).

3

Urbano VIII. Bula Commissum Nobis, Roma, 22.4.1639, en suess, “A conquista espiritual”. Petropolis, 1992, p. 275.


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Esta actitud de la Santa Sede fue más común de lo que se cree y hasta un Papa considerado por los historiadores “conservador y reaccionario”, Gregorio XVI, durante su pontificado, en el año 1839, condenará la esclavitud y excomulgará a quienes la practicaban.4 Por supuesto que como suele ocurrir, muchos no se enteraron o no quisieron enterarse. Cito el caso de Gregorio XVI, como extremo e ilustrativo, ya que por los límites de mi intervención no puedo enumerar más ejemplos. Cual es mi reflexión, después de las preguntas y comentarios que he hecho? que en estas tendencias expansivas, de las que la moderna globalización es un exponente altamente complejo, existen como en todo fenómeno humano, y la globalización, –bueno es recordarlo–, también lo es, elementos antagónicos, tanto positivos como negativos, y que en relación a estos últimos la Iglesia y la Santa Sede, que por supuesto es Iglesia, deben intervenir profeticamente. Si obviamos pronunciamientos anteriores, que los hay y nos situamos en el tiempo presente, es importante recalcar que ya S.S. Juan XXIII en su enciclica Mater et Magister señalaba: “los progresos de las ciencias y de las técnicas en todos los sectores de la convivencia multiplican y densifican las relaciones entre las comunidades políticas, y así hacen que su interdependencia sea cada vez más profunda y vital”.5 Atento a ella Juan XXIII, advertia: el problema tal vez mayor de la época moderna es el de las relaciones entre las comunidades políticas económicamente desarrolladas y las comunidades politicas en vías de desarrollo económico: las primeras consiguientemente, con alto nivel de vida; las segundas en condiciones de escasez o de miseria. la solidaridad que une a todos los seres humanos y los hace como miembros de una sola familia impone a las comunidades políticas que disponen de medios de subsistencia con exhuberancia el deber de no permanecer indiferentes frente a las comunidades cuyos miembros luchan contra las dificultades de la indigencia, de la miseria y el hambre”.6 No se trata entonces de exorcizar la globalización e ignorar su dimensión positiva, o de olvidar la responsabilidad de los dirigentes del tercer mundo, más sí de tener presente que los pobres por culpa de esta globalización pueden ser todavía más golpeados de cuanto lo son hoy. Por lo tanto, la bíblica, histórica, y no ideológica, opción preferencial 4

Gregorio XVI. Bernasconi, a.m. Acta Gregorii Papae XVI, scilicet constitutiones, bulae, litterae apost, Roma, pp. 1901-1904.

5

Juan XXIII. Mater et Magister, Roma, 15.5.1961, Nº 54.

6

Idem. Nº 41.


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por los pobres, es para los cristianos un imperativo que debe aplicarse también en relación a la dinámica globalizadora, opción ésta que permanece actual, como ha reiterado S.S. Benedicto XVI, en su discurso de apertura en la V Conferencia del CELAM. A su vez, S.S. Pablo VI, en su encíclica “Popolurum Progressio”, refiriéndose a las relaciones de intercambio propio de la globalización, afirmaba: “si las partes están en situaciones demasiado desiguales una economía de intercambio no puede seguir descansando sobre la sola ley de la libre concurrencia, que engendra también demasiado a menudo una dictadura económica. el libre intercambio sólo es equitativo si está sometido a las exigencia de la justicia social”.7 La necesidad de establecer principios éticos en las relaciones entre los pueblos, es claramente esplicitada en la por muchos mal leída y peor interpretada “instrucción sobre la libertad cristiana y liberacion”, firmada por el entonces Prefecto de la Congregación para la Doctrina de la Fe, Cardenal Ratzinger. Se lee en dicha instrucción: “entre las naciones dotadas de fuerza y las que no la tienen se han instaurado nuevas relaciones de disigualdad y opresión. La búsqueda del propio interés parece ser la norma de las relaciones internacionales, sin que se tome en consideración el bien común de la humanidad” agregando que “el principio del destino universal de los bienes, unido al de la fraternidad humana y sobrenatural, (...) exige una revisión en términos correctos de las relaciones comerciales entre norte y sur y la promoción de un mundo más humano para todos”.8 En idéntica línea de pensamiento se ubica el documento de la Pontificia Comisión “Justicia y Pax”, cuando se refiere a la consideración ética que debe tener el problema de la deuda internacional de los países pobres, documentó este firmado por el Cardenal Roger Etchegaray. Finalmente, creemos que para un atento discernimiento ante la globalización resulta altamente iluminador lo expresado por S.S. Juan Pablo II en la ya aludida exhortación sobre “La Iglesia en America”, afirma el Papa: “en realidad, hay una globalización económica que trae consigo ciertas consecuencias positivas, como el fomento de la eficiencia y el incremento de la producción y que, con el desarrollo de las relaciones entre los diversos países en lo económico, puede fortalecer el proceso de

7

Pablo VI, Populorum Progressio, Roma, 26.3.1967, Nº 59.

8

Congregación para la Doctrina de la Fe, Instrucción sobre libertad cristiana y liberacion, Roma, 22.3.1986, Nos. 16 y 90.


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unidad de los pueblos y realizar mejor el servicio a la familia humana. Sin embargo, si la globalización se rige por las nuevas leyes del mercado aplicadas según las conveniencias de los poderosos, lleva a consecuencias negativas”.9 Con idéntica orientación en los últimos días se ha manifestado S.S. Benedicto XVI refiriéndose a este tema en su discurso en ocasión de la inauguración de la V Conferencia del CELAM. Somos conscientes que el tema que hemos tratado en nuestra exposición, ofrece múltiples facetas, por ejemplo, el impacto de la globalizacion en las culturas de los pueblos a los que llega o la incidencia de esta globalización en los fenómenos de urbanización y consiguiente desarraigo de los habitantes de las comunidades tradicionales, pero por las naturales limitaciones de esta intervención no es posible desarrollarlos. Pero para terminar, quisiéramos hacerlo con dos preguntas, ya que tantas hemos hecho. la primera es, como siendo tan claro, firme y reiterado el posicionamiento de la Santa Sede sobre el tema de la globalización –y no sólo a través del magisterio pontificio, sinó también mediante los representantes que el Vaticano tiene en múltiples Organismos Internacionales– en la realidad puede observarse una relación tan disímil entre este posicionamiento y muchas veces la conducta de nosotros, los cristianos? La segunda pregunta, tiene relación con la representatividad. Sintiéndonos integrantes de los pueblos que pueden ser más alcanzados por los efectos negativos de la globalización, reconocemos el valiosos servicio –ministerio– que sobre el tema ha desarrollado y desarrolla la Santa Sede, no obstante, nos preguntamos si este servicio tan importante no podría profundizarse aún más, si en los altos organismos de la Santa Sede estuvieran presentes, de modo significativo un mayor número de representantes de los pueblos que corren el riesgo de ser afectados por los aspectos negativos de la gobalización –y que en el caso de América del Sur constituyen casi la mitad de los católicos del mundo.

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Juan Pablo II, Ecclesia in América, México, 22.1.1999, Nº 20.


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his paper invites us to think about globalization and of Holy See’s contribution to achieve justice and peace. Globalization is not a totally new phenomenon. The tendency to expansion and interrelation is a characteristic that, although with innovative elements typical of our century (as in new technologies), has been found several times in history. The Phoenicians, the ancient Romans, the Mongols, the Aztecs, the Incas, as well as the totalitarianisms and some modern powers, they have all tried –in different ways– to integrate the conquered countries. “The opening of the markets, the increase of communication, the integration to bigger systems, even the plundering that went along with it . in many cases, is not a new phenomenon, then”. The Church has always fought against the injustices that this expansion caused. Quoting various testimonies of Church’s magisterial documents, the panellist’s opinion is that the Church must intervene in a prophetic way in order to give a human face to the globalization. Moreover, the biblical preferential option for the poor almost becomes an imperative for Christians.

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l testo invita a riflettere sulla globalizzazione e sul contributo della Santa Sede per realizzare la giustizia e la pace. La globalizzazione non è un fenomeno del tutto nuovo. La tendenza all’espansione e all’interrelazione è una caratteristica che, sebbene presenti elementi innovativi tipici del nostro secolo (come le nuove tecnologie), è stata riscontrata più volte nella storia. I fenici, gli antichi romani, i musulmani, i mongoli, gli aztechi, gli inca, così come i totalitarismi ed alcune potenze moderne, hanno tutti tentato –in forme diverse– di integrare i paesi conquistati. “L’apertura dei mercati, l’aumento delle comunicazioni, l’integrazione a sistemi di maggiore ampiezza, anche la spoliazione che in molte occasioni tutto ciò implica, non è allora un fenomeno innovativo”. La Chiesa ha sempre combattuto le ingiustizie che questa espansione implicava. Riportando varie testimonianze di documenti del Magistero della Chiesa, l’opinione del relatore è che la Chiesa debba intervenire in maniera profetica affinché venga dato un volto umano alla mondializzazione. Inoltre, diviene quasi un imperativo per i cristiani la biblica opzione preferenziale verso i più poveri.


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Building bridges or moats? The cultural underside of exclusion Fernando Franco SJ Director of the Social Justice Secretariat (SJS) of the Society of Jesus

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he phenomenon of globalization and its discourse seems to have been unexpectedly shaken by some new invitees at the table. Religious and cultural issues, which were thought to have vanished, are highly visible and present. We are confronted however with the fact that we live, as the noted journalist Jane Kramer says, in “fierce theological times”. Many speak of the overwhelming need to know who we are. Identity issues seem to have become more dangerous and crucial than poverty or hunger. I want to examine briefly some aspects of this phenomenon and underline the urgent need to develop inclusive strategies that build bridges and make the excluding moats a thing of the past. Some clarifications and presuppositions before we examine a few casestudies. 1) The term “globalization” may not be the most accurate way of describing the plethora of phenomena we are faced with. Some even speak of a neo-modernist phase that has superseded the post-modern developments of the 80s and 90s. John Paul II often reminded us that globalization has cultural and political dimensions. 2) I assume that one of the main characteristics of our times is the fact that “problems” (and “solutions”) appear as a closely interrelated set of dimensions. For example, the problem of religion-induced violence has, simultaneously, economic, social, political, cultural and religious connotations. Phenomena do not seem to exist any more in a pure state. 3) Because of this interconnectedness among dimensions, the work of justice and peace today needs to look at totalities. More specifically, it needs to position itself clearly in debates on identity and culture.


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I sense a certain reluctance to enter a field where consensus and clarity are lacking. Let me take up two cases: one located in America, the other in Asia. Though the cases are rooted in local specificity, my contention is that their implications will be easily perceived as being universal.

The proliferation if youth-gangs During a recent visit to a parish in a Hispanic area of Los Angeles I was introduced to the “conciliation and peace work” of a large group of mothers who had successfully waged a campaign against children dying through involvement in gang warfare. In a rather small area not far from downtown Los Angeles, 45 young people had died in a single year due to gang rivalry. Gangs are set apart from other adolescent youth groups and fraternities by the fact that they are generally established as potential sites of violence.1 The transition from gangs that operate in a restricted territory to corporate gangs called “crews” often occurs gradually and goes unnoticed. The phenomenon of urban gang activity is not confined to a few US cities. The existence of urban gangs (or maras) is widespread in Central America, especially in El Salvador, with the return of many deported immigrants from the United States. They develop in Guatemala, Santo Domingo and in many other Latin American cities. In places like Medellín, Colombia, the maras have developed direct connections with various guerrilla and para-military factions. There is hardly a city left in Brazil untouched by urban youth violence and competing trafficking mafias. It is naïve to believe that such types of violence-prone groups of youths do not exist in Europe. Migration has brought many members of these American gangs to Spain and Italy. Recent violence in the suburbs of Paris manifests not only the discontent of second and third generation migrant youth but also the deliberate strategy of more organised groups. There is clearly a complex issue of identity formation in this phenomenon. Belonging to a gang creates a new set of relationships, however violent and inhuman, and calls for special clothes, colours, and, in most cases, bodily tattoos. The practice of engraving a tattoo signals the ceremony of gang-induction, “baptises” the young man or woman into a new

1

Prothrow-Stith, D. Deadly consequences, Harper Collins, New York, 1991, pp.98-105.


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community and provides a much longed for new identity. I recently watched the opposite ritual, that is, the process of removing certain tattoos with the help of a laser technique, to enable young members of gangs to give up that life and become employable ordinary persons again. This “case” raises a number of important questions. Briefly: 1) How do we deal with the growing issue of “exclusion”, of being practically removed from the map of social life? One must acknowledge that the process of globalization benefits primarily those at the “centre” and marginalises those who find themselves at the periphery, that is, those without access to education and a certain social stability. 2) What is our response to “systemic exclusion” that is a process of marginalisation that operates almost automatically? What is the response to a system that generates “human waste” and a young underclass feeding into organised crime? 3) Keeping in mind this explosion of unemployed and unemployable urban youth, what complex set of reasons, each one operating in tandem with the other, explains the massive shift of a traditionally Catholic population to a “sect culture”? Exclusion, by being a form of “identity-suppression”, drives people to look for new strong identities.

Religious fanaticism A few days ago I read two reports from an Indian paper outlining two situations that have become paradigmatic in our society. Let me take up the first. On May 9, 2007, the leader of a Hindu political party (BJP) accompanied by a gang of ruffians stormed into the Faculty of Fine Arts of the M.S. University of Baroda, an industrial and prosperous city of the state of Gujarat in India. The storm troopers abused and manhandled the Acting Dean of the Faculty for exhibiting “obscene” figures with some religious motifs. Shockingly, the fine arts student from a poor background whose examination submission set off the attack, was taken into custody by the Baroda police and jailed; and the Dean, who organised an exhibition of ancient Indian art in support of his student, was forced to go into hiding. The hooligans roamed freely, abusing artists, students, and faculty members.


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The newspaper comments that, “it is sad that the secular government of India seems paralysed, unable to protect the human rights of artists, writers, filmmakers, scholars, and other cultural practitioners. The ‘fundoos’ (as these fundamentalists are now called) have arrogated to themselves the role of lawmakers, judges, and executioners of people whom they accuse of blasphemy.” The paper continues: “These fanatics want to re-write history. These self-appointed custodians of Indian culture, may start chipping away at temple murals, breaking down monuments, and eventually targeting the temples at Khajuraho, Konarak, and Bhubaneswar –until they succeed in effacing the rich Indian culture of art, image, and narrative, to conform to their own one-track, fascist vision of what Indian civilisation is.” Needless to remind you that this “cultural revolution” has stigmatised and severely persecuted Christians and Muslims, and has called upon them to either convert to Hinduism or “return” to their countries of origin: they probably mean Mecca and Rome! Different versions of the Afghan Taliban fighters destroying a statue of Buddha are now available in various religious garbs. Let me raise a few questions: 1) In our struggle for justice and our determination to promote peace, what is our stand vis-à-vis these growing fascist tendencies? 2) Are we sufficiently aware that the obsession with re-writing history has always been a characteristic of fascist dictatorships? 3) Is civil society taking a clear stand vis-à-vis the new cultural and religious revolutions? Let me describe briefly the second situation. The Indian state of Punjab, and the Sikh community, one of the most enterprising communities of India, are facing social and political turmoil. There is unprecedented tension in New Delhi. Even the Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, a Sikh by religion, has made an appeal for calm and peace.


