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25.1 The Beginnings of Industrialisation The Industrial Revolution starts in England and soon spreads to other countries.

Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion

• English author Charles Dickens (1812-1870)

Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion

• Original cover of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (commonly known as The Pickwick Papers), the first novel by Charles Dickens.

Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion

• First edition front piece of A Christmas Carol (1843)

Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion

• Front piece of the first edition of Oliver Twist (1838).

Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion

• First Edition cover of David Copperfield (1850)

Gads Hill Place: Country Home of Charles Dickens

Dickens family on their porch at Gads Hill Place

Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain • New Ways of Working • Industrial Revolution—greatly increases output of machinemade goods. • Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s.

Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain • The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way • Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges • Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers. • Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods

Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain • Rotating Crops • Crop rotation—switching crops each year to avoid depleting soil • Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply.

Satellite image of rotated crops in Kansas in June 2001

Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain • Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England • • • •

Industrialization—move to machine production of goods Britain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harbors Expanding economy in Britain encourages investment Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital

Inventions Spur Industrialization • Changes in the Textile Industry • Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jennies • Water frame uses water power to drive spinning wheels

Spinning Jenny


machinereplaces the hand process of combing out the fibers before they can be spun into yarn or thread. • “Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks up locks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then aligns the individual fibers so that they are more or less parallel with each other. This enabled them to be more easily spun into thread. The old method was done by hand using these tools.

Inventions Spur Industrialization • Power loom, and spinning mule (next slide) speed up production, improve quality.

Inventions Spur Industrialization • Factories— buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing

"The First Cotton Gin" - An engraving Inventions Industrialization from Harper's Spur Magazine, 1869. This carving depicts a roller gin, which • Cotton gin preceded Whitney's invention. boosts American cotton production to meet British demand

Improvements in Transportation • Watt’s Steam Engine • Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine • James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton • Boulton—an entrepreneur— organizes, manages, takes business risks.

Matthew Boulton James Watt

Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Engraving of a 1784 engine.

Reproduction of James Watt's steam engine

Improvements in Transportation • Water Transportation • Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 • England’s water transport improved by system of canals

Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont

Improvements in Transportation The A4 is a historic major road in England, portions of which are known as the Great West Road and Bath Road.

• Road Transportation • British roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads. These were called “turnpike trusts”.

Improvements in Transportation • By the early Victorian period toll gates were perceived as an impediment to free trade. The multitude of small trusts were frequently charged with being inefficient in use of resources and potentially suffered from petty corruption. • The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts.

The Round House (Old Toll House) at Stanton Drew

The Railway Age Begins • Steam-Driven Locomotives • In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive

Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, and illustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.

The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little is known about it, including whether or not it actually ran.

Trevithick's 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railway locomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea

The Railway Age Begins • Sir Topham Hatt (nicknamed “The Fat Controller”) was a famous railway administrator on the Island of Sodor located between England and the Isle of Mann. Called by Thomas (the Tank Engine) the father of the Sodor Railway!

Attention: The previous two slides were a joke. The Sir Topham Hatt and the Isle of Sodor are fictional! April Fool!

The Railway Age Begins • In 1825, George Stephenson builds worlds first railroad line. • He is called the “Father of Railways”. • His rail gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.

The Railway Age Begins •Liverpool-Manchester Railroad • Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester

The Railway Age Begins • Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)

A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket

Rocket replica

The Railway Age Begins

• Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain • Railroads spur industrial growth, create jobs • Cheaper transportation boosts many industries; people move to cities