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Origins of the Cold War – Revision Booklet 1945 – War Ended – Russia, Britain and USA had been allies – Much suspicion. See below;

Why were both sides anxious? Both sides were suspicious of each other. Britian and America were worried that Russia wanted to spread communism across Europe. There was a desire to stregthen Germany so this would not happen. Russia were concerned that Germany could rise again. They wanted a buffer zone (Poland). They also wanted to ensure that the West did not achieve their aim of spreading capitalism into Eastern Europe.


Why did both sides fall out? Why did the Cold War start?

Yalta Conference Feb 1945 

     

Germany was to be divided into four zones, occupied by Britain, France, the USA and USSR. Berlin (in the USSR zone) was to be divided into four also. Nazi war criminals would be put on trial Free elections were to be held in Eastern European countries - Poland Stalin would join the war in the pacific against Japan in return for land A UN (United Nations) was to be set up to replace the League of Nations. No agreement was reached on the frontiers of Poland, a critical situation.

Potsdam Conference August 1945 What Changed? 1) Changes in leaders; attitudes towards one another changed. 2) Poland; Stalin went back on what had been agreed at Yalta. 3) Use of atom bomb against Japan

Agreement on treatment of Nazi War criminals Much suspicion had arisen. Stalin had left his troops in Poland and gone back on his word at Yalta. He desired a buffer zone in Eastern Europe and established communist governments in Poland and East Germany. Perhaps the dropping of the bomb further angered him. Truman was much more suspicious of Stalin than Roosevelt – He called him another Hitler.


Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan In 1947, two important events occured: firstly, President Truman warned the American Congress that it was America's job to contain Communism - this became known as the Truman Doctrine - and secondly, General George Marshall came up with a plan to help Europe recover from the war using American money - this became known as the Marshall Plan. In this Revision Bite, you will learn about these policies.

Events 1947 By 1947, Greece was one of the few countries in Eastern Europe that hadn'tturned communist. The Communist rebels in Greece were prevented from taking over by the British Army. America was becoming increasingly alarmed by the growth of Soviet power. So, when the British told Truman they could no longer afford to keep their soldiers in Greece, Truman stepped in to take over. In March 1947, he told the American Congress it was America's job to stop communism growing any stronger. This was called the Truman Doctrine. It is often said that Truman advocatedcontainment (stopping the Soviet getting any more powerful), but Truman did not use this word and many Americans spoke of "rolling back" communism. In June 1947, General George Marshall made a visit to Europe to see what was needed. He came away thinking Europe was so poor that the whole of Europe was about to turn Communist. Marshall and Truman asked Congress for $17 billion to fund the European Recovery Programme nicknamed the Marshall Plan - to get the economy of Europe going again. Congress at first hesitated, but agreed in March 1948 when Czechoslovakia turned Communist. The aid was given in the form of food, grants to buy equipment, improvements to transport systems, and everything "from medicine to mules". Most (70 per cent) of the money was used to buy commodities from US suppliers: $3.5 billion was spent on raw materials; $3.2 billion on food, feed and fertiliser; $1.9 billion on machinery and vehicles; and $1.6 billion on fuel. Stalin forbade the Cominform countries to apply for Marshall Aid. Revision tip To help you remember the information in this Revision Bite, make a list of tenkeywords. This is really a matter of opinion, but ten possible words would be: Greece, alarmed, Truman Doctrine, containment, rolling back, Communism, Marshall, European Recovery Programme, Czechoslovakia, Cominform. Answer preparation As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain: 1. What the following were: Truman Doctrine, containment, Marshall Plan. 2. Why America offered Marshall Aid to Europe, and Why Stalin rejected it for Communist countries. 3. What part the Marshall Plan played in worsening relations between the USA and the USSR.


Some perceptions of the Marshall Plan


The Berlin Airlift http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4vYAGLyBKMA&feature=related (Excellent Overview) In 1945, the Allies decided to split Germany into four zones of occupation. The capital, Berlin, was also split into four zones. The USSR took huge reparations from its zone in eastern Germany, but Britain, France and America tried to improve conditions in their zones. In June 1948, Britain, France and America united their zones into a new country, West Germany. On 23 June 1948, they introduced a new currency, which they said would help trade. The next day, Stalin cut off all rail and road links to west Berlin - the Berlin Blockade. The west saw this as an attempt to starve Berlin into surrender, so they decided to supply west Berlin by air. The Berlin Blockade lasted 318 days. During this time, 275,000 planes transported 1.5 million tons of supplies and a plane landed every three minutes at Berlin's Templehof airport. On 12 May 1949, Stalin abandoned the blockade.

