An Investment Prospectus ______________________________ CREATING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PEOPLE TO SERVE THOSE LIVING AND WORKING IN NURSING HOMES MARCH 2010
Paul Falkowski, MA - Founder & Executive Director Andrew S. Dungan, MACE - Development Officer
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…2
Introducing Desert Ministries ______________________________________________________________________________ In 1992, upon finishing a visit to a nursing home, 103 year old Mimi approached Founder and Executive Director Paul Falkowski and said to him:
“You don’t know what you’ve done for me today. I’d forgotten just how much God loves me. You see -- my body may be broken, but my heart still works.”
Though modified slightly, the last line of Mimi’s words have become the tag line of Desert Ministries,
Reaching out to people “...whose bodies are broken but whose hearts still work.”
Since that time much has happened at Desert Ministries.
A Vision was developed for Desert Ministries.
To see that Desert Ministries becomes a valued resource concerning the care of the elderly.
A Mission Statement was formulated.
We value the life and wisdom of the elderly by creating opportunities for people to serve those living and working in nursing homes.
Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…3
And recently a clarification was added to help further define the Desert Ministries’ mission.
Therefore, Desert Ministries serves as a catalyst and a conduit in the community by: •
Continuing to network with Organizations who either care deeply about the aged or are interested in the companionship that Desert Ministries’ volunteers can give to their clients.
Developing Programs with other Institutions that act as a conduit into Long-Term Care Facilities.
Placing Desert Ministries Volunteers within a local Long-Term Care Facility through the Care Facility Outreach Program, a program that matches Desert Ministries’ volunteers with Long-Term Care Facilities near their place of residence.
Furthermore, Desert Ministries, at last year’s Executive Board of Directors retreat, placed it upon themselves to extract Desert Ministries’ core values. Following is what was found. •
Community – we are a diverse and intergenerational community, unified by our faith in God, committed to the protection of and service to our elderly.
Action – we are who we are, because of our elders; we must protect who they are.
Relationship – with joy and compassion, we establish relationship with our elderly, showing them respect, honor and acceptance, giving them the dignity they deserve by listening and caring.
Elderly – we value our elderly by honoring their history, wisdom, and joy. We gratefully accept their values and traditions as the foundation upon which we build our lives.
“They think we need this, (elderly woman holding a handful of pills). What you just did for us is what we need.” -
elderly female nursing home resident
__________________________________________________________________________ Disclaimer Desert Ministries, Inc. is a Christian organization dedicated to serving the frail elderly living in nursing homes. Many of them suffer from severe depression brought on by feelings of abandonment and loneliness. They are at the mercy of an industry in crisis. Now when they need help the most, there is no one there for them. We recruit and train people to be "family" and advocates for them. We serve them regardless of their religion, race, ethnicity, or gender. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…4
The Paradigm of Trained Volunteerism ______________________________________________________________________________ According to a 2002 study, 90 million Americans contribute more than 20 billion hours of service per year. 1 This is an incredible number! What is even more incredible is the hidden worth of these services rendered. Every year Independent Sector 2 releases an hourly wage approximation for volunteers. In 2008, one hour of services was approximated at $20.25. This means that in 2002, 20 billion hours of services were worth 405 billion dollars! While this is a tremendous amount of work accomplished, the return on investment cannot be made in simply dollars and cents. Desert Ministries recognizes that not all volunteer organizations require the same amount of volunteer training. In fact, some volunteer organizations have the freedom to be far less selective. But, at Desert Ministries, we have to put ourselves in “your shoes” and ask: Who is the best person to befriend your mother? While it may sound as if this volunteer selection process is rigorous, we believe it is the nature of a well-run volunteer organization. When dealing with a marginalized people, such as the institutionalized elderly, a volunteer organization such as Desert Ministries must continue to evolve its watchful eye. As Grossman and Furano state: “...the safety of those receiving services must be taken into account, especially if they are in vulnerable positions, such as children, the mentally retarded and the fragile elderly.” 3 Therefore, to keep safety a priority, Desert Ministries is implementing further safety protocols. (See “Development for 2010”, page 20) Over the years Desert Ministries has evolved into a center for education, providing training to its volunteers. By providing in-house training, Desert Ministries can regulate what is being learned by its volunteers. Desert Ministries requires this training. (See “Development for 2010,” page 20) Before a volunteer candidate is even considered, they must successfully complete the volunteer training.
Jean Baldwin Grossman & Kathryn Furano, “Making the Most of Volunteers,” Private/Public Ventures, (July 2002), 2. 2 Independent Sector, Available at http://www.independentsector.org Internet accessed 17 March 2010. 3 Jean Baldwin Grossman & Kathryn Furano, “Making the Most of Volunteers,” 4. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…5
It is a great asset to have Paul Falkowski, a University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Gerontology Adjunct Professor, as well as other experts that the organization can utilize for the development of the Desert Ministries’ training curriculum. With this curriculum, Desert Ministries’ volunteers become an asset that long-term care facility staff can rely on and over time continue to make differences in the lives of elderly throughout the Omaha/Council Bluffs area. Some Numbers As a non-profit that deals primarily with volunteers, Desert Ministries spends an extraordinary amount of time and money recruiting, prepping, placing and managing its volunteers. Following is a table that breaks down the volunteer program expenditures. As you can see, volunteers are not free.
Table 1: Volunteer Expenditures Categories of Volunteer Expenditures
Volunteer advertisement and recruitment Internet, constant contact, Big O Show, contact meetings
Supplies and Equipment Cohort polos, bound training booklet, office supplies
Travel Expenses and Food
Volunteer Process Volunteer orientation and training, text costs, placement, follow-up, all communication, newsletters, etc.
Management Staff Time Executive Director Time (Limited) Development Officer/Program Director and Administrative Assistant
Cohort Meetings Training materials, food
Total Volunteer Expenditures
Shortly after a speech given by President George W. Bush regarding Americans and volunteerism, The Grantmaker Forum on Community & National Service interviewed 21 nonprofit organizations about their concerns regarding volunteerism. 4 In one section, entitled “Volunteers Aren’t Free,” The Forum expressed three ways in which the value of the volunteer increases in value. 5 We want to focus on one: the services rendered by the volunteer are different than those provided by the staff of a particular organization. 6 Desert Ministries’ staff provides administration, education and volunteer oversight, while, Desert Ministries’ volunteers provide services to the frail elderly living in care facilities. Therefore, the Desert Ministries’ staff is the head and the volunteers are the feet.
