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HISTORY II Name: ______________________________________________________________ Date: ______________________________________________________________ Grade:____________________________Group:_____________________________

Chapter 5 Lesson 1 IMPERIALISM AND MODERNIZATION (1800-1914) BRITISH RULE IN INDIA The Industrial Revolution speeded up the economic development of Europe and the United States. It also established the way industrial nations viewed their colonies. They began to see the colonies as markets for goods as well as sources of raw materials. The result was a new stage of imperialism. This activity took place in Africa, Asia and Latin America. For the first time, the United States began looking overseas for areas to colonize. At the same time, the U.S. wanted to keep Europeans out of the Americas. U.S. presidents in the late 1800s reminded European of the Monroe Doctrine. This document was written in 1823 by President James Monroe. It declared the Western Hemisphere closed to further colonization by European nations. In reality, the U.S. used the Monroe Doctrine to control the Americas. CAUSES OF THE NEW IMPERIALISM The major reason for European interest in imperialism was economic. The factories and mills of the Industrial Revolution required vast amounts of raw materials, like cotton. Regions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America had raw materials in abundance. Once goods, such as cloth, were produced, European and U.S. business owners needed markets-people to whom they could sell their goods to their home countries. However, Africa, Asia and Latin America represented huge new markets. Setting up colonies ensured that the flow of raw materials to the home country continued. It also ensured that the home country controlled the sale of goods in the colonies. In addition to economic reasons, a spirit of nationalism motivated imperialists. European nations were still competing with one another for power and wealth. This competition started the beginning of the global age. Setting up colonies was one way to show how one nation was more powerful and wealthy than another. The United States began to build an overseas empire for this reason. Humanitarian reasons also moved some people to support imperialism. Humanitarians often thought that native people should be more like Europeans. Sometimes, humanitarians were helpful, like when medicine and education were provided. However, they often caused more harm than good. The main force behind humanitarianism was Social Darwinism. Social Darwinists believed that Western civilization-European and

HISTORY II Name: ______________________________________________________________ Date: ______________________________________________________________ Grade:____________________________Group:_____________________________

U.S.-was far superior to all other civilizations. As a result, they believed that whites had a responsibility to convert and educate native peoples. They thought that helping colonized people was the “white man’s burden”. This belief in Western superiority is a type of racism- the belief that one race is superior to another. THE EAST INDIA COMPANY AND THE SEPOY REBELLION European nations first competed for colonies in India. In the1600s, the British East India Company began trading in India and elsewhere in Asia. France also established trading posts in India. War broke out between the two nations in India in the1750s. The British, under the command of Robert Clive, were victorious. The French were limited to a few small areas in southeastern India. Clive was the head of the East India Company in India. His job was to increase the Company’s wealth. To gain more trading rights, he fought the Indians as well as the French. In 1757, Clive’s forces defeated a Mogul army at the Battle of Plassey. The East India Company slowly extended its rule across the Indian subcontinent. By the 1850s, more than 60percent of India was under the control of the East India Company. The Company did make life better in some ways, for some Indians. It set up schools, improved roads, and built railroads. It also kept peace between rival local leaders. At the same time, the Company grew more and more powerful and wealthy. Many of the officials of the Company, as well as other British merchants who went to India, made fortunes from Indian resources and labor. The Company has its own army and forts to protect its property and British citizens. It also hired Indian soldiers known as sepoys. In 1857, the Company gave these soldiers rifles. To load them, the soldiers had to bite off the end of the power cartridges with their teeth. The cartridges were greased with fat either from cows, which were sacred to Hindus, or pigs, which Muslims were forbidden to eat. When the sepoys refused to put the cartridges in their mouths, they were sent home without pay. They rebelled against this unfair treatment. British men, women, and children were slaughtered. It took a year for the British to regain control of the rebellious regions. The British, in turn, burned villages and slaughtered Indians. The British Parliament acted quickly. It ended the East India Company’s control of India. Beginning in 1858,India was ruled directly by Parliament. It sent more British troops to India.

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BRITISH RULE Parliament appointed a viceroy to govern India. A civil service was set up with British officials in top positions. British officers also commanded the army. However, lower government posts were filled by Indians. Most soldiers were also Indians. Upper class Indian families sent their sons to Great Britain for their education. The effect of British rule on India was disastrous for most Indians. First, British manufacturers sent British-made cloth to India for sale. This destroyed the Indian textile industry because the imported cloth was cheaper. Second, the British collected taxes from Indians to keep the British army in India.

This bankrupted some Indian farmers. Third, the British need for cotton moved many Indian farmers to grow cotton instead of food. As a result, famines in the late 1800s caused millions of deaths among Indian’s poor. THE INDIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT By the late 1800s, a small group of upper-class Indians was working to end imperial rule. They had learned about such Western ideas as democracy and freedom in their British schools. In 1885, they set up the Indian National Congress, or Congress Party. They expected a gradual end to British rule. They agreed with British ideas about modernizing - or Westernizing- the Indian economy and society. They also wanted a greater say in governing. In 1906,Muslim nationalists broke away from the Congress Party. They set up their own All-India Muslim League. They were already talking about a separate Muslim nation once the British left.


Imperialism and modernization