Page 1

AQUATECTONICS CONNECTING WATER AND DWELLING IN INFORMAL DHAKA

:RESEARCH

“I live my life in widening circles That reach out across the world.”

- Rainer Maria Rilke, Rilke's Book of Hours: Love Poems to God 1|p.rand


p.rand|2


AQUATECTONICS

CONNECTING WATER AND DWELLING IN INFORMAL DHAKA Paula Rand Advisor : Ted Ngai Graduation : 2012 City of Inquiry: Dhaka, Bangladesh

“The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains, Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys, Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap, And seeing that it was a soft October night Curled once about the house, and fell asleep“ -The Love-Song of J.Alfred Prufrock, T.S Elliot

3|p.rand


p.rand|4


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION -

ANALYSIS -

CASE STUDIES -

Studio Mission Thesis Statement Theoretical Context

8-9 10-11 12-19

Geographical Context History of Becoming Contemporary Condition Flooding and River Erosion Land Use Water and Waste Infrastructure Informal Dwelling

22-23 24-25 26-29 30-37 38-47 48-53 54-57 60-71

“The soft rush of taxis by him, and laughter, laughter hoarse as a crow’s, incessant and loud, with the rumble of the subways underneath—and over all, the revolutions of light, the growings and recedings of light—light dividing like pearls—forming and reforming in glittering bars and circles and monstrous grotesque figures cut amazingly on the sky.” -The Beautiful and the Damned, F. Scott Fitzgerald 5|p.rand Fig. 3: people in monsoon floods


INTRODUCTION


STUDIO MISSION

Performative Architecture & Metabolic Urbanism

p.rand|8


According to the United Nations, more than half of the world’s population now resides in urban areas. WIth an estimation of 50 cities around the world growing at a staggering rate of more than 100,000 people per year, urbanization is now described by UN officials as “unstoppable”. Many of these megacities are growing with such a rapid rate they are expected to merge into “megaregions” or the so called “endless city” within the next few decades, with Hong Kong – Shenzhen – Guangzhou, China, leading the way with about 120 million people, 4 times the size of the Tokyo metropolitan, the largest city in the world today. One of the most alarming factors of such rapid growth in these mega-regions, such as the West African economic belt – Nigeria, benin, Togo and Ghana, and the Northwest corridor of India – Mumbai to Delhi, is the lack of urban infrastructure that facilitates and manages the city’s metabolism – the material and energetic flows. Growth at such a rapid rate can have dire consequences to both its inhabitants and its environments. One such scenario presented itself in 2003 as SARS, a near pandemic incident killing 1000 people and shutting down more than 5 major cities around the world. The virus, originating from bats, crossed the xenographic barrier due to the collapse in proximity between densely populated environment and wildlife as a consequence of intense urban development. Cities undergoing rapid growth destabilizes the intricate Climatic / Geographic / Ecologic balance. To identify and understand these relationships, our studio investigation began with students choosing 12 of the 50 fastest growing cities in the world (by more than 100,000 per year) and studying how these cities metabolize this sudden influx of immigrants, and how their surrounding landscapes respond to these newly engineered environments. Assessment of each city followed an expanded version of Abel Wolman’s 1965 formulation of urban metabolism – “all the materials and commodities needed to sustain a city’s inhabitants at home, at work, and at play”. Each student began their research and analysis with the city’s food security, fresh and waste water management, pollution, and energy production / consumption issues. These metabolic factors are basic living resources and are fundamental to all built environments. The goal was to develop an understanding of how metabolic systems relate to the city’s unique context, and they can be used to shape our future cities. As we developed the comparative studies and began juxtaposing the ad-hoc / on demand water delivery networks in favelas in Rio de Janeiro, the mega water infrastructure on and beneath the streets of Tokyo, and the ancient underground lake and fresh water delivery system in Mexico City , it became clear that metabolic mechanisms are trans-scalar, crossing the regional, local, and architectural boundaries. We also find in many other cities, architecture often plays an important role in shaping

the city’s metabolism, thus it quickly became our goal to use this unique property of metabolic systems to inflict urban and ecological change through the development of architectural systems. 12 students will present their design proposals for 12 mega-cities around the world. The design proposals should not be considered as finished projects, but rather, they are performative frameworks devised at an architectural scale that would address our cities’ future at urban, sociopolitical, and ecological scales. -

Ted Ngai

*This project was a Peck Prize Selection 9|p.rand


AQUATECTONICS Thesis Statement

Water is not a basic human right; water is a naturally occurring necessity, flowing through our earth connecting living and non-living things. But, at this moment in our history, 75% of the world lives in the dense deltaic regions on coasts and floodplains (Fig. 5). Deltaic regions are especially threatened by rising ocean levels from a global warming. Bangladesh is positioned in one of the most fertile deltaic plains at the confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan rivers and their tributaries. With great fertility and a tropical monsoon climate comes extreme natural weather. Up to 70% of Bangladesh’s flat plain may be under water during the annual monsoon season. Natural and manmade adversity affects the region, through water borne arsenic contamination and waste pollution, and annual monsoons, tropical cyclones and tidal bores. The capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka, has swelled to a mega city status of 15 million by 2011. This astounding growth is taking place through migration from the countries eroding and saline agricultural lands. The migrating and poor people’s informal settlements have progressively overflowed into the rivers which bind Dhaka on four sides. The industrial and commercial sectors also use the rivers as overflow for waste. This has caused the rivers to become contaminated with waste from the industrial, commercial, medical, and domestic sectors. Surrounded by India on the majority of its inland boundaries, this big brother controls access to Bangladesh’s major water ways. India began damming the rivers on the two countries boarders soon after Bangladesh’s liberation from Pakistan in 1971. The result of this (and considerable other) damming in conjunction with the reversal of water flows during monsoon season has been devastating. The small country experiences heightened drought when India restricts water during the dry season. The larger country also releases large amounts of water from the bordering dams during the rainy season, compounding the natural floods effect, killing large numbers of Bangladeshi’s with no warning and destroying communities. The largest problem has been human displacement from extensive land erosion and flooding. Over four million Bangladeshi people, and counting, have lost their land and means of income. The artificial control of water has added to existing problems

p.rand|10

and resulted in both environmental and societal destruction in Bangladesh. The resulting informal settlements in Dhaka for those displaced by soil erosion, floods and drought are transitory. The dwellings are created of found and often temporary materials, with people living in tension with the ebb and flow of flooding and seasons. What my research proposes is that there is a holistic and basic connection between the flow of water and dwelling. Through focusing on water flow, urban informal dwelling and materials, a transient form of dwelling is examined. As physical and ephemeral beings, people dwell in relationship to context, connected by their memories which are associated to physical materials and landscapes. As memories become layered over time, they become part of a cultural memory. This larger cultural memory is part of developed social patterns. Water is the basic element of life, both a giver of life and a taker of life. So as people become more transient through displacement or a search for a better life, memories become more associated with the temporal than the permanent landscape. Water then becomes the material of dwelling. The thesis aims to deal with the complex problems of water contamination, flooding, water collection and a large displaced population in the dense urban fabric of Dhaka. In order deal with these complexities, the research and project seeks to reconcile the micro and macro connections between elements in changing water flow and dwelling, and the blending of infrastructural, architectural and biological solutions. The project aims to empower those impacted to help create solutions. These solutions and connections would be gained by using local and found materials to remediate and create structures, a human reef. The slow additive creation of remediation and change by those who dwell in the affected areas creates an embedded memory in both physical material and in the culture of site. The change over time is accumulated by those who build and dwell, as well as by the water which flows continually from the sky and water bodies.


