Unit 2: 20th Century Depth Studies (40452) Written Paper – 1 hour 45 mins – 60 marks – 37.5%
Students will be examined on three units.
The roaring twenties (1919-1932) The civil rights movement (1955-1968) The Vietnam war (1963-1975)
This revision booklet is designed to offer parents a way of supporting their child through their final exam. Students will be given a three revision booklets, one on each topic, on the first week back after Easter. We have already begun revision sessions after Academy time, each Thursday between 3 and 4pm. It is recommended that your son/daughter attends as many of these as possible. These began week beginning 4th March. We also have all our resource online at TGI Space. Here you will find exam papers and revision booklets should you wish to look in more detail. Revision will also take place during lesson time from Easter onwards. Now that controlled assessment is completed, we have time to review the units we have studies this past year. At the back of this revision pack, I have also included some examination papers to give you an idea of the format of the exam. Please do not hesitate to contact myself or Mrs Farr should you have any questions. I recommend emailing me as it is a quicker form of communication. email@example.com Mr Bourke
1. The Roaring 20s: USA, 1918–1929 – What do I need to know? Key issue: How and why did the USA achieve prosperity in the 1920s? Isolationism and its effects: American rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and refusal to join the League of Nations; the consequences for the USA Tariff policy: Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 Mass production (e.g. Ford and the Motor industry); consumer industries and advertising Hire Purchase; purchase of shares; the stock market boom; Republican Government policies Developments in the entertainment industries, e.g. the cinema, Jazz. Key issue: How far was the USA a divided society in the 1920s? Rich versus poor: continuation of poverty for some – e.g. farmers Race: immigration controls; the quota system of 1921; National Origins Act of 1924; the Ku Klux Klan and its activities Prohibition: groups for and against it; organised crime; the impact on society Young people: fashions, flappers. Key issue: Why did the US Stock Exchange collapse in 1929? The problems of the 1920s: over-production, lack of credit control; the effects of tariff policy; unequal distribution of wealth The Wall Street Crash: events and immediate consequences.
1. Who was the American president in 1919? 2. What was the organisation that the president wanted America to join? 3. What were the two different attitudes to world affairs? 3. Why did Wilson fail to persuade America to join the league? Give four reasons. Method – WIMS (Wilson Is My Superstar!)
5. Name all the presidents in the 1920’s.
6. Why had America become the world’s richest country by 1919? 7. Why was America so successful in the 1920’s? Remember LACK PANTS!
Woodrow Wilson The league of nations. 1. 2. 1. 2.
Stay out of world affairs (Isolationism) Be involved in the League of Nations. Americans were upset at loss of life in WW1 – NO MORE! America was a nation of immigrants. It would be difficult to take sides on a political issue overseas without upsetting its own people; eg, Italians/Germans 3. Republicans wanted America to focus America on what it was good at – making money! Placing sanctions on countries would impact on business. 4. Wilson had a stroke – His campaign lost momentum Woodrow Wilson (1913-1920) Warren Harding (1920-1923) Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) WW1 had devastated Britain, France and Germany – The USA did not join the war until 1917 so had overtaken them. “Laissez faire” (leave alone) The government led business get on with things and didn’t interfere – e,g, low taxes Assembly lines – Goods could be produced quickly, cheaply and in one place; for example the Model T ford car. Another word is “mass production” By 1929, 6 cars were rolling off production lines a minute, Credit – people could buy now, pay later, so lots of goods were brought. Knowledge – of new things – for example, Bakelite plastic made radios and phones cheap. Electricity made factories run cheaply. Position – of America – Now number 1 because of War, so traded with lots of countries – rubber, coal, oil.
8. 9. 10. 11.
What did the KKK stand for? What was lynching? What did the KKK believe? Why did racism increase in the 1920’s?
12. What law was passed in 1896? What did it mean? 13. What law was passed in 1921 and what did it do?
14. What law was passed in 1924?
15. What impact did these laws have? 16. What was a ghetto and why did they start appearing in the North? 17. How popular were the KKK?