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At the root of all the trouble seems to be an obscure Sikh leader, Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh who has been accused of blasphemy for promoting a picture of himself dressed in the manner of Guru Gobind Singh, one of Sikhism’s most revered figures. He has expressed regret but has refused to apologise. He is the leader of a sect or panth (with a Sufi base) called the Dera Sacha Sauda which has drawn a number of Sikh dalits. The clash between what we might call “traditional” and “progressive” groups has left dozens injured across Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, and New Delhi. Indeed, the religious fury has cut across national frontiers, with the Sikh diaspora using neoconservative websites to join the fray in the hope of revitalising their fundamentalist constituency. In a pertinent editorial the well-known paper The Hindu writes: “While the Indian media tend to be suffused with images of Punjab’s prosperity, it is often forgotten that the State is also the site of a kind of caste apartheid. Almost one in three residents of Punjab belongs to the Scheduled Castes (the Dalits or ex-untouchables) –the highest percentage in India– and atrocities against them have been mounting. Ever since the seizure of a shrine at Talhan by upper-caste villagers provoked largescale rioting, there has been a string of violent attacks on both Sikh and Hindu Dalits. In response, Dalits have increasingly turned from established faiths to new spiritual leaders who articulate their anger.” I started my intervention by saying that we live unexpectedly in “fierce theological times”. We need to reflect on some questions that emerge from this episode. 1) Are we ready to examine all the underlying dimensions of existing religious conflicts? 2) Are we confronted by a clash of civilisations or by the exclusion of a large number of individuals and communities from well being and social dignity? 3) How can a dispassionate social analyst advance before the Sikh establishment the fact that the presumably egalitarian Sikh society is now confronted by dalit assertiveness? Is it feasible to engage in peaceful dialogue with the clerical establishment?


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Conclusion We are confronted by a widespread desire to develop new local and particular cultural and religious identities. Cultural and religious revolutions show fascist tendencies and generate a class of zealots ready to generate violence and chaos. All these symptoms, cultural and religious intolerance in particular, tend to mask 1) the increasing unwillingness of people to tolerate exclusion; 2) the growing levels of fear and insecurity; and 3) the social tensions generated by a system producing more wealth at the cost of more human waste. In this scenario we need a conscious effort to be inclusive, to create a culture that builds bridges, speaks of commonalities without suppressing the differences. This approach privileges the spirit of negotiation against confrontation, of building alliances against dividing groups, of uniting rather than further fragmenting the social tissue. We need to recognise that identities are multiple, that they are a matter of choice, and that each one carries in herself a part of the other.

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l fenomeno della globalizzazione genera un forte bisogno di identità. Questioni identitarie creano spaccature cosí profonde nella società da essere ritenute più pericolose di problematiche quali fame e povertà. L’intervento riporta due esempi a testimonianza di quanto detto sopra: 1) La proliferazione di baby-gangs in Stati Uniti, America Latina ed Europa: se da un lato tale fenomeno genera esclusione da parte del resto della società, dall’altro fornisce un forte senso di appartenenza alla “nuova comunità”; 2) Il fanatismo religioso in India: fondamentalisti di un partito politico hindu minacciano da tempo di danneggiare e abbattere monumenti cristiani e musulmani per “realizzare la propria visione fascista della cultura indiana”. La mancanza di identità genera paura ed insicurezza, sentimenti che, se lasciati a se stessi, sfociano in intolleranza culturale e religiosa. In questo scenario si è chiamati ad un impegno comune e condiviso per la creazione di una cultura che “costruisca ponti e parli di punti in comune senza sopprimere le proprie diversità”.


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l fenómeno de la globalización genera una fuerte necesidad de identidad. Las cuestiones identitarias crean fracturas tan profundas en la sociedad que deben ser consideradas peligrosas, igual que problemáticas como el hambre o la pobreza. El documento aporta dos ejemplos que lo atestiguan: 1) La proliferación de baby-gangs en Estados Unidos, América Latina y Europa, que por una parte generan exclusión social, y por otra proveen de un fuerte sentimiento de pertenencia a la “nueva comunidad”. 2) El fanatismo religioso en la India: los fundamentalistas de un partido político hindú hace tiempo que amenazan con dañar y derruir monumentos cristianos y musulmanes para “realizar la propia visión fascista de la cultura india”. La carencia de identidad genera miedo e inseguridad, sensaciones que, si se dejan estar, pueden desembocar en intolerancia cultural y religiosa. En este escenario, estamos llamados a tomar un compromiso conjunto y compartido para crear una cultura que “construya puentes y hable de puntos comunes sin suprimir las diversidades propias”.


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Globalization of solidarity Duncan MacLaren Secretary General of Caritas Internationalis

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he globalization I want to talk about is the “globalization of solidarity”, a term used by the Pope John Paul II to counteract the harmful effects of the globalization phenomenon, by replacing it, as he said, “with a culture of solidarity that gives priority to the needs of the most vulnerable”1 and which is the heart of Caritas work on behalf of the Universal Church. Before I begin, let me put Caritas Internationalis into context. CI is a Confederation of 162 Catholic relief, development and social service agencies that work, without distinction of religion, race or politics, in over 200 countries and territories. It is one of the largest humanitarian and development networks in the world. It has always had a special status with the Holy See but in September 2004, the late Pope John Paul II granted CI public juridical canonical status through his letter Durante l’Ultima Cena, binding us closer to the Holy Father and the offices of the Holy See. By statute our General Secretariat has to be in the Vatican and, of course, the backdrop to all our work is the Gospel, the social teaching of the Church and the lived experience of the poor themselves. All our members are the agencies of the bishops’ conferences in their respective countries. Once every four years, all the members come together in a General Assembly where a plan at the international and regional level is developed. It is the task of the General Segretariat at Palazzo San Calisto to take forward the international plan in harmony with our seven regions. The issues we tackle include the coordination of major emergencies, redefining humanitarian standards such as the Sphere Project, HIV/AIDS, advocacy especially with the UN system, making our members more professional so training them in everything from emergency preparedness to lobbying the EU and promoting a global peace-making and reconciliation programme. The theme of the last General Assembly

1

Homily for the Workers’, Jubilee 2000.


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just happened to be “globalising solidarity” which I have taken as my theme today.

A View of Globalization We as Church begin from certain theological principles when looking at any human phenomenon and, in the case of any model of globalization, we have to judge how it helps bring those principles about or not. The first principle is to put the poor at the centre of our analysis and reflection. Although there have been some economic gains with per capita income tripling in some previously poor countries and improvements in literacy and life expectancy, the number of people living on less than $1 a day in this age of the globalization of the economy is still over a billion. 28,000 children die each day because of poverty-related causes. You know the statistics. Such poverty does not mean just an inability to put food on the table but not being the persons, the reflection of God’s image, that they were meant to be. The current globalization model patently fails this first principle of putting the poor at the centre. The second principle is the unity of the human family. Any system of globalization that leads to extensive exclusion damages that principle. “Gospel” must be understood to be inclusive. Yet the gap between the North and South has grown and the number of workers exploited vastly increased. For example, Nike gave a basketball player who was advertising their wares more money than the 12,000 Indonesian women who had made their product! Globalization has also influenced our identity as human beings –distorting it into one of consumers only and those who cannot buy because they are too old or too poor, are marginalised and their identity eroded to the extent where they are reified. So the economic model of globalization flaunts this principle of the unity of the human family since it creates exclusion not inclusion. The third principle is that of the universal destination of the goods of creation –that is, when God created the goods of the Earth, they were created for all. The system of globalization on offer has led to greater concentration of wealth in fewer hands with 60% of the world’s population living on 5.6% of its income. It has also led to less access to decision-making processes not only for citizens for for small or weak countries to participate in multilateral institutions. An application of this third principle would look seriously at how to manage the common good of the global community in a way in which the rights of all are res-


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pected and enhanced. Instead, the enemies cited by those pushing the current model of globalization, to quote the economist and journalist, Will Hutton, are “the ‘burdens’ of regulation, taxation, welfare and any form of social obligation”.2 These are of course the ways we distribute the goods of creation. So the current globalization model fails on Christian principles. To reject, however, globalization out of hand is facile but we have to have a sensible critique that saves what is good (such as the emphasis on equality for women) and identifies policies that enhance human potencial and creativity. This is what we mean by the globalization of solidarity.

A Global Culture of Solidarity What does it look like? Solidarity is the concept of utter empathy. As the South African Dominican, Albert Nolan, said succinctly, it is “where there is no longer you or me but only us”. Globalization has a tendency to alienate and to produce what Pope John Paul II has called “faceless globalised mechanism” –“the human being must always be an end and not a means”, he said a number of years ago to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, “a subject and not an object, or a commodity of trade”. The doctrine of the preferencial option for the poor teaches that the effects of globalization must be measured by not how rich people have become but how human dignity has been furthered. This is, in the words of the former Master of the Dominican Order, Fr Timothy Radcliffe, a solidarity without exclusion, “an unimaginable solidarity that is over against no-one”. It means an economy that has as one of its central goals the elimination of dehumanising poverty. It means an inclusive society and not one that excludes because people are poor, infirm or elderly. It is one that stresses community and citizen’s participation not rampant individualism and it is one that believes in peace not war as a means to resolve differences between nations. Promoting this means promoting an ethical discourse in international political life. It means saying there is a moral obligation on all of us to advance social development goals. Two of the most important social development goals are the eradication of poverty and the end to conflict. I want to show how the strate-

2

Will Hutton, The World We’re In, London, 2002.


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gies of Caritas to reach these goals have changed in the light of the globalization phenomenon.

Poverty The poverty I mean is a poverty that dehumanised. This audience knows what I mean but to remind myself I always have in my mind’s eye the Korogocho slum in Nairobi where SCIAF, the Scottish Caritas, bought cats for people suffering from leprosy so that rats would not gnaw their numb limbs while they slept. It is one that crushes people’s God-given humanity, undermines their dignity and is sinful to maintain. Though we as development agencies continue with projects that enable people to find their God-given potential, we are aware that the ultimate cause of this poverty is structural. It is rooted in the way we have organised society economically and politically for the gain of the few to the detriment of the many. That is truer today than ever before. This is why organisations like Caritas Internationalis which supports relief and development programmes also now put a lot of effort into advocacy programmes that will permit spaces for people’s participation in policy making to be opened. Timothy Radcliffe calls this “unmasking the mechanism of exclusion”. Being a Good Samaritan today means being a political lobbyst for the poor. In New York at the UN, our delegate worked with Caritas Gulu and Caritas Uganda in gaining the trust of the politicians in the UN to pay more attention to the horrific war in Northern Uganda which had caused death and brutalisation to thousands of children. There is now a ceasefire and, because of our credibility at the grassroots through the courage of Archbishop Odama and our raising our voice at the appropriate levels, it partially came about because of us, the Church. This kind of work is not alien to the Church but central to its social mission. After all, the Church is at the same time a community of the baptised and an institution that exists to serve. It brings a different vision centred on the dignity of the human person. It is global in a way few other organisations are. And it has a particular view of how we should live together on this planet. At its best, it still has the trust and respect of millions of people and of the institutions we are trying to influence. Those who believe in what we would term a culture of death are well organised. Those of us who believe in a culture of life had better get our act together. Let me now turn to the other vital issue where the churches can play a huge role: peace-building and reconciliation.


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Peace-building and Reconciliation In the past six years, over 4 million people have been killed in wars, 90% of them civilians. We have seen civil wars caused by identity rather than territorial ambition breaking out in many parts of Africa, the Balkans, Indonesia and elsewhere where the majority of vistims are civilians. As a recent UN report said, conflict and development are mortal enemies. In Caritas, we have seen many of the development projects supported over the years in ruins as one ethnic, linguistic or religious group attacked another. We launched a large peace-building and reconciliation programme that has resulted in our training 4,000 Caritas and Justice and Peace workers throughout the world in integrating peace-making into their relief and development work. We only have to think of Rwanda or the Balkans to see the sense in this. This emphasis on peace-building has led to a radical rethink in the way we approach our work. We now want to view our work through the lens of peace-building and reconciliation. What I mean by that is just as many of us take a gender perspective in our long-term development work, since women are at the centre of any community development, so we now want to take a peace-making and reconciliation perspective in our relief and development work to use mechanism to bring people together rather than set them apart. Peace-building refers to the long-term project of building peaceful, stable communities and societies and needs to be grounded in a firm foundation of justice and reconciliation. The process needs to strengthen and restore relationships and transform unjust institutions and systems. In development work, this requires looking at how relationships and decision-making in projects are done. Rather than just looking at the specific ways to improve food production or build new houses, peacebuilding emphasises building right relationships with partners as an integral part of establishing peace in violence-prone areas. In Kosovo and parts of Croatia and Serbia, for example, Caritas is involved in special educational projects in mixed ethnic areas. The parents must talk together, make decision together about the curriculum etc. and are willing to do so for the sake of their children. They must also decide how to approach contentious subjects such as history and peace. The Church is particularly qualified in this area of peace-building and reconciliation. Being present at the grassroots, the Church is in an ideal position to warn of potential conflict and encourage “peace-building


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from below” –to help establish peace committees, counteract false information, reduce stereotypes that reify people, promote human rights and use mediation techniques. In the past, we held a seminar on such issues for the Sri Lankan bishops’ conference and the Caritas diocesan directors. They wanted to be more involved in the peace process but lacked the tools. Our trainers taught them all the proper mediation techniques for use at the appropriate level. At the top political level for the bishops and at the more local political and grassroots level such as the market place for the diocesan staff. Behind the scenes, they are now once more engaged in the peace process. The reconciliation part of our peacemaking and building programme is both social and individual. The social element attempts to rebuild stable societies where measures are included to avoid social conflict in future. The individual attempts to heal the wounds of those who have suffered and bring the guilty to a realisation of the enormities of their crimes. The experience of reconciliation makes both the victim and the wrongdoer, as St Paul says, a “new creation” (2 Cor. 5:17). In other words, the former state is not restored but they are taken to a new place where the evildoer repents and the victim no longer demands vengeance. Socially, this has produced Truth and Reconciliation Commissions such as those in South Africa and Ghana. Making spaces where reconciliation might be possible has led to Caritas organising camps for Jewish and Palestinian children, for example, or restoring traditional ways of reconciliation in shattered cultures in Sierra Leone or trying to end blood feuds in Albania or tribal wars in Papua New Guinea. All these examples belong to the creation of a peace mentality, the very opposite of the mentality that has become the globalised norm where the knee-jerk reaction to terror seems always to be war or the suspension of human or moral rights. We must act as a counter-balance to such an attitude and always promote peaceful alternatives, not adding them to a development agenda but integrating into all that we do and all that we are. We should learn from the Buddhists that if you want to be a peacemaker, learn not to slam doors first.

Conclusion I have said how Caritas, once an organisation famous for distributing second hand clothes, tries to demonstrate the globalization of solidarity in the modern world through its relief and development programmes, through advocacy to change public policy to be more pro-poor and


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through peace-making and reconciliation programmes that try to tackle the deepest sore in the body politic of our world. Fresh from a recent trip with a delegation of Cardinals and bishops to G8 leaders, I want to say a word about the Millennium Development Goals. All world leaders signed up to them in 2000. They are not Utopian –they say we will halve poverty by 2015 not get rid of it. They are politically feasible and yet already the goals are looking more and more out of reach. Present progress in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that primary education for all will not be delivered by 2015 but 2130 - 115 years late. Poverty will not be halved by 2015 but by 2150 - 135 years too late. Avoidable infant deaths will not be eliminated by 2015 but by 2165 - 150 years too late. Yet these goals were a bond of trust between the rich world and the poor and it is obvious that without mammoth public pressure the G8 meeting in Germany in June will not deliver on their promises and not give the lead to the rest of the world that this inhuman situation cannot continue. Thank you to all supporters of Pax Romana for their campaining about the MDGs and other important matters. By demonstrating global solidarity in such a way, by doing that not from a position of mindless activism but through prayer, study and discernment, you are allowing yourselves, through faith, to be used by God’s love so that the Kingdom can grow, so that human beings might flourish and that love of God through love of neighbouris demonstrated in our world.