What caused it? [CABAN]

1.

Cold War was just getting started (e.g. Czechoslovakia, March 1948)

2.

Aims Stalin wanted to destroy Germany – Britain and the USA wanted to rebuild Germany.

3.

Bizonia The Russians were taking German machinery back to the USSR. In January 1947, Britain and the USA joined their two zones together to try to get German industry going. They called the new zone Bi-zonia (‘two zones’).

4.

American Aid Congress voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March 1948. started searching all road and rail traffic into Berlin.

5.

New Currency On 1 June, America and France announced that they wanted to create the new country of West Germany; and on 23 June they introduced a new currency into ‘Bizonia’ and western Berlin. The next day the Russians stopped all road and rail traffic into Berlin.

Immediately, the Russians

The Soviet Union saw the 1948 Berlin crisis as an attempt to undermine Soviet influence in eastern Germany; Stalin said he was defending the east German economy against the new currency, which was ruining it. The western powers said Stalin was trying to force them out of Berlin.


Important dates and events Date

Event

January 1947

Britain and the USA join their two zones together into Bi-zonia(two zones).

December 1947

London Conference: America, Britain and France meet to discussGermany's future. Russia is not present.

January 1948

Russia starts to stop western literature being sold in the Soviet zone.

March 1948

The USA offers Marshall Aid. Stalin forbids Cominform countries to take part.

April 1948

Russia imposes a partial blockade of west Berlin - Allied transport into the city has to apply for a permit and is inspected.

1 June 1948

America, Britain and France announce they wanted to create anew country of West Germany.

23 June 1948

America, Britain and France introduce a new currency - this causes economic chaos in the Russian zone as everyone tries to get rid of their old money and change to the new currency.

Now consider this quote from the US commander in Berlin, General Clay: When Berlin falls, Western Germany will be next. If we withdraw our position in Berlin, Europe is threatened... Communism will run rampant. General Clay

What were the Results? [CENA]

1.

Cold War got worse It almost started an all-out war.

2.

East and West Germany Germany split up. In May 1949, America, Britain and France united their zones into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). In October 1949, Stalin set up the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) .

3.

NATO and the Warsaw Pact In 1949, the western Allies set up NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) as a defensive alliance against Russia. NATO countries surrounded Russia; in 1955, the Soviet Union set up theWarsaw Pact – an alliance of Communist states.

4.

Arms Race After Berlin, the USA and the USSR realised that they were in a competition for world domination. They began to build up their armies and weapons.


Revision tip To help you learn the facts from this Revision Bite, imagine you are a Soviet writer trying to prove that America was to blame for the Berlin crisis of 1948, what would you say? Then think about what an American writer would say. Remember don't confuse the Berlin Blockade of 1948 with the Berlin Wall of 1961! Answer preparation As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How the Allies divided Germany in 1945. Why there was a crisis in Berlin in 1948. What happened in the Berlin Blockade and airlift of 1948. How the Berlin airlift is a good example of the Cold War. How the Berlin crisis of 1948 affected the Cold War.

Some views of the importance of the crisis. Try to remember some of them and the names of their authors.

A move to test our ability and our will to resist. President Truman, speaking in 1949

The climax of the struggle for power over Germany and Europe. Avi Shlaim, Britain, the Berlin Blockade and the Cold War (1983)

The first major crisis of the Cold War, setting up the stage for the decades of tension that were to follow.

Rebecca Byrnes (an Australian student) on Suite 101.com

The first point where war between the two superpowers was possible.

‘Booji’, a contributor to www.debatewise.com


Test Yourself 1. Russia took huge reparations from the eastern zone of occupied Germany. Britain, France and America... ...stopped the Russians taking reparations from the three western zones. ...stripped western Germany of industrial plant and machinery. ...tried to improve conditions in their zones. 2. In January 1947, Britain and America united their zones. What did they call the new zone? Bizonia Trizonia Dizonia 3. Why did the London Conference of 1948 create tension about Germany? The Russians threatened to blockade Berlin. Russia was not invited. The Russians demanded reparations from the western zones. 4. What event prompted Stalin to impose the Blockade? The US Congress approved $17 billion of Marshall Aid. America, Britain and France introduced a new currency into the western zones. America, Britain and France announced that they wanted to create a new country of West Germany. 5. How long did the Berlin Blockade last? 138 days 318 days 813 days 6. How many flights came into Berlin during the Blockade? 275,000 2.75 million 27,500


7. What was the name of the US General who thought that if West Berlin fell, West Germany would be next? General MacArthur General Patton General Clay 8. What was the name of Berlin's main airport? Brandenburg Gate Reichstag Templehof 9. Which of the following was not a result of the Berlin Blockade? The western Allies set up NATO The Communists built a wall between east and west Berlin Germany was divided into FDR and GDR 10. What do the letters NATO stand for? North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Northern Alliance Treaty Organisation North American Treaty organisation

Some views of the airlift – Consider their purpose and reliability. Source E

The crisis was planned in Washington behind a smokescreen of anti-Soviet propaganda... The self-blockade of the Western powers hit the West Berlin population with harshness. The people were freezing and starving. In the Spring of 1949 the USA was forced to yield From a Russian history book.

Source F

We demonstrated to the people of Europe that we would act resolutely, when their freedom was threatened. Politically it brought the people of Western Europe closer to us. President Truman, speaking in 1949.

Source G

Neither side gained anything. The USSR had not gained control of Berlin. The West had no guarantees that land communications would not be cut again. Above all confrontation made both sides even more stubborn. Historian Jack Watson writing in 1984.


On 23 June 1948, the Soviet authorities in Berlin issued the following announcement: 'The Soviet administration is compelled to halt all traffic to and from Berlin tomorrow at 0600 hours because of technical difficulties.' The Berlin Blockade was about to begin. This Revision Bite will help you understand why Berlin was blockaded and what happened as a result of the blockade. The kinds of essay questions you might be asked are: 1) Why was there a blockade of Berlin from 1948 to 1949? 2) Why did the Berlin Blockade fail? 3) In what ways did the Berlin Blockade change relations between the superpowers in the years to 1955? Happening hints: Look at the type of question you are answering. 'Why' means 'give reasons for.' If the question is about how things have changed, then you should include information about before as well as after. This map will show you how the city of Berlin was partitioned in June 1948.


Wise-up USA The USA had published the Truman Doctrine in 1947 and was offering Marshall Aid. This was an economic recovery programme for Western European countries damaged by the war, and also a way of trying to persuade Eastern European countries to give up Communism. Britain In 1947 the British and US zones of Germany were united to form Bizonia. The US and Britain wanted to get Germany back on its feet. Stalin felt threatened by this. France In 1948 the French zone was united with Bizonia and a new currency was introduced in these areas of Germany. This would help the German economy get going again. Berlin Berlin was in the Soviet zone and there were Allied soldiers stationed there. The three Western sectors of Berlin were already receiving Marshall Aid. USSR Stalin wanted to keep Germany under control and was very suspicious of the West. He believed that the West was trying to build a strong Germany that could one day be in a position to attack the USSR again. The new currency would mean that the Western zones would be cut off from the Soviet zone. So Stalin blockaded Berlin in June 1948 in an attempt to drive the Western Allies out of the city. He stopped all traffic between West Germany and West Berlin by closing the road, rail and canal routes. Tyron Berlin was blockaded because Stalin cut off the road and railway links to the city. He did this to drive the Allies out of Berlin because he was afraid that they were building a strong Germany that might be able to invade the USSR again. Sarah Stalin blockaded Berlin because he wanted to force the Allies to leave the city. He disliked the actions that they had been taking to rebuild Germany. For example; the formation of Bizonia in 1947 when the British and Americans had united their zones. The French added their zone too in 1948. Also in 1948 the Allies announced that they were going to introduce a new currency to the West to help improve the economy. This was too much for

Which student do you think wrote the best answer - Tyron or Sarah?


Examiner's view Although Tyron's answer is sound and shows an understanding of the reasons for Stalin's actions, it does not offer a detailed explanation of the events that caused Stalin to act in 1948. Sarah has included more detail in her answer, and by using examples has been able to explain why Stalin took such action. Reference to the events of 1947 and 1948 also helps to explain why the blockade happened when it did. What did the Allies do? They began to fly supplies of food and fuel into the city. They needed 4,000 tons of supplies every day. To provide this, planes flew into West Berlin every 90 seconds. Although planes crashed and pilots were killed, the Allies kept the airlift going. By spring 1949, 8,000 tons of supplies were being flown into Berlin every day. They were beating the blockade. Why did the Allies do this? 'When Berlin falls, Western Germany will be next. If we withdraw our position in Berlin, Europe is threatened...Communism will run rampant.'

This quote from the US commander in Berlin, General Clay, helps explain the Allies' response to the blockade. They were not going to let the Communists take over any more of Europe. (This was putting the Truman Doctrine into practice) Also, the Allies did not believe that the USSR would risk a war by shooting down their planes. Thankfully they were right, and on 12 May 1949 Stalin called off the blockade. It had not worked; the West had not given in and were still in Berlin. What happened next? The Berlin Blockade was to have an important effect on Europe. It helped make the East and West divisions more permanent, and ended any hope of eventually reuniting Germany. The divisions were to last until 1990. NATO was set up in 1949. This was a military alliance comprising 13 countries, including Britain and the USA. If one of the member countries was to be attacked all of the others would immediately protect it. Many East Germans began to escape from the Soviet zone to the other three zones. The Allies created the Federal Republic of Germany, with its capital at Bonn in the Rhineland. This separate country became known as West Germany and was a democracy. September 1949, The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was established with its capital in East Berlin. It had a Communist political system. The Warsaw Pact, a military alliance of Communist countries, was set up in 1955 as an equivalent to NATO. West Germany was allowed to join NATO, increasing Stalin's fears of another possible invasion of the USSR.


Exam Practice HAVE A GO AT THE FOLLOWING; Study Source D and then answer all parts of Question 4 which follow. Source D A Soviet view of the Marshall Plan, written in 1988 by Dimitri Sukhanov Sukhavov had been a senior Soviet politician when the Marshall Plan began in 1947. We saw the Marshall Plan as the Americans wanting to control the countries to which they gave Marshall Aid. We saw it as an act of aggression by the Americans. This is why it was never accepted by the Soviet Union.

(a) In 1946 Winston Churchill claimed that Europe had been divided by an ‘Iron Curtain’. Describe how Europe became divided in the years 1945–1946. 4 marks (b) Source D suggests reasons why the Americans introduced the Marshall Plan. Do you agree that these were the main reasons for the Marshall Plan? Explain your answer by referring to the purpose of the source, as well as using its content and your knowledge. 6 marks (c) Which was more important as a reason for the development of the Cold War in the years 1948 to 1955: • the Berlin Blockade 1948–1949; • the Korean War 1950–1953? You must refer to both reasons


The Korean War lasted from 1950-1953. What happened in Korea pushed the boundaries of the Cold War towards 'Warm War'. Though America and Russia did not officially clash, client states did in that Communist China fought and was armed and encouraged by Russia. The decade after the Second World War saw Communism spread to the Far East, eventually dividing Korea. The Korean War lasted three years and peace was only achieved when the use of the atomic bomb was threatened. The problem in Korea In 1945, Korea was split along the 38th parallel between a communist north led by Kim IL Sung, and a non-communist south led by Syngman Rhee. But communism was growing in the Far East. In 1949, the Communists had taken power in China. The US developed the 'domino theory' - the idea that, if one country fell to communism, others would follow like a row of dominoes. Then, in 1950, a report by the American National Security Council ('NSC68') recommended that the US stop containment and start to roll back communism.          

The War Overview In 1950, after getting the support of Russia and China, Kim IL Sung invaded South Korea. The North Korean People's Army (NKPA) easily defeated the Republic of Korea's army (the ROKs). By September, the NKPA had conquered almost the whole of South Korea. The USA went to the United Nations and got them to send troops to defend South Korea. The Russians couldn't veto the idea because they were boycotting the UN at the time. In September, UN troops, led by the US General MacArthur, landed in Korea and drove the NKPA back. By October, the UN forces had almost conquered all of North Korea. In November 1950, Chinese People's Volunteers attacked and drove the Americans back. They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea. The Americans landed more troops and drove the Chinese back to the 38th parallel, where Truman ordered General MacArthur to stop and sacked him when he disagreed. The war went on as border clashes until 1953 when America's new president, Eisenhower, offered peace, but threatened to use the atomic bomb if China did not accept the offer.


Source analysis Source A "Of the 16 countries contributing forces, the USA provided 50 per cent of land forces, 93 per cent of air forces, 86 per cent of naval forces. The UN gave the USA unlimited authority to direct military operations. US president Truman, not the UN, appointed General MacArthur as commander-in-chief of UN forces. MacArthur reported to the US President and took orders from him. The war threatened to become one between the USA and China. The USA even considered using nuclear weapons against China." James Mason with Angela Leonard, Modern World History to GCSE (2001) Source B This drawing by the British cartoonist David Low, published in the Daily Herald on 30 June 1950, shows Truman and the United Nations rushing to Korea's aid.

TASK) Use your knowledge of the facts to decide whether Sources A and B agree or disagree about America's involvement in the Korean War? Answer preparation As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Why the Korean War broke out in 1950. Why America chose to defend South Korea. Why America went through the United Nations to defend South Korea. What happened in the Korean War. Whether the Korean War was a success for the USA


Results of Korean War – Gains (G) and Losses (L)

Korea (G) None (L) Casualties : dead and wounded : 1.3 million South Korean military; 520,000 North Korean military; Over 3 million civilian casualties. Much industry destroyed, agriculture ruined, millions of refugees

UN (G) Gained respect by taking prompt and direct action. Used combined force to stop aggression. Achieved joint action by members. (L) 17,000 casualties; conduct of war almost entirely by USA and UN could have been seen as a USA puppet.

USA (G) Saved South Korea from communism. Containment policy seen to work against Asian communism (L) 142,000 casualties. Defence spending went up from 12 to 60 billion dollars and failed to liberate North Korea.

Russia (G) Achieved closer friendship with China. Conflict between China and USA was to Russia’s advantage. (L) Forced into an expensive arms race with America.

China (G) Gained the respect of Asian communism. Saved North Korea from America. Kept a crucial buffer state on the eastern frontier. Achieved closer friendship with Russia (L) 900,000 casualties. Cost of the war was immense for a poor country. Failed to win South Korea for communism. Increased American protection for Taiwan (Formosa). Isolated by America in trade and politics.


Test Bite 1. Who was the ruler of communist North Korea? King Il Sung Kim IL Sung Kim II Sung 2. Who was the ruler of democratic South Korea? Singman Rhee Syngman Reah Syngman Rhee 3. What was the name of the theory that stated, if Korea fell to communism, other countries in the Far East would follow? Domino Theory Containment Rolling back 4. Which report recommended more vigorous opposition to communism in the Far East? MacArthur NSC68 Truman Doctrine 5. What do the letters NKPA stand for? North Korean Popular Army North Korean Political Alliance North Korean People's Army 6. How did the war go in its early months - June to September 1950? The NKPA conquered almost all the country. The ROKs conquered almost all the country. The Chinese "People's Volunteers" advanced into Korea. 7. Why didn't the Russians veto the US motion in the United Nations to defend South Korea? They were boycotting the UN. They agreed with the Americans. They did not have the power of veto.


8. MacArthur landed in South Korea and drove the North Koreans back to the Chinese border. When did the Chinese "People's Volunteers" attack and drive the Americans back? September 1950 November 1950 February 1951 9. What proportion of the UN forces were American? 30% of the land forces, 93% of air forces and 86% of naval forces 50% of the land forces, 93% of air forces and 86% of naval forces 90% of the land forces, 93% of air forces and 86% of naval forces 10. How did Eisenhower force the Chinese to accept peace? MacArthur invaded North Korea. 390,000 Chinese soldiers were killed. He threatened to use the atomic bomb.

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