18. Who did not do well in the 1920’s?
Advertising – was everywhere – encouraged people to spend money on things they didn’t even know they wanted! New consumer goods – radios (60,000 in 1919, 10 million by 1929), cars, fridges (multiplied in number 167X by 1929!), phones – Everyone wanted them Tariff – In 1922 the Ford-Mcumber tariff placed a tax on foreign goods coming into America – so people bought American goods! Stocks/Shares – People invested in companies on the markets and made a lot of money – There was shared confidence The Klu Klux Klan Illegal hangings of black people in the south Black people were inferior to white people Immigration had not been controlled before the first world War and some felt they were being overwhelmed. Jim Crow laws. Blacks were to be treated as inferior people. Emergency Quotas Act – Number of people allowed into America was to be 3% of the number of those living in the USA in 1910 – this favoured white Europeans National Origins Act – 3% figure reduced to 2% and date put back to 1890. This slowed down immigration. This was done to slow down arrival of Russians and Greeks. Made Americans more isolationist. Poor areas, and they resulted from black migration from the south – uneducated workers. Very popular between 1919 and 1925 – 5 million members. Then it dropped because some Americans became horrified at their tactics. Its leader, David Stephenson was sentenced to life in prison in 1925 for rape and murder of a woman on a Chicago train. This contributed to its fall, but racism remained powerful. Black people did not do well. Many poor people did not do well – There was a lot of poverty. 1/3 population owned 5% of the wealth. Despite the reputation of a wealthy country, many struggled.
19. Name a famous American jazz player.
20. Why did cinema and sports activities like baseball become so popular? 21. What was prohibition? 22. What was it called, and when did it come into force? 23. Who wanted prohibition? Why?
The car – people could drive to the cinema and to sports fields. More people had money in their pocket. Outlawing of alcohol. 1919, Volstead Act (18th amendment) Women’s groups,(impact on families – wage cheques going on booze) religious groups. Bootlegging (illegal selling of alcohol) Speakeasies – Growth of illegal bars Crime increased – Lots of people became criminals for simply supping alcohol Lack of respect for law grew Growth of criminals - Al Capone/Lucky Luciano – Even politicians like Joseph Kennedy (John Kennedy’s dad) were involved in bootlegging Poisoning – People died from manufacturing their own alcohol. They used mouthwash for example! Alcohol consumption dropped More awareness of alcohol. AA was set up in 1935.
24. What was the impact of prohibition?
25. What was moonshine? 26. What paper declared that prohibition was a failure, and a “violation of personal liberty” in 1927? 27. What happened on October 1929? 28. What did this mean? 29. What is “speculation”
Manufactured alcohol at home. Boston Globe The Wall Street Crash Stocks collapsed – Fortunes collapsed and businesses closed. People became unemployed Investors gossip about how shares/stocks are going to do – Speculation was responsible for the collapse of shares.
30. What was the impact of the crash? IHSBBUHE I have seven bombs buried under here really!
Investors lost heavily – The Vanderbilt family lost $40 million Homelessness - Banks repossessed homes – homes had been used as insurance for credit Suicide – Investors/bankers killed themselves Bankruptcy – Companies crashed as people pulled out shares. 100,000 companies closed down 1929-1933. Banks went out of business – people couldn’t repay loans Unemployment rose to 12 million by 1932. Hoovervilles – People built shacks out of rubbish/wood to live in. These were called “Hoovervilles” after president Hoover, who did little to help people. Election of Roosevelt in 1933 – a democrat who vowed to help the poor.
Race Relations in the USA 1955–1968
Key issue: To what extent did racial inequality exist in the USA in the 1950s? Segregation laws; attitudes in the Southern States; the Ku Klux Klan Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956 Brown versus Topeka Board of Education Little Rock High School,1957 Living standards for African Americans. Key issue: How effective were the methods used by members of the Civil Rights Movement between 1961–1968? The Freedom Rides, 1961; Freedom Marches 1963 The Washington March, 1963 Black Power protests at the Mexico Olympics, 1968 The Black Power movement in the 1960s.
Key issue: How important was Martin Luther King in the fight for Civil Rights in the USA? His role as a protest organiser, 1955–1963 The Civil Rights Act, 1964 Winning the Nobel Peace Prize, 1964 Race Riots, 1965–1967 The assassination of Martin Luther King.