Fig. 5: 75% of the worlds population lives on deltaic plains

“The corrosive effects of time redefine everything against our will” - Roul Perdomo

GLACIATED AREAS INLAND WATER BODIES WATERBASINS REEFS BANGLADESH WATERBASIN, THE GBM

11|p.rand


WATER FLOW AND THE DWELT ENVIRONMENT Theoretical Framework

Fig. 6: Dhaka City children playing with water in slum neighborhood

What is it to dwell? To dwell in a favorite alcove, a home, the city or any place is not the act of possessing a house; it is to BE in relationship to a context, material and community (Fig. 6). By dwelling, a connection is developed to place. An understanding of the physical world is developed through long term and complex memories. The connection to place comes from every facet of our lives; interactions with friends, family and the corner shop owner. We develop ritualistic paths of the day to day, and each enclave, park and shop that we chose to visit as well as social ideals, customs and entertainment of a given place become part of who we are and the dwelt environment. These are not discreet factors; an architecture (a single building, a small town or mega city) is directly influenced by the way in which people may dwell in a place. This day to day habitation of place results in both a material construction as well as overall form. Both the micro and macro physical construction influence the manner in which people live their lives. So people dwell, live, in relation to both their physical location and contextual memories. This memory is both of the self, the family, and the community. This collective memory is layers of tradition and daily patterns associated with geographical regions, informed by the social, and a multiplicity of landscapes and weather patterns of time. People are connected by the memories associated with physical materials and locations, which become cultural, as patterns develop.

p.rand|12

Humanity, biologically and socially, did not develop as many separate cultures. Humans have at times dwelt in isolated communities. Communities have also formed interactive relationships with one another. Communal relationships have been both territorial and mercantile. In this duality of being, humans have developed as another animal from the landscape. Homosapiens have developed a set of mechanisms to deal with the challenges of day to day living over a long history. Social mechanisms of speech and storytelling, and live preserving mechanisms like tool making and farming. The mechanisms have not ceased to develop with this moment and time; we are just at an instant of evolution. So the human relationship with landscape has transformed during history. But through these developments, Humans have become cultural creatures, not simply reactionary or instinctual. Technologies and interventions beyond other animals have set humans. Humans have distinguished themselves apart as both parasites and caretakers; unique in transforming the earth. When the human was primarily a hunter-gather, there was a balanced give and take with the natural world. While scavenging for food and hunting for game, the human was an active participant in natural cycles; part of a system of checks and balances for the allotment of the world’s finite natural resources. However, for nomadic people there is overall insecurity. Unsettled people (whether today or long ago) do not have year-round access to food.


Movement provides freedom and adaptability, but it does are put into the earth, other animals suffer and plants are not necessarily provide protection and shelter from un- killed, but humans also get sick and lead a less happy life as a result of careless behavior. Humans have put themselves in predictable elements and predators. position of caretaker. By taking ownership of the land and For a society of transience, lightness is a priority. The animals and resources, humans have unwarranted control priority is in allowing for following herd animals and the over the earth we inhabit. This control is un-fettered by freedom to leave when the land has no more food to collect. responsibility for the consequences. Humans have created This means few possessions and light shelters. Inherent a world of comfort which has a negative impact. in the nomadic clan is few roots; no permanent place of residence or townships form in this social structure. The In order to develop land for farming and housing, land bond is between the clan and the paths they travel, not a ownership was introduced. Complex governments have permanent location. Artificial intervention into the natural evolved to oversee development and settle disputes. These landscape began with the more permanent settlements. governments created boundaries between one another; Permanent settlements are possible where domesticated Growing in size and domain. A government, a family, or an animals and cultivated seed allowed for farming. In the individual owns land. The earth becomes property, as easy settlement construction is rooted to the ground to give to buy and sell as clothing, food or pottery (etc...) Providing shelter and protection. Being able to control a means of people with their own piece of the earth to grow and build sustenance gives the farmer and society more time for other on, allows for ideas of ownership to extend to the intangible. pursuits. Academic, artistic and social pursuits beyond When people own the earth, they may own the water and basic necessities become a way to express, understand air and even genes. These life giving necessities have always and expand the world. People may work as craftsmen or been free to those who need and become transformed to provide services, and a whole host of professions and crafts. proprietary necessities, over which (human) territory is A culture of give and take is between people, where food enforced. and items are bartered for each other or money. This culture forms a loop of production and distribution of goods and Governments “we the people” have given power to, fight services between people. This becomes sustainable in small over the earth’s natural materials. Created borders of state clusters and nodes, where enough people farm to support change over generations. Wars are fought to control trade routes and natural resources. Technologies are developed those who do not. and societal ideals become malleable, even the world’s The settled society is one of give and take between people religions and languages shift and become indistinguishable. of production. Rather than people working within natural As people migrate from place to place they spread ideas constraints, they create artificial boundaries. Roads scar through trade and conquest, what doesn’t change are the and tear at landscapes, as people move between synthetic basic necessities of life. Humans cannot survive without borders. Created borders become means to establish water and food and protection from extreme elements. territories of control over natural resources and the means We dwell in tandem with seasons and access to necessities. of production and people. Farms must limit themselves to Countries borders cannot necessarily change where rivers the nutrients of the soil it is grown in; allowing for natural flow or where rains fall. When other animals migrate, they replenishment in fallow seasons or artificial restoration in do not distinguish between countries or districts. So when the use of chemical fertilizers. By tending the earth, people a government decides to control the world’s resources, it become care takers. Tenders of the fellow animals who is not only the material which is taken for monetary gain. help us grow crops. Custodians of lives we benefit from; Habitats are destroyed. People are displaced. The earth’s the animals that we eat and get milk from, the cows, sheep, weather patterns are disrupted and changed. The actions pigs and chickens. To tend connects us to the earth we dwell of humans are contextual. What we do affects and changes on. There was an age of the agrarian where our populous the world around us. This can be positive and negative simply farmed. Now many humans inhabit cities, and leave changes. Importantly, contextual actions do not always the growing to the few, to the machines. By cutting our have immediate consequences or clearly black or white populous off from our food and means of production, can implications. we dwell? Must we simply be aware of the long term affects of our actions as a society, and as a species? The artificial The food and shelter of humans may vary around the world. interventions humanity now implements have more The way we build and the permanence of our surroundings harmful ramifications than to the food we grow and animals may be heterogeneous between cultures. But water is the we breed. Ultimately we get what we give, and negativity necessity of life on earth. Water is the earth’s naturally breeds a bad environment, for humans as much as it does occurring necessity. The majority of our weather and for others; plant, mineral or otherwise. When pollutants fertility come from water. Water both gives and takes life. It

“Only if we are capable of dwelling, only then can we build” -Martin Heidegger, Building, Dwelling Thinking; 1950

13|p.rand


WATER FLOW AND THE DWELT ENVIRONMENT Theoretical Framework

SIRENS

VENUS/ APHRODITE

GANGA

Bangladeshi/ Indian River Goddess

MALEVOLENT

MAAL:

Bangladeshi River Mermaids

PETER PAN:

The mermaids of the lagoon

HAPI

Egyptian River Goddess

MOSES

Life on the River Nile

BENEVOLENT

NOAS ARK

THE LITTLE MERMAID:

ARIEL

hans christian anderson

Fig. 7: water is understood as a benevolent and malevolent force in the peoples lives and is represented in culture that way

is the basic element of the human body. It provides fertility for growing crops and without it the ecosystems we rely on would fall apart. The animals that we eat need water to live. The rivers and oceans we use for transport and play would not be there if it were not for the life giving element. These large bodies of water regulate the earth, its temperatures and patterns.

cultural indicators of perception and ideals. Most of the world’s oldest societies have mythologies and stories of the ‘great flood’. Because such similar stories appear around a similar time in human history there have been many hypotheses about a real flooding event which triggered these stories.