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l fulcro dell’azione di Caritas Internationalis è quello di contrastare gli effetti negativi del fenomeno della globalizzazione con una cultura della solidarietà che dia priorità ai bisogni dei più vulnerabili. I principi teologici a cui si ispira C.I. sono: 1) La povera gente al centro di ogni analisi e riflessione; 2) L’unità della famiglia umana; 3) L’universale destinazione dei beni della creazione. L’attuale modello di globalizzazione non solo non rispetta tali principi, ma marginalizza, crea esclusione e trasforma l’identità dell’essere umano in freddo consumatore. Mentre la concentrazione della ricchezza è nelle mani di una élite sempre più ristretta, oltre un miliardo di persone vive con meno di 1 dollaro al giorno: un livello di povertà che disumanizza. Secondo il testo, il giusto metro di giudizio per misurare i risultati della globalizzazione non è calcolare quanta gente si è arricchita, ma i


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progressi fatti nell’ambito della dignità umana. In questa lotta contro la povertà, “il buon samaritano di oggi è il lobbista politico che lotta a favore dei poveri”. Si ha solidarietà quando “non esiste più tu od io, ma solamente noi”. Ciò si realizza con un’economia che abbia come obiettivo prioritario l’eliminazione della povertà e dei conflitti, attraverso progetti di peace-building e di riconciliazione, grazie a programmi politici dedicati agli emarginati, tramite istituzioni più giuste.

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l núcleo de la acción de Cáritas Internationalis (CI) es contrastar los efectos negativos del fenómeno de la globalización con una cultura de solidaridad que dé prioridad a las necesidades de los más vulnerables. Los principios teológicos en los que se inspira CI son: 1. La pobreza y la gente que la sufre como centro de cada análisis y reflexión. 2. La unidad de familia humana. 3. La distinción universal de los bienes de la creación. El actual modelo de globalización no solo no respeta tales principios, sino que margina, crea excluciones y transforma la identidad del ser humano en un consumidor frío. Mientras la concentración de la riqueza está en manos de una élite cada vez más restringida, cerca de un millar de personas vive con menos de un dólar al día: un nivel de pobreza que deshumaniza. Según el texto, el metro justo para medir los resultados de la globalización, no es calcular cuánta gente se ha enriquecido, sino que deberíamos medir cuánto hemos progresado en dignidad humana. En esta lucha contra la pobreza, “el buen samaritano de hoy es el lobista político que lucha a favor de los pobres”. Se obtiene solidaridad cuando “deja de existir el tú o el yo, y aparece sólo el nosotros”. Esto se realiza con una economía que tenga como objetivo prioritario la eliminación de la pobreza y de los conflictos, a través de proyectos de peacebulding y de reconciliación, gracias a programas políticos dedicados a los marginados, a través de instituciones más justas.


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International organizations and global governance Pietro Parolin Under-Secretary, Relations with States of the Secretariat of State

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esidero innanzitutto rivolgere a tutti e a ciascuno un deferente e cordiale saluto e segnalare che per me è un grande onore e una gioia prendere la parola in questo incontro in cui celebriamo il 60.mo anniversario di Pax Romana, il Movimento Internazionale degli Intellettuali Cattolici che giustamente può essere considerato un pioniere della partecipazione della società civile nella vita internazionale, dimostrandosi sempre particolarmente attento al Magistero sociale della Chiesa e cercando vie innovative per metterlo in pratica. Molte delle idee che esporrò nel mio intervento sono da tempo patrimonio di pensiero e di azione del Movimento. Mi è stato chiesto di presentare alcune riflessioni sulla governabilità globale –la cosiddetta global governance– nel contesto dell’attività internazionale della Santa Sede, intesa a dare un volto umano alla globalizzazione, a partire dalla ben nota affermazione di Papa Giovanni Paolo II, che “la globalizzazione, a priori, non è né buona né cattiva. Sarà ciò che le persone ne faranno. Nessun sistema è fine se stesso ed è necessario insistere sul fatto che la globalizzazione, come ogni altro sistema, deve essere al servizio della persona umana, della solidarietà e del bene comune”;1 giudizio, questo, sul quale concorda, sostanzialmente, anche la Dichiarazione del Millennio dell’ONU, là dove dice: “Crediamo che la sfida centrale di oggi sia quella di assicurare che la globalizzazione si trasformi in una forza positiva per tutti gli abitanti del mondo”.2 Le deficienze della globalizzazione non sono una fatalità. L’essere umano può moralizzarla e umanizzarla. Si possono introdurre, nelle istituzioni nazionali e

1

Giovanni Paolo II, Discorso ai partecipanti alla Plenaria della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali, 27 aprile 2001, p. 2.

2

United Nations General Assembly, A/RES/55/2, United Nations Millennium Declaration, 8 September 2000, p. 5.


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internazionali, i necessari correttivi affinché la dinamica generale funzioni in favore dell’autentico bene comune generale e non di gruppi finanziari, di alcune persone e di pochi Paesi. I contributi di Sua Eminenza il Cardinale Renato R. Martino e di Mons. Fortunatus Nwachukwu hanno già illustrato magistralmente l’impegno della Santa Sede in favore della giustizia e della pace e dei diritti umani, mentre il Professore Salvador Pié-Ninot ha esposto in modo sintetico e accurato i fondamenti teologici di tale impegno. Da parte mia, cercherò di completare quanto detto precedentemente, mettendo in rilievo i due grandi concetti che la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa ha proposto per una governabilità globale al servizio del rispetto e della promozione della dignità umana di ogni singolo uomo e donna. Tali concetti si riassumono in quelli di famiglia di Nazioni e di autorità mondiale. A modo di introduzione, mi soffermerò dapprima su alcuni aspetti dell’odierna situazione, caratterizzata da un deficit di governabilità globale e concluderò con qualche accenno al ruolo pratico della Santa Sede e a quello della società civile in favore di tale governabilità.

Il deficit di governabilità globale La globalizzazione (mondializzazione, internazionalizzazione, ecc.) è certamente uno dei fenomeni più rilevanti del nostro tempo, di cui tutti parlano, positivamente alcuni, del tutto negativamente altri. Il primo approccio, comunque, dell’uomo comune è la sensazione di trovarsi di fronte ad una realtà internazionale di insolita complessità e in constante ed accelerato cambiamento, da cui possono derivare insoliti benefici in termini di accesso alla cibernetica e alle comunicazioni, in termini di produzione di ricchezza (mai come oggi, nella storia umana, c’è stata una così grande quantità di beni di alta qualità, usufruibili tutto l’anno e in ogni parte del mondo; mai come oggi l’umanità ha assistito a processi innovativi e migliorativi così rapidi e generalizzati), in termini di crescita umana, per approfondire cioè vincoli di amicizia, per avvicinare tra loro tutti i popoli della terra, per vivere solidarietà in occasione di calamità naturali (pensiamo, ad es., a quanto successe in occasione dello tsunami di due anni fa) –ma che comporta pure conseguenze drammatiche, come il diffondersi delle guerre regionali e del terrorismo; la persistenza e l’aggravamento della fame e della mancanza di assistenza sanitaria; lo sfruttamento dei più deboli e dei più vulnerabili; il consolidamento, fino al punto da renderli definitivi e strutturali, dell’abbandono e dell’emarginazione delle Nazioni più povere di Africa, Asia e America Latina e, al


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loro interno, dei gruppi socialmente più deboli, come gli indigeni, i contadini, gli operai; l’apparizione di nuove forme di povertà, che colpiscono ugualmente Paesi ricchi e Paesi poveri, dove alla carenza relativa di beni si uniscono l’assenza o la perdita di quelle relazioni sociali che sono necessarie per il mantenimento dell’integrità e della dignità personale: è il caso delle persone anziane e sole, dei drogati e dei malati ai quali la società non riesce a dare una risposta solidale, dei disoccupati e di quanti sono gravati dalla precarietà o espulsi precocemente dal mercato del lavoro, delle donne e dei bambini che soffrono gli effetti della disgregazione familiare, delle masse sradicate dalla propria terra e costrette a emigrare a causa della povertà o della guerra, ecc. L’analista e l’operatore politico, poi, non possono non percepire, talvolta in modo estremamente acuto, le difficoltà esistenti per dare senso e gestire il constante succedersi degli eventi globali. Ci troviamo, inoltre, immersi in una contingenza storica paradossale. C’è, più che in qualsiasi altro momento della vicenda umana, la piena coscienza della comunanza e dell’interdipendenza delle grandi problematiche mondiali, quali l’ambiente, la povertà, le migrazioni, la sicurezza collettiva, i diritti umani, tra cui la libertà religiosa e la tolleranza, ecc. Tuttavia, tale consapevolezza è accompagnata spesso dal risorgere dello spirito nazionalistico o di parte, con la forte tentazione di Stati o di gruppi di Stati di risolvere da soli i problemi, anche se ciò si ottiene a danno degli altri. Tale tendenza è, appunto, indicazione di un deficit di governabilità da parte delle istituzioni internazionali esistenti: l’ONU e la galassia delle sue Agenzie specializzate, le Organizzazioni internazionali indipendenti dall’ONU e le Organizzazioni regionali. Va subito aggiunto che il deficit di governabilità riguarda pure gli Stati nazionali, anche quelli più potenti, in quali non sono in grado, da soli, di offrire risposte globali e nemmeno di gestire gli effetti della globalizzazione all’interno delle proprie frontiere. Né si deve dimenticare, per quanto riguarda le Organizzazioni internazionali, che esse non sono dotate di una volontà autonoma, ma dipendono dalle decisioni e dagli orientamenti degli Stati. Il deficit di governabilità da parte dei Governi e delle istituzioni intergovernative, unito agli eventi storici della fine del secolo XX e dell’inizio del XXI e all’accesso generalizzato del pubblico ai nuovi sviluppi tecnologici nel campo delle comunicazioni e della cibernetica, ha sviluppato uno scenario internazionale nuovo e qualitativamente diverso rispetto a quello dei quattro secoli precedenti. Sembra finito il tempo in cui gli Stati, rappresentati dai diplomatici o dai militari, erano gli unici protagonisti della vita internazionale. Oggi, essi sono affiancati da una numerosa


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schiera di attori che promuovono i propri interessi e priorità, in parte coincidenti con quelli degli Stati, in parti contrari. Da un lato, ci sono gli agenti economici che agiscono, quasi senza costrizioni, su scala mondiale; dall’altro, si è costituita l’immensa rete dei rappresentanti degli interessi specifici della società civile; abbiamo ancora i mezzi di comunicazione di massa indirizzati ad una opinione pubblica mondiale, non limitata dalle frontiere degli Stati; sono molto attive, purtroppo, le organizzazioni terroristiche e la criminalità organizzata, che producono un impatto corruttore sulle autorità e causano una grave distorsione nelle valutazioni etiche e nei comportamenti individuali e sociali. Per capire il potere dei nuovi attori internazionali basti pensare che con gli attentati di New York dell’11 settembre 2001 una piccola ma ben organizzata rete terroristica internazionale, servendosi della diffusione delle notizie assicurata dai mezzi di comunicazione, è riuscita a scatenare un processo storico a scala globale il cui fine è ancora incerto. Meno di due anni prima, in occasione della III Conferenza Ministeriale dell’Organizzazione Mondiale del Commercio (Seattle, dicembre 1999), le ONG concentrarono su di loro l’attenzione mediatica mondiale, mostrando dovunque la loro clamorosa irruzione nei negoziati commerciali multilaterali - ritenuti riservati ai diplomatici e ai funzionari dei Ministeri dell’Economia - e rivendicando così il loro ruolo di attori internazionali. Oggi, una campagna della società civile in favore dei diritti umani può avere più impatto di una condanna delle Nazioni Unite e può determinare persino cambiamenti nei rapporti economici tra gli Stati. Né i progressi (anche se ancora insufficienti) nella ristrutturazione del debito dei Paesi più poveri né la flessibilizzazione delle regole della proprietà intellettuale in materia di sanità pubblica sarebbero state possibili senza l’intervento dei rappresentanti della società civile. Tuttavia, l’azione dell’insieme dei nuovi protagonisti della società internazionale non ha colmato il deficit di governabilità esistente, anzi, in alcuni casi lo ha aggravato, mettendo in evidenza, ad esempio, la difficoltà di comporre e conciliare la quantità di bisogni, di interessi e anche di pretese in campo. La governabilità globale viene ulteriormente resa difficile dai fenomeni delinquenziali e criminali: si pensi, ad esempio, al terrorismo, al traffico di persone, di armi, di droga, di materie prime preziose, alla vendita di armi, al lavaggio di denaro sporco, ecc. In tale scenario, si accresce per gli Stati la difficoltà di influire effettivamente sul funzionamento delle istituzioni internazionali e sull’elaborazione delle regole e decisioni relative ai temi di loro interesse. Per i rappresentanti della società civile, alla soddisfazione di essere diventati attori


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indispensabili della politica internazionale, si unisce il timore di vedere che il raggiungimento degli obiettivi per cui sono scesi nell’arena internazionale si fa sempre più incerto nel tempo, non da ultimo per l’incapacità pratica degli Stati di attuare in modo concreto gli impegni politici solennemente assunti nei grandi incontri internazionali. Il caso più clamoroso è quello dei Millennium Development Goals. Per tutti, governanti e governanti, il futuro si presenta incerto.

Autorità mondiale e famiglia di Nazioni Lo sviluppo delle istituzioni multilaterali, dalla fine del secolo XIX fino alla seconda metà del secolo XX, accompagnò lo sviluppo della società e, con maggiore o minore successo, cercò di darvi risposte adeguate. La domanda che si pone oggi è se la cooperazione tra i Governi sia capace di dare una risposta alla presente situazione, caratterizzata dalla scomparsa delle distanze (si può dire che il mondo è diventato un unico spazio geografico), dall’accelerazione del succedersi degli eventi, e dalla disgregazione degli interessi. E’ noto anche che la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa accompagnò e incoraggiò sempre lo sviluppo delle istituzioni multilaterali, e alle volte lo precedette, delineando un orizzonte di accresciuta cooperazione solidale e, persino, di una autorità mondiale fondata sulla giustizia e sul diritto. Si potrebbe dire che la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa ha intuito che il volto umano dell’interdipendenza –oggi si direbbe della globalizzazione– può essere assicurato principalmente dalle organizzazioni internazionali, a patto che esse siano dotate della necessaria autorità, cerchino di rispettare l’uguaglianza di i membri della comunità internazionale, promuovano l’assunzione di una responsabilità solidale per il destino comune e le loro decisioni e attività possano tutte ricondursi al servizio della dignità dell’uomo. Già nel lontano 1931, il Papa Pio XI, nell’Enciclica Quadragesimo Anno, appellava alla cooperazione internazionale per evitare le funeste conseguenze del capitalismo selvaggio, del nazionalismo e dell’imperialismo economico e per regolare l’andamento dell’economia mondiale.3 Successivamente, il tema dell’interdipendenza e della necessità di una gestione internazionale organizzata e improntata ai principi di giustizia e solidarietà e non sugli interessi nazionali è uno dei fili conduttori dell’insegnamento sociale di Papa Giovanni XXIII e del Concilio Vaticano II. Giovanni XIII, nella sua

3

PIO XI, Lett. enc. Quadragesimo Anno, 90.103-109.