1. What year was slavery ended in the US? Who ended it? 2. When was the KKK formed and what does is stand for? 3. What name was given to the laws passed between 1876-1965? What did they do? 4. Who was “Jim Crow”? 5. What word means to be kept apart? 6. What were illegal hangings called? 7. Why did black people not unite to battle these laws 8. Why did the 1950’s begin a new period of resistance?
9. Name as many examples of segregation as possible. How many can you get?
10. What happened in 1943? 11. What happened in 1954? Why was it so important in the story of the Civil Rights Movement?
12. Who was Anne Robinson?
1863 – Abraham Lincoln 1866 – Klu Klux Klan The Jim Crow Laws – Blacks were to be treated differently than whites. A black caricature for white people to laugh at Segregation Lynching’s Fear of being killed 1. Use of media could highlight issues and spread the word of protest, especially outside of the USA which caused embarrassment. 2. Black servicemen returned from WW2 – to what? Another racist style of government! Some were treated well overseas and recognised that they could be treated well. They had fought for freedom. Bus station waiting rooms and ticket windows Railroad cars or coaches Restaurants and lunch counters Schools and public parks Restrooms and water fountains Sections of movie theaters There were even separate cemeteries Rosa Parks paid her fare, but the bus driver rode off when she got off the bus to re-embark through the back door. Brown Vs Board of Education law – Two parents took the board of education to court over their daughter Linda Brown being refused access to local school – The court declared educational segregation was unconstitutional. The law backed black people. Educated member of the Women's Political Council in Montgomery. She encouraged community resistance on the town of Montgomery and planned the boycott.
13. What was the NAACP and who was their leader? 14. What did he say about Rosa Parks?
15. What happened on 1 Dec 1955? 16. When did the bus boycott begin? 17. Who was the minister at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery and what did he become in 1956? 18. How did Montgomery council try to break the boycott?
19. How did black people work together in the boycott?
National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People – The only group that campaigned for black people. It was led by Ed Nixon. "I had to be sure that I had somebody I could win with." The NAACP wanted to organise a protest, but needed a good citizen people (both white and black) would get behind. Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat 5 Dec, 1955 – The day of Rosa’s trial. Martin Luther King – Elected leader of the MIA – Montgomery Improvement Association. Leaked (false) reports to a newspaper that the boycott was over. MIA members went bar hopping (bar to bar) telling black people to ignore the paper reports. King's home was bombed on January 30, and Nixon's home was bombed on February 1 1956. February 21, 89 blacks were indicted under an old law prohibiting boycotts. King was the first defendant to be tried. Whites also tried to break down the "private taxi" system that many blacks relied on. For example; Liability insurance was cancelled four times in four months before King found an insurance company willing to insure private taxis (Lloyds of London!) Police also arrested drivers for minor traffic offenses. It became illegal for drivers to charge less than $3. ALL FAILED TO BREAK THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE.
Private Taxis Clubbed together to buy cars Churches hired station wagons to get black people to get to work. Called “Rolling Churches”. Black people challenged other blacks to support one another.
20. Why did the boycott succeed?
21. Why was the boycott so important?
22. 23. 24. 25.
What happened in 1958? Where was the school? Who was the president at the time? Who was the governor of Little Rock and why did he refuse access to the Little Rock 9 into the school?
One black elderly woman said to a bus driver who stopped to pick her up; “I ain't rushing to get on your bus. I'm just' trying to catch up with that nigger who just got off, so I can hit him with this here stick." Lloyds of London insured taxis! Taxis made the most of the service by cheap rates. Drove bus companies out of business. Local businesses demanded change in law. It was their businesses in town suffering by black people not coming into town to spend money. KKK lost their fear factor – One night a black boy was seen warming his hands at a burning cross. Real sense of “Togetherness”. Black people were confident and willing to continue because of the Brown vs. Board victory in court – they believed the law would finally come onto their side.
First major step for civil rights movement Showed peaceful protest could work Black community came together for first time Propelled MLK to media attention US Supreme Court ruled in favour of the protest – segregation ruled unlawful. Another victory in the federal court. Little Rock incident Arkansas Eisenhower Governor Faubus – He wanted white support – He had been a supporter of civil rights but nearly lost his re-election. He reversed his position.
