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PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION

OPTIONS IN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY GCE Psychology Unit 3 (G543) Bryan Saunders

May 2009


HOW “OPTIONS IN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY” IS STRUCTURED HOW TO DELIVER “OPTIONS IN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY”


Structure There are: • Four OPTIONS, each with • Four AREAS, each with • Three SECTIONS, each with • Three SUB-SECTIONS (bullets with egs)


OPTIONS • Forensic Psychology • Health & Clinical Psychology • Psychology of Sport & Exercise • Psychology of Education


FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY AREAS • TURNING TO CRIME • MAKING A CASE • REACHING A VERDICT • AFTER A GUILTY VERDICT


HEALTH & CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AREAS • HEALTHY LIVING • STRESS • DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR • DISORDERS


EXERCISE & SPORT PSYCHOLOGY AREAS • SPORT AND THE INDIVIDUAL • SPORT PERFORMANCE • SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF SPORT • EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY


PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION

AREAS

• TEACHING AND LEARNING • STUDENT PARTICIPATION • THE SOCIAL WORLD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING • ENABLING LEARNING: DEALING WITH DIVERSITY


The Questions Descriptive Question (10 marks) Evaluation Question (15 marks)


Descriptive Question Description of a theory, study, measure, technique, approach etc (see bullets) Terminology, evidence, explanation, elaboration and interpretation of evidence, contextualising to question, structure, grammar, spelling.


Evaluative Question Evaluation of an issue as it relates to the section from which part (a) was taken. A range of points, argument is balanced, organised and developed, related to context of question, examples, conclusions


The Exam Two questions from each option. Candidate chooses any two from four options. ***************************************************** Each question - Section A – 7 minutes Section B – 15 minutes


CONTENTS • STATEMENT OF INTENT FROM PE • TEACHER ACTIVITY TABLE (SoW) • SUMMARY TABLE – TURNING TO CRIME • STUDENT SUMMARY TABLE • MARKSCHEME


STATEMENT OF INTENT • We need to move from the mentality that we are writing essays, particularly those requiring formulaic answers. The new spec wants us to test students’ ability to use their knowledge to respond to questions. • The part (a) should be easy; it is similar to the Section A part (a) on the old spec. The only difference is there are more injunctions possible (beyond ‘describe’ and ‘outline’) and broader requests (beyond ‘a study’, ‘a theory’ or ‘research’) such as ‘a way’, ‘a strategy’, ‘a measure’. Candidates should be able to answer this in about 7+ minutes • For part (b), we need to broaden the idea of what constitutes ‘analysis’. Firstly, an issue/comment/debate is called for. This needs to be supported by/located in psychological evidence. To score well, the candidate needs to demonstrate that they understand the debate, appreciate the intricacy, or can ‘go further’ or ‘do something more’ beyond merely identifying or raising the issue. Traditionally this has been by drawing contrasts and comparisons. This will remain legitimate, but any other form of elaboration/extension/development may also be encouraged. The idea is to escape from the pre-prepared formulaic answer, and instead to test the candidate’s ability of appreciation and application. Whereas the guidance for a strong section b, part b answer is currently for three issues to be raised, two should be adequate on the new paper. A number of points may be made within any one issue, and this will be recognised (eg reliability may contain a discussion about demand characteristics and social desirability, ethnocentrism about sampling and generalising). It is the skill that is being sought and confirmation of this ability in a second commentary. Of course, precision of response to the question and effective use of examples come into the equation of what makes a good answer. Candidates should be able to answer this in about 15 minutes – similar to the time requirement for the old section B part (b) but with less of an ‘essay’ requirement. • Finally, it must be recognised that this is work in progress. Until we have had some papers written, QPECed, sat, marked and reviewed we must be mindful that it would be precarious to make any pronouncements of precedent. • Bryan Saunders PE - Options Paper G543