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Enciclica Pacem in Terris,4 lanciò l’idea di una autorità mondiale. Tale idea è stata ripresa dalla Costituzione Pastorale Gaudium et Spes del Concilio Vaticano II, con le seguenti parole: “La sollecitudine per un’ordinata e pacifica convivenza della famiglia umana spinge il Magistero a mettere in rilievo l’esigenza di istituire una qualche autorità pubblica universale, da tutti riconosciuta, che goda di un potere effettivo per garantire a tutti sia la sicurezza, sia l’osservanza della giustizia, sia il rispetto dei diritti”.5 È essenziale, tuttavia, che tale autorità sia il frutto di un accordo e non di un’imposizione, non venga intesa come “un super-stato globale”, sia regolata dal diritto, ordinata al bene comune e rispettosa del principio di sussidiarietà.6 I poteri pubblici della comunità mondiale non hanno lo scopo di limitare la sfera di azione ai poteri pubblici delle singole comunità politiche e tanto meno di sostituirsi ad essi; hanno invece lo scopo di contribuire alla creazione, sul piano mondiale, di un ambiente nel quale i poteri pubblici delle singole comunità politiche, i rispettivi cittadini e i corpi intermedi possano svolgere i loro compiti, adempiere i loro doveri, esercitare i loro diritti con maggiore sicurezza.7 “La Chiesa –leggiamo nel Dizionario di Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa (p. 74)– non postula l’annullamento delle attuali autorità e nemmeno la costituzione di una burocrazia internazionale: ciò che occorre sono delle istanze supra partes che facilitino la crescita del bene comune universale. Anche se con il trascorrere della storia tale autorità potrà ricevere un potere effettivo più esteso, mai dovrà dimenticare le funzioni proprie delle istituzioni subordinate, secondo i principi di sussidiarietà e di partecipazione”. Secondo il Compendio della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, “il cammino verso un’autentica ‘comunità’ internazionale –noi possiamo dire qua il cammino per una governabilità globale dal volto umano– ha assunto una precisa direzione con l’istituzione dell’Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite nel 1945. Tale organizzazione ha contribuito notevolmente a promuovere il rispetto della dignità umana, la libertà dei popoli e l’esigenza dello sviluppo, preparando il terreno culturale e istituzionale su cui costruire la pace”.8 4

Giovanni XXIII, Lett. enc. Pacem in Terris, 68-72.

5

Concilio Vaticano II, Cost. past. Gaudium et Spes, 82; PAOLO VI, Lett. enc. Populorum Progressio, 78.

6

Compendio della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, 441.

7

Compendio della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, 441.

8

Compendio della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, 440; Giovanni Paolo II, Messaggio per la Giornata Mondiale della Pace 2004, 9.


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Per poter costituirsi veramente come un grado superiore di ordinamento internazionale, la prospettata autorità mondiale deve, nella gestione dell’interdipendenza, acquistare una dimensione morale. A tale scopo serve il concetto di famiglia di Nazioni proposto dal Santo Padre Giovanni Paolo II.9 Ritengo utile citare qui per esteso i due paragrafi del suo discorso alla 50.ma sessione dell’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite, intesi a spiegare il concetto di famiglia di Nazioni, che contiene gli elementi di una governabilità mondiale dal volto umano. Tale concetto, nella presente fase di globalizzazione, conserva tutto il suo valore e la sua attuazione diventa una necessità ineludibile se si vuole veramente affrontare le sfide storiche. Afferma Giovanni Paolo II: “Di fronte a queste enormi sfide, come non riconoscere il ruolo che spetta all’Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite? A cinquant’anni dalla sua istituzione, se ne vede ancor più la necessità, ma si vede anche meglio, in base all’esperienza compiuta, che [la sua] efficacia …dipende dalla cultura e dall’etica internazionale che esso sottende ed esprime. Occorre che l’Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite si elevi sempre più…[allo stadio]…di centro morale, in cui tutte le nazioni del mondo si sentano a casa loro, sviluppando la comune coscienza di essere, per così dire, una ‘famiglia di nazioni’. Il concetto di ‘famiglia’ evoca immediatamente qualcosa che va al di là dei semplici rapporti funzionali o della sola convergenza di interessi. La famiglia è, per sua natura, una comunità fondata sulla fiducia reciproca, sul sostegno vicendevole, sul rispetto sincero. In un’autentica famiglia non c’è il dominio dei forti; al contrario, i membri più deboli sono, proprio per la loro debolezza, doppiamente accolti e serviti. L’ONU ha il compito storico, forse epocale, di favorire questo salto di qualità della vita internazionale, non solo fungendo da centro di efficace mediazione per la soluzione dei conflitti, ma anche promuovendo quei valori, quegli atteggiamenti e quelle concrete iniziative di solidarietà che si rivelano capaci di elevare i rapporti tra le nazioni dal livello ‘organizzativo’ a quello, per così dire, ‘organico’, dalla semplice ‘esistenza con’ alla ‘esistenza per’ gli altri, in un fecondo scambio di doni, vantaggioso innanzitutto per le nazioni più deboli, ma in definitiva foriero di benessere per tutti.10

9

Giovanni Paolo II, Discorso all’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite, 5 ottobre 1995.

10

Giovanni Paolo II, Discorso all’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite, 5 ottobre 1995, p. 14.


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Solo a questa condizione si avrà… non solo l’eguaglianza di diritto tra tutti i popoli, ma anche la loro attiva partecipazione alla costruzione di un futuro migliore; non solo il rispetto delle singole identità culturali, ma la loro piena valorizzazione, come ricchezza comune del patrimonio culturale dell’umanità. Non è forse questo l’ideale additato dalla Carta delle Nazioni Unite, quando pone a fondamento dell’Organizzazione ‘il principio della sovrana eguaglianza di tutti i suoi Membri’ (art .2,1), o quando la impegna a ‘sviluppare tra le nazioni relazioni amichevoli, fondate sul rispetto del principio dell’eguaglianza dei diritti e dell’autodeterminazione’ (art. 1,2)? E’ questa la strada maestra che chiede di essere percorsa fino in fondo, anche con opportune modifiche, se necessario, del modello operativo delle Nazioni Unite. Non sembri, tutto questo, un’utopia irrealizzabile. E’ l’ora di una nuova speranza, che ci chiede di togliere l’ipoteca paralizzante del cinismo dal futuro della politica e della vita degli uomini…”.11 E’ ovvio che non sfuggivano a Giovanni Paolo II né ai precedenti Pontefici e, in genere, alla formulazione della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa, le limitazioni del complesso degli organi dell’ONU, sia in termini di effettiva capacità di gestione degli affari mondiali, sia nel fatto che alle volte le sue proposte politiche agli Stati non coincidevano con gli orientamenti della Chiesa, ad esempio nel modo di impostare alcune questioni relative alla famiglia, ai rapporti tra il diritto alla salute e la sessualità umana e al rispetto della vita nascente. Tuttavia, non solo gli insegnamenti sociali della Chiesa guardano con favore l’Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite perché la vedono come un cammino concreto per l’attuazione di un progetto equo di governabilità globale, necessario per la pace, la difesa dei diritti umani, e lo sviluppo ma, ancora di più, propongono ad essa e quasi la sfidano a raggiungere l’altro traguardo etico di costituirsi veramente come famiglia di Nazioni. Tornando sul testo appena letto di Giovanni Paolo II, possiamo discernere due serie di indicazioni perché la comunità internazionale diventi famiglia di Nazioni. Da una parte, si chiede che venga data alle Nazioni Unite una maggiore efficacia politica e giuridica. Esse devono essere “strumento di sintesi e di coordinamento e centro efficace per la soluzione dei conflitti”, fondate sull’effettiva “uguaglianza giuridica di tutti i membri”. Dall’altra, è indispensabile che tutte le norme e le azioni delle Nazioni Unite siano impregnate da una “cultura etica”, in cui imperano

11

Giovanni Paolo II, Discorso all’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite, 5 ottobre 1995, p. 15.


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i valori della “fiducia reciproca”, del “sostegno vicendevole” e della “rinuncia al dominio dei forti e in cui lo spirito di solidarietà porta ad esistere per gli altri”. E’ lo stesso criterio che il Papa offre quando tratta, in generale, della globalizzazione: “L’umanità nell’intraprendere il processo di globalizzazione non può più fare a meno di un codice etico comune”.12 Se non si vuole che la globalizzazione –e quindi anche le istituzioni internazionali– degenerino in relativismo etico e nell’omologazione degli stili di vita e delle culture, è fondamentale recuperare quei valori umani universali che esistono in tutte le differenze elaborazioni culturali. Giovanni Paolo II lo ha ripetuto all’ONU: “Se vogliamo che un secolo di costrizione lasci spazio a un secolo di persuasione, dobbiamo trovare la strada per discutere, con un linguaggio comprensibile e comune, circa il futuro dell’uomo. La legge morale universale, scritta nel cuore dell’uomo, è quella sorta di “grammatica” che serve al mondo per affrontare questa discussione circa il suo stesso futuro”.13 Come accennava Giovanni Paolo II, gli elementi etici per la costruzione di tale famiglia delle Nazioni si trovano già nello stesso Statuto delle Nazioni Unite, specialmente nel preambolo e nell’articolo 1º e conservano, pertanto, piena attualità e vigore.14 Occorre trovare i mezzi tecnici

12

Giovanni Paolo II, Discorso ai partecipanti alla Plenaria della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali, 27 aprile 2001, p. 4.

13 14

Giovanni Paolo II, Discorso all’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite, 5 ottobre 1995, p. 3. Statuto delle Nazioni Unite, NOI, POPOLI DELLE NAZIONI UNITE, DECISI – a salvare le future generazioni dal flagello della guerra, che per due volte nel corso di questa generazione ha portato indicibili afflizioni all’umanità, – a riaffermare la fede nei diritti fondamentali dell’uomo, nella dignità e nel valore della persona umana, nella eguaglianza dei diritti degli uomini e delle donne e delle nazioni grandi e piccole, – a creare le condizioni in cui la giustizia ed il rispetto degli obblighi derivanti dai trattati e dalle altri fonti del diritto internazionale possano essere mantenuti, – a promuovere il progresso sociale ed un più elevato tenore di vita in una più ampia libertà, e per tali fini – a praticare la tolleranza ed a vivere in pace l’uno con l’altro in rapporti di buon vicinato, ad unire le nostre forze per mantenere la pace e la sicurezza internazionale, – ad assicurare, mediante l’accettazione di principi e l’istituzione di sistemi, che la forza delle armi non sarà usata, salvo che nell’interesse comune, ad impiegare strumenti internazionali per promuovere il progresso economico e sociale di tutti i popoli, – abbiamo deciso di unire i nostri sforzi per il raggiungimento di tali fini. … Articolo 1 I fini delle Nazioni Unite sono: 1.Mantenere la pace e la sicurezza internazionale, ed a questo scopo: prendere efficaci misure collettive per prevenire e rimuovere le minacce alla pace e per reprimere gli atti di aggressione o le


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necessari di attuazione e soprattutto, rinnovare in ogni Stato la coscienza della sua responsabilità solidale per tutto il genere umano.

L’autorità mondiale proposta dalla Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa e le limitazioni dell’attuale sistema internazionale È evidente –e non ha bisogno di sottolineature– la sintonia del Preambolo e dei primi articoli dello Statuto dell’ONU con la Dottrina Sociale Chiesa. Papa Giovanni Paolo II, tuttavia, nel suo discorso di 1995, riconosceva che, per percorre rapidamente la strada verso la piena vigenza dell’idea di famiglia di Nazioni, occorrevano “opportune modifiche… del modello operativo delle Nazioni Unite”, per realizzare le quali occorreva pur “togliere l’ipoteca paralizzante del cinismo dal futuro della politica e della vita degli uomini”. Ci sono infatti importanti limitazioni pratiche nel modello operativo delle Nazioni Unite (e nell’insieme della comunità internazionale organizzata) che, talvolta, possono offrire spazi ad un cinico pragmatismo che vede la normativa internazionale solo come mezzo per far prevalere le proprie pretese e i propri interessi. Non si deve dimenticare che il potere legale e pratico dell’ONU sopra gli Stati finisce per essere assai limitato. Solo il Consiglio di Sicurezza ha poteri decisionali veri e propri, ristretti, comunque, alle questioni relative alla pace e alla sicurezza collettiva. L’Assemblea Generale e l’ECOSOC, invece, hanno il compito di offrire raccomandazioni non vincolanti al Consiglio di Sicurezza e agli Stati membri su tutte le questioni internazionali (pace, sicurezza collettiva, sviluppo economico sociale, sviluppo e codificazione del diritto internazionale, ecc.), la cui efficacia varia molto a seconda delle circostanze generali e dei casi concreti. È noto, poi, che i cinque membri permanenti del Consiglio di Sicurezza hanno una altre violazioni della pace, e conseguire con mezzi pacifici, ed in conformità ai principi della giustizia e del diritto internazionale, la composizione o la soluzione delle controversie o delle situazioni internazionali che potrebbero portare ad una violazione della pace; 2. Sviluppare tra le nazioni relazioni amichevoli fondate sul rispetto e sul principio dell’eguaglianza dei diritti e dell’auto-determinazione dei popoli, e prendere altre misure atte a rafforzare la pace universale; 3. Conseguire la cooperazione internazionale nella soluzione dei problemi internazionali di carattere economico, sociale culturale od umanitario, e nel promuovere ed incoraggiare il rispetto dei diritti dell’uomo e delle libertà fondamentali per tutti senza distinzioni di razza, di sesso, di lingua o di religione; 4. Costituire un centro per il coordinamento dell’attività delle nazioni volta al conseguimento di questi fini comuni.


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posizione di potere privilegiata in rapporto a tutti gli altri membri dell’ONU. Le questioni internazionali più determinanti per lo sviluppo dei popoli vengono gestite da tre organismi che sono, di fatto, indipendenti dell’ONU: l’Organizzazione Mondiale del Commercio, il Gruppo della Banca Mondiale e il Fondo Monetario Internazionale. Queste tre organizzazioni, inoltre, sono le uniche, oltre al Consiglio di Sicurezza, che dispongono di mezzi coattivi per far eseguire le loro decisioni, le quali, tuttavia, vengono fortemente determinate da un gruppo ristretto di Paesi, sia per il loro semplice peso economico relativo, nel caso dell’OMC, sia perché, nel caso delle altre due agenzie e a somiglianza di quanto accade al Consiglio di Sicurezza, essi hanno un voto privilegiato nel momento decisionale. Pertanto, ancora lontano dai traguardi proposti dal Preambolo e dall’articolo 1º dello Statuto delle Nazioni Unite e quindi ancora lontano dalla realizzazione del volto umano della globalizzazione, il sistema di governabilità in vigore ci si presenta come una autorità mondiale molto frammentata e poco coordinata, formata da organizzazioni che hanno mandati parziali, alle volte contrapposti alle volte sovrapposti, spesso dotati da mezzi inefficaci e anche spesso in contrasto ideologico tra di loro. In relazione alle questioni della pace, del disarmo e del diritto umanitario, operano il Consiglio di Sicurezza a New York, le Organizzazioni di promozione del disarmo e del controllo delle armi di distruzione di massa a Ginevra e a Vienna e la Croce Rossa a Ginevra; per le questioni relative ai Diritti Umani sono stati creati il Consiglio per i Diritti Umani e l’insieme delle Organizzazioni specializzati di Ginevra; per le questioni relative al governo dell’economia mondiale e allo sviluppo, gli Organismi finanziari di Washington, l’OMC e l’UNCTAD a Ginevra, l’UNDP a New York e a Ginevra, le Banche regionali nelle sue diversi sedi, la FAO ed altre Organizzazioni a Roma. La questione dell’ambiente, che tiene il suo punto focale all’UNEP di Nairobi, appare poi trasversale agli Organismi di Washington e di Ginevra. Sono da rilevare le contrapposizioni ideologiche che non di rado si manifestano tra gli Organismi di Washington e l’OMC, da una parte, e gli Organismi ONU dedicati allo sviluppo dall’altra. La complessità organizzativa (si potrebbe persino parlare di “disordine organizzativo”) della comunità internazionale è stata causata dagli sviluppi politici che si collocano tra la fine della seconda guerra mondiale e gli anni ‘90, ma la difficoltà di riordinarla e di metterla al servizio di un obiettivo comune è riflesso della complessità politica del momento


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attuale e della dispersione di interessi. Non è un impegno affatto facile portare a termine il lavoro di sintesi e coordinamento e le opportune modifiche del sistema operativo suggerite dal Discorso di Giovanni Paolo II del 1995. Gli scarsi risultati pratici del recente Vertice Mondiale del 2005, inteso a dare una spinta alla riforma delle Nazioni Uniti e al raggiungimento degli Obiettivi del Millennio sono un attestato delle difficoltà esistenti.