26. Who was the black student split from the other 8 on their way to their first day at school? What happened to her?
Elizabeth Eckford – She was verbally abused and threatened by the white students and parents.
27. Who stopped them entering? 28. What did the president do?
Arkansas National Guard Ordered Faubus to see him and tried to encourage him to let the nine students in. Replaced the NG with police – They were unable to cope with numbers. Riot broke out. A black reporter was assaulted. The students got in the school but then had to be sneaked out over fears of lynching. Sent in the Airborne Division to escort students in. They guarded the students in school. Eisenhower took charge of the NG and they replaced the airborne troops in November. They stayed protecting the students for the whole year, with weapons at their side. Yes Showed the president was willing to enforce the law (Brown Vs. Board) Showed that FEDERAL power (govt) could be used over STATE (local power) Media sensation – issue beamed round world. Gained publicity and embarrassed Arkansas. It challenged people’s perceptions. For example, in 1996, the woman who screamed abuse at Eckford apologised for her behaviour and met her again. No Faubus closed the school down after a year When it re-opened in 1960, only 3% of students were black – much lower than local black population Parents of the Little Rock Nine lost their jobs. Most of the little rock 9 did not graduate.
29. What did the governor do? What happened?
30. How did the president respond?
31. Was Little Rock a success for the Civil Rights movement?
32. What were sit ins?
33. Where and when was the most famous sit in? What happened? 34. Name the group that planned the sit ins. 35. What was the impact of sit ins?
36. What were freedom rides and when did they take place? 37. What happened at Aniston? Alabama
38. What was the impact of the freedom rides?
The next campaign 1961-1963 – Black AND white supporters of the civil rights movement would sit in segregated seats in buildings and get arrested – Nor resistance. Woolworths – Greensboro, 1960. Woolworths reversed its segregation policy on seating. CORE (congress of racial equality) 70,000 people had participated in sit-ins across the country (more than 3,000 of these were arrested). Students from across the country became active participants in the civil right movement. Mass nonviolent direct action could be successful and brought national media attention to the new era of the civil rights movement. Use of jail/refusal to pay bail became a successful strategy Most stores (e.g. Woolworths) stopped segregation 1961-1963 - People got on buses and went from place to place testing segregation laws around the south. White protestors attacked a bus with iron pipes and baseball bats and slashed its tires. They then beat up the occupants. Positive Attorney General Robert Kennedy (Initially opposed to freedom rides) forced the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) to pass new laws on 1 Nov 1961 – segregated signs were removed – passengers could sit where they wanted. Motivated many to join the civil rights movement Inspired next movements voter registration/black power movement Negative Violence began to become widespread – put some people off the movement – began radicalization (black power movement) The press criticized CORE and the violence/confrontation that freedom rides seemed to cause.
39. Where did the freedom rides end, and what was the major event it arrived at? 40. Who was the new president at this time?
41. What was the impact of the Washington March and speech? Give at least four.
The Washington March, 1963 “March for jobs and freedom” John F Kennedy
42. What happened in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963? What was the impact? 43. 44. 45. 46.
Speech became famous worldwide – Highlighted the Civil Rights Movement Kennedy (at first against the march) swung his support behind the movement and met King. Kennedy introduced the Civil Rights Act – It would eventually pass in 1964 after his assassination in November 1963 It showed the movement in good light – there was little violence despite there being 300,000 present 80% were black, but 20% white – It showed that the movement had cross-racial support It inspired others to join the movement – e.g., John Lewis It led to the bombing of a church and the killing of 4 black children
Parks, playgrounds, swimming pools and golf courses in to avoid desegregating them. Peaceful protestors attacked by fire hoses and police dogs. White opponents of civil rights movement looked violent. What was the Voting Rights Act (or “Civil Rights Act) and when was it 1964 - made it illegal to try to prevent black Americans from registering for passed? the vote – It removed literacy tests for voters. Put through congress in 1965. What was meant by “black power”? Pride in being black – Called for more “direct” action. Name their leaders. Stokey Carmichael Malcolm X Why did black power emerge? Churches had less power in the north. Northern blacks willing to use violence. Some black people felt that social economic change was needed to bring black people out of poverty. Violence would achieve this quicker.