Water is a malevolent and benevolent force which permeates the pores of our earth, sky and beings. We be with water. We dwell with waters force and gifts. Every culture however disparate has stories, songs and depictions devoted to both the sides of water. The earth is connected by water. Humans are connected by a dwelt culture. Stories, deities and even rituals have been shared between regions by traders and through the warring of nations (Fig. 7). It is through trade and conquest by which ideas travel. It is water which is our common dwelt material. The nomad, the farmer and the city dweller are all equally though differently affected and deeply rooted in water. They share stories, but see them differently. The sailor, the sheep herder and the computer technician all need water to survive and see dangers in its arrival in their dwelt environment. It is when and how the material affects you that shapes’ your world view, not only the material property.

The flood myth’s or deluge myth’s are largely symbolic narrative’s of a great flood. The flood is usually sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization. The act of flooding becomes an act of retribution or cleansing. It is a theme found in many cultures worldwide. These stories come from each corner of the world including Europe, the near east, Asia, Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Americas. The most well known example is probably the Judeo-Christian account of Noah’s Ark Found in the Bible and Quaran books. There are also well known foundation myths of the Quiche and Maya’s, through Deuclation in Greek mythology, the story of Utnapishtim in the Epic of Galgamesh and the Hindu puranic story of Manu. Similarities are found between these flood myths and primeval waters in many creation myths; parallels are draw to the flood waters which cleanse humanity in preparation for rebirth. In many of these mythologies there is a hero to bring humanity to rebirth.

Who we are as living, conscious creatures is ultimately defined by the experiences we have, and these shape our perceptions of others; people, elements and animals. This understanding of the world is reflected in cultural values found in stories, deities and songs. These can be considered

In the case of Jodeo-Christian beliefs the hero is Noah with his family, his wife, sons and their wife’s. In this case the flood is a punishment for man’s sins before the flood. Living at ease before the flood, a single harvest proves food for forty years, children are born after only few days rather than nine

p.rand|14


months of gestation, and people commanded the sun and moon. Here the indolence leads men astray to wantonness and rapacity. First God determined to eliminate the sinners compels Noah through mercy to walk the earth to urge his fellow man to repent, which is done for 120 years, then another warning and god reversed the sun for a week. The other beings only mock Noah for building the ark, which he could build from the knowledge found in a book given to Adam by the angel Raziel, which contained all knowledge. So Noah and his family fit as many animal pairs into the ark (Fig. 8). Then the floods rage for a year and 10 days. The floods rage from the male waters from the sky meeting the female waters from the ground. After this time and Noah had released first the raven, then two doves to find land, one dove that brings back an olive branch from the untouched holy land. This is a common flood mythology. It primarily uses the destruction cause by the waters to promote a understanding of cultural values. These would mostly be the all-encompassing power of ‘God’ as well as the need for people to be virtuous and true. The story also animated and try’s to explain the presence of the falsehood and misfortune which take refuge on the ark. As well it speaks of the waters of the sky and ground and male and female and the flood being their child. As well as a creation myth it implants idea of the ‘good’ qualities that people of a culture should have, an explanation of the natural elements as well as the qualities of animals. This animal reference would be the raven which is ‘untrue’ and gets off track by finding a carcass. As well it is a becoming of the dove and olive branch as a symbol of peace or ‘Gods’ covenant with humanity to not have another great flood. So the myth is retribution through water, water as a cleanser of the earth of sin. The premise is similar to most of the other flood myths. The Egyptian version also begins with people being rebellions, presumably in sin. Atum (Fig. 9) was considered very important through the Egyptian dynasties and in Heliopolitan creation myths Atum was the first god who created himself from the primordial waters. So Atum declared that he would destroy everything he created and return earth to the Primordial Waters, the original state. Then Atum and Osiris will remain in the form of a serpent. The Nile River, its delta and floodplain were key to Egyptian survival. The Egyptians prayed every season for the flood waters which make their crops fertile. So this flood myth is one which explains the gift of the gods which is the Nile rather than necessarily retribution. The Santal (Bengal) mythologies talk of the natural phenomena of rain as a means of retribution. In this mythology there is also a first man and woman, Pilchu Haram and Pilchu Budhi, and when they reached adolescence a fire-rain fell for seven days. They found refuge

Fig. 8: The Entry of the Animals into Noah’s Ark by Jan Breughel the Elder (1613)

Fig. 9: Atum, the Egyptian god who created himself from the primordial waters

in a cave until the flood was over. Jaher-era, the Sentals supreme goddess, as where they had been to which they told her they were under a rock. Later tribes were differentiated by social distinction, two members of the Marndis were incensed by the slight of not being given distinction. At this they prayed for the fire-rain which fell and devastated the country. What they did was learned of and they were told if they did not act so they would receive and office. So the fire rain was stopped and the Marndi were appointed stewards over the property of nobility and all rice. These versions of the myth are a manner to explain the monsoon floods which occur annually in India and Bengal as well to give a reason for some social hierarchy. In these ways the fire-rains or monsoon rains which may have become particularly heavy at times are given social and mythological reasons for being more intense and destroying crops. The reference to rice as equal to kings and nobles is culturally and landscape oriented. Because rice was and is one of the most important crops, making up the largest percentage of Asian diets, rice would be a profitable and important crop to control. These myths while all springing from a similar source are

“People remain what they are even if they’re faces fall apart” -Bertolt Brecht

15|p.rand


WATER FLOW AND THE DWELT ENVIRONMENT Theoretical Framework

differentiated by the cultures and locations experience overall with water. In Egypt where is it largely desert, the loss of floods and rains would means fewer crops and less to sustain the population. Floods rarely negatively impact the people living on the plains of the Nile so it’s floods was see mostly as the life-giver. The case of Bengali mythology comes mostly from the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghana river basin, or India and Bangladesh. Here water is an extreme force, and culture is mostly set in a rigorous caste system. The rains and rivers are necessary and the reason for the flood plains abundant fertility. However the monsoon rains, tropical cyclones and tidal bores which populate the region makes water a destructive force as well. The myth of Noah and the ark focuses on the all encompassing nature of water, and the sin it cleanses. The focus is routed in the monotheistic religion which looks to the one god as a source of power and retribution.