Jill Blair, “The Cost of a Volunteer,” The Grantmaker Forum on Community & National Service (March 2003), http://www.pacefunders.org/publications/pubs/Cost%20Volunteer%20FINAL.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010). 5 Ibid, 5. 6 Ibid. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…6
Additionally, volunteers by word of mouth and by example “...expand the base of community support” and making the “...work of the nonprofit transparent to the community--by [bringing] the community in...” 7 However, The Forum states that “None of these added values...can themselves cover or offset the real financial costs associated with hosting and managing a cadre of volunteers.” 8
This is so true. Table 1 above delineates Desert Ministries’ Volunteer Program expenditures. Desert Ministries spent $87,000 in 2009 on its Volunteer program. This is a tremendous cost to Desert Ministries. With a staff to volunteer ratio of approximately 87:1, Desert Ministries runs its organization in an extremely lean manner. Interestingly enough, however, The Forum found that many nonprofits were at the point of turning away volunteers that many non-profits were in critical need of because of a lack of financing. 9 This included non-profit organizations that were ‘volunteeroriented,’ like Desert Ministries. This raises two legitimate concerns for Desert Ministries. •
Just how much more volunteer-saturated can Desert Ministries become before the volunteer and subsequently, the elderly, suffer the consequences of staff burn-out?
How many more volunteers can Desert Ministries absorb before it is forced to 1) hire another staff person or 2) stop recruiting volunteers?
Now with 260 volunteers, half of which joined Desert Ministries in 2009, Desert Ministries is growing very quickly. In 2009, Desert Ministries' volunteers gave an impressive 6553.7 volunteer hours and added another 561.5 hours in professional time. The net value of such volunteer time is found in Table 2. 10 Table 2: Estimate of the Value of Volunteer Activity (EVVA) 6553.7 x $20.25/hr = $132,712.43 561.5 x $25.00/hr = $14,037.50 Total Net Worth of Volunteer Hours in Dollars = $146,749.43
Ibid. Ibid. 9 Ibid, 6. 10 Michelle Goulbourne, “Assigning Economic Value to Volunteer Activity: Eight Tools for Efficient Program Management,” Canadian Centre for Philanthropy, (2002), 15. 8
Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…7
By using Goulbourne’s 11 Full-Time Year Round equation, we find that Desert Ministries' volunteers gave enough volunteer hours in 2009 to equal approximately 3 full-time staff year round and one part-time year round job. Table 3: Full-Time Year Round Job Equivalent (FYJE) 7115.2 volunteer hours \ 40 hours per week _______________________________ = 3.70 staff 48 weeks
Table 4: Percent Personnel Value Extended (PPVE) $146,749.43 _________________________________
x 100 = 67%
$72,000 + $134,420 The $146,749.63 continues to represent the Estimate of the Value of Volunteer Activity. 12 $72,000 was spent in 2009 staffing the volunteering program. In 2009, because of volunteer activity, Desert Ministries’ value was extended 67%. Table 5 below indicates that for every one dollar that Desert Ministries pays, Desert Ministries’ volunteers produce $1.69 in services. 13 Table 5: Organization Volunteer Investment Ratio (OVIR) $146,749.43 _______________
= 1.69 to 1
Ibid. Ibid. 13 Ibid. 12
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…8
Table 6: Volunteer to Paid Staff Ratio (VPSR) 260 volunteers ____________
It is our hope that some of these numbers are helpful in understanding the worth of a volunteer. However, no matter how hard one tries, it is difficult to quantify the experience of volunteering. As Grossman and Furano intimate, “For some, it rekindles a sense of community and bridges the gulfs that exists within American society. Individuals tend to move within relatively small spheres, stratified by age, race, class and location. Volunteering, especially in organizations to which one does not belong, is a powerful way of reconnecting people with reality outside their own worlds.” 14 This is exactly what we hope happens to those that volunteer with Desert Ministries. We hope that our volunteers are so affected by their volunteering that they find themselves thinking and feeling like the person they are visiting. This is why Desert Ministries stresses one-on-one volunteering. The elderly need this human contact.
“I hug my children a little more, and I talk to my wife a little differently. I now understand that each day is a gift.” -a volunteer
Jean Baldwin Grossman & Kathryn Furano, “Making the Most of Volunteers,” 2. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…9
Doing a Better Job Showing a Return on Investment (ROI) ______________________________________________________________________________ •
Estimate of the Value of Volunteer Activity (EVVA): $146,749.63
Full-Time Year Round Job Equivalent (FYJE): 3.70
Percent Personnel Value Extended (PPVE): 67%
Organization Volunteer Investment Ratio (OVIR): 1.69 to 1
Desert Ministries requires that its volunteers report volunteer hours each month. On the Desert Ministries website has been posted a link to a form that can be filled out and sent electronically, detailing to staff not only their time spent, but also a summary of the day’s activities; who was visited and what was accomplished during the visit. In the past, receiving these electronic volunteer statements back was rather hit or miss. In truth, there is a large contingency of the Desert Ministries’ volunteers that do not report their hours. Along with this fact, there are hidden costs and services that are not being accounted for. For years Desert Ministries has simply not realized the “worth” of its ministry. Each and every day volunteers are sent into long-term care facilities affecting countless lives that can and cannot be measured. However, for years, Desert Ministries did not taken advantage of the quantifiable ways in which it could measure its ROI. An example will suffice. In an article written by Tony Goodrow entitled “Calculating the ROI of your volunteer program,” 15 Goodrow draws a sufficient example 16 of what Desert Ministries needs to add to its online documentation to more efficiently keep track of the Estimate of the Value of Volunteer Activity per calendar year.