47. What were the aims of black power?
48. What was the impact of the black power movement? Were the successful?
MLK was less popular in the north. He had less government support (he criticised Vietnam) Change was happening too slowly. Black people becoming impatient.
Blacks should take more responsibility, power and control in their own communities (e.g. set up their own businesses). Use of violence. Focus on social and economic issues (e.g. poverty) rather than political issues (e.g. Jim Crow laws) Study their own history and culture; Slogans Like "black is beautiful”. Separatism – Blacks to have their own state - this is very different to segregation!) Set up a Muslim state – Different from Christian nature of civil rights movement.
Patrol the Pigs campaign: following cops and teaching Blacks their civil rights to reduce brutality and injustices.
Focus on poverty - Free breakfast and school for Black children. Free healthcare centres and ‘liberation’ schools. Funded by local businesses and celebs. E.g. Jimi Hendrix (right) Influenced Red power (Indian)
FBI had poor relations with them. Leaders were also frequently jailed.
Some members were criminal or very violent and absorbed too
49. What happened at the Mexico Olympics in 1968? 50. Who was involved? 51. What were they doing? What did it symbolise?
much media attention. Lost white support because of shoot outs with police. Black power salute in medal ceremony – 200 metres finalists Peter Norman (Australian) Tommie Smith/John Carlos
52. What was the impact?
53. When and where was King assassinated? Why was he there? 54. Who killed him? 55. What happened after? 56. Why was King a great leader?
57. Why did he begin to lose power/influence over the movement after 1964?
Salute – The arc (both held up one arm each with a glove) – “arc” of black unity. (Normans idea) Carlos had forgotten his gloves Black scarf – Black pride Black beads round neck (slaves/that drowned in the crossing/lynching’s) Black socks (poverty)
Olympic Project for Human Rights (OPHR) badge Olympic president resigned (he had been a Nazi sympathiser) Norman was dropped by Australian Olympic team Carlos and Smith criticised/attacked in the USA for breaking “Olympic spirit” World attention for black power movement Memphis, Tennessee, 1968. He was there to support black garbage workers on strike. James Earl Ray Huge riots across 60 American cities. Peaceful Christian nature of movement – gained white support Launched movement with Bus boycott (1955) Good at dealing with politicians, e.g., Kennedy Brilliant at speaking – Inspired others, for example John Lewis His death resulted in the 2nd Civil Rights Act, 1969 which swept away all discrimination in American life
Aims became difficult - achieving economic equality not as easier to achieve as de-segregation. The north was less religious – more willing to use violence
Failed to control black power movement – people left to join after 65 Opposed war in Vietnam – lost him political support and alienated some supporters
58. What did the Civil Rights Movement achieve? Give five successes.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
The end of segregation in public places. Many more schools are now fully integrated. Far more blacks now vote in elections. The first black mayor (Carl Stokes in Cleveland, 1968) was elected. Many black authors and actors have become very successful.
59. Where did the movement fail?
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
75% of the black population are still worse off than whites Unemployment for blacks still high Black people have lower educational standards than whites still Ghettos remain in many cities America is still a deeply divided society with racial problems, despite the laws.
60. Which was the most important event in the Civil Rights Movements history?
You can argue for any of the following – Ensure you know WHY they are important. I have put them in order (my preference) Brown Vs. Board (1954) – Starting point – Law on black side Bus Boycott (1955) – First major stand – again, law Washington March (1963) Little Rock (1957) Freedom Rides/Sit Ins (1961-1963) Black power salute (1968)
The USA and Vietnam: Failure Abroad and at Home, 1964–1975
Key issue: How effective were guerrilla tactics during the Vietnam War? The theory of Guerrilla warfare Guerrilla tactics, 1964–1968 The US response to guerrilla tactics: Operation Rolling Thunder; ‘Hearts and Minds’; Agent Orange and Napalm; Search and Destroy The My Lai Massacre, 1968. Key issue: How did the coverage of the Vietnam War in the USA lead to demands for peace? TV and media coverage of the war, from the Gulf of Tonkin to the evacuation of Saigon Protest movements in the USA, 1968–1973 The public reaction to the My Lai Massacre, the trial of Lieutenant Calley The Kent State University protest, 1970 The Fulbright Hearings, 1971. Key issue: Why were the US actions to end the Vietnam War unsuccessful? The Tet Offensive and its impact on the war, 1968 Attacks on Laos and Cambodia, 1970 US bombing of the North and attacks on Laos and Cambodia, 1970 –1972 The Paris Peace Conference and US withdrawal The fall of Saigon, 1975.