“facing the Kraken” is applied as a linguistic analogy to war or tough troubles to be battled. P At the present both the Leviathan and the Kraken are mythological representations of fear and hardship. In the novel “Moby Dick” by Herman Melville the great white sperm whale searched for by Captain Ahab. The great white whale is used by Melville to explore

The stories of water creatures are good way to understand a culture where weather events have impacted an understanding of water beyond the larger events. These creatures and mythologies range from warning children away from day to day dangers, explaining natural disasters and more value based messages. These word of mouth, and later in human history written stories, is a way to transmit the micro and macro explanation and messages to each generation. Each area of the mythology and culture found there has its own stories and creatures. The mythologies and creatures depict the duality of waters effect on human life. The Grindylows are water demons first mentioned in British folktales originating in Yorkshire. These were creatures who were supposed to have long fingers and dragged children into the deep waters. The stories of Grindylows were told by parents to warn children from getting into the cold water found around Britian. There is a similar monkeylike creatures which is a water spirit in Japanese mythology called Kappas. Similarly to the British Grindylows, the Kappas lure children to the water, pull them under and feed on their blood. The Kraken is the legendary sea monster mentioned in many pirate myths. They were thought of as a giant squid which lived in the deep ocean, making appearances to attack ships. The Kraken in many stories represents the undersea volcanic activity found in the Scandinavian region, like bubbles and currents (Fig. 10) . The Kraken resembles the Leviathan mentioned in biblical mythology. The Leviathan was supposed to be a sea monster originating in ancient Canaan which was associated with Satan. Rather than a squid, it was supposed to be a twining sea serpent. The sea -serpent representation was a symbol for chaos, the creature is also depicted as a whale daemon with seven heads believed to be king of lies or fish. Today the Kraken or

p.rand|16

Fig. 10: the kraken artists rendering

Fig. 11: Pollock, Jackson c. 1943 interpretation of moby dick


the complex themes of good and evil, social status, and the existence of god. The whale Moby Dick is a projection of Ahab’s obsession and the projection of human instincts and motivations, particularly malignant and evil intentions when attacking the sailors. The whale can be considered a cultural transformation (first published in 1851) of the biblical Leviathan and mythological Kraken . Moby Dick becomes a representation of human foibles and trials and the story as a whole is reflective of human experience at the time and has been projected into the western cannon (Fig. 11). Variations of mermaids (and mermen) represent the duality found in the humans experience of water (Fig. 11). The old Bangladeshi myth of the Maal tells of river ghosts, spirits, formed much like a mermaid who drags people down into the rivers depths. The sirens found in Greek mythology were sea nymphs who lived on the island Sirenum scopuli. The sirens were the daughters of Ceto the sea monster and Phorcys a sea god. The sirens drew sailors to crash into rocks by their singing. The sirens appear in many Greek myths and playing a role in the epics “The Odyssey” and “The Iliad” by Homer. A variation on mermen and the sires are the Scottish Blue men of the Minch. The blue men appear as humans with blue skins and were infamous for swimming along ships and attempting to wreck them by conjuring storms and luring sailors into the water. These creatures had a social hierarchy with a chieftain. This structure and the human likeness is similar to the mermen. Merpeople in mythology were water creatures with the upper-body of a human with a fishtail rather than legs. The merpeople we supposed to have great beauty and charm and so lure sailor men to their death. The story of the merpeople were greatly expanded upon in “The Little Mermaid” by the Danish poet and author Hans Christian Anderson (1837). Anderson greatly expands the mythology and explains an underwater kingdom inhabited by the merpeople (Fig. 13) . The little mermaid lives in this kingdom ruled by her father the sea king, grandmother and five elder sisters. When the mermaids turn 15 they may venture to the surface, the little mermaid longingly listens to her sisters descriptions of land and humans as she waits her turn. When she journeys to the surface she rescues the prince from drowning during a storm. Asking her grandmother what happens to humans if they do not drown she explains that the human lifespan is much shorter than merpeople’s 300 years, but humans have souls and go to the “kingdom in the sky” where as merpeople turn to the foam of the sea when they pass away. Because she has fallen in love with the price and wishes for an eternal soul, the little mermaid turns to the sea witch and trades her voice for humanity. However sea witch warns once she becomes human she will not be able to return to the sea, and will obtain her soul only with a kiss from her true love. Upon drinking the potion the Little Mermaid

Fig. 12: mermaid interpretation in the lagoon of never never land in “Peter Pan”

Fig. 13: Pollock, Jackson c. 1943 interpretation of moby dick

meets the prince who loves her beauty and her dancing despite her being mute. However the price only wishes to marry a young girl from a temple who he believes saved him. Upon realizing the princes whom his parents want him to marry is the same girl, the prince and princess marry. The Little Mermaids heart breaks, and with her broken heart the mermaid awaits her joining with the foam of the sea with dawns approach. Wishing she would return to the sea her sisters bring her a knife with which she needs to kill the prince in exchange for her full life as a mermaid. However she cannot kill the price, and throws herself to see expecting death. However she becomes a spirit or one of the daughters

“There is another world but it is in this one” -Paul Eluard

17|p.rand


WATER FLOW AND THE DWELT ENVIRONMENT Theoretical Framework

Fig. 14: british colonial empire and colonial trade routs

of air. This is because she tried with all her heart to gain an immortal soul and will gain her own with 300 years of good deeds. These mermaids depicted by Hans Christian Anderson (originally in a ballet) are somewhere between human and spirit as well as being similar to the sirens. Here the messages carried through the story are about a religious search for an immortal soul, the dangers of the sea for humans and an explanation for the natural phenomena of sea foam. The later Disney adaptation of “The Little Mermaid” tells of the little mermaid Ariel who rescues Prince Eric. Through interpretation and adaption the mermaids become different from humans in their appearance. A focus on the gifts of the sea replaces the warning of it’s dangers except the warnings of strangeness represented in the Sea Witch Ursula. The Disney “The Little Mermaid” adaptation has a very American which focus on the happy ending and beauty of the sea and land rather than the sad but moralistic, natural and religious messages in Anderson’s original. Rather than representing death, the Greek and Roman goddess Aphrodite (Venus) is born from the foam of the sea from Uranus’s gentiles which were flung into the sea. Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty and procreation. In the typically very human characteristics of Greek and Roman deities in mythology, she is characterized as vain, ill-tempered and easily offended. This representation is a personification of the Mediterranean people’s perception of love, beauty and the sea and representative of their frequent wars.

routed in place and event. These ideas in the form of myth and deity have been brought to different areas of the world through the trade and warring of cultures, people and geological regions. Until recently much of transportation took place across the worlds seas and inland water bodies. What can be looked at more closely is that these stories have been transported along the same water and trading paths which have transported other ideas like politics, and physical being, human and biological. The transfer of ideas in this manner of contact with people who know and believe differently is a version of Richard Dawkin’s memetics found in “The Selfish Gene” as well as Susan Blackmore’s furthering in the field. The idea of memetics follows that genes are evolutionary replicators and the meme is a human specific secondary replicator. The meme is an “idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture”. This is a democratic and free market approach to the transfer of ideas. The proposal here though is that as ideas move along human pathways between place to place the people who adapt them, re-interpret the idea through a location and experiential specific perception of the world. Each persons and cultural memory is developed overtime through experiences focused on the people met, materials and events of place, and the imparting of values and ideas through generations. Water as a primary influential global element is part of a cultural understanding of the world. So these stories, deities and songs are representative of a greater understanding of the forces of water beyond being a means The adaptations and variations of the worlds hundreds of to transmit cultural values and morality. At the height of water myths and deities being to tell the greater story of the British Empire the British area of influence spanned the the cultural understanding of the forces of water which globe (Fig. 14), is why “the Sun never Sets on the British

p.rand|18


Fig. 15: world governments

Empire” was coined during the period. This was the period during which India and Bangladesh, an indistinguishable span of colony, was part of Britain. This conquest, colonialism and trade is when many stories, religions and song began to move between the east and the west. This is not the first time a large empire has moved ideas between geological areas. The Roman Empire spanned the whole Mediterranean and much of Europe, as well as trading with the known world. “All Roads Lead to Rome” was not just a phrase but a reality as the Romans inherited many ideas and bestowed them through their trade and conquest in the known world. The Romans brought technologies, inherited the Greek Polytheistic Gods and Goddesses and moved people as slaves around the region. The British inherited much of the Romans technologies and ideas of Government. The Greek city states were some of the only regions to ever practice any real democracy amongst their citizens. The Romans inherited and changed many Greek traditions. The most notable export may be the practice of elected officials. Of course at the time “citizens” we primarily wealthy land owning men of the state or city where they were born from two citizen parents. The British though a monarchy later adopted the legacy of democratic principles. This is the form of a parliamentary republic where the monarchy was slowly phased out of its power. The North American colonies rebelled forming American society and the United States Government, a presidential republic. This was the first attempt at a true democracy with the country founded on the principals of “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” for its citizens. Likewise when the colonies in south East Asia were liberated in 1945 both India and