La Santa Sede e il nuovo volto della globalizzazione Com’è noto, la Santa Sede è presente alle Nazioni Unite con uno specifico statuto di Osservatore che, in pratica, le concede gli stessi diritti di cui godono gli Stati membri.15 La Santa Sede è poi presente come membro o come osservatore alle 20 più importanti Organizzazioni specializzate e Organizzazioni regionali.16 Tale presenza internazionale serve, innanzitutto, per riaffermare la sua sovranità ed indipendenza, giacché essa implica un costante e rinnovato riconoscimento politico –e talvolta anche giuridico– della sua natura di ente internazionale pubblico simile agli Stati, che con essi dialoga e interagisce in pari condizioni. In questo modo la Santa Sede si può costituire anche come garante della libertà della Chiesa in ogni Paese e della libertà religiosa in generale. Inoltre, la Santa Sede può intervenire in certe prese di decisioni che le concernono o concernono direttamente il bene comune dell’umanità. E ciò costituisce, in un certo senso, una novità. Infatti, mentre un tempo l’azione della Santa Sede nella comunità internazionale era limitata all’attività concordataria e, quindi, a questioni inerenti strettamente ad interessi ecclesiastici; ora essa tende ad estendersi, al pari delle forme di presenza degli Stati, anche in ambiti più generali e comunque non diret-

15

UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, A/RES/58/314, Participation of the Holy See in the work of the United Nations, 1 July 2004.

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E presente come membro nel Comitato Esecutivo dell’Alto Commissariato per i Rifugiati e nelle seguenti organizzazioni intergovernative: UNCTAD, OMPI, AIEA, OPCHW (Organizzazione per la proibizione delle arme chimiche), Commissione preparatoria per la CTBTO (Organizzazione di proibizione degli prove atomiche), Comitato Internazionale della Medicina Militare e OSCE. E’ presente inoltre come Osservatore o come invitato speciale alle attività delle seguenti altri organizzazioni: FAO, OIT, OMS, UNESCO, ONUDI, IFAD, OMT e OMC; e, nell’ambito regionale, Consiglio d’Europa, OSA, UA e AALCO. Pur non avendo uno statuto formale di Osservatore, ha contatti e partecipa con una certa regolarità ad alcune delle attività della Banca Mondiale e del Fondo Monetario Internazionale.


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tamente afferenti ad interessi della Chiesa. La più evidente manifestazione di questo mutamento si è potuta cogliere nella partecipazione della Santa Sede, a pari titolo con tutti gli altri Stati contraenti, alla firma dell’atto finale della Conferenza sulla Sicurezza e Cooperazione in Europa (CSCE), con il trattato di Helsinki del 1975.17 Così la Chiesa, a mezzo della Santa Sede, è venuta a partecipare per la prima volta alla formazione o produzione di norme di diritto internazionale generale. Si tratta, a ben vedere, di un fenomeno abbastanza singolare, per il quale appunto la Chiesa, attraverso la Santa Sede, partecipa a pari titolo con gli Stati alla produzione delle norme di diritto internazionale generale codificato, di cui gli stessi Stati saranno poi destinatari.18 Tuttavia, l’“attuazione multilaterale” più frequente della Santa Sede consiste nell’esercizio del suo ministero profetico. Infatti, la Santa Sede non trascura nessuna opportunità di prendere la parola alle sessioni dell’Assemblea delle Nazioni Unite e alle riunioni delle altre Organizzazioni internazionali per dare una visione etica delle diverse questioni internazionali all’ordine del giorno. Una attenta lettura dei Discorsi degli Osservatori Permanenti e dei Rappresentanti della Santa Sede offre un prezioso materiale di applicazione dei grandi orientamenti della Dottrina sociale della Chiesa alle questioni concrete. Come insegna il Santo Padre Benedetto XVI, nell’Enciclica Deus Caritas Est, la Santa Sede –come del resto, in altri ordini, tutti i Pastori della Chiesa Cattolica– intende contribuire a illuminare la coscienza degli attori della vita internazionale. La coscienza, “per poter operare rettamente …deve sempre di nuovo essere purificata, perché il suo accecamento etico, derivante dal prevalere dell’interesse e del potere che l’abbagliano, è un pericolo mai totalmente eliminabile”. La Santa Sede “vuole servire la formazione della coscienza nella politica e contribuire affinché cresca la percezione delle vere esigenze della giustizia e, insieme,

17

Nell’ambito dell’ONU, la Santa Sede ha partecipato alle Grandi Conferenze Internazionali degli anni 90 (Conferenza del Cairo su Popolazione ed Sviluppo, Conferenza di Pechino sulla Donna, ecc.) ed ha è anche intervenuta attivamente alla redazione di alcuni documenti internazionali, come, ad es. la Dichiarazione dell’ONU sulla Clonazione Umana (2005) o la Convenzione sui Diritti delle Persone Disabili (2006). All’OMC, negli anni 2001-2003, La Santa Sede, nonostante le limitazioni del suo ruolo di Osservatore, ha avuto una attiva partecipazione nel processo di riforma delle norme sulla proprietà intellettuale per permettere le licenze obbligatorie nei casi di gravi emergenze sanitarie - Marrakech Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization, Annex 1 C, Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights TRIPS.

18

cfr. G. DALLA TORRE, La città sul monte, Editrice a.v.e., pp. 242-243.


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la disponibilità ad agire in base ad esse, anche quando ciò contrastasse con situazioni di interesse personale”.19 Circa la riforma del sistema internazionale, non spetta alla Santa Sede, per la sua stessa natura, dare indicazioni concrete sul riordino giuridico e politico della comunità internazionale allo scopo di far fronte alle nuove realtà internazionali e diventare veramente il volto umano della globalizzazione. La risposta deve venire dall’insieme degli interessati: gli organi e i funzionari delle Organizzazioni internazionali, gli Stati membri, la società civile, il mondo accademico, ecc. Invece, con riferimento ai due grandi impegni segnalati nel discorso di Giovanni Paolo II del 1995 –riforma politica, giuridica e tecnica / cultura etica– compete alla Santa Sede offrire un contributo sul secondo aspetto, quello della cultura etica. Pertanto, essa insiste sull’attuazione dei valori di base della solidarietà, del dialogo, della ricerca del consenso, della rinuncia ad imporre le proprie ragioni con la forza (forza militare, ritorsioni economiche e altre forme di illegittima pressione politica), della cooperazione, ecc. In tutti i suoi interventi, la Santa Sede ricorda ai Governi la loro grave responsabilità morale di promuovere la pace e lo sviluppo di tutti i popoli e non solo i propri interessi. In particolare, ribadisce costantemente il rifiuto della guerra e il rispetto della legalità internazionale, lo spirito di solidarietà a cui devono ispirarsi tutte le decisioni economiche, l’obbligo di rispettare tutti gli impegni presi in favore dello sviluppo e dei Paesi meno sviluppati e il rispetto dei diritti umani. Dalla cultura etica si desumono anche alcune indicazioni fondamentali di giustizia per la riforma stessa delle istituzioni. L’autorità mondiale deve fondarsi sul pieno rispetto dell’uguaglianza di diritto dei suoi membri e sull’equa partecipazione di tutti nei processi decisionali e sul principio di sussidiarietà, che, anziché voler sostituire le comunità e società inferiori, cerca di rafforzarne la presenza e l’azione. Alla domanda iniziale circa la possibilità che le istituzioni multilaterali diano una risposta di governabilità alla presente situazione internazionale o, se si vuole, diano un volto umano alla globalizzazione, si può rispondere che la Santa Sede lo ritiene possibile. Cioè dà una risposta positiva e crede che ciò avverrà tramite l’accennata “purificazione delle coscienze”. L’appello ai principi etici serve poi sia a stimolare la riforma dei meccanismi tecnici dell’ONU, sia per dare efficacia agli organismi imperfetti

19

Benedetto XVI, Lett. enc. Deus Caritas Est, pp. 28-29.


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esistenti. Infatti, esso obbliga i governanti a ripensare le istituzioni alla luce dei fini che dovrebbero raggiungere e a cercare di affrontare i problemi con tali generosità e spirito di solidarietà che consentano di superare le limitazioni strutturali esistenti. Il rifiuto di ogni atteggiamento di cinismo che porti ad approfittarsi dei meccanismi multilaterali per promuovere interessi nazionalistici o di parte è il più importante contributo che la Santa Sede può dare alla comunità internazionale. La presenza di numerosissimi Capi di Stato e di Governo e di responsabili di Organizzazioni internazionali ai funerali di Papa Giovanni Paolo II costituisce un vivo riconoscimento di tale contributo. Parimenti, la recente visita del Segretario Generale delle Nazioni Unite a Sua Santità Benedetto XVI e l’invito a visitare la sede dell’ONU a New York confermano la fiducia che la comunità internazionale pone nel suo autorevole e fermo insegnamento.

La società civile e il nuovo volto della globalizzazione La governabilità del mondo globalizzato, tuttavia, non sarà mai possibile soltanto tramite le organizzazioni internazionali o tramite una futura, e probabilmente lontana, autorità mondiale. La diversità e complessità delle problematiche odierne, nel rilevare il deficit di governabilità delle istituzioni statali ed intergovernative, mette anche in rilievo l’importanza del principio di sussidiarietà. Negli spazi di libertà che necessariamente deve lasciare il sistema internazionale o una ipotetica futura autorità mondiale trova posto l’indispensabile azione della società civile. È importante non dimenticare quanto detto all’inizio, nel senso che i dibattiti all’ONU e presso le altre Organizzazioni internazionali costituiscono soltanto una piccola parte della vita internazionale. Essa si sviluppa in una miriade di azioni, con effetti che vanno al di là delle frontiere nazionali, di una miriade di soggetti, tra cui i più importanti sono i mezzi di comunicazione –specialmente il cinema, la radio-televisione e internet– la scuola e l’università, le aziende, i sindacati, il mondo artistico, le associazioni di ogni tipo, religioni e gruppi religiosi, ecc. Dal fermento della società civile (intesa in senso lato, cioè, tutte i raggruppamenti umani al di fuori dello Stato e degli Organismi Intergovernativi) nascono idee, orientamenti, correnti di opinione e iniziative che poi arrivano ai forum internazionali e determinano spesso le decisioni dei Governi e degli Organismi multilaterali. Perciò, la società civile acquista un ruolo imprescindibile nella governabilità dal volto umano. Le ONG costituiscono il collegamento


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tra le istituzioni intergovernative e il resto del mondo. Da una parte l’azione delle ONG garantisce una accresciuta trasparenza e controllo dell’azione internazionale e sensibilizza il pubblico alle questioni in discussione. Dall’altra, tramite la loro azione di advocacy, assicurano che molti aspetti, a volte dimenticati dai Governi, trovino attenzione nella vita multilaterale. L’azione della società civile può poi favorire le intese tra i Governi e collaborare efficacemente nell’applicazione delle decisioni. Le ONG, infine, sia con i programmi di cooperazione avviati insieme con gli Organismi internazionali, sia con i loro programmi indipendenti, sono diventate un elemento fondamentale dell’aiuto allo sviluppo, che arriva laddove l’azione dei Governi e degli Organismi internazionali non arriva. L’azione caritativa delle ONG cristiane e l’azione filantropica di altri membri della società civile, poi, aggiunge quel plus di umanità che le risposte di natura tecnica o politica mai possono dare.

Il volto umano della globalizzazione Può essere visto come un segno dei tempi la recente notizia della nomina del fondatore di una delle più grandi ONG di cooperazione e di advocacy a Ministro degli Affari Esteri di uno degli Stati membri permanenti del Consiglio di Sicurezza. È da augurarsi che tale nomina sia foriera di una più intensa ed efficace interazione tra la società civile, gli Stati e la comunità internazionale e che, tra i cristiani che operano nell’ambito internazionale, serva da stimolo per un rinnovato impegno a capire le presente complessità ed elaborare proposte concrete alla luce del Vangelo e delle indicazioni etiche del Magistero ecclesiale. Sono sicuro che Pax Romana continuerà ad animare in questo senso l’azione internazionale dei cristiani e di tanti altri uomini di buona volontà. Prendo spunto, per concludere, dalle recenti parole del Santo Padre Benedetto XVI ai giovani del Brasile e dell’America Latina: “Esiste, in ultima analisi, un immenso panorama di azione nel quale le questioni di ordine sociale, economico e politico acquisiscono un rilievo particolare, sempre che la loro fonte d’ispirazione siano il Vangelo e la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. La costruzione di una società più giusta e solidale, riconciliata e pacifica; l’impegno a frenare la violenza; le iniziative di promozione della vita piena, dell’ordine democratico e del bene comune e, specialmente, quelle che mirano ad eliminare certe discriminazioni


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esistenti …e non sono motivo di esclusione, bensì di arricchimento reciproco”.20 E’ possibile dare alla globalizzazione un volto umano. La Santa Sede, con la sua azione internazionale, vuole aiutare ad attingere a quella fonte d’ispirazione che è il Vangelo e la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. Spetta poi agli Stati membri della comunità internazionale e a tutti gli uomini di buona volontà la costruzione instancabile di quel volto dell’altra globalizzazione (face of another globalization) che è appunto quella società (nazionale ed internazionale) più giusta e solidale, riconciliata e pacifica.

S

till distant from a human-faced globalization, all of us face today a deficit of global governance. The global stage is faced with new and old actors who try to address the unusually complex and ever-changing reality, which is characterized by the interdependence of worldwide problems, including translational criminal phenomena. These problems require an urgent, firm and shared reply. However, the actual world authority is very fragmented, poorly coordinated, formed by organizations which have partial mandates (sometimes one in contrast with another or overlapped), are often provided with ineffective means. Concerning the international activity of the Holy See, the Social Doctrine of the Church proposes two important concepts for a global governance in the service of the human dignity: “world authority” and “family of nations”. The first one should be “some universal public authority acknowledged as such by all and endowed with the power to safeguard on the behalf of all, security, regard for justice, and respect for rights”. Such authority, to be set up as a high-rank international system, must come from a mutual agreement and must acquire a moral dimension. To achieve a human-faced governance it is essential to create a “family of nations,” community founded upon mutual trust, support and respect, as John Paul II declared to the UN General Assembly in 1995.

20

Benedetto XVI, Incontro con i giovani nello Stadio municipale di Pacaembù “Paolo Machado de Carvalho” a São Paulo (20 maggio 2007) 5.


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ún lejos de dar un rostro humano a la globalización, asistimos hoy a un déficit de gobernabilidad global. El gran grupo formado por nuevos y viejos actores que pueblan la escena internacional, la realidad de insólita complejidad y de constante cambio, la interdependencia de las grandes problemáticas mundiales, los fenómenos de delincuencia y criminalidad, reclaman una respuesta urgente, firme y compartida por todos. Sin embargo, la autoridad actual mundial está muy fragmentada y poco coordinada, formada por organizaciones que tienen mandatos parciales (a veces contrapuestos o sobrepuestos), a menudo provistas de medios ineficaces y contrastados ideológicamente entre ellos. En el contexto de la actividad internacional, la Santa Sede, con la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia, ha propuesto dos grandes conceptos para una gobernabilidad global que esté al servicio de la dignidad humana: aquello de “autoridad mundial” y de “familia de naciones”. La primera debería ser “alguna autoridad pública universal, reconocida por todos, que disfrute de un poder efectivo para garantizar a todos tanto la seguridad y la observación de justicia, como el respeto de los derechos”. Para poderse constituir como un grado superior de ordenamiento internacional, fruto de un acuerdo y no de una imposición, tal autoridad debe obtener una dimensión moral. Para obtener una gobernabilidad de rostro humano, es indispensable crear una “familia de naciones”, una comunidad fundada en la confianza recíproca, el apoyo recíproco y el mutuo respeto, como decía Juan Pablo II en la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas de 1995.


