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Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute Paulina Naruseviciute Editor: Paulina Naruseviciute University of Strathclyde Dept of Architecture, Pg. Dip Advanced Architecture Studies Tutor: Dr. Cristian Suau All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, unless agreed with the authors. All the images, photographs & text are produced by the authors unless stated and it is prohibited to use any information without our permission. URBAN RESTART www.urbanrestart.wordpress.com 2015


GLASGOW ATLAS OF VACANCY ‘

LAURA PETRUSKEVICIUTE PAULINA NARUSEVICIUTE


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to express our great appreciation to Helen Douglas, Glasgow City Council Vacant and Derelict Land Officer Deirdre Craddock, GCC Planning Department Daveed Barcello, Architect, heritage and design consultant at GCC & WISE group We are particularly grateful for your assistance and help gathering the information for the research. . Furthermore, we want to thank our tutor Dr Cristian Suau for valuable advices and opportunity to be involved in MOBILELAND project, which gave us a chance to test our ideas on a real scale.

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CONTENT

Content ......................................................................... 7 Introduction .................................................................. 9 1. MAPPING: What problems can fit in 1915 ha? D&V Land Comparison among major Scottish cities .......................................................................... 12 Glasgow D&V Land mapping ..................................... 14 Glasgow North East D&V Land mapping .................. 16 Glasgow North West D&V Land mapping ................. 18 Glasgow South D&V Land mapping .......................... 20 Children population map ........................................... 22 Children living in poverty map.................................... 23 Deprivation map ......................................................... 24 Population Density Change ....................................... 25 Density map ................................................................ 26 Areas with highest Unemployment ........................... 27 Key employment areas .............................................. 28 Security concerned areas .......................................... 29 Greenery ...................................................................... 30 Health decile ............................................................... 31 Land ownership map ................................................. 32 Open space map ........................................................ 33 Air quality map ........................................................... 34 Carbon emission map ................................................ 35 Derelict and Vacant land map ................................... 36 2. DATA:

Priority zones for V&D Land reuse ............................ 48 Typologies of V&D Land ............................................. 50 Evaluation table .......................................................... 51 ZONE A ........................................................................52 Edge Conditions ......................................................... 54 Accessibility ............................................................... 55 Evaluation cards ......................................................... 56 ZONE B ........................................................................60 Edge Conditions ......................................................... 62 Accessibility ............................................................... 63 Evaluation cards ......................................................... 64 ZONE C ........................................................................66 Edge Conditions ......................................................... 68 Accessibility ............................................................... 69 Evaluation cards ......................................................... 70 ZONE D ........................................................................74 Edge Conditions ......................................................... 76 Accessibility ............................................................... 77 Evaluation cards ......................................................... 78 ZONE E ........................................................................82 Edge Conditions ......................................................... 84 Accessibility ............................................................... 85 Evaluation cards ......................................................... 86

Development potential of D&V land ......................... 40 Development potential of derelict land ..................... 41 Development potential of vacant land ...................... 41 Previous use of urban vacant land ............................ 42 Previous use of urban derelict land ........................... 43 Open space definitions and areas within Glasgow in Comparison to V&D Land .......................................... 46

4.RECOMMENDATIONS If you cannot choose.. we could give you an advice

3. SITE ANALYSIS Choose your Land

5.TOOLBOX: HOW TO CHOOSE MY ‘20 sqM?’ ........ 98

Most common typologies of D&V Land .................... 90 Common surface conditions ..................................... 91 Common Sizes of D&V Land ...................................... 92 Edge Conditions common types ............................... 94