Bangladesh (after its liberation from West Pakistan) formed full Parliamentary Republics (Fig. 15). This series of transfer in the way of ideas resulted from people, ships and roads physically making a mark on the globe. Likewise when the British (and other European nations) began colonization of north America, they brought along physical biological entities. The most notable cause in the decline of Native Americans was the diseases Europeans brought to the continent. In the same way periwinkles, a water snail was brought to North American shores from its native British ones on the trade boats. These snails have now proliferated along the eastern seaboard from Maine to Virginia. In a similar manner the trade between south-east Asia and North American has cause the indigenous species of the Asian waters, the zebra mussel, to the great lakes in North America. In Asia these organisms are part of a checked biological network. In the great lakes the zebra mussel has become an unchecked invasive species, infiltrating and destroying artificial infrastructure. It is on these paths of trade and conquest through which these conceptions and organisms have traveled, and these which must adapt or perish in different contexts. It is the relationship with water as a malevolent and benevolent force which is explored.

“For it is never about the thing itself, it is also about the image one obtains of a thing” -Anton Stankowski

19|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Geographical Context

Fig. 17: the sunderbans

Bangladesh (Fig. 19) is a low lying deltaic country in Southeast Asia. It sits on the northern edge of the Bay of Bengal adjacent to Myanmar, otherwise surrounded by India. Bangladesh has a largely marshy jungle coastline of 710 kilometers (440 mi.) The western half of the coastline shares the (internationally) protected Sunderban’s (Fig. 17) with neighboring India. The valuable mangrove forests are home to many people and ecosystems. The sunderbans protect the country(ies). India and Bangladesh are protected from water related catastrophes like flooding, tidal bores and coastline erosion. The sunderbans are also a natural treasure of biodiversity and resources. The largely flat alluvial plane is formed as a deltaic plain. Bangladesh sits at the confluence of the Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna) and Meghna rivers and their tributaries. The alluvial soils are fertile, but vulnerable to floods and drought coinciding with extreme seasons. The plains even elevation is broken and rises at the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast region. This region borders Myanmar. The Sylhet division also rises to the northeast. Surrounded by India on three sides, Myanmar to the south east and the Bay of Bengal to the south; Bangladesh is tensely situated politically and geographically. To the north Fig. 18: dense Dhaka City

p.rand|22


CHINA

NEPAL

BHUTAN

INDIA

DHAKA

BANGLADESH

MYANMAR

Fig. 19: the deltaic plain of Bangladesh with Dhaka in the center

Bhutan, Nepal and China all sit close to Bangladesh, all part of a tense political region. Surrounded by India, Bangladesh becomes compressed; continuous cultural and ecological flows become cut off by man-made boundaries, much like Nepal and Bhutan. Continuous natural cycles now become subject to political power struggles.

“The pure and simple truth is rarely pure and never simple� -Oscar Wilde

23|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS History of Becoming

Fig. 20: National Assembly Building (center), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. c. 1972. , by Louis Khan

Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh. The city is located in the center of the country. Dhaka began on 1 square mile in the 7th century. It grew to 2 square miles in the 16th century with a population of over 3 thousand. By the 16th century until 1981 the population increased from 3 thousand to over 2.8 million extended to over 208 km2. City development began at the southern edge or the present “old town”. Extension continued toward the west and the north. During the Pakistani period, the development advanced towards the north. Growth continued rapidly in an unplanned way towards every side of the city, but bound by the rivers on all sides, keeping the city dense (Fig. 21). Until the 13th century some parts of greater Dhaka were ruled by the Buddhist then the Hindus. After 1275 Muslims arrived to colonize Dhaka. The Turks and the Pathans ruled until the arrival of the Mughals, during this period the city had an area of only 2km2. The Mughals came to Dhaka in 1606. Qutubuddin Kokah and Jahangir Kuli Khan were temporary governors under Emperor Jahangir, Keeping their headquarters at Akbarnager (Rajmahal). From 16171624 Ibrahim Khan took over and built Dhaka as a center of business and trade in South Asia. Europeans (Portuguese, Dutch, English, French, Armenians and Greeks) took advantage of this opportunity for trade. In 1639-1660 Shah Shuza shifted the capital from Dhaka to Rajmahal in 1640 which ended Dhaka as a major power. Mir Jumla

p.rand|24

moved the capital back to Dhaka again, and worked for the development of Dhaka by 1660-1663. In 1717 the capital was again moved from Dhaka to Rajamahal, resulting is economic and demographic decline of Dhaka city. Most of the development and settlement took place during the Mughal period when Dhaka was called the “City of 52 bazaars and 53 lanes”. During this period the population was 0.9 million living within its 50 km2 area which took place from 1608-1764. 1764-1947 was the British period, when Bangladesh was run by the colonial empire that was colonizing much of the world unknown to the Europeans. At the beginning of this period Dhaka experienced famines floods, disease epidemics and loss of trade and business which resulted in a dramatic decrease in population fall to 0.2 million in an area of 8 km2 during the 18th century. Piped water supply came to Dhaka in 1874 and electricity 1878. By the end of the British period the population was approximately 0.3 million within 64.7 km2. The 1947-1971 Pakistani period began after the partition of India in 1947, Dhaka was made the capital of the province of east Pakistan. In 1974 the city population was over 2 million. After 1971 to the present is the Bangladesh period. Dhaka rearranged itself as the capital city of Bangladesh after the liberation in 1971.


DHAKA - EXPANDING

15 MILLION +

PAKISTAN PERIOD (1947-1971)

6.2 MILLION 1971-present Bangladesh period. Dhaka rearranged itself as the capital city of Bangladesh after the liberation in 1971.

BANGLADESH (1971-1986)

OVER 2 MILLION 1947-1971 Pakistani Period – After partition of India in 1947, Dhaka was made the capital of the province of east Pakistan. In 1974 the city population was over 2 million

BRITISH PERIOD (1764-1947)

0.2 MILLION 1764-1947 British period, at the beginning of this period Dhaka experienced famines floods, disease epidemics and loss of trade and business which resulted in a dramatic decrease in population fall to 0.2 million in an area of 8 km2 during the 18th century

MUGHAL PERIOD (1606 -1764)

0.9 MILLION 1608-1764 most of the development and settlement took place during the Mughal period when Dhaka was called the “City of 52 bazaars and 53 lanes”. During this period the population was 0.9 million living within its 50 km2 area. Fig. 21: physical growth of the city through conquest and development over it’s history

“There is nothing like war for the reinvention of lives...” -Salman Rushdie

25|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Contemporary Condition

DHAKA CITY CORPORATION AREA DCC occupies – 276 km2 August 1, 1864 - The Dhaka municipality was founded 1978 - Dhaka was given “corporation” status The Dhaka City Corporation is a self-governing corporation which runs the affairs of the city. The population of Dhaka (areas under the jurisdiction of the Dhaka city corporation) stands at approximately 7.0 million

DHAKA METROPOLITAN AREA DCC occupies – 276 km2 The Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) and Five adjacent municipal areas ( Savar, Narayangj, Gazipur, Kadamrasul, and Tongi The city, in combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to an estimated 14.6 million.