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A Korean Experience of the Globalization Era Seong Bosco Ambassador of Korea in the Holy See

Civilization and Barbarism in the 21st Century

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n the 21st Century, we would distinguish civilization from barbarism based on the following criteria: first of all, sensibility toward the human being. Pope John Paul II expressed this sensibility through his definition of Christianity: “The name for that deep amazement at man’s worth and dignity is the Gospel, that is to say: the Good News. It is also called Christianity” (Redemptor hominis 10). Through various world religions’ teachings and the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights such sensitivity seems to gradually become more and more universal, more “globalized”. Secondly, the difference between barbarism and civilization lies in the sense of Justice vis-a-vis the sufferings of peer human beings who are starving, whose rights are violated, who are oppressed and killed within a circle of violence created by governments and other types of collectitivities. This sense of justice shares the idea of St. Augustine: “peace is the fruit of justice (opus iustitiae pax)” and “Justice being taken away, then, what are kingdoms but great robberies?” (Remota itaque iustitia quid sunt regna nisi magna latrocinia?: De civitate Dei 4.4) In this context, almost desperate disappointment shared by European intellectuals in front of the war in Afghanistan, in Iraq, and the invasion of Israel in Lebanon, is spreading throughout the world, as well as to Korean intellectuals. Thirdly, the boundary between barbarity and civilization lies in the solidarity shared by people and nations that, regardless of the desperate reality surrounding the world, do not stop to dream about a peaceful world based on sharing and cooperation. As you ladies and gentlemen know already, according to St. Augustine, the two cities, id est, the “City of the Earth” and the “City of God” are each based on “private love” (amor privatus) and “social love” (amor socialis, Pope Benedict XVI in his


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first Encyclical Deus caritas est [n.29]). He defined this social love (caritas socialis) as caritas politico, politico est amor socialis (political activity, lived as social charity). This concept of “social love” now within the context of globalization, is expanding into and forming a “caritas internationalist” in a broader sense. (This social charity is symbolized by the wide open arms of Christ, nailed on the cross. Open arms that are not to embrace oneself, but only his loved ones.)

‘’Globalization” and Modem History of Korea In the 18th century, the failure to open the frontiers towards a global society due to the isolation-policy of Chosun dinasty, gave a costly lesson to Korean intellectuals about what failure in globalization might bring as a result. Moreover, Koreans also experienced how globalization can be misused for the imperialist purpose of powerful nations. Indeed the Japanese political slogan of “Common Welfare of Great East Asia” used to justify its invasions and colonizations, was the starting point of a horrific suffering of most east Asian countries in the first half of the 20th century. In case of Korea, during the Second World War, tens of thousands men and women were deported by the Japanese to work and die as forced workers, soldiers and sexual slaves of the Japanese empire. Korea obtained its independence after the defeat of Japan but had soon to suffer its division in North and South as United States and the Soviet Union decided so in the Yalta treaty. Mediation from the United Nations to unify the two parts resulted futile as the two Koreas were deeply involved in the ideological power conflict between US and USSR. The extreme tension on the peninsula resulted into a civil war in 1950 that caused enormous casualties not only among Korean people but from UN member states that participated to the war to bring back the peace, and indeed succeeded at least to restore the pre-war situation. After the war, South Korea benefited a lot from international support and stood up from the ashes thanks to the Rebuilding Project of UNESCO, the food supply from FAO and the diverse support of Christian organizations such as NCWC. However, the cold war conflict between the two superpowers deformed into a monstrous Siamese-twins, a country that for more the 10 centuries has been a single country with single culture and single nationality. Regardless of the atrocious scar formed by the civil war, the Korean Siamese-twins have only one heart, one body and four limbs. Indeed


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what our nation needs now is not a separating operation but a suture into one body! This long awaited effort to suture the Siamese-twins, started properly only by our former president Kim Dae-Jung (winner of Nobel Prize for Peace) who was put in prison for four times due to his unification activities. His election to presidency gave birth to a real struggle to cure the scar of division. Thanks to his “Sunshine Policy (1998-2002)” that was inherited by the current president Roh Moo-Hyun under the name of “Policy of Embracement (2003-2007)”, tension on the peninsula was alleviated, material and personal exchange between the two governments increased, divided families could meet each other, and aid could be provided to starving North Koreans. During the last few decades, Korea has experienced all the ups and downs of economic globalization. It escaped from poverty thanks to a cheap labor based export policy, it joined the OECD but it also experienced a dooming financial crisis that was followed by the intervenition of IMF. It joined WTO, it was involved in FTAs throughout the globe as an active member of international organizations and global governance. International bodies such as Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) were created and IOs such as IAEA and UNDP were deeply involved to solve famine and energy problems in DPRK. Contribution from human rights NGOs and Christian NGOs were crucial for the democratization of South Korea. In this way Korea enormously benefited from the commitment of international society, and from globalization.

Personal Experiences as the Ambassador of Korea to the Holy See Following the central subject of this afternoon’s forum “The Holy See: a face of another globalization” I will briefly talk about my experience as the Korean ambassador to the Holy See on one particular subject: “the nuclear threat on the Korean peninsula”. Even though Korea remains the only divided country in the worid, the great powers surrounding the peninsula, putting aside the diplomatic sweet-talks, seem to hold the strategic position that the confrontation between the two Koreas is profitable for their interest. In contrast, the position of the Holy See on the division of Korea has always been a genuine compassion toward the suffering of Korean people. Pope John Paul II, in his reply to my presentation of the credential letters (4 July


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2003) remembered that in his two visits to Korea he perceived “the disappointment of many people in observing that the peninsula, inhabited by a single nation, is obliged to live in painful division”. And he invited Korean people “to alleviate tensions through dialogue and encounters, to smooth out the differences and find a common ground for fruitful understanding.” Also Pope Benedict XVI, at the first meeting (12 May 2005) with corps diplomatique after his election comforted the Korean ambassador by mentioning that he himself came “from a country... which lived through the war and the separation of brothers and sisters belonging to the same Nation because of destructive and inhuman ideologies”. One of the principles of action of diplomats is reciprocity. But what diplomats learn from the Holy See is not reciprocity but solidarity and common good. When United States put in question the nuclear arming of DPRK Pope John Paul II quoted the encyclical Pacem in terris [n,ll3] and pointed out that “the fundamental principles upon which peace is based in today’s “world be... the realization that true and lasting peace between nations cannot consist in the possession of an equal supply of armaments but only in mutual trusty. Pope Benedict XVI, even after the nuclear test of North Korea, noted to the Japanese ambassador upon the presentation of his credential letters (13 November 2006) that “the Holy See encourages bilateral or multilateral negotiations, convinced that a solution must be sought by peaceful means and high respect for the engagement of all the parties present, to achieve the nuclear disarmament of the Korean Peninsula.” Also in the new year’s address (8 January 2007) to the corps diplomatique accredited to the Holy See, the Pope said that “the goal of reconciling the Korean people and maintaining the Peninsula as a nuclear-free zone must be pursued within the context of negotiations. It is important to avoid gestures (hat could compromise the talks, and likewise to avoid making their results a precondition for the humanitarian aid for the most vulnerable canong North Koreans”. The appeal of the Holy See: Peace is the fruit of justice (opus iustitiae pax), is fhe most convincing key to solve crisis like the one on the Korean peninsula. On the reply to my presentation of the credential letters the preceding Pope appealed “for the gradual, balanced and verifiable elimination of weapons of mass destruction, and especially nuclear arms.” He was the first state leader to mention a “balanced” process of disarming on the issue of nuclear weapons in Korea. On the 6 Party Talk statement of 18 September 2005, the Korean government declared a “nuclear-free


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(South-)Korea”, and after the North Korean nuclear test in 2006, South Korea agreed on the reintroduction of US nuclear umbrella but of a “long distant umbrella”.

Conclusion: Mane nobiscum Domine! On March 27th 2005, on Easter Sunday, I was standing on the Loggia of St. Peter’s square. The Easter message that cardinal Sodano read on behalf of Pope John Paul II was like the last spiritual will of the weak and old pontiff that has been leading the world as a moral and spiritual leader for decades. The servant of God (servus Dei) in that very short message repeated the phrase “Mane nobiscum, Domine\Stay with us, Lord! Lk 24:29) eight times. A pope that on the verge of the third millennium has proclaimed the year of forgiveness, the year of reconciliation, the year of penitence while wishing a century full of Grace; a pope that saw in the collapse of Berlin wall “the invisible hand of a motherly providence”, a pope that was shivering for the injustice inflicted by Christianity of the western world upon the descendants of Ismael in Afghanistan and Iraq; a pope that has condemned the proxy war run by first world countries for petrol and diamonds throughout Africa; this pope was shouting out a last prayer before leaving this world. Mane nobiscum Domine! I expect that you, ladies and gentleman, members and friends of Pax Romana, in the ugly reality of a worid where only the rule of the jungle seems to overrule, where your highly moralized political leaders and governments follow truly immoral policies regardless of your struggle for justice, where global governance seems so void and futile, on this of way to Emmaus, full of disillusions and dispair, the only way to encourage yourself will be praying “Mane nobiscum Domine!” to the mysterious Wayfarer on the road of world history. And also when each one of you would walk away towards your own red sunset from where you are standing, handling over to your colleagues and friends the tasks and goals that you have been chasing throughout your life, the blessing prayer that you will leave them will be as well “Stay with us, Lord!” “Mane nobiscum Domine!” What else?!!


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’intervento esamina la situazione coreana nell’era della globalizzazione. Iniziando con ciò che distingue la civiltà dalla barbarie –sensibilità, giustizia e solidarietà– si ripercorre a grandi linee la storia moderna della Corea. Tra le tappe fondamentali vi sono le deportazioni ed i lavori forzati di molti coreani per opera dei giapponesi durante la II Guerra Mondiale, l’indipendenza, la divisione in Nord e Sud, la guerra civile del 1950, le conseguenze della guerra fredda, i tentativi di riunificazione. Negli ultimi decenni inoltre, la Corea ha sperimentato ogni tipo di conseguenza della globalizzazione economica, traendo enormi benefici. L’intervento continua proponendo alcune esperienze personali del relatore –in veste di Ambasciatore di Corea presso la Santa Sede– riguardo alla minaccia nucleare che incombe sulla penisola. Per ottenere il disarmo, più dei mezzi della diplomazia occorrono solidarietà, fiducia reciproca e bene comune, come insegna la Chiesa. La negoziazione è il contesto in cui possono avvenire la riconciliazione ed il disarmo, dando piena realizzazione all’appello della Santa Sede per cui “La pace è il frutto della giustizia”.

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l documento examina la situación coreana en la era de la globalización. Empieza por aquello que distingue la civilización de la barbarie –sensibilidad, justicia y solidaridad– y recorre a grandes rasgos la historia moderna de Corea. Entre las etapas fundamentales, constan las deportaciones y los trabajos forzados de muchos coreanos sometidos por los japoneses durante la segunda guerra mundial, la independencia, la división entre el norte y el sur, la guerra civil de 1950, las consecuencias de la guerra fría, los intentos de reunificación. Durante las últimas décadas, por otra parte, Corea ha experimentado todo tipo de consecuencias de la globalización económica, acarreando enormes beneficios. El documento propone a continuación algunas experiencias personales del ponente –en calidad de embajador de Corea ante la Santa Sede– que hacen referencia a la amenaza nuclear que cae sobre la península. Para obtener el desarme, más que medios diplomáticos, nos hace falta solidaridad, confianza recíproca y bien común, como señala la Iglesia. La negociación es el contexto en el cual la reconciliación y el desarme pueden alcanzarse, dando plena realización al aviso de la Santa Sede: “La paz es fruto de la justicia”.


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The World Campaign for the Reform of International Institutions Manel Manonelles UBUNTU-World Forum of Civil Society Networks

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s you may be aware, my role here today is the one of presenting the principles of the World Campaign for the Reform of International Institutions which was launched in the year 2002 by the World Forum of Civil Society Networks -known as the UBUNTU Forum. This campaign has been strongly working and advocating -with the support of organisations like Pax Romana- into the direction of an in-depth and comprehensive reform of the System of International Institutions: this is the reform of the UN system, including the IFIs (World Bank and International Monetary Fund) and the World Trade Organisation. But let me start by a quotation. A long quotation but which it is key to understand the rationale, the background of this Campaign: â€œâ€ŚIndeed, the processes by which capital, goods, information, technology and knowledge are exchanged and circulate throughout the world today often elude the traditional mechanisms of regulatory control put in place by national governments and international agencies. Special interests and the demands of the market frequently predominate over concern for the common good. This tends to leave the weaker members of society without adequate protection and can subject entire peoples and cultures to a formidable struggle for survival. Moreover, it is disturbing to witness a globalization that exacerbates the conditions of the needy, that does not sufficiently contribute to resolving situations of hunger, poverty and social inequality, that fails to safeguard the natural environment. These aspects of globalization can give rise to extreme reactions, leading to excessive nationalism, religious fanaticism and even acts of terrorism. (...) difficulties arise from the lack of effective mechanisms for giving it proper direction. Globalization needs to be inserted into the larger con-


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text of a political and economic programme that seeks the authentic progress of all mankind. In this way, it will serve the whole human family, no longer bringing benefit merely to a privileged few but advancing the common good of all. Thus, the true success of globalization will be measured by the extent that it enables every person to enjoy the basic goods of food and housing, of education and employment, of peace and social progress, of economic development and justice.”1 This quote, although it could perfectly be part of the manifesto which is the base of our campaign, or of other similar campaigns within the non-governmental community, it is not. It is the Address of the Holy Father –John Paul II– to the participants of the 9th Plenary Session of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences which took place the 2nd-6th of May 2003 in the Vatican City, under the title The Governance of Globalization. There is, therefore complete coincidence between the words of the Holy Father and the principles and ideas which inspired the Campaign promoted by the UBUNTU Forum. Principles and ideas which are extensive not only to this quotation but to many key references within the Catholic Social Teaching. It is not my role nor the time to go into the details and the quotations we could find in several documents, including the Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, or the Papal Encyclicals Sollicitudo rei socialis and Centesimus annus and other messages and addresses by different popes. But I can not continue if I do not quote one of the pillars of this social teaching, the Encyclical Pacem in Terris, when address the issue by saying: “It is therefore Our earnest wish that the United Nations Organization may be able progressively to adapt its structure and methods of operation to the magnitude and nobility of its tasks. May the day be not long delayed when every human being can find in this organization an effective safeguard of his personal rights; those rights, that is, which derive directly from his dignity as a human person, and which are therefore universal, inviolable and inalienable. This is all the more desirable in that men today are taking an ever more active part in the public life of their own nations, and in doing so they are showing an 1

“Address of the Holy Father to the participants of the 9th Plenary Session of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences” in The Governance of Globalization. The Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. Acta 9. Vatican city, 2004; XXVIII-XXIX.