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INTRODUCTION “VACANT SITES ARE THE SPACES OF THE FUTURE� WHY TEMPORARY USE: Berlin urbanists understand vacant sites as a wealth, the training ground and experimental zone for the future city. Glasgow has twice as much D&V land as the whole Scotland together. 42% of derelict land is in deprived zones. Deprivation is the highest in Glasgow among all Scottish cities. It came together with sudden deindustrialization and closure of the factories which were the main source of jobs. Municipal has set the goal to treat and release the development potential of at least 100 ha of vacant land every year employing innovative approaches, such as setting up programmes and funding to support community and individual initiatives towards vacant and derelict land use. We see temporary use as an integrative part of urban planning. D&V land laying underused for many years could become the test bed or play space for young people, communities or address environmental issues: such as reduce air or land pollution, deal with flood risk management or become a place for solar energy. Also many creative minds, living in a world of commercialism and profit, are trying nevertheless , to create spaces that reflects and nurture their vision of the future. Derelict and vacant land is also a concern for property owners. The undiscovered district, the dead end on the urban landscape, the blind spot in public perception might all in fact be set in motion, brought to the light of day by (temporary) use. Open spaces create barriers between neighborhoods. Reintegrating such spaces in the city, creating paths between them, reconnecting disparate urban spaces is something that projects by creative urban mileus can actively promote. We believe in experimentation and searching for new forms of reanimating and appropriating spaces.

This is the first journal of two which looks at the problem, scale and scope in relation to D&V land location. In the next journal the systematic design approach is introduced whch seeks to create social corridors through temporary use. Second part of the book concentrates on 5 priority zones for reuse of D&V land. Sites marked as a D&V are taken and analyzed separately in order to measure their potential.

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MAPPING PROBLEMS IN 1195 HA

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A AREA

[Glasgow has TWICE THE AMOUNT of vacant and derelict land than the rest of Scotland put together.]

(According to the Scottish Vacant and Derelict Land Register)

DATA SOURCE: Scottish Vacant and Derelict Land Survey 2013 , http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2014/02/7170/3 [Accessed 08.12.2014]

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a AREA

1195 ha

DATA SOURCE: http://www.understandingglasgow.com/assets/0001/3844/Glasgow_Open_Space__VDL_and_Core_Paths_NW_lores.pdf

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[Out of 17.464 ha total area 1195 ha is derelict & urban vacant land]

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a AREA

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GLASGOW NORTH EAST VACANT AND DERELICT LAND

DATA SOURCE: http://www.understandingglasgow.com/assets/0001/3844/Glasgow_Open_Space__VDL_and_Core_Paths_NW_lores.pdf

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a AREA

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GLASGOW NORTH WEST VACANT AND DERELICT LAND

DATA SOURCE: http://www.understandingglasgow.com/assets/0001/3844/Glasgow_Open_Space__VDL_and_Core_Paths_NW_lores.pdf

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a AREA

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GLASGOW SOUTH VACANT AND DERELICT LAND

DATA SOURCE: http://www.understandingglasgow.com/assets/0001/3844/Glasgow_Open_Space__VDL_and_Core_Paths_NW_lores.pdf

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c CHILDREN

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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c CHILDREN

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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d

DEPRIVATION

[Glasgow has 40% of all derelict and urban vacant land within the 15% most deprived datazones being located within this council’s boundaries. ]

(2014, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2014/02/7170/6, Accessed:11.11.2014)

DATA SOURCE: [http://luminocity3d.org/indexRetina.html#undefined [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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d DENSITY

DATA SOURCE: [http://luminocity3d.org/indexRetina.html#undefined [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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d DENSITY

DATA SOURCE: [http://luminocity3d.org/indexRetina.html#undefined [Accessed: 6.12.2014] 26

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e

EMPLOYMENT

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e

EMPLOYMENT

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler. ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014] 28

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s SAFETY

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g GREENERY

DATA SOURCE: https://www.glasgow.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=6334 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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h HEALTH

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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o

OWNERSHIP

DATA SOURCE: Maantay, J. Derelict Land, Deprivation, and Health Inequality in Glasgow, Scotland: http://www.gsa.ac.uk/media/530191/180113_the_ collapse_of_place_maantay_2013_final.pdf, [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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o

OPEN SPACE

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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t TOXICITY

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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t T TOXICITY

DATA SOURCE: Maantay, J. Derelict Land, Deprivation, and Health Inequality in Glasgow, Scotland: http://www.gsa.ac.uk/ media/530191/180113_the_collapse_of_place_maantay_2013_final.pdf, [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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Derelict Land Vacant Land

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Sources: Š Crown copyright and database right (2014). All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024655 The Scottish Government 31 January 2014


Derelict Land Vacant Land

Sources: Š Crown copyright and database right (2014). All rights reserved. Ordnance SurveyATLAS LicenceOF number 100024655 37 GLASGOW VACANCY The Scottish Government 31 January 2014


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DATA

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF DERELICT AND VACANT

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LAND IN GLASGOW


DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF DERELICT LAND IN GLASGOW

DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF VACANT LAND IN GLASGOW

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PREVIOUS USE OF URBAN VACANT LAND

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PREVIOUS USE OF URBAN DERELICT LAND

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OPEN SPACE DEFINITIONS AND AREAS WITHIN GLASGOW IN COMPARISON TO VACANT AND DERELICT LAND

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3

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SITE ANALYSIS CHOOSE YOUR LAND

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PRIORITY ZONES FOR V + D LAND REUSE

[E]

[C]

[B] [A]

[D]

DATA SOURCE: URS AECOM, Glasgow open space strategy, Report Available at: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=9478&p=0 [Accessed: 6.12.2014]

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5 PRIORITY ZONES are picked by governmental institutions where derelict & vacant land is preferred to be reused first. The D&V sites were taken from these zones and analyzed according to the factors mentioned below: +type (based on http://web.mit.edu/wplp/plan/vacant.htm; (Accessed 26/05/2015)) +size of the area +edge conditions (what function contains buildings around) +accessibility (type of transport and fastest way to reach it) +surface condition ( majority of the sites needs to be cleared out as they are overgrown or contains building rubble) +population change (refer to the maps pp:26) +current use (if applicable) +previous use (according to: John R. Hume, ‘ Industrial Archaeology of Glasgow’, (Glasgow: Blackie, 1974)

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TYPE

This vacant lot type consists of one or several adjacent vacant properties at the corner of a block. Corner lots are bounded on two sides by adjacent buildings and on the other two sides by street and sidewalk. Corner lots are highly visible due to their location. The larger these lots are, the greater their impact on the adjacent blocks. Since a corner lot occupies the intersection of two blocks, it may seem to belong to both blocks or to neither block. Corner lots are also exposed to traffic and passers by from outside the immediate neighborhood and are more likely to experience dumping and vandalism than small lots within residential blocks.

This type of vacant land occurs when an entire city block or an area of an acre or more is vacant. Vacant blocks may consist of a single property or many, adjacent properties. A vacant block often becomes a dump for trash and construction debris. A vacant block is highly visible and exerts an enormous impact on the surrounding blocks, especially if filled with rubble and trash. Because vacant blocks are usually bounded on at least two sides by streets and faced on at least two sides by houses or businesses, they may seem to belong to more than one block or to none.

A “missing tooth,� is a vacant lot or a group of adjacent lots within a block that creates a gap between houses. Missing teeth are particularly noticeable in blocks of rowhouses and among rows of stores, where even one missing building creates a noticeable break in the block.

This type of vacant land occurs when there are nearly as many or even more vacant lots on a block as there are buildings. Individually, the vacant lots may consist of missing teeth, corner lots, connectors, and vacant blocks. Taken together, however, they form the swiss cheese pattern of vacant land. Because of the large number of vacant lots, this condition is quite visible within the surrounding neighborhood and often affects several adjacent blocks.

RESOURCE: http://web.mit.edu/wplp/plan/vacant.htm; (Accessed 13/11/2014))

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A Connector is a vacant land that makes a new connection between streets or blocks. Connectors may consist of a single lot, several lots, or an abandoned alley which create a connection between two streets in the middle of a block.

Multiple, contiguous vacant blocks form a large pattern of completely and partially vacant blocks that creates big holes in urban neighborhoods. It is distinguished from the swiss-cheese pattern by the large size of the vacancies. Where the swiss-cheese pattern may include missing teeth, vacant corners, and small connectors, as well as an occasional block, this pattern includes vacant blocks of an acre or more. Bounded on many sides by streets, this land is open and unprotected and often becomes a dump for trash and construction debris. This vacant land pattern is highly visible due to its size. Its impact is great; it is felt not only on the adjacent blocks, but also extends into adjacent neighborhoods


SITE ANALYSIS EVALUATION TABLE

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ZONE A

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SITE [A] Around 6.7 ha are derelict & vacant land for the area of 147ha. ADVANTAGES +Located in the metropolitan growth corridor +Easy access to town , walkable distances +Population tends to grow +High population of children 21-25 % per ha. Contains 3 major children play areas. +Population remains low but tends to increase. +Large public park nearby +Low deprivation rate PROBLEMS -Low employment, jobless rate of 33 % -Security concerned area -Worst health decile -High Carbon emission -High population of children, highest number of kids in poverty

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EDGE CONDITIONS

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ACCESSIBILITY

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Art work by David Shrigley

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ZONE B

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SITE [B] Around-23 ha are derelict & vacant land for the area of 187 ha. ADVANTAGES +Located in the metropolitan growth corridor +Key employment area PROBLEMS -Low employment, jobless rate of 25 % -Security concerned area -Worst health decile -High Carbon emission -Low population of children (6-10 per ha), one key play area -Population is low and tends to decrease. -Lack of open space -Deprived

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EDGE CONDITIONS

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ACCESSIBILITY

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ZONE C

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SITE [C] Around 35.966 ha are derelict & vacant land for the area of 195 ha. Largest ratio of abandonment among all analyzed sites ADVANTAGES +Located in the New Neighborhood Area +Awaiting for new masterplan approval +Low carbon emission within the area PROBLEMS -Low employment, jobless rate of 25 % -Security concerned area -Worst health decile -Population tends to decrease and it is low -Low number of children (11-15 % per ha), 2 key play areas. -Deprived

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EDGE CONDITIONS

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ACCESSIBILITY

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ZONE D

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SITE [D] Around-37.673 ha are derelict & vacant land for the area of 112 ha. ADVANTAGES +Low carbon emission PROBLEMS -Low employment, jobless rate of 25 % -Security concerned area -Worst health decile -Population tends to decrease and it is low -Low number of children (11-15 % per ha), no key play areas. -Lack of open space -Deprived

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EDGE CONDITIONS

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ACCESSIBILITY

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Art Work by Jeremy Deller Inflatable Stonehenge

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ZONE E

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SITE [E] Around 5.8 ha is derelict & vacant land for the area of 914 ha. ADVANTAGES +Located at New Neighbourhood Area +Low carbon emission +Relatively High population of children 16-20 % per ha. Contains 1 major children play areas. +Population is relatively high (90people per ha) and tends to increase. +Not deprived PROBLEMS -Low employment, jobless rate of 25 % -Relatively bad health decile -High Carbon emission

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EDGE CONDITIONS

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ACCESSIBILITY

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IF YOU CANNOT CHOOSE... WE COULD GIVE YOU AN ADVICE

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1

MOST COMMON TYPOLOGIES OF V&D LAND

EVALUATION

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COMMON SURFACE CONDITIONS

2

EVALUATION

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SIZE MATTERS

3

EVALUATION

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COMMON EDGE CONDITIONS

4

EVALUATION

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TOOLBOX HOW TO CHOOSE ‘MY 20 SQM’

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The object of the game is to bridge the gaps between different border condition actors through collaborative and strategic linking trying to collect the highest amount of scores. The game emphasizes the importance of collaboration gaining personal benefit. It also forces to think of different actors involved in urban fabric as well as makes aware of derelict and vacant land potential which could be released through open space/ play space & reduce pollution strategies. It gives a glimpse to successful space reactivation/temporary projects around the globe through Title Deed cards.

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Glasgow atlas of vacancy  

University of Strathclyde, Pg Dip Advanced Architecture, Thesis, Research part, Semester 1

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