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Lifestyle • Of those tested in the last 12 months a quarter was diagnosed as having High Cholesterol and over a third had High Blood Pressure. • 66.3% said that illicit drug use is a problem in the community. • 30.9% Travellers said price is a factor which prevents them to eat healthy. • Overall there is a 15% higher rate of smoking among Travellers compared to the general population. Adult Health Services • Barriers identified were waiting list (62.7), , embarrassment (47.8%) and lack of information (37.3%), • Complete trust in health professional (41.0%) was lower than general population (82.7% ) Value of Primary Health Care for Traveller Projects Health Information • 83% of the Travellers interviewed said they got their health information and advise from Primary Health Care for Traveller Projects and the Travellers organisations. Women’s Health • 25% of Traveller women compared to 13% of general population had a breast screening. • 23% of the Travellers had Smear test compared to 12% of general population.

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Selected Key Findings and Recommendations from the All-Ireland Traveller Health Study – Our Geels 2010

A Pavee Point Publication

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The following are some of the key findings from the Study and have implications for Travellers’ lives and in particular their health status. It will also have implications for the service providers, especially, the health service providers who are dealing with Travellers on a daily basis. Key Findings from Our Geels – All Ireland Traveller Health Study • 10,618 families enumerated (9,056 in ROI and 1,562 in NI) • Participation rate 80% - Phenomenal response rate as a result of the extensive contribution of Travellers, Traveller organisations and networks • Estimated total Traveller population 40,129 on IOI • Average Family Size: ROI 4, NI 2.5 Age structure • 42% of Travellers under 15 years of age compared with 21% of the general population • 63% of Travellers under 25 years compared with 35% of the general population • 3% of Travellers are aged 65 years and over compared with 13% of the general population. • Only 8 Travellers were found over 85 years of age Comparative Population Pyramids for Travellers and the General Population. Figure 1: Population Pyramid for Travellers in the AITHS 2008

Figure 2: Population Pyramid for the General Population CSO 2006

Morbidity • Over 52% of Travellers aged 40 – 60 years who were interviewed had been diagnosed with high blood pressure in the last year, compared to 35% of the general population • Over 42% Travellers diagnosed with high cholesterol in last year compared to 30% of the general population. Main Causes of Death • Heart disease and stroke – 25% • Cancer – 19%

Life Expectancy

• Lung disease – 13%

• In 1987, the gap in life expectancy between Traveller women and settled women was 12 years (the gap in 2008 was 11 years)

Causes of gap in levels of morbidity and mortality among Travellers • Both Travellers and health service providers interviewed acknowledged that Social Determinants were the main cause of the poor health status of Travellers

• In 1987, the gap in life expectancy between Traveller men and settled men was 10 years (the gap in 2008 was 15 years).

Mortality • Traveller men have four times the mortality rate of the general population • Traveller women have three times the mortality rate of the general population. • If Travellers had the same death rate as the general population, the number of deaths expected in the year would be 54, the actual number of deaths was 188, which means an excess of 134 deaths Traveller deaths. • Suicide is 6 times the rate of general population and accounts for approx 11% of all Traveller deaths

• Accommodation, education, employment, poverty, discrimination, lifestyle and access and utilisation of services. Social Determinants • 4.8% of Travellers in ROI were either employed or self-employed • In ROI 38.5% of 30-44 year old Travellers and 25.8% of 45-64 year old Travellers had primary education only • The majority of respondents, (75.9%)lived in family units of 5 or less. • Difficulty in reading in 28.8% of Traveller families in the ROI

• The infant mortality rate for Travellers is 3.5 times the rate of the general population (4 infant deaths per 1,000 in the national population compared to 14 infant deaths per 1,000 in the Traveller population)

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All Ireland Traveller Health Study Leaflet