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increased interest in the affairs of all peoples. They are becoming more and more conscious of being living members of the universal family of mankind”2 Which international system: In this framework of shared vision between the Catholic Social Teaching and the background of the UBUNTU Campaign, I would like now to introduce the principles in which this renewed international system should be based. This should be a strong, coherent and human-centred system which is based on –according to the London Declaration–3 presented the 1st of April 2004 : – Global democracy and Human Rights – International Peace and Security – Sustainable Human Development and Cultural Diversity Moreover, and according to the Open Letter to the new UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon, recently published in the International Herald Tribune:4 “…a stronger, more democratic UN, placed at the centre of a consistent, democratic, responsible, effective system of international institutions. More specifically, we need to democratise the composition and decision-making procedures of UN bodies and agencies to ensure that they are effective and democratic. And we need to refound and integrate within the UN all other global multilateral organisations (IMF, WB, WTO, etc.)” On these basis, which would be the ultimate institutional articulation of such a system? Well, according to our document on Future Scenarios. Proposals to Reform the System of International Institutions,5 the final –I 2

Pacem in Terris, cf.145.

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London Declaration. Proposals on the Reform of the System of International Institutions to Make Another World Possible. London, 1st April 2004, Av.at www.ubuntu.upc.edu/pdf/declaracio_eng.pdf

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International Herald Tribune, 12th February 2007.

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VVAA, Proposals to Reform the System of International Institutions.Future Scenarios, May 2004, Available at: www.ubuntu.upc.edu/pdf/seminari_eng.pdf


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would even say utopian– system towards which we are working would be the one in which the principle of: – Global democracy: representation and participation: would be determined by a double-chamber global legislative body, in which the old General Assembly would have evolved into, on the one side, a new General Assembly that would keep the territorial representation through the states; and on the other, a new Assembly of Representatives, which would be composed by representatives elected through global universal suffrage. These two chambers would be the main actors in global legislation and their resolutions would be no more recommendations, but with binding authority. They would also have the capacity of exercising parliamentary control over the other organisations of the system. – The principle of Peace and security would be ensured through a new Peace and Security Council, with a composition based on regional representation, were the veto power would be abolished and substituted by a system of straight majority voting, similar to the one used at the EU for certain issues. – The Economic, Social and Environmental Institutions would be under a new Economic, Social and Environmental Security Council –similar to what is known as the Delors proposal– with effective control over the trade and financial institutions (the former Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organisation) which duly reformed would become specialised technical agencies of the new system. The old UN Agencies, Programmes and Funds related to these areas would be reshaped since their assemblies would adopt a similar tripartite system of representation to the one of the ILO, with the participation of all the relevant sectors that each case would demand. – Finally, in the field of World Justice, there would be an interconnected world legal system embracing both civil and criminal law, with executive mechanisms. This would be done through the existing International Court of Justice, which with renewed powers could pass sentences on the constitutionality of the decisions adopted by the different institutions part of the system. The International Criminal Court would have universal jurisdiction and it would be full integrated within the UN system. Finally, several specific and thematic international courts would be establishment, according to specific global needs.


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Possible Intermediate steps: But of course, all of us present here today, although we are members of the intellectual community, or precisely because of that, are aware that reaching this model “for perpetual peace” –as Emmanuel Kant would say– is far away to have even some possibilities of being implemented. Moreover, as important as it is conceptualising the system to which we aspire; is to determine the intermediate steps, the strategies and the techniques to move in that direction. In fact, the same document on Future Scenarios establishes different steps towards this new paradigm of international architecture. And the proposals I am going to comment now are not only the result of a single document, but of the experience and practice of many campaigns and actors who have been involved in these different but common aspects. Which could be these different steps? Well there are many and many organisations and states are already working to accomplish them. Given the limits of time I will just announce some of the most relevant: – In the field of Global democracy: representation and participation, one of the possibilities could be the: – creation of an Inter-Parliamentary Assembly, as an advisory body to the GA, with members elected by each national parliament (similar to the predecessor of the current European Parliament, or the ones existing at the Council of Europe, the OSCE or the African Union); – expanding the reporting powers, creating new systems by which the IFIs and other agencies should also report -on an advisory basis- to the GA. The same could be done into the direction of some sort of vote of the GA in the nomination process of UN top positions, with the possibility of including those of the WB and the IMF. – In the areas of Peace and security, work could be done into the direction of: – improving the conflict prevention and peacekeeping mechanisms, and resources, – progressive creation of UN-rapid deployment forces and bodies; and therefore not more depending on the availability –or not– of troops by member states, with its geopolitical implications, – in the case of the Security Council process, intermediate changes could be performed: • moving from close-doors to open-doors and broadcasted meetings, • introducing the mechanism of straight vote system instead of veto in some particular issues (excluding Chapter VII issues),


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• in-depth the regionalisation of the representation (i.e.: enlargement through regional organisations and not through single states, etc.) – For the Economic, Social and Environmental sectors, several “intermediate” actions could be taken. On the policy level, clear advances should be done in terms of: – the cancellation of the debt of the least-developed countries, – the establishment of a framework for the impartial arbitration over debt payments, – the disappearance of tax heavens, – increase of Official Foreign Aid, – the establishment of international taxations (over financial taxations, plane tickets, the Tobin Tax…), – reinforcement of the implementation mechanisms of the MDGs, –… On the institutional level, changes could be through the: – creation of a new and comprehensive global agency against climate change, – strengthening the current mechanisms of interaction between the IFIs and the ECOSOC, giving higher powers to the ECOSOC Executive Committee, – harmonisation of the actions and policies of the IFIs in coherence with their original mandates, – review voting rights and power structures in the IFIs, – review the nature of the WTO founding documents in order to include them within the UN family system, – increase bodies for the overall coherence of the system (reducing duplications, etc.). Finally, in the area of World Justice, different actions should take place in the direction of: – expanding the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, and other current mechanisms. – first steps towards the creation of new international courts and bodies (following the ICC model) in areas such as Law of the Seas


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and Oceans, tax heavens, a new International Environmental Court, against actions with massive and trans-boundary negative environmental impact, etc. These, and many others, are the intermediate steps in which many of us are working. They are crucial for the evolution of the international architecture. They are of special importance for those, like us, who base their actions in a strong set of values in which human dignity has a core role. But above all, they are essential because they affect –directly or nondirectly– to the lives of millions of people. It is therefore important we continue to work in this field and that we join our strengths, our knowledge and experience in working in this field, in order to –united, yet diverse– we confront the overall picture which affects our lives and the lives of future generations. Either we ensure coherence and consistence in the global dimension of our work, or many efforts done in the micro or local context can be damaged or even lost in this interconnected and ever-changing reality.

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’intervento delinea i principi della Campagna Mondiale per la Riforma delle Istituzioni Internazionali (lanciata nel 2002 dall’UBUNTU Forum). Essa è dettata dalla necessità di inserire il potenziale della globalizzazione “all’interno di un programma politico ed economico che abbia come obiettivo l’autentico progresso di tutto il genere umano”. Il rinnovamento del sistema internazionale dovrebbe creare un meccanismo forte, coerente, incentrato sull’uomo e basato sui seguenti pilastri: – Democrazia globale e diritti umani – Pace e sicurezza internazionali – Sviluppo umano sostenibile e diversità culturale Il nuovo modello proposto consta di: – Un organo legislativo bicamerale (una nuova Assemblea Generale affiancata ad un’Assemblea dei Rappresentanti), per la salvaguardia della democrazia globale; – Un nuovo Consiglio di Pace e Sicurezza, per la difesa della pace e della sicurezza a livello internazionale; – Un nuovo Consiglio Economico, Sociale e di Sicurezza Ambientale, che vigili sul lavoro delle istituzioni economiche, sociali ed ambientali. Sebbene questo progetto sembri oggi utopistico, vengono suggeriti stadi intermedi, tecniche e strategie per agevolarne la realizzazione.


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a intervención delinea los principios de la Campaña Mundial para la Reforma de las Instituciones Internacionales (lanzada en el 2002 por el UBUNTU Forum). Dictada por la necesidad de insertar el potencial de la globalización “en el interior de un programa político y económico que tenga como objetivo el auténtico progreso de toda la humanidad”. La renovación del sistema internacional tendría que crear un mecanismo fuerte, coherente, centrado en el hombre y basado en los siguientes pilares: – Democracia global y derechos humanos. – Paz y seguridad internacional. – Desarrollo humano sostenibile y diversidad cultural. El nuevo modelo propuesto cuenta con: – Un órgano legislativo bicameral (una nueva Asamblea General vinculada a una Asambla de Representantes), para salvaguardar la democracia global. – Un nuevo consejo de Paz y Seguridad, para la defensa de la paz y la seguridad a nivel internacional. – Un nuevo Consejo Económico, Social y de Seguridad Ambiental, que vigile el trabajo de las instituciones económicas, sociales y ambientales. Aunque este plan parece hoy utópico, vienen sugeridos estadios intermedios, técnicas y estrategias para facilitar su realización.


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Closing session* Federico Lombardi, SJ Direttore della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede

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a Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione - una faccia da annunciare e comunicare” è stato il tema che ha permesso anche al Direttore della “Radio Vaticana” di lanciare sfide fondamentali per il comunicatore, in particolare quello cristiano, nel contesto della globalizzazione, il cui processo ha come elemento chiave le comunicazioni sociali. Esiste “un flusso intenso e rapidissimo di comunicazioni, di informazioni, un flusso che subisce continue accelerazioni per lo sviluppo delle nuove tecnologie di comunicazione” e “ciò che accade in un punto del pianeta può essere reso noto in pochi minuti a tutto il mondo”, ha ricordato Padre Lombardi. Allo stesso modo, “il flusso delle comunicazioni influisce sulla mentalità, l’atteggiamento ed il comportamento della gente” –ha segnalato– come nel caso dei “paesi in via di sviluppo”, nei quali “si possono vedere in televisione e ricevere tramite internet notizie” riguardanti “stili di vita, di consumo e di pensiero, cambiamenti delle idee morali e culturali degli altri paesi del mondo”. “Per questo motivo nascono velocemente movimenti di cambiamento della mentalità, della cultura, delle aspettative, nasce un impulso verso nuovi modelli di vita, verso diversi comportamenti morali, verso la migrazione in altri paesi del mondo”. In questo modo, “la comunicazione sociale influisce, nella realtà della vita, sul processo concreto della globalizzazione”, ha sottolineato il Direttore della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede.

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Tratto da un riassunto dell’agenzia di informazione Zenit


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Ombre si possono e si devono dissolvere Molti aspetti di questo processo della comunicazione sociale “sono ambigui e negativi”, e Padre Lombardi ha segnalato l’importanza di prenderne coscienza. “Per richiamare l’attenzione sull’immenso flusso di comunicazione, esiste un impulso sempre più forte verso la sensazione, lo scoop, la ricerca dell’impatto”, “si cerca sempre di arrivare per primi con una notizia, anche con il rischio di dare un’informazione imprecisa o non verificata”, ha dichiarato. Allo stesso modo, nella comunicazione si registra una spinta “ad insistere sui conflitti, sulla dialettica, sulle opposizioni, sia nelle relazioni personali e familiari, sia nelle relazioni sociali e politiche, nonché tra nazioni”, tutto ciò - ha aggiunto - sommato ad “una frammentazione, una rottura del tessuto culturale dei punti di riferimento morali a cui i popoli sono abituati”. Grandi squilibri sono presenti anche nel mondo dell’informazione, “sia per quanto riguarda la possibilità di ricevere informazioni, che di dare informazioni e di parlare dal punto di vista dei poveri, oltre che dei ricchi e potenti”, si è rammaricato il sacerdote. Davanti a questo scenario, può sorgere un certo pessimismo in merito alla globalizzazione per ciò che concerne le comunicazioni sociali; tuttavia, la Chiesa “ha un atteggiamento fondamentalmente positivo ed ottimista nei confronti della globalizzazione dal punto di vista della comunicazione”, e cerca di “aiutare a vedere le possibilità positive e di insistere su queste ultime per utilizzarla al meglio”, ha sottolineato. La comunicazione –secondo la prospettiva della Chiesa– può e deve servire affinché la persona sia “più libera e responsabile grazie alla conoscenza del mondo in cui vive e della sua situazione”, ha insistito il portavoce vaticano; rappresenta una possibilità di crescita della persona, della comunità, della società e della Chiesa stessa. La crescita stessa della comunicazione “permette maggiore partecipazione alla vita comunitaria, consente la crescita della democrazia, che aumenti il senso di interdipendenza tra i popoli, che si aprano orizzonti di solidarietà”, ha enfatizzato.

Chiavi per la comunicazione costruttiva Come rendere la comunicazione più al passo con i tempi moderni e come dare alla globalizzazione una dimensione positiva? Padre Lombardi


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ha risposto a queste domande sottolineando alcuni valori fondamentali che devono caratterizzare questa attività. In primo luogo, ha segnalato la necessità della “verità”. “Chi lavora nella comunicazione sociale sa che non è affatto ovvio dire sempre la verità e cercare sempre la verità”, ha sottolineato; “la ricerca della verità è un compito continuo e difficile per la nostra comunicazione, nella grande comunicazione dei media, ma anche nella nostra comunicazione personale”. Dall’altro lato c’è bisogno di “una visione della realtà che conservi la dimensione spirituale e religiosa”, ha aggiunto, perché la realtà non esiste solo nell’“aspetto materiale”, anche se si insiste nel parlare “solo o principalmente degli aspetti materiali della vita” e non si riconosce “l’importanza dei fatti morali e spirituali nella vita” stessa. “Un altro punto che io ho sentito ed ho imparato come fondamentale lavorando per la Santa Sede nella comunicazione - ha riconosciuto - è il rispetto della varietà e della ricchezza delle diverse culture contro i modelli culturali che appiattiscono il mondo intero e contro il colonialismo culturale che fa mettere sotto i più piccoli e continua a diffondere i modelli dei Paesi più ricchi e potenti”. Si tratta, ha osservato, di “difendere la varietà, l’identità dei diversi popoli, delle diverse Nazioni, e far capire che questa è una ricchezza che va condivisa con tutti per poter essere una famiglia in cui i propri valori vengono condivisi”. In questo Giovanni Paolo II è stato un “grandissimo maestro”: quando ha portato a sessanta il numero di auguri nelle varie lingue a Pasqua e a Natale “dimostrava di capire questo e di volerlo esprimere efficacemente, anche se solo con due parole, e il mondo lo capiva”, ha segnalato Padre Lombardi. Allo stesso modo, “dobbiamo comunicare per la giustizia”, ha proseguito, alludendo ad esempio “ai conflitti dimenticati”. È anche necessario “comunicare per la pace”, comunicare “non per dividere, ma per unire”, favorire sempre “la comprensione, le ragioni del dialogo, le ragioni dell’unione”, ha proposto il portavoce vaticano. Un altro tema della nostra comunicazione “è quello della carità e della speranza”, ha avvertito; “viviamo in un mondo in cui le notizie negative sono innumerevoli”, ma “ci sono immensamente più cose belle e importanti attorno a noi di quelle che noi a prima vista non vediamo e pensiamo”. “Una comunicazione cristiana –ha sottolineato Padre Lombardi– deve insistere sul dare quelle notizie buone che aiutano a valorizzare il


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desiderio di bene che c’è nel profondo d’ognuno di noi anche se deluso e stanco”. Il portavoce vaticano ha ricordato la morte di Giovanni Paolo II come il “fatto mediatico [di tutta la nostra storia recente] più importante”, e questo “è stato un fatto bello, grande, positivo in cui la gran parte della umanità ha capito il valore della testimonianza cristiana e l’ha vissuta come un invito alla dignità, alla speranza e all’unione”. “Credo che attraverso una comunicazione fatta con questi valori noi possiamo contribuire a costruire un mondo migliore” e “dare quindi alla globalizzazione una dimensione positiva”, ha concluso.