1. Until 1954 Vietnam was ruled by the ________________ until the Vietminh removed them by force. 2. Vietnam was divided into North and South. The North was ruled by?
French The Communists
3. The Americans renamed the Vietminh the…? 4. The Americans got involved because they feared the spread of __________________ and worried about the ________________ theory. The war lasted between………
Vietcong Communism Domino 1964-1975 To kill all the communists trying to over-run the South. Lyndon Johnson Ho Chi Minh Tonkin Guerrilla warfare – They couldn’t match the American firepower. Ambushes/Booby traps/Hit and run/Tunnel Systems/Befriending south Vietnamese villagers Ho Chi Minh Trail Communists American bombing programme (1965-1967) Hanoi (capital) and Haiphong (main port)
5. Aim of America in Vietnam War. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Name of US president during Vietnam War. Name of North Vietnam’s leader until his death in 1968 The Gulf of ______________incident gave the Americans an excuse to get militarily involved. Name given to warfare used by VC was what? Why did they use it?
10. Five tactics of this warfare include;
11. 12. 13. 14.
What road went through Cambodia into South Vietnam and supplied the VC? The aim of the VC in the south was to turn the southern villagers into_________________ Rolling thunder was ___________________________________________ Two cities in the North that were not bombed heavily at first, but were later bombed were _______________ and ___________________ 15. Search and destroy was the American policy of __________________________________(1) 16. What did America try to achieve with the South Vietnamese villagers? 17. What made them unpopular, both in S.Vietnam and around the world?
18. What was the Tet offensive and when was it? 19. What were the aims of the North during Tet?
Finding VC and killing them in the jungles and villages of South Vietnam Win their hearts and minds. Heavy bombing ( of a peasant nation) Chemical warfare (agent orange) Killing of civilians (My Lai for example, 1968) A massive military offensive by the VC and NVA in the South. That the south would rise up with them and
20. The Tet Offensive was a success for American troops because (3 reasons)
21. The Tet Offensive was a failure for American troops because (Give four reasons)
22. Name two media events during Tet that affected US opinion.
fight the Americans The war would become unpopular in America They killed thousands of VC who came out to fight The South Vietnamese army (their allies) fought well The southern Vietnamese did not rise up and fight against them
Walter Cronkite (famous American broadcaster) said the War was now “unwinnable”. President Johnson said that Cronkite lost him “middle America” America had been saying they had been winning the War – this huge attack threw this into doubt – the North had a lot of soldiers left The media showed some terrible footage of the battles and appeared to play down American victories It looked like it would take a long time to win the war. Killing of VC soldier in Saigon (caught on camera/film) The VC stormed the US embassy – the media exaggerated the damage down to the embassy and US forces
23. Which American base in the northern part of southern Vietnam was surrounded and almost over run? 24. What happened as a result of the Tet Offensive? 6 reasons…
25. Why did the North delay peace talks between 1968 and 1972?
They were happy for the public in America to force a US withdrawal They were able to re-build their military
Americans realised that the war was far from over. The American public would not be willing to pay the price that America would have to pay. The President lost the support of the American people. In March 1968, he would announce his resignation. His popularity had fallen to 26%. Walter Cronkite announced the War as now “unwinnable”. The images broadcast home have a traumatic impact on the people at home. It was a psychological victory for the South. America announces a cessation of the bombing of North Vietnam and a desire to seek peace. America won a military victory. The VC were decimated and the south did not rise up in support of the North as they had hoped. The North now agreed to the peace talks as well. The US Congress refused to give General Westmoreland any more troops. They have had enough of the War.
forces after being decimated during Tet. 26. What three choices did Nixon face when he replaced Johnson, and what would be their impacts? 27. What was Vietnamisation? 28. What was the ARVN? 29. Why did the US Generals oppose Vietnamisation?