TEACHER ACTIVITY TABLE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Forensic Psychology Suggested Activities TOPIC

SECTION

ACTIVITY

POSSIBLE EVALUATION

Turning to crime

Upbringing Cognition Biology

Story-board: Families Role-play: Moral Dilemmas Video: Brain dysfunction

Nature-nurture Approaches Reductionism

Making a case

Interviewing witnesses Interviewing suspects Creating a profile

Game: PhotoFits Video: Eyewitness testimony Presentation: Profile of John Duffy

Reaching a verdict

Persuading a jury Witness appeal Reaching a verdict

Film: Twelve Angry Men/The Runaway Jury Experiment: Attractiveness of the defendant Display: Stages of and influences on decision-making

After a guilty verdict

Imprisonment Alternatives Treatment programmes

Video: The Stanford Prison Experiment/ Das Experiment etc Debate: Alternatives to imprisonment Website offering auricular acupuncture


SUMMARY TABLE Area – Turning to Crime • SECTION

SUB-SECTION (Bullet points)

• Upbringing

Disrupted families

Learning from others Sutherland (1939) Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods SCoPiC studies

RESEARCH EVIDENCE

POSSIBLE EVALUATION

Farrington et al (1994)

Disposition-situation, longitudinal research Nature-nurture, usefulness Strengths/ limitations of research

• Cognition • • • • Biology • •

Criminal thinking patterns Yochelson and Samenow (1976) Approaches Moral development and crime Kohlberg Ethnocentrism, gender Social Cognition Gudjohnsson and Bownes (2002) Qualitative v quantitative Brain and dysfunction Genes and serotonin Gender

Raine (2002) Ethics, validity Brunner at al (1993) Approaches, reductionism Evolutionary explanations Correlation, individual differences


STUDENT SUMMARY TABLE A2 PSYCHOLOGY SUMMARY SHEET FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY

AFTER A GUILTY VERDICT Area

Section

Treatment programmes Key reminder

Sub-section

Evidence

Cognitive skills

Cann

Anger management

Ireland

Ear acupuncture

Wheatley

Ear acupuncture

Evaluation Issue

Evidence/Example

Approaches

Cognitive/Psychodynamic/Physiologic al

Reductionism

Behavioural v alternative medical


MARKSCHEME – Summary (a) 1-2

3-5

6-8

9-10

Terminology

Sparce or absent

Basic but adequate

Competent, mainly accurate

Correct and comprehensive use

Description of evidence

Limited, mainly inaccurate, lacks detail

Generally accurate and coherent, peripheral relevance, lacks detail

Mainly accurate and relevant, coherent and reasonably detailed

Accurate, relevant, coherent and detailed

Elaboration/us e of example/ quality of description

None

Reasonable

Good

Very good

None

Poor

Some

Very good

Structure and organisation

Unstructured, lacks organisation

Some

Good

Competent

Grammar and spelling

Lacks grammatical structure. Many spelling errors

Mostly grammatically correct with some spelling errors

Mostly grammatically correct with few spelling errors

Mostly grammatically correct with occasional spelling errors

Interpretation/ explanation of evidence in context of question


MARKSCHEME – Summary (b) 1-3

4-7

8-11

12-15

Quantity of evaluative points

Few evaluative points

Limited

Some

Many

Range of points

Range of points is sparse

Limited

Covering a range

Accurate, relevant, coherent and detailed

Argument

No evidence of argument

Limited

Lacks balance or development

Balanced and welldeveloped

Organisation

Points are not organised

Limited

Well organised

Competently

Relevance to context of question

Points are of peripheral relevance to context of question

Some points are related to context of question

Related

Explicitly related

Use of supporting examples

Sparse or no use of supporting examples

Limited

Good

Effective

Valid conclusions that effectively summarise issues and arguments

Limited or none

Evident and demonstrate some understanding

Competent and understanding is good

Highly skilled and shows thorough understanding


THANK YOU

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