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his paper reminds that the media can be used to build a better world and give a positive dimension to globalization. Intense and rapid communications characterize the information world today: whatever happens anywhere in the world can be known in the whole planet in few minutes. This flow influences people’s mentality, attitude and behavior; therefore it is fundamental not to forget the importance of truth, even if it is not always easy to tell the truth or to look for it. The Church fundamentally has a positive and hopeful attitude towards globalization, from the point of view of the communication. It should propose a view of reality that includes the spiritual and religious dimentions, as well as respect of different cultures. Infact, through communication people can defend the variety and identity of all people, and make everyone understand that this cultural wealth should be shared by everyone. There is a need to communicate to achieve peace, to unite people, to encourage mutual understanding, to promote dialogue. Another theme the paper deals with is that of charity and hope: Christian communications must insist on giving good news that helps the community spread the message of hope, even though bad news is always abundant. Through a communication based on these values a better world is possible.

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l documento nos recuerda que los medios de comunicación pueden ser usados para construir un mundo mejor y dar una dimensión positiva a la globalización. La comunicación intensa y rápida caracteriza el mundo actual de la información:


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cualquier cosa que pase en cualquier lugar del mundo puede ser conocida por el planeta entero en pocos minutos. Este fenómeno influye la mentalidad de las personas, su actitud y comportamiento. Por ello, es fundamental que no nos olvidemos de la importancia de la verdad, incluso si esta no es siempre fácil de decir o de buscar. La Iglesia tiene una actitud fundamentalmente positiva y esperanzadora delante de la globalización, desde el punto de vista de la comunicación. Debería proponerse una visión de la realidad que incluyera tanto una dimensión religiosa y espiritual, como el respeto hacia las diferentes culturas. De hecho, a través de la comunicación, las personas pueden defender la diversidad e identidad de todo el mundo, y hacer que todo el mundo entienda que esta riqueza cultural debería ser compartida por todo el mundo. Existe una necesidad de comunicarse para alcanzar la paz, para unir a las personas, para estimular un mutuo entendimiento, para promover el diálogo. Otro tema que se trata es el de la caridad y la esperanza: las comunicaciones cristianas deben insistir en dar buenas noticias que ayuden a la comunidad a difundir un mensaje de esperanza, aunque las malas noticias abunden siempre. A través de una comunicación basada en estos valores un mundo mejor es posible.


Statues of ICMICA


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Statues of ICMICA International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs As amended by the 29th Plenary Assembly in Poland in July 2004 Geneva, Switzerland

CHAPTER I - General Provisions Article 1 The International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs (ICMICA) is an international association of the faithful, with private juridical personality, according to canons 298-311 and 321-329 of the Code of Canon Law. It is governed by applicable canonical rules in force and by the following statutes. It also constitutes an Association for civil purposes in the sense of articles 60 to 79 of the Swiss Civil Code. The office is located in Geneva, Switzerland. ICMICA will maintain continuous relationships with the Secretariat of State for all matters concerning the presence and activity in International Organizations (cf. Apostolic Constitution Pastor Bonus, art 41 # 2). Article 2 ICMICA comes from the tradition of Pax Romana, an association of Catholic students founded in Fribourg, Switzerland in 1921 and approved by a letter from Cardinal Gasparri to Max Gressly, President of the “International Union of Catholic Students� of 5 June 1921. ICMICA was founded in the 1946 as the graduate branch of Pax Romana and the original statutes were approved by a letter from Cardinal Pizzardo to Monsignor Francois Charriere, Bishop of Lausanne, Fribourg and Geneva, of 18 June 1948. ICMICA is also recognised in the tradition of Specialised Catholic Action. ICMICA is also characterised by methodologies, which include, among others, see-judge-act applied according to the various contexts in which it is present.


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Article 3 The identity of ICMICA is self defined as being a lay Catholic movement composed of professionals and intellectuals with a spirituality of action to the service of human dignity and the common good in human society. Its members, as professionals and intellectuals, seek to bear witness to the Kingdom of God through their life and their commitment in the various contexts in which they are present, to share the Gospel in the environments to which they are committed and to contribute to the building up and renewal of the Church at the local and universal level. Article 4 Relations between IMCS and ICMICA, which constitute the two branches of Pax Romana, are governed by their respective statutes and by any cooperation agreement entered into. Article 5 The aims of ICMICA are, to the fall extent of its strength and competence, to: a) support the deepening of the faith and the coherence of life of its members; b) support the process of constant formation of its members in spiritual matters, in commitment, and in professional and intellectual matters by way of exchange of experiences, shared study, openness to the Word of God and the celebration of, and participation in, the life of the ecclesial community, in communion with the local Church, in which it is present, and with the universal Church; c) serve as witness of the Gospel in the various communities and environments with which it is involved and to contribute intellectually and professionally to a proactive dialogue between the Christian faith and cultures, and between faith and reason, d) act in defence of human dignity and human rights, for the construction of true peace on earth, for the eradication of all forms of poverty and injustice, and for sustainable development in harmony with nature; e) pursue all its works on behalf of society in the light of the Social Teachings of the Church, and especially through the professional and intellectual contributions of its members; f) contribute to the path of ecumenism seeking the growth of communion between all Churches and Christian communities; and to be in dialogue, peace and understanding among religions.


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CHAPTER II - Membership Article 6 The International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs is composed of - Constituent members. - Corresponding members, - Individual members. Article 7 Constituent members are inter-professional organisations recognised by the Hierarchy, grouping either directly or indirectly the Catholic intellectual and cultural leaders of a particular country or nation and guaranteeing to each grouping its free representation. Corresponding members are those inter-professional organisations, recognised by the Hierarchy, which do not have, in the opinion of the Council, the characteristics required to be constituent members. Individual members are those persons asking to join the movement directly and who get approval from the Council. Article 8 The Council may periodically examine its Membership and propose to the Plenary Assembly a change in the status of any Member should it deem this appropriate. Article 9 Persons and institutions who contribute to the support of the Movement may be named benefactors by the Plenary Assembly on the advice of the Council.

CHAPTER III - Movement board and agencies Article 10 The directing agencies of the Movement are: – the Plenary Assembly; – the Council. The technical agencies of the Movement are: – the General Secretariat; and – the Specialised International Secretariats.


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Article 11 The Plenary Assembly consisting, of the Membership of the Movement present and eligible to vote is the supreme agency of the Movement. It meets usually even four years, upon convocation by the Council, with a minimum notification of four months. Article 12 The Plenary Assembly a) elects a Chairman and one or several Vice-Chairman to direct its work; b) elects the Presidents, the Vice-Presidents and the Members of the Council; c) elects, upon recommendation of the Council, the Secretary General; d) decides upon definitive admission which alone confers the right to vote and upon the exclusion of constituent members and of collective corresponding members; e) discusses and approves the report and the program or activity presented by the Council, as well as the suggestions emanating from members of the Movement; f) approves the accounts and votes the budget; g) fixes the annual contribution of the constituent and corresponding members; h) fixes the place and time of the next Assembly; i) upon recommendation of the Council, decides upon the creation of Specialised International Secretariats, defines their prerogatives and fixes the general pattern of their organisation; j) modifies the present statutes under the conditions set down in Art. 14. The modifications of the Statutes must be approved by the Pontifical Council for the Laity. k) chooses the headquarters of the Movement. Article 13 Constituent members alone have a right to vote in the Plenary Assembly. Each country having one or more Constituent members will have as many votes as the country with the greatest number of Constituent members. Corresponding members, the Secretary General and the Treasurer shall attend without vote all meetings of the Assembly. Article 14 Votes are expressed by a delegate or delegates who have received a mandate to that effect from the competent body of the Constituent Member


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which enjoys the rights to vote according to Art. 12. This mandate must be written; it is valid for the whole session of the Assembly. Article 15 A simple majority of the votes of the members present or their authorised representatives is required for the decisions of the Plenary Assembly. The exclusion of members and the modification of the statutes, however, must be voted for by two-thirds of the members present or represented. Members who have not fulfilled their financial obligations lose their right to vote, by a decision of the Plenary Assembly on recommendation by the Council. Members who for more than one year have lost their right to vote may be suspended til! the next Plenary Assembly by a decision of the Assembly on recommendation by the Council. Article 16 The President shall be elected for four years by the Plenary Assembly on the proposal of the Council. The post of President is renewable. The President shall: – convoke the meetings of the Council and preside in its meetings; – convoke the Plenary Assembly, and preside over it until the election of the Chairman and any Vice-Chairmen. – supervise the execution of the decisions taken by the Assembly and the Council; – in case of emergency, take necessary action, in agreement with the Vice-presidents and the Secretary General, until the next meeting of the Council. If a vacancy occurs in the position of President between Plenary Assemblies, the Council shall appoint one of the Vice-Presidents to act as President until the next Assembly. Article 17 The Vice-Presidents shall be elected by the Plenary Assembly on the proposal of the Council. They shall be elected for a four-year term. The posts of Vice-presidents are renewable The Council may designate a grouping of Constituent and Corresponding Members in a particular geographic area to be a region. Each region may nominate to the Council one or more candidates for the position of Vice-President with responsibilities within that region. The Council


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will propose to the Plenary Assembly the candidates for the positions of Vice-president. If a vacancy occurs in a position of Vice-president between Plenary Assemblies, the Council may appoint a person from that region to act in that position for that particular term. Article 18 The Council comprises the President and fourteen other members, being the fourteen other members the Vice-Presidents and the Councillors. The Councillors shall be the persons who are nominated by the Constituent members of those Member-organisations designated by the Plenary Assembly. The Member-organisations who are to nominate Councillors shall be designated by the Plenary Assembly even for four years. The Secretary General and the Treasurer may take part in the Council deliberations but do not have the right to vote. The Vice-Presidents have the right to vote. The Ecclesiastical Assistant takes part in the Council with the right to speak and without the risk to vote. Article 19 The Council meets as a rule once a year upon convocation by the President. Article 20 The representatives of Specialised Secretariats take part in Council meetings in a consultative capacity. Article 21 The Council takes decisions in accord with a majority vote of the members present. In the case of a tie vote, the vote of the President prevails. In matters to be decided urgently and when it is not practicable or expedient to convene a meeting of the Council the President may direct a poll of the members of the Council by correspondence and the effect of such a poll shall be the same as if the votes were cast at a meeting of the Council. Article 22 The Council a) takes all measures necessary for the activity of the Movement; b) prepares for the Plenary Assembly, verifies the powers of the delegates, and supervises the execution of its decisions;


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c) presents to the Plenary Assembly the candidates for the posts of President, Vice-presidents and Secretary General; d) appoints the Treasurer and the auxiliary personnel of the General Secretariat; e) decides on the provisional admission of Constituent and Corresponding members, as well as on the admission and exclusion of individual members; f) names the benefactors of the Movement; g) proposes to the Plenary Assembly the Accounting Firm to be entrusted with the examination of the accounts; h) appoints and accredits the Pax Romana-ICMICA representatives to international bodies and sets the criteria and priorities for the presence of Pax Romana-ICMICA in these bodies; i) appoints and accredits the persons who will represent the Movement on, or in cooperation with, bodies of the Holy See. (Formal communication with the Holy See on behalf of the Movement will be undertaken by the President or Secretary General). j) appoints the Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Movement. Such appointment requires having previously obtained the consensus by the Ordinary from which the Priest depends (cfr. CIC, can. 324 # 2). In years in which no Plenary Assembly is held: k) discusses and approves the program of activity submitted by the Secretary General; l) approves the accounts and when necessary revises the budget. If the Assembly cannot meet within the time prescribed, the Council continues to operate on the condition that it obtains ratification of its acts by the next Assembly. Article 23 The General Secretariat is composed of the Secretary General and the auxiliary personnel, permanent or temporary. Article 24 The Secretary General is a paid official, appointed as a rule for a period of four years. The post of Secretary General is renewable. His actions are fixed by specifications established by the Council. Article 25 The management of funds, the keeping of accounts, the submitting of financial statements and the preparation of the first draft of the budget are


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entrusted to a Treasurer who is appointed by the Council, usually for a period of four years. The administration of the Treasurer is examined once a year by an Accounting Firm. Article 26 The Ecclesiastical Assistant has the duty of conserving the spiritual base of the Movement and of developing among the members the spirit of the apostolate. He guarantees the fidelity of the Movement to the Catholic Church. He attends at all meetings of the Movement. The Pontifical Council for the Laity must confirm the appointment of the Ecclesiastical Assistant. Article 27 Specialised International Secretariats may create (under conditions laid down in Art. 12-i): – either for taking up studies or research which come within the scope of the Movement; – or for treating problems peculiar to a particular profession; – or for special activities or services. Article 28 Each Secretariat works under conditions laid down by the Plenary Assembly and under the authority of the Council. The internal regulations of each Secretariat must be submitted for the approval of the Council. Each Secretariat sends a report to the Council at least once a year.

CHAPTER IV - Finances Article 29 The resources of the Movement are the following a) the annual assessments of the members fixed by the Plenary Assembly; b) gifts, subsidies and legacies; c) the net profit of all meetings or undertakings which it organises and of the publications which it produces; d) the revenues from its endowment.


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Article 30 The fiscal year extends from the fist January to the thirty first of December.

CHAPTER V - Final provisions Article 31 The Movement is put under obligation by the joint signature of its President, or of a Vice President authorised by him, and of the Secretary General. The signature of the Secretary General is valid for the everyday, current activities. Article 32 The holders of all offices are eligible for re-election. Article 33 The dissolution of the Movement can be decreed only by a Plenary Assembly specially convoked for this purpose. Before submitting the resolution of dissolution to voting, the Pontifical Council for the Laity has to give its assent. A decision concerning dissolution must be backed by twothirds of the votes of ail constituent members, national, specialised or professional present or authorised. Article 34 The actual work of liquidation falls upon the Council functioning at the time of the dissolution, unless the Plenary Assembly decides otherwise. Article 35 After liquidation of liabilities and after the accounts of liquidation have been approved, the assets as well as the archives of the Movement will be placed at the disposal of the Pontifical Council for the Laity. Adapted by the Plenary Assembly (Rheims, France 1951) With amendments up to and including 1971. With amendments approved by the XXV Plenary Assembly (Rome, 1987). Technically amended by the XXVII Plenary Assembly (Paris, 2000). With amendments approved by the XXVIII Plenary Assembly (Krakow, Poland 2004).


60 years ago some old students of IMCS-Pax Romana decided to create this international meeting space of catholic intellectuals and culture professionals. In order to enhance its commemoration, it was held in Rome the Study Session “The Holy See: a face of another globalization” from May 19th to 23rd 2007. Its main contributions are collected in this volume. We are a living engaged reality, which appears as an international and ecclesial network which contributes to building a fairer and joint world and more open to dialogue and to Gospel values. The double presence in the Church and in the world is what gives sense to the existence and to the continuity of Pax Romana. The Church has something very important to say in the current process of globalisation. 60 anni fa vecchi studenti del MIEC-Pax Romana decisero di creare questo spazio di re-incontro internazionale degli intellettuali ed esperti della cultura cattolici. Per dare maggior risalto alla commemorazione, dal 19 al 23 Maggio del 2007 si è svolta a Roma la Sessione di Studio “La Santa Sede: una faccia di un’altra globalizzazione”. In questo volume sono raccolti i principali interventi. Siamo una realtà viva ed impegnata, che si presenta come un network ecclesiale ed internazionale che contribuisce a costruire un mondo più giusto e solidale e più aperto ai valori del Vangelo. La Chiesa ha qualcosa di molto importante da dire nell’attuale processo di globalizzazione. Hace 60 años que antiguos estudiantes del MIEC-Pax Romana decidieron construir este espacio de reencuentro internacional de los intelectuales y profesionales de la cultura católicos. Para resaltar su conmemoración del 19 al 23 de mayo de 2007 se celebró en Roma la Sesión de Estudios “La Santa Sede: una cara de otra globalización”. Sus principales aportaciones se recogen en este volumen. Somos una realidad viva y comprometida, que se presenta como una red eclesial e internacional que contribuye a construir un mundo más justo y solidario y más abierto a los valores del Evangelio. La Iglesia tiene una palabra muy importante que decir en el actual proceso de globalización.


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