30. Why did Americans turn against the war in Vietnam? Remember MDATC My Day At Tudor College
Carry on with War (public anger) Withdraw from Vietnam (humiliation) Vietnamisation (allows America to save face) Withdrawal of US forces, and training of South Vietnamese Army (ARVN). Army of Republic of Vietnam They did not believe the ARVN could be trusted or able enough to defend the South – It was also giving in at a time when they felt the US were on top after Tet – They believed one big push could win the War.
MEDIA COVERAGE People seeing on TV the reality of war. Soldiers are seen being killed and interviews show soldiers disillusioned.
DRAFT Many having to fight who didn’t want to. It seemed that the poor were fighting the war whilst the rich got away with it.
AMERICAN METHODS Use of napalm, heavy bombing, killing of civilians made America look the bad guy.
TET OFENSIVE Shows that America is not winning the War. It will take a long time to defeat the determined North Vietnamese. Cronkite, the respected news broadcaster turns middle America against the War.
CAMBODIA Nixon goes back on his promise to end the War by invading Cambodia. He ESCALATES the war.
31. What was the My Lai massacre? What happened as a result?
32. Why did Nixon invade Cambodia in 1970?
33. What happened as a result of the Cambodia invasion?
34. What were the Fulbright hearings and when did they take place?
35. What happened at the hearings?
Killing of 500 plus civilians by US troops – further turned people against the War – The military tried to cover it up. Showed the lack of professionalism of US soldiers and failure of search and destroy policy. Fed up with VC and NVA fleeing to Cambodia and not taking peace talks seriously.
Ken State university demonstration – 4 students killed – further angers US public and turn against the War. William Fulbright was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee It was an investigation into the Vietnam War. 1966-1971.
Twenty two people gave evidence, some pro and some anti- war. It was filmed on television. One of the witnesses was John Kerry – a Vietnam Veteran. His statements caused a huge outcry, specifically when mentioning their Winter Soldier Investigation which revealed problems in Vietnam – war crimes/drug use of soldiers. Shockingly, that My Lai was not a one off and that this was official war policy.
36. What was the impact?
Further protest against the War The May Day protests in Washington lasted for several days 35,000 protestors were met by a combination of the army, police & national guard of about 10,000. 12,000 were arrested but it was a huge issue with the Nixon administration. The protests unnerved the administration and arguably speeded up US withdrawal from Vietnam.
37. What did America do in 1972 and why?
Massive bombing of North to persuade them to take talks seriously and stop advancing into Southern territory – It worked. Agreed to peace talks in Paris. Seen as victory for Nixon – Yet caused huge protests. Operation Linebacker 200,000 bombs fell on Northern cities including the capitol, Hanoi. The CIA let it be known that Nixon was mentally unstable and might use nuclear weapons if the war went on for much longer! This scared the North Vietnamese
38. What did the North do? What happened in the US as a result?
39. What was the operation called? 40. How many bombs were dropped on the North? 41. What was the “mad man theory”?
42. When did peace talks begin? What was agreed at the Peace talks?
a. All US forces removed from Vietnam. b. US Prisoners of War released by North Vietnam. c. Government of South Vietnam allowed to
continue, but North Vietnamese forces could stay in areas that they already controlled. d. Elections to be held to determine whether Vietnam would be united or not. 43. How did Americans react to the peace talks?
44. What did the North now do?
45. What happened between 1974-1975?
46. When did the War end? 47. What did the TV show?
48. How many American troops and North Vietnamese were killed in Vietnam?
49. What was Saigon renamed? 50. How many US soldiers are still MIA? (missing in action, presumed still imprisoned in North Vietnam)
1972 Peace was greeted with relief in the USA & Kissinger (foreign secretary) praised. Peace gave them time to prepare for an invasion – they would go back on their agreement. The North invaded. America failed to support the South – the US public had had enough, and Nixon was now out of office (Watergate Scandal) May 1975 – The North took Saigon without a fight. Panic as people tried to flee from Saigon – US embassy was swamped with people who worked for the US trying to get out. US helicopters fled form the embassy rooftop and the war was now over. 58.000 – Roughly 1/5 of them were killed by friendly fire – a result of heavy firepower and guerrilla tactics. Over a million North Vietnamese were killed. Ho Chi Minh City. 2,500. Campaigns continue to try and freed them. Vietnam denies they exist