DHAKA STATISTICAL METROPOLITAN AREA Dhaka Statistical Metropolitan Area (DSMA) is considered the Dhaka Mega City

DHAKA METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT PLANING (DMDP) AREA Currently consists of total 26 zones of which 19 may cover Dhaka Statistical Metropolitan Area. An total area of 1528 km2.

Fig. 22: multiple authorities of Dhaka Bangladesh

p.rand|26


Fig. 23: physical topography of land mass around Dhaka white is mass

Dhaka remains the dense urban capital for Bangladesh’s 165 million people (Fig. 23). As the city continues to grow, Dhaka expands into its surrounding rivers; the Buriganga on the south, the Turag on the west, the Tongi khal on the north and the Balu on the east. The capital city of Dhaka was established in 1608 as a functioning as a municipality. Dhaka was granted full city status when emancipated from the British Empire in 1947. The Dhaka mega city area is 1,353 km2 or 14,563,570,794 square foot. The DCC (the Dhaka City Corporation) occupies 276 km2 or 2,970,839,275 square foot. As of 2010 the population was estimated to be over 15 million (by the United Nations). Dhaka city is overseen by multiple authorities (Fig. 22). These multiple

jurisdictions have differing levels of authority and land dominion. Conflicts over jurisdiction easily erupt when unorganized young bureaucracy is involved. Bangladesh is newly emancipated from the British Empire (1947) and Pakistan (1971). The young country is unorganized and conflicted. The extreme party lines in parliament allow for little to get done. Violence erupts both in the public forum and against officials. With a low overall GDP and poor populous the city of Dhaka and the country has little means to get infrastructure and public works projects done. The young Government has in recent years aligned itself with the UN and NATO to bring Bangladesh to the forefront in world events.

“The man who comes back through the Door in the Wall will never be quite the same as the man who went out. He will be wiser but less sure, happier but less self-satisfied, humbler in acknowledging his ignorance yet better equipped to understand the relationship of words to things, of systematic reasoning to the unfathomable mystery which it tries, forever vainly, to comprehend” -Aldous Huxley

27|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Contemporary Condition

Fig. 24: Dhaka population density by thana

PPOPULATION DENSITY (Persons/Sq. km) DMA BOUNDRY RIVER AND WATERBODY

p.rand|28

3000 - 10000 10001 - 20000 20001 - 30000

30001 - 40000 40001 - 50000 50001 - 200000


Fig. 25: people traveling by train, by density they must use every surface of the vehicles

Dhaka is now growing at a rate of 500,000 persons annually. Estimates vary from 12 to 15 to 20 million, but it is agreed to be one of the largest cities in the world, and one of the poorest. There is growth in all the major cities in Bangladesh; through growth in the capital of Dhaka is the largest (Fig. 26.). The growth is from primarily internal migration which resulting from displaced peoples. People are moving from the rural villages and ending up in the vastly expanding informal settlements. The already compact city (Fig. 24.) is now becoming a refugee camp for people displaced from economic and environmental disasters that are current and imminent. Even once they have moved to the slums, housing security is not granted. Fire’s wipe out areas, and sometimes the land is reclaimed by the city, pushing the dwellers elsewhere. The result is people moving multiple times, forming a fleeting connection with the place.

management or protection from floods. The city streets have become almost a permanent traffic jam, filled with colorful rickshaws on which you could risk your life. The rail artery is above ground and does not serve the great numbers. A subway line is far down the way for the poor country. While plans have been put out, the expense and time it takes to install and fully functioning subway system leaves this a pipe dream.

The cities authorities lack the organization and the monies to input in the infrastructures to manage the large influx of population. The mismanaged resources are allocated for the wealthy, and policies cater to land ownership. Land ownership excludes the vast numbers who reside in the informal settlements. Few have access to clean water, waste

“Mad, Bad and Dangerous to Know� -Lady Caroline Lamb

29|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Flooding and River Erosion

Located on the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoonal climate. With heavy seasonal rainfall, moderately warm temperatures, and high humidity. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores affect the country almost every year. Bangladesh also is affected by major cyclones on average 16 times a decade. Monsoons saturate the earth during rainy season causing flooding and fertility. However during a cool dry season the plain can reach near drought conditions. (Fig. 28) Situated at the confluence of the Ganges(Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna), Meghna, 230 rivers crisscross the country of Bangladesh with a combined discharge among the highest in the world, 355,000 3/s. These drain into the Bay of Bengal. Groundwater is falling by more than .75 meters a year and over 4 million people have been displaced due to river erosion.

The water in Bangladesh flows from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal, through the many rivers and in ground water. Rainwater is frozen in mountain glaciers and permafrost to the north of Bangladesh’s deltaic plain. In slow release the water becomes ground water and mountain streams. These mountain streams and smaller rivers become the tributaries for the Ganges, Bramahuptra and Meghana floodplain. The rains during the monsoon season intensify the flow of the GBM, tributaries and smaller rivers. Groundwater becomes irrigation and domestic water. Waste from cities, industrial and agricultural production is carried in the rivers and groundwater, polluting the water source and aquatic habitats. Tropical cyclones and tidal bores bring saline waters into the fresh water rivers and streams. As the ocean waters rise the saline waters creep more into fresh water streams. The saline waters are now killing fresh water habitats and hurting agricultural production on the coast. (Fig. 27) 



   

 





 



  





p.rand|30








ANNUAL AVERAGE TEMPURATURE ANNUAL AVERAGE PERCIPITATION

 

35 C



34 C

33 C

32 C 31 C

31 C

31 C

31 C

28C

29 C

437 MM

26 C 25 C

321 MM 305 MM



 254 MM

169 MM 194 MM

103 MM 58 MM

MARCH

PRE-MONSOON

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

MONSOON

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

POST-MONSOON

DECEMBER

JANUARY

FEBUARY

COOL AND SUNNY DRY SEASON



 Fig. 27: water cycle through the GBM

Fig. 28: water patterns, temperature and humidity in Bangladesh

“Then take me disappearin’ through the smoke rings of my mind, Down the foggy ruins of time, far past the frozen leaves, The haunted, frightened trees, out to the windy beach, Far from the twisted reach of crazy sorrow, Yes, to dance beneath the diamond sky with one hand waving free, Silhouetted by the sea, circled by the circus sands, With all memory and fate driven deep beneath the waves, Let me forget about today until tomorrow.” -Bob Dylan, Mr. Tambourine Man

31|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Flooding and River Erosion

Fig. 29: flooding on the deltaic plain of Bangladesh, river, tidal and flash

A global warming is causing overall sea level rise, making the world’s population who resides in low-lying deltaic regions especially vulnerable. This is about 70% of the world’s population, many residing in large cities New York City, Boston, New Orleans and the whole of the Netherlands and Bangladesh (a few of many regions in danger). Residing in Bangladesh is approximately 165 million people, many of whom with a few meters more of sea level rise, will become environmental refugees. These people are now being cut off

from surrounding India by the larger countries attempt at a border fence. Residing in the major GBM delta, Bangladesh receives all the fertility of an annually flooding deltaic plain, however as a small country, they do not control the waterways or their tributaries. On the Ganges, India has dammed to divert water twice, once very close to the western most boarders. Up in the Himalayas, Bhutan has dammed the Brahmaputra and its tributaries, while China has recently built the largest dam to date. The larger and Severe-Moderate River Flood Low River Flood Flash Flood Moderate Tidal Surge Severe Tidal Surge

p.rand|32


Fig. 30: flooding on the deltaic plain of Bangladesh and resultant river erosion leading to migration to major cities

controlling countries hold back water during the countries dry season and release water without warning during the Monsoon season. This problem of water control is heavily politicized. The damming by India, Burma and China of the rivers on the GBM floodplain compounds the effect of a heightened number of cyclones and monsoon intensity causing river erosion. River erosion in Bangladesh is causing millions of Bengali’s to be displaced, losing land and livelihood. River erosion also impacts the wildlife which

“We are an impossibility in an impossible universe.” - Ray Bradbury

inhabits the waters of Bangladesh including fish, bivalves and fish. The animals impacted life fish and bivalves are part of the economy and ecology which keeps the country healthy. River dolphins have already been effectively eliminated from the rivers of China and are now in extreme danger in many rivers of the world.

Dam’s Riverbank Erosion Prone Areas Severe-Moderate River Flood

33|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Flooding and River Erosion

Fig. 31: river erosion along Bangladesh’s rivers

Fig. 32: river erosion along Bangladesh’s rivers

p.rand|34


Deposition

Erosion

Deposition

Fastest Flow

Erosion

Suspension: Fine light, material is carriend along by the river

Traction: Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed

Solution: Minerals are disolved in the water. This is a chemical change

Saltation: Small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed. Fig. 33: river erosion mechanics

“Be like the sun for grace and mercy. Be like the night to cover others’ faults. Be like running water for generosity. Be like death for rage and anger. Be like the Earth for modesty. Appear as you are. Be as you appear.� - Rumi

35|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Flooding and River Erosion Water within it’s banks

Flood stage deposits large particles along it’s banks

After many floods, natural levees have been built up along streem banks

Fig. 34: natural flooding mechanics

p.rand|36


Flooding in Dhaka and Bangladesh can occur from tidal surges, flash flooding, monsoon rains and river overflow. The results of flooding have caused displacement to the large urban centers, primarily Dhaka. However in the long term sea level rise will cause permanent flooding of much of the low lying alluvial plain. Already in the Sunderban’s the mangroves and rivers have saline infiltration. The southern saline infiltration is caused not just by sea level rise, but by tidal bores and tropical cyclones. Land in the south has been made unusable for farming causing researchers to look for ways to cultivate rice in salt waters and farmers to convert farmlands to shrimp harvesting and more resilient crops.

center of the country. (Fig. 35)

The annual flooding of Bangladesh’s more than 200 rivers makes the country fertile. Bringing up the rich river silt to the banks, and building them up naturally over time also acts as a nature-built embankment (Fig. 34). Now the flooding of the rivers occurs more extremely or is held back by dams in surrounding countries. The natural weather patterns effects are compounded by artificial human intervention. Rather than building up the river’s edge, this erodes farmlands. When the river coastline erosion brings more silt into the water, river dolphins and other aquatic life suffer. People in Bangladesh have become environmental refugees in their The permanent flooding of Bangladesh’s farmlands and own country, and with India building a wall on the boarder indigenous mangrove forest is a source of food scarcity. The to keep them from migrating out, they have nowhere to go large population is being forced to move to urban centers but the Informal settlements in urban centers. or live in rural temporary settlements. This means that a primarily agrarian community is not farming as much to provide food for the poor population. With a few more meters of sea level rise a quarter of the country will be part of the Bay of Bengal, and with four meters sea level rise Dhaka will be at the edge of the ocean rather than at the

Fig. 35: large and small scale flooding impact on informal settlements in Dhaka

“For instance, on the planet Earth, man had always assumed that he was more intelligent than dolphins because he had achieved so much—the wheel, New York, wars and so on—whilst all the dolphins had ever done was muck about in the water having a good time. But conversely, the dolphins had always believed that they were far more intelligent than man—for precisely the same reasons.” — Douglas Adams (The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (Hitchhiker’s Guide, #1))

37|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Land Use

total cultivatable land area 8.77 ha. 100%

90%

80%

single cropping 33.3%

70%

60%

50%

double cropping 45% 40%

30%

triple cropping 11.5%

20%

10%

0%

Inland Water Bodies 7%

Forest 16%

Fertile Aluvial Lowland 80%

cultivatable waste + currently fallow land 10.2% Fig. 36: land percentages and allocation in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is made up of 7% inland water bodies, 16% forest and 80% fertile alluvial lowland (Fig. 36). The deltaic plain is very fertile due to its low elevation and many rivers. The plains fertility allows for the majority of Bangladesh’s GDP to be due to agricultural production. This high agricultural production is in part due to the fact the multiple cropping allowed by the fertile land from the delta as well as the tropical monsoon climate. This means that people have a large percentage of their incoming coming from agricultural production whether this is from direct farming or, manufacturing, or transport (Fig. 37).

p.rand|38


Fig. 37: people with agri-labor as main income in 60% of Bangladesh’s GDP

% of households with agri labor as main income

“People want to see patterns in the world. It is how we evolved” -Benoît Mandelbrot

< 7% 7-16% 16-22% 22-29% 29% <

39|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Land Use



p.rand|40










    



     

           

Fig. 38: crops and soils types in relationship to Dhaka

There are many soil types which make up the Bangladesh alluvial plain (Fig.38). The soils categories refer to a variety of behaviors and characteristics. These include grain, water retention and mineral composition. The combination of

classification factors contribute to specific soil fertility and the crop appropriateness. Based upon soil taxonomy the agriculture of Bangladesh and the basic crop fertility can be predicted.

“I am pessimistic about the human race because it is too ingenious for its own good. Our approach to nature is to beat it into submission. We would stand a better chance of survival if we accommodated ourselves to this planet and viewed it appreciatively instead of skeptically and dictatorially.” - E.B. White

41|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Land Use

Panchagal

Thakurgaon

Nilphamaril

Lalmonirhat

Kurigram Dinajpur Rangpur

Gaibandha

Joypurhat

Sherpur

Naogaon

Sunamganj

Netrakona

Jamalpur

Sylhet

Bogra

Nawabganj Mymensingh

Rajshahi

Kishoreganj

Habiganj

Maulvibazar

Tangail

Sirajganj

Natore

Gazipur Pabna Narsingdi Brahamanbaria

Kushta

Manikganj

Meherpur

Dhaka

Narayanganj

Rajbari Chuadanga

Comilla Jhenaidah

Munshiganj

Faridpur Magura

Chandpur Shariatpur

Madaripur

Narail Jessore

Khagrachhari

Gopalganj Feni

Lakshmipur Khulna

Barisal Noakhali

Satkhira

Rangamati

Bagerhat Jhatokathi Chittagong Patuakhali

Pirojpur

Bhola

Barguna

Cultivated Area Bandarban Coâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sbazar

Fig. 39: aman rice cropping

1 Dot = 1,000 hectare land Yield (Metric Tons per hectare land) 0.75 - 1.00 1.00- 1.50 1.50 - 2.00 2.00- 2.60 2.50 - 3.00 No Data

Panchagal

Thakurgaon

Nilphamaril

Lalmonirhat

Kurigram Dinajpur Rangpur

Gaibandha

Joypurhat

Sherpur

Naogaon

Sunamganj

Netrakona

Jamalpur

Sylhet

Bogra

Nawabganj Mymensingh

Rajshahi

Kishoreganj

Habiganj

Maulvibazar

Tangail

Sirajganj

Natore

Gazipur Pabna Narsingdi Brahamanbaria

Kushta

Manikganj

Meherpur

Dhaka

Narayanganj

Rajbari Chuadanga

Comilla Jhenaidah

Munshiganj

Faridpur Magura

Chandpur Madaripur

Narail Jessore

Shariatpur Khagrachhari

Gopalganj Feni

Lakshmipur Khulna

Barisal Noakhali

Satkhira

Rangamati

Bagerhat Jhatokathi Chittagong

Pirojpur

Patuakhali

Bhola

Barguna

Cultivated Area Bandarban Coâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sbazar

Fig.40: boro rice cropping

p.rand|42

1 Dot = 1,000 hectare land Yield (Metric Tons per hectare land) 0.68 - 2.40 2.40- 3.50 3.50 - 4.00 4.00- 4.20 4.20 - 4.60 No Data


Panchagal

Thakurgaon

Nilphamaril

Lalmonirhat

Kurigram Dinajpur Rangpur

Gaibandha

Joypurhat

Sherpur

Naogaon

Sunamganj

Netrakona

Jamalpur

Sylhet

Bogra

Nawabganj Mymensingh

Rajshahi

Kishoreganj

Habiganj

Maulvibazar

Tangail

Sirajganj

Natore

Gazipur Pabna Narsingdi Brahamanbaria

Kushta

Manikganj

Meherpur

Dhaka

Narayanganj

Rajbari Chuadanga

Comilla Jhenaidah

Munshiganj

Faridpur Magura

Chandpur Shariatpur

Madaripur

Narail Jessore

Khagrachhari

Gopalganj Feni

Lakshmipur Khulna

Barisal Noakhali

Satkhira

Rangamati

Bagerhat Jhatokathi Chittagong Patuakhali

Pirojpur

Bhola

Barguna

Cultivated Area Bandarban Co’sbazar

Fig. 40: aus rice cropping

1 Dot = 1,000 hectare land Yield (Metric Tons per hectare land) 0.48 - 1.10 1.10- 1.50 1.50 - 2.00 2.00- 2.60 2.50 - 3.00 No Data

Panchagal

Thakurgaon

Nilphamaril

Lalmonirhat

Kurigram Dinajpur Rangpur

Gaibandha

Joypurhat

Sherpur

Naogaon

Sunamganj

Netrakona

Jamalpur

Sylhet

Bogra

Nawabganj Mymensingh

Rajshahi

Kishoreganj

Habiganj

Maulvibazar

Tangail

Sirajganj

Natore

Gazipur Pabna Narsingdi Brahamanbaria

Kushta

Manikganj

Meherpur

Dhaka

Narayanganj

Rajbari Chuadanga

Comilla Jhenaidah

Munshiganj

Faridpur Magura

Chandpur Madaripur

Narail Jessore

Shariatpur Khagrachhari

Gopalganj Feni

Lakshmipur Khulna

Barisal Noakhali

Satkhira

Rangamati

Bagerhat Jhatokathi Chittagong

Pirojpur

Patuakhali

Bhola

Barguna

Bandarban Co’sbazar

Fig. 41: wheat cropping

Cultivated Area 1 Dot = 1,000 hectare land Yield (Metric Tons per hectare land) 1.00 - 1.50 1.50- 2.00 2.00 - 2.40 2.40- 2.80 No Data

“The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.” - Plato

43|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Land Use

The temperatures range from 98 and 60 percent Fahrenheit in Bangladesh’s hot and humid climate. The growing seasons are ruled by these water weather patterns (Fig. 38). Because of the plains fertility and saturation during the monsoon season, crops can be grown year round. The crops grown vary in extreme variety as well. Rice makes up 79.4% of the crops grown in Bangladesh. Of this rice boro, aus and aman are all cropped all cropped year round. This rice can be grown (and must be grown) in different depths of water during its life cycle (Fig. 39). Wheat, pulses, oilseed sugarcane and a variety of vegetable of and potato are also grown. Many trees thrive in the region such as the jackfruit, mangrove, mahogany and lemon. Other cash crops

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

RICE : 79.4%

JUNE

like cotton, spices, tea and jute are grown. Often times rotational growing is used with multiple crops being grown on the same land but during different seasons. Another common method growing method is fish rice culture where fish inhabit the water around the rice during the middle of the growing season, and then while the rice is being threshed the fish inhabit canals to the side or small ponds. This allows both rice and fish to be farmed at once while both being healthier. The rice paddies and farmlands are also both more fertile for the annual flooding from the rivers (Fig. 40). Rice paddies behave as a wetland. Wetlands (including rice paddies) naturally remediate water.

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY

FEBUARY

BORO TRANSPLANTED AUS (T.AUS)

TRANSPLANTED AMAN (T.AMAN) UPLAND AUS DEEPWATER RICE WHEAT : 4.09% PULSES : 2.80% OILSEED : 2.37% JUTE : 2.86% SUGARCANE : 1.15%

CROPS

VEGETABLES : 2.14% SPICES : 2.21% TEA : 0.39% POTATO : 2.39% HUMIDITY

98 PERCENT

WEATHER

TEMPURATURE annual av. : 25C (77F)

60 PERCENT

29C (84F)

18C (64 F)

SEASONS

PRE-MONSOON

MONSOON

POST-MONSOON

COOL AND SUNNY DRY SEASON Fig. 43: the time line of cropping for Bangladesh’s primary crops

p.rand|44


PADDY FLOODING

100 mm

20-50 mm

100mm

200 mm ground saturation

PLANTING

VEGETATIVE STATE

MID SEASON STAGE

LATE SEASON STAGE

Fig. 44: water use in growth cycle of rice

Fig. 45: Flooded villages and fields in the aftermath of the Bangladesh cyclone, 1991

“Loveliest of lovely things are they on earth that soonest pass away. The rose that lives its little hour is prized beyond the sculptured flower.” - William Cullen Bryant

45|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Land Use

Fig. 46: water as transportation network

The Urbanization of Dhaka is proceeding rapidly; it is estimated that only 30% of the population entering the labor force in the future will become part of the agricultural sector, although many will likely find other kinds of work in rural areas. The areas around Dhaka and Comilla are the most densely settled although in a very small footprint, especially when compared to other mega cities. The density of Dhaka means that it progresses quickly (bodily) from urban to peri-urban to rural (Fig. 47). As such the people in the urban area can still find agricultural work in close proximity to the dense urban center. There is much agricultural production on the fridge of Dhaka city and amongst dwellings. The agricultural production that takes place in close proximity to dense dwelling is periurban. Agricultural production then is a large part of the commercial and industrial sector in Dhaka. This includes a large amount of clothing production, tanneries, and the manufacturing of jute-rope and processing of food. Because of the proximity to waterways and the soil type,

p.rand|46

there are many clay beds. These clay beds allow for brick factories to dot the river ways. Likewise the waterways become another means of transportation and trade (Fig. 46). Goods can be transported between the rural grow lands to the manufacturing plants and markets on the other side of the river without the need for bridges or cars. This is very important due to the travel time in Dhaka because of the cities high density and population, and a lack of infrastructure and technology.


Fig. 47: land distribution in Dhaka

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I will pause to consider this eternity from which the subsequent ones derive.â&#x20AC;? - Jorge Luis Borges

47|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Waste and Water Infrastructure

Service Providing Organizations • • • • • • • • • •

Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) