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Source B : a Cartoon from Punch - March 1938 2. Explain the significance of the cartoon (Source B) in the context of events at the time. 5 In reaching a conclusion, you should refer to: •the origin and possible purpose of the source

•the content of the source and •recalled knowledge

Caption – Mussolini-

GOOD HUNTING "All right, Adolf- I never heard a shot"


Step 1 -Immediate context •Source refers to the Anschluss i.e. the annexation of Austria by Germany Feb/March 1938

Source B - a cartoon from Punch March 1938

•Strictly forbidden under Versailles this action should have brought resistance from Britain/Prance as guarantor powers of the treaty •As it turned out, they accepted the act despite criticism that this only encouraged Hitler and indeed strengthened his position in that he now out-flanked the Czech state


Step 1 -Immediate context •Austrian freedom was sacrificed to maintain peace •For reasons which are now in debate, Britain condemned but did not resist the annexation

Source B - a cartoon from Punch March 1938

•The popular view was that the Nazis had saved Austria from a Communist plot •Popular view in UK was that the Austrians welcomed the event and that it was not worth a war over principle of Versailles


Step 2 - Big picture •The source offers a critical view of Hitler's actions and makes the impression that Hitler has got away with an illegal act.

Source B - a cartoon from

Punch March 1938

•It very much opposes British Government opinion at the time


Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point Point one from source

Recall evaluating point from source

Figure of Hitler as a poacher

Reflects minority view that Hitler had 'poached' Austria. Most people in UK saw the German/Austrian union as a practical solution for both states


Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point Point two from source

Recall evaluating point from source

Strictly Preserved

Reflects Versailles terms which had forbidden the ‘union’. Yet the view in UK was that this term was outdated.


Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point Point three from source

Austrian Integrity

Recall evaluating point from source

Reflects apparent loss of freedoms of Austrian people under the proposed Anschluss. A minority view at the time. The Austrian goat/deer representing the nation 'poached' or controlled by Hitler was believed by some to have been 'shot' by Hitler - a metaphor for the type of Government the Nazis represented


Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point Point four from source Mussolini

Recall evaluating point from source This is a key point. The gamekeeper figure as he is represented is shown encouraging and accepting Hitler's actions and, as he says, ‘I never heard a shot’. This is in contrast to 1934 during the failed Anschluss when Mussolini threatened to put 10,000 troops into the Brenner Pass to prevent the threat of Nazis expansion. However by 1938, it was, as the source suggests, Mussolini’s key role which allowed Hitler to complete the Anschluss. By 1938, events over Abyssinia, the collapse of the Stresa Front and the Spanish Civil War had undermined the Italian position.


Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point Point five from source

Recall evaluating point from source

Caption: ‘I never heard a shot’

There was no shooting! The Germans appeared to have been welcomed (flags, crowds) -so much so that Hitler decided to absorb Austria into Germany rather than put in a puppet Government.


Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point Point six from source

Recall evaluating point from source

‘Good Hunting’

Ironic, sarcastic view of the event.


Step 4 - Link back to the question Explain the significance of the cartoon (Source B) in the context of events at the time.

Source B highlights a critical view of the Anschluss and warns about German actions.


Step 5 -Additional recall •At the time however, the majority view was to accept Hitler's actions. Few people knew the actual details of the events leading up to the Anschluss i.e. the actions of Schuschnigg; the bullying by Hitler at Berchtesgaden and the plebiscite and then forced playing of Hitler's hand (Communist plot etc.) •Most people accepted the view that the Austrian people wanted the union and accepted it. In letters to newspapers, George Bernard Shaw and Lord Lothian spoke out in favour of a common sense view of the matter.

•While Chamberlain did not 'like' the way the Anschluss had been carried out, he nevertheless had no intention of using force to stop it. The risks/gains were weighed out and the balance was to accept it and move on. It was another of the wrongs of Versailles resolved.


Step 6 – Conclusion In conclusion, the source offers a critical view of the Anschluss -one which was not reflected at the time.


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