Tony Goodrow, “Calculating the ROI of your volunteer program,” (2009), www.volunteer2.com/articles/calculating_ROI.pdf (accessed March 01, 2010). 16 Ibid. All numbers and fields have remained the same as that used by the author. Colors have been changed to remain contextually similar with the rest of this document. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…10
As one can see by looking at Table 7, much of the information is similar to what was calculated for Desert Ministries. In the first row Goodrow has calculated volunteer hours into the Estimate Table 7: ABC Hospital
Basic wage replacement value
All expenses in the volunteer program
Total resources used (cash and volunteers)
Patient friendly visits
Flower deliveries completed
Visitors queries answered within the targeted timeframe
of the Value of Volunteer Activity (EVVA). 17 For 2009, Desert Ministries’ Estimate of the Value of Volunteer Activity was $146,749.63. In the second row, Goodrow indicates all expenses for the volunteer program. For 2009, Desert Ministries found this number to be $87,000. Row three is the total of rows one and two. However, where Goodrow goes further to show a return on this company’s investment is by adding lines four through six. While these hold no monetary value, they still indicate movement in an organization. Furthermore, by monitoring these numbers year by year, an organization can continue to keep track of its growth and see whether it is becoming more or less effective. Therefore, for Desert Ministries to become more effective in communicating its ROI we must answer the following questions: •
What services do Desert Ministries volunteers give that provide return on investments?
Are Desert Ministries volunteer’s spending monies that go unseen?
Are there volunteer hours that are being missed?
Michelle Goulbourne, “Assigning Economic Value to Volunteer Activity: Eight Tools for Efficient Program Management,” 15. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
ÂŠDesert Ministries, Inc. 2010â€Ś11
Desert Ministries Volunteer Form ______________________________________________________________________________ To the left is the form that Desert Ministries requires its volunteers to complete and send back via email. This document is intended to measure Desert Ministries volunteer hours served throughout the year. An added subjective component of commenting on the visits was added to encourage volunteer commentary about the visitations. However, volunteer commentary can be relatively cryptic. To become more valuable to Desert Ministries, this form needed to become more objective and quantitative in nature. To measure Desert Ministriesâ€™ ROI, we must uncover any specific projects, hidden costs, or missing hours.
If there is one thing that we now know, Desert Ministries is worth far more than what we can provide informatively for 2009!
ÂŠDesert Ministries, Inc. 2010â€Ś12
A New Desert Ministries Volunteer Hours Form ______________________________________________________________________________
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…13
Explanation of the New Desert Ministries Volunteer Hours Form ______________________________________________________________________________ Volunteer Categories Hours at Desert Ministries are given through four means. Primarily, the paradigm of Desert Ministries has been to train and place volunteers in long-term care facilities so that these volunteers can offer companionship to the elderly. These hours are labeled Facility on the form. However, to continue to educate the community and draw community involvement, Desert Ministries has developed several philanthropic events (See “Desert Ministries’ Philanthropies, page 18”) that also continue to support the elderly. In these cases, these events also draw people that acquire volunteer hours. These hours are labeled Special Event on the form. There are volunteers that help the staff of Desert Ministries in other ways by offering their “professional expertise”: editing materials, accounting, publishing materials, etc. These hours are labeled Professional on the form, and their valuation is determined by the fair market value of the service(s) they provide. Lastly, those volunteer hours that Desert Ministries’ board members provide are labeled Board on the form. We need to classify volunteer hours into these four categories for two reasons: 1. First, because, as we noted earlier, not every volunteer service is of equal value. In fact, we have asked for those that have marked Professional or Board to list the capacity of the work they provided so that we can assign a rightful value. 2. Second, after assigning a correct value to the volunteer work being served, we can begin to compile the hours per type. By the end of the year we can have a more accurate picture of the total number of volunteer hours per type. Expenses We pose the question “Did you spend money?” Never before has Desert Ministries posed this question to its volunteers. However, as Michelle Goulbourne notes, 18 one extension of the organizations personnel resources is “Volunteer Capital Contribution” or VCC. These expenses would represent another line item, similar, yet altogether different to those spent by Desert Ministries to fund the volunteer program.
Michelle Goulbourne, “Assigning Economic Value to Volunteer Activity: Eight Tools for Efficient Program Management,” 4. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…14
Activities Provided To show a detailed return on investment, we decided that it was necessary to have our volunteers quantify their visitations. While one will never accurately price friendship, noting type of activity, the number of people involved and the number of hours the activity was performed will begin to help Desert Ministries more easily and accurately quantify its return on investment. What we really want to know is: “What are we receiving back from our volunteers?” The document provides all of the necessary fields to help us take a look at our volunteer program at the end of every year and get more answers to these questions: •
How many elder lives are being touched by Desert Ministries’ volunteers?
How has Desert Ministries’ volunteer program changed from last year?
Did the overall volunteer productivity increase from the previous year? If yes, why? If no, what changes do we need to make?
Which of the activities do the volunteers seem to gravitate towards?
Which area of long-term care did Desert Ministries have the most influence: staff, resident or atmosphere?
“To love, and to be loved, to feel needed, is to be human, and as far as I can tell I am still a human.” - Clarence at the age of 92
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…15
Comparing Year to Year ______________________________________________________________________________ With the newly developed Volunteer timesheet, Desert Ministries will easily compare year-to-year the expenditures of the entire Volunteer Program. Table 8: Comparing Expenditures for Volunteer Program Basic wage replacement value
All Desert Ministries expenditures
Furthermore, you can compare year to year activities and hours, such as in Table 9. Table 9 is a fictitious variation of Table 7 (page 10). Volunteer expenditures have been added as well as line items that generically represent Desert Ministries’ volunteer services. We have added these line items to make a very specific point: by being more thorough in following-up with its volunteers, an organization can greatly add to its overall organizational value. Furthermore, by quantifying all services provided, a non-profit like Desert Ministries, can shed light on the magnitude of its ROI. To see the vast difference in organizational ROI, compare Table 7 and Table 9. These Tables could very well represent Desert Ministries as a whole. Table 9: ABC Hospital Expanded
Basic wage replacement value
All hospital expenditures
# of One-on-One Visits, # of Persons, Total Hours
5,000 7,345 12,250 7,000 11,131 16,895
Flower deliveries completed, # of Persons, Total Hours 1000 5,347 8,987 975 3,218 6,327 Visitors queries answered, Total hours
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…16
Quantifying Growth Above we ask questions regarding feedback we receive from the Volunteer Timesheet. What Desert Ministries really wants to know is, •
Are we growing?
What impact are we having on the resident?
What impact are we having on the staff?
What impact are we having on the facility environment?
Our goal is to more accurately provide information for ourselves, for volunteers, for donors and for potential investors. Although the above information is beneficial it is not quite thorough enough to yet complete an adequate picture of whether Desert Ministries is continuing to evolve. Desert Ministries will continue to evolve if: •
There is continued evolution surrounding the infrastructure of Desert Ministries.
The rapport between long-term care facility and Desert Ministries remains.
Volunteer numbers increase and volunteers remain engaged and service-oriented.
Desert Ministries continues to create new opportunities for community collaboration and exposure.
Desert Ministries creates new streams of revenue.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…17
Making the Changes ______________________________________________________________________________ Desert Ministries is committed to: Volunteer Follow-up We have created a document that can be easily completed and sent via email. However, it is up to us to educate our volunteers concerning the importance of filing this document. Creating a Volunteer Program End of Year Letter This letter will highlight the entire year of our volunteer program, including all quantifiable numbers surrounding the volunteer program. In essence, Desert Ministries’ end of year letter is a volunteer program letter since we are volunteer program. However, in the coming years we are committed to producing a letter for our donors that will more accurately reflect our true ROI. Other than the reflection of the ROI from the findings that will come from the volunteer timesheets, further returns may come from: •
Number of new volunteers
Community partnerships kind and number
Care Facility partnerships kind and number
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…18
Desert Ministries’ Philanthropies _______________________________________________________ Desert Ministries produces such philanthropic events free of charge for three reasons, 1) to continue to support the elderly, 2) to promote the elder to the community and 3) to draw attention to Desert Ministries as a whole. In general, these programs have drawn great help from the community. Although Desert Ministries' volunteers do come and serve, these events allow opportunities for those not yet involved with Desert Ministries an opportunity to come and be involved. Furthermore, it may allow some the chance to discover the world behind the doors of a long-term care facility for the first time. Many times, Desert Ministries gains long-term volunteers from these events. Desert Ministries also gains promotion. Desert Ministries gets to be on the airwaves and in the newspapers to voice its cause. It gives us a chance to tell the world about the great need of the institutionalized elder. Following are three yearly philanthropic events:
Christmas in Our Hearts Once again this year, Desert Ministries will host its annual Christmas in Our Hearts concert, but never in its history was it been as big as it was in 2009. This was Desert Ministries’ 10th year hosting this Christmas program. This year we expect it will be even bigger. Held at the Doubletree’s Main Ballroom in downtown Omaha, Desert Ministries hosted over 400 elderly for this wonderful event. Founder and Executive Director Paul Falkowski started the festivities off by playing familiar Christmas songs on the saxophone. In his earlier days, Paul was a professional musician. At Christmas in Our Hearts, Desert Ministries gives elders some of the finest music in Omaha at free of charge. All musicians volunteer their services and all staffing for the day is offered by volunteers. Christmas is Our Hearts is not a day of fundraising. No, it is a day where we simply give to those, the institutionalized elderly, that rarely, if ever, get to enjoy such amenities.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…19
Nursing Home Blitz Christmas 2010 was the first time that the staff of Desert Ministries decided to charm the longterm care residents and the facility staff with Christmas music. Loading the van with candy canes, a “boom box,” Paul’s saxophone and ourselves, we traveled around the Omaha area delivering Holiday cheer to 36 facilities in 4 days surprising elders and staff with the joyful sound of music. The greatest thing? Nobody knew that we were stopping by. The Desert Ministries’ team also used this time to thank the activities directors who work so tirelessly to make the lives of our elders much more exciting and stimulating. Each of these workers received a gift from our staff because of the wonderful work that they do. Truly, the activities director is the “unsung hero” of the long-term care facility. The music that the residents heard elicited incredible responses. Those that should not have been able to stand, stood to dance. Some, lying in gurneys, mouths hanging open and eyes closed, rolled over, responding to the music. Doors began to open everywhere as the residents heard the resounding of the saxophone in the hallways. And all were grateful. It was an amazing gift to these residents and to the three of us. These visits will long remain in the minds of the residents.
Cards for Kids at Heart Every year on Valentine’s Day, Desert Ministries rallies together a group of volunteers to deliver Valentine’s Day cards to the institutionalized elderly. With the help Salem Broadcasting, KGBI 100.7-FM and HY-VEE stores throughout the Omaha/Council Bluffs and Lincoln area, thousands of Valentines are gathered and distributed to the homes of the institutionalized elderly. Drop-off boxes are constructed and placed in local area HY-VEE stores. Shoppers are encouraged by KGBI to purchase Valentines, fill them out and drop them off at local area HyVee stores. Then, prior to Valentine’s Day, Desert Ministries’ personnel gather the Valentines and bag them, making sure that each long-term care facility receives enough Valentines for their entire facility. Then, on Valentine’s Day, the volunteers gather at St. Joseph Tower, form teams, go to area care facilities endowed with a bag of Valentines. This year, 6,620 Valentines were personally delivered to residents in over 60 facilities in the Omaha/Council Bluffs area! Devin Howell, Miss Omaha 2010, was Desert Ministries’ spokesperson for this event. She spent the day with the staff of Desert Ministries signing pictures for the volunteers. It was also good to remain around the elders that call St. Joseph Tower their home. All day long we spoke with them and joked with them. They each received a Valentine themselves.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…20
Creighton Jays Sporting Events In February 2010, Desert Ministries forged a partnership with Creighton University. The intent of this partnership was to offer institutionalized elders an alternative positive activity at no cost to them. Creighton donated tickets to their athletic events. In turn, Desert Ministries offered the tickets to various long-term care facility staff. These staff then organized an outing for their residents. March 4 and March 6, 2010 marked the first outings of this kind. Desert Ministries hopes to continue to partner with other organizations, receiving benefits of this type free of charge so that the institutionalized elderly can continue to get out into the community.
“It is nice to know someone is even thinking about us.” -
a nursing home resident after a Desert Ministries event
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…21
Development for 2010 ______________________________________________________________________________ Introduction Grossman and Furano indicate that three areas are vitally important for the success of organizations that use volunteers in “major ways.” 19 These are: •
Screening: This allows organizations the opportunity to select individuals that will be most successful or who possess the proper attitude or skills necessary to thrive in the organizational environment. 20
Orientation and Training: By building the skills necessary, volunteers will have “realistic expectations of what they can accomplish.” 21
Management and Ongoing Support: “Management and ongoing support of volunteers by staff is critical for ensuring that volunteer hours are not squandered, that weak skills are strengthened and that the volunteer are maximally effective.” 22
Since Desert Ministries views itself as a catalytic organization, Desert Ministries wants to make sure that only the best of volunteers are entering long-term care facilities. Therefore, the staff of Desert Ministries is redeveloping the entire Desert Ministries’ training program.
1. Volunteer Program The changes are as follows: A. Screening Volunteers for Safety and Security Desert Ministries must consider the safety of the elderly that they serve. Therefore, further screening will be provided to make sure that the applicants are being screened for safety, skills and commitment. 23 These include: • Background Checks • References of Character • Personality Testing
Jean Baldwin Grossman & Kathryn Furano, “Making the Most of Volunteers,” 4. Ibid. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid. 20
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…22
B. Leveraging the Skill of the Individual for Increasing Organizational Effectiveness Desert Ministries will reform its training program from a “one size fits all” volunteer program into a volunteer program that focuses on individual strengths and skills. In the past, Desert Ministries has not been akin to leveraging the skill set of its volunteers. However, upon applying to become a Desert Ministries’ volunteer, all applicants are required to give information pertaining to jobs and background information. This information will be helpful in the future as Desert Ministries moves to more greatly involve its volunteers in the activities of administration, etc. Some Questions: •
What level of skill does the applicant bring to Desert Ministries? 24
Is there a unique talent that Desert Ministries does not currently possess that the volunteer can give?
How can Desert Ministries utilize this particular volunteer to move the organization forward and maximize its output?
Can this volunteer help evolve the infrastructure of Desert Ministries?
What is the current level of individual commitment coming from this particular volunteer? How can it be increased?
C. Raising the Bar by Changing the Paradigm of Training The paradigm of volunteer training is being redeveloped in the Spring of 2010. Ordinarily a nonrelational training model, Desert Ministries is adjusting its paradigm of training. All potential volunteers will be interviewed and either accepted or denied. Upon initial acceptance, volunteers will be equipped with the two necessary text books and assigned the homework for the next module. The first training module will happen alone and will include the basics of elder volunteering. At the end of the first module, homework for the second module will be given and the volunteer will be placed within an educational and relational cohort. This cohort will meet together every two months. The first two months will serve as primary training months to go over book materials, while the following months will serve as relational meeting times and further training moments.
Ibid. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…23
The cohorts will serve to: •
Build necessary relationships with Desert Ministries’ staff (Face Time)
Increase Volunteer Engagement
Bolster Volunteer Morale
Develop Friendships and Community within Desert Ministries’ Contingencies
Augment Communication between Desert Ministries’ Staff and Volunteers
Offer New Training Points or Re-Visit Old Ones
Receive Feedback from Volunteers and,
Increase their Stake in the Organization
2. Companions Plus Program Desert Ministries has never ventured into the independent living community to offer companionship. However, Desert Ministries is currently developing Companions Plus, a program that can be marketed to home health care companies or agencies that desire to boost their marketing presence within the community. Companions Plus is being developed for those persons that: •
Have been released from a hospital or long-term care facility rehabilitation stay and are in need of companionship.
Have been denied by another service-provider that Desert Ministries has partnered with.
While Companions Plus is primarily for elders still living at home, this program is not only for those aged still living independently. Instead, Companions Plus is a program composed of aged individuals that have been referred to Desert Ministries and partnered with an able volunteer. Furthermore, Companions Plus volunteers are willing to go a bit further than would normal Desert Ministries’ companions by becoming basic caregivers.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…24
3. Developmental Advisory Board Desert Ministries needs a committee from which it can spawn future Executive Board Members. Desert Ministries also needs people that possess leadership skills that believe and embrace the vision and purpose of Desert Ministries and are willing to help Desert Ministries evolve programmatically and financially. Developmental Advisory Board Members would: •
Network: Find and Keep (New Donors & Partnerships)
Collaborate: Think and Create (Multiple Perspectives)
Sustain: Build and Evolve (Next Generation of Leadership)
By creating this Advisory Board, Desert Ministries ensures its sustainability and a fruitful future.
4. Diversity Desert Ministries is an organization without ethnic boundary. In fact, in the last year Desert Ministries has witnessed a rapid increase in its Hispanic volunteer contingency. Desert Ministries is pleased with this development. Therefore, Desert Ministries will capitalize on this opportunity by: •
Sending out letters to Hispanic churches in the area and recruiting from such places
Making the Desert Ministries’ website bi-lingual (Spanish and English)
Translating Desert Ministries training materials in Spanish
5. Communication Technology is changing the way we communicate and Desert Ministries is following suit. Some may argue our society has become less connected, however, we disagree. We believe that we are more connected than ever before in the history of human existence. With a simple touch of a button we can communicate with anyone on earth. Through the Internet we create communities that 50 years ago would have been impossible. As a result, the potential exists for Desert Ministries to attract volunteers, donors, collaborators and businesses that have no boundaries. With all this in mind, we use: •
Desert Ministries’ E-News - Each month Desert Ministries develops a newsletter and publishes it on our website. You can find out what has been happening at Desert Ministries during the previous month. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…25
Facebook - Desert Ministries now has a group on Facebook where we communicate with our volunteers and donors about news and upcoming events.
Twitter - When new events are coming you can expect to hear about it on Twitter.
LinkedIn - You can find each of Desert Ministries’ three staff on LinkedIn.
6. St. Joseph Campus Education: “Living and Learning” Desert Ministries wants to transform the St. Joseph campus from a place of living to a place of “living and learning.” In the past, the St. Joseph campus has remained two facilities: St. Joseph Tower Assisted Living Community and St. Joseph Villa, a skilled nursing facility. With two levels of care here on one campus, it is very attractive to educate individuals about the differences in levels of care. Furthermore, because of the educational assets that Desert Ministries brings, there is a possibility for so much more. These possibilities include: University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Gerontology Classes on the St. Joseph Campus. Since Paul Falkowski, Executive Director of Desert Ministries is currently on staff at UNO in the Gerontology Department, he has asked the Gerontology department to consider moving a few classes to the St. Joseph Tower to offer a more hands-on education. St. Peter Claver Cristo Rey Catholic High School - Intergenerational Education “St. Peter Claver Cristo Rey Catholic High School is one of the 24 Cristo Rey Network schools. Students enrolled at St. Peter Claver dream of entering college as prepared as possible, despite their limited financial resources. Our mission is to serve a diverse population of students. We provide college-preparatory school choice for students and families of various faiths.” 25 Working together, Desert Ministries presents the students of St. Peter Claver with intergenerational service opportunities and education about the aging process. St. Peter Claver Cristo Rey spent the day on March 31, 2010 learning and serving.
“The elderly touch us in a way that no one else can.” - a student volunteer
St. Peter Claver Cristo Rey Catholic High School. Available from http://www.cristorey-aiminstitute.org Internet accessed 17 March 2010. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
ÂŠDesert Ministries, Inc. 2010â€Ś26
Desert Ministries Staff ______________________________________________________________________________ Paul Falkowski, MA Founder and Executive Director Exposed to the world of long-term care through a series of outreach projects, Paul was deeply moved by what he saw and heard. As a man of faith, he asked himself, "What is my responsibility?" From that point forward, Paul began scheduling visits to nursing homes to play music for the residents. Over the next two years, the list of nursing homes grew which Paul was playing in grew from 20 to 200. Paul was learning firsthand the challenges and the needs of the staff, the residents and their families. In 1993 Paul called together a group of friends that became his Advisory Board. Paul, along with his Advisory Board, birthed Desert Ministries and its vision. During this time, Paul continued to visit nursing homes, but now took on the role of defining the needs of the staff, the residents and their families and developing programs to meet those needs. In addition, Paul considered how to best communicate those needs to the community realizing that the community must play a vital role in care of our elderly. Falkowski says, "Everything that we do is driven by our desire to improve the quality of care for the frail elderly and to mobilize people of all ages join us in that effort." Paul has a Bachelors degree from Duquesne University in Music and a Masters degree in Gerontology from the University of Nebraska at Omaha. He is currently working on his PhD at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. Paul also teaches Gerontology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Andrew S. Dungan, MA Program & Development Officer Andrew, a board member of Desert Ministries, has now moved to a staff position as Development Officer. His new role began in November of 2009. His passion and zeal and his extensive training that includes Gerontology will take Desert Ministries to a greater place of influence in the Long-Term Care Community. Andrew is a 2004 graduate of MidAmerica Nazarene University graduating Magna Cum Laude with degrees in both Psychology and Sociology. During his time in college Andrew discovered that his true passion was in GeroPsychology (Psychology of the Aging). His research includes studying older adults ability to adapt as they loss capacity to care for themselves. The deciding experience occurred during the time he was doing home assessments in central Nebraska. Towards the end of his college tenure Andrew spent time as an intern with the South-Central Agency on Aging. His heart was broken, seeing the plight and extremely poor living conditions of rural elderly. "We need another Desert Ministries in Kearney, Nebraska to replicate what Desert Ministries is doing in Omaha," says Andrew.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…27
In 2008 Andrew graduated from Bethel Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota with an MA in Christian Education. After completing this degree Andrew moved back to Omaha, Nebraska where he took a job at a small start up church as Pastor of Ministry Development. Now, Andrew comes to Desert Ministries to use his passion for the elderly, his education in church systems and development and his time in pastoral ministry to be a help to Desert Ministries and to make it flourish. Aby Zuniga Administrative Assistant Aby has been on the Desert Ministries staff since August of 2009, but has been a supporter of Desert Ministries in her volunteer efforts since June of 2008 where she has been working alongside both her mother, Aida and her sister, Rosie. On any given Wednesday you will find Aby and her family at the Lutheran home located in downtown Omaha where they serve elderly women, painting nails, making them feel beautiful and special once again. Currently Aby is attending Metro Community College where she is studying English. Aby’s bilingual abilities have been a large asset to Desert Ministries as she has become a liaison between Desert Ministries and Hispanic South Omaha, working to create a contingency of Hispanic, Desert Ministries volunteers that we would otherwise not have without the work of she and her mother, Aida. The Desert Ministries team is excited about the on-going development of the Hispanic volunteer contingency and for the many hours that Aby has put in for us doing the ‘little things’ that help make our ministry continue.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…28
Desert Ministries Board of Directors ______________________________________________________________________________ Paul Falkowski, MA is a Pennsylvania native and is the president of the board of directors and executive director of Desert Ministries, Inc. founded in 1992. From a young age, Paul was active in church music programs, as a gifted musician. Eventually he earned a performance degree from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. After working in the music profession for several years, Paul turned to the United States Air Force and served as an enlisted airman and then officer for eight years. His stint with the Air Force eventually brought him to Offutt AFB, Omaha, NE. During his time here, he returned to his music, this time as a choral director. During the Christmas season of 1991, Paul took his choirs to a nursing home to sing. It was at this point the seeds for ministry to seniors were planted. The following year he founded Desert Ministries. In addition to his work locally, he has been on several mission trips to the former Yugoslavia to teach music and to perform. At the invitation of a Kenyan pastor, Paul and his wife of 38 years traveled to Kenya to found an orphanage that is now home to over 100 children. He continues to play his saxophone in nursing homes, but spends most of his time directing Desert Ministries, teaching gerontology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and working on his Ph.D. in Gerontology. Paul is married to Mary and they have two adult children, Steven and Kate. Now in his 18th year of ministry, his passion and commitment to serving the elderly is even stronger. Andrew Dungan, MACE is a Beatrice, Nebraska native and graduate of Bethel Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. Andrew was called to ministry, but not to maintain a status quo. Initially, moving to Omaha to work in pastoral ministry, Andrew found that this was not his niche and shortly thereafter joined the Desert Ministries staff. Now as a staff member of Desert Ministries, Andrew works as Desert Ministries’ development officer and program director, positions where he can more aptly use his background in the social sciences and in theology to solve the challenges that the elderly face and that Desert Ministries may be able to help to alleviate. Andrew is married to Alicyn, who also carries a burden for people, works as an assistant activities director at the Good Samaritan Society - Millard and is working on an advanced degree in Occupational Therapy at College of St. Mary. Mary Falkowski is a New York and Pennsylvania native, and now service coordinator for Seven Oaks of Florence, Independent Living in Omaha, Nebraska. A graduate of Bellevue University and most recently awarded a Certificate in Gerontology from the University of Nebraska at Omaha, worked sacrificially alongside her husband Paul to bring Desert Ministries from a vision to a reality. Her passion for people makes her a strong advocate for the elderly. As the first Desert Ministries program director for volunteer outreach, she created a strong beginning to the DM volunteer force through her rigorous recruiting and training methods. As a result, the long-term care community values and desires the Desert Ministries’ volunteer. In addition, to her professional pursuits, she is the mother of two adult children, Steven and Kate. Roger Curry, D.D.S. is a private practice dentist and teaches at Creighton Dental School. Roger loves the elderly and volunteers his time in helping the elderly with dental problems. Roger is also an active church member. Roger is married to Charlie and they have two grown children.
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…29
Diane Thomas is the owner of Cassel Grove Homestead Inn Bed and Breakfast in Nebraska City, Nebraska. Diane is also a member of the Avi8tors quartet; a singing group dedicated to the music reflective of the 1940’s era. In addition, Diane teaches elementary school in Auburn, Ne. Diane is a director of the board and has been instrumental in raising financial support for Desert Ministries by hosting musical concerts in churches and other venues. She is married to John, a retired United States Marines officer. Roger Holthaus, P.C., L.L.O. is a Hastings, Nebraska native, aide to President Eisenhower, graduate of Carleton College, University of Nebraska at Lincoln and Creighton Law School, and now an Omaha attorney. Roger has practiced for over 35 years, specializing in several areas of law to include elder law. Roger is a very active member of the Omaha community having served on the numerous boards to include, Foster Grandparents, board of deacons for Countryside Community Church, member of the Omaha Downtown, Inc. and chairing the 16th Street Revitalization Committee, and others. In addition to his community involvement, Roger is a champion swimmer, winning numerous medals in swim competitions to include Senior Olympics, the next of which is to be held in San Francisco, August 2009. Roger experienced a life changing turn of events when he decided to represent Andrew Evans, who at the age of 6 was left paralyzed from the neck down as the result of an airbag deploying. Roger’s extraordinary sacrifice and expertise in law in defending Andrew before the Chrysler Corporation resulted in Andrew having the care he needs for the rest of his life. Andrew is currently considering a career in law. Lyn M. Holley, Ph.D. has been a faculty member of the Department of Gerontology in the University of Nebraska at Omaha since 2004. Lyn earned her Ph.D. in 1999. She teaches about and models the aging process as she works to build bridges of mutual support and understanding across all generations. Lyn and Psychologist-Aviator husband Sam Holley, Ph.D. are Nebraskans by choice. Their families of origin live in five distant states, son Justin is a custom cabinet maker in Northern Virginia, and a family of friends greatly enriches their lives in Omaha. Both Holleys are engaged in their sequentially second (or third or fourth?) careers, and have been in Nebraska since the early 1990s, helping all Nebraskans enjoy the “good life” that is potentially so abundantly available.
ÂŠDesert Ministries, Inc. 2010â€Ś30
Desert Ministries Endorsements ______________________________________________________________________________ Pastor David Witkop Engagement & Outreach Thanksgiving Lutheran Church, Bellevue, NE "In a culture where many of us are living far from our families, Desert Ministries has provided wonderful opportunities to connect and re-connect with our senior generation. Our congregation has been blessed by the wisdom, experience, and friendship that have been offered through our senior friends. We look forward to blessing and being blessed by the relationships that continue to be forged through Desert Ministries." Lyn M. Holley, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Gerontology, University of Nebraska at Omaha "Desert Ministries is the most effective, efficient and compassionate organization of its kind of which I have knowledge. The mission of recruiting and connecting volunteer visitors with people in nursing homes and assisted living facilities who need visits is just part of a broader mission for most organizations. That connection is the mission of Desert Ministries. I have relied on Desert Ministries for more than three years to connect my service learning students with older adults who will share with them first-hand knowledge of aging, and firstheart contact with the reality and humanity of an older adult. The contributions of Desert Ministries make Omaha a better place for every citizen, it is an organization I endorse without reservation or qualification." Todd Vetter Vetter Health Services "Our community is lucky & blessed to have a Christian centered organization leading the way in spiritual support for the elderly & the caregiverâ€™s alike. Compassion is delivered through their devoted volunteer base. Nothing can prepare someone for life outside their own home, but Desert Ministries provides Direction and Peace. Donations of time and money will directly benefit all whom they serve. The organization is run efficiently and effectively, with every dollar spent, and every minute given to impact lives. Thank you to all who have made Desert Ministries what it is today." Devin Howell Miss Omaha 2010 "There is truly no other organization that can accomplish what Desert Ministries has and will continue to do. Their dedication to the aging and in-depth understanding of this process is unsurpassed in any similar organization and enables them to touch the hearts and lives of the elderly across Omaha. I feel so very lucky to have the opportunity to help Desert Ministries in their mission and associate my name with their cause." Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…31
Why Be Involved? ______________________________________________________________________________
Population 65+ by Age: 1900-2050 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 100,000,000 80,000,000 60,000,000 40,000,000 20,000,000 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Age 65-74
The demographics in age distribution are changing drastically in the United States and Desert Ministries is posturing itself to meet the challenges of this change. Over the next 40 years the number of people over 60 will multiply exponentially, with the most dramatic increases occurring among those people over the age of 85 years. This means nearly a 400% increase in the number of individuals over the age of 85! 26 And it is these individuals that need the most care: 50% needing nursing home care. 27 Today, the outlook for nursing home funding over the next two years is bleak, with no relief in sight. Nursing home operators are losing just over $14 per day, per resident. This equates to $1,400 per day for an average nursing home with 100 beds. As a result, staff reductions and service cuts are necessary further reducing quality of care for the frail elder. Couple this with a 6.9% shortage of nurses and you have a disaster not in the making, but here and now. The demand for nurses and nurse aides will only increase dramatically as “Boomers” reach the age of 60 and beyond. 28
Administration on Aging, available from http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/future_growth/future_growth.aspx (accessed March 14, 2010) 27 S. Rogers, & H. Komisar, “Who needs long-term care?” Long-term care financing project: Georgetown University, (2003), available from http://ltc.georgetown.edu/pdfs/whois.pdf, (accessed March 14, 2010) 28 W. Scanlon. “Recruitment and retention of nurses and nurse aides is a growing concern.” (2001). GAO Report available from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01750t.pdf (accessed March 14, 2010) Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - firstname.lastname@example.org
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…32
So the question is: Who will be caring for you? That’s a question no one, not even the experts can answer. Desert Ministries is fully expecting and planning that over the next three decades, Desert Ministries' volunteers will evolve from being “companion” providers to “companion plus care” providers. During our visit to Macedonia, in the former Yugoslavia, we learned that families were responsible for feeding, bathing, clothing and bedding their loved-ones. For those that had no family or had outlived their family, dishes were piled by soiled beds. It was a sorrowful sight to behold. Many of the elders that Desert Ministries’ volunteers serve are without friends or family. Either their family does not come to visit or the aged individual has outlived their family. Regardless, the relationship that has been forged between the elder and the volunteer may, in fact, be the last true friendship that remains for that elder. Unfortunately, 12,332 elderly individuals in Nebraska still call nursing homes their residence. 29 To make matters worse, this same survey shows that 78% of nursing home residents receive the benefits of Medicare or Medicaid. 30 This means that most Medicaid nursing home elders live with little money to spend on themselves, about $50 per month. There are those that have the monetary means to avoid nursing homes. These options include inhome health care, private nurses, assisted living, etc. However, all of these alternatives are expensive and are out of reach for many frail elders. Like we said before, more elderly are living longer these days. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, today’s older Americans are far different than those that went before. Most elderly are now living longer and healthier. While there is a majority able to live independently, there is a silent minority that needs our help, our care and our love. One day, you too could be in that number.
“Once I was a wealthy man, now I am a poor man.” - a male nursing home resident
Kaiser State Health Facts, “Nebraska: Nursing Facilities,” available from http://statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?cat=8&sub=97&rgn=29&print=1 (accessed March 11, 2010). 30 Ibid. Desert Ministries, Inc. - PO Box 3301 - Omaha, NE - 68103 402-556-8032 - www.desertministries.org - email@example.com
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…33
Get Involved Today ______________________________________________________________________________
Partner with Desert Ministries today by: •
Donating on a month to month basis to create a stable revenue stream for Desert Ministries.
Offering Desert Ministries a significant discount on your products.
Giving free amenities that our aged community can use in further socialization.
Considering Desert Ministries in your estate planning to ensure that our services will be there for you and for future generations.
“You make us feel so loved.” - a nursing home resident
ÂŠDesert Ministries, Inc. 2010â€Ś34
For more information regarding this document or about investing in the future of Desert Ministries, please contact: Paul Falkowski, MA, Founder and Executive Director of Desert Ministries, at: 402-556-8032 or contact him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or Andrew S. Dungan, MACE, Development Officer and Program Director of Desert Ministries, at: 402-556-8032 or contact him by email at email@example.com
For more complete and up-to-date information regarding programming and news, continue to monitor Desert Ministries via the web at www.desertministries.org. You can also find us on Facebook and LinkedIn!
©Desert Ministries, Inc. 2010…35
Administration on Aging, available from http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/future_growth/future_growth.aspx (accessed March 14, 2010). Blair, Jill. “The Cost of a Volunteer,” The Grantmaker Forum on Community & National Service. (March 2003). http://www.pacefunders.org/publications/pubs/Cost%20Volunteer%20FINAL.pdf (accessed February 10, 2010). Goodrow, Tony. “Calculating the ROI of your volunteer program,” (2009) www.volunteer2.com/articles/calculating_ROI.pdf (accessed March 01, 2010). Goulbourne, Michelle. “Assigning Economic Value to Volunteer Activity: Eight Tools for Efficient Program Management,” Canadian Centre for Philanthropy, (2002). Grossman, Jean Baldwin & Furano, Kathryn, “Making the Most of Volunteers,” Private/Public Ventures, (July 2002). Independent Sector. Available from http://www.independentsector.org Internet accessed 17 March 2010 Kaiser State Health Facts, “Nebraska: Nursing Facilities,” available from http://statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?cat=8&sub=97&rgn=29&print=1 (accessed March 11, 2010). Rogers, S. & Komisar, H. “Who needs long-term care?” Long-term Care Financing Project: Georgetown University”, (May 2003), available at http://ltc.georgetown.edu/pdfs/whois.pdf, (accessed March 14, 2010). Scanlon, W. “Recruitment and retention of nurses and nurse aides is a growing concern,” (2001), http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01750t.pdf (accessed March 14, 2010). St. Peter Claver Cristo Rey Catholic High School. Available from http://www.cristorey-aiminstitute.org Internet accessed 17 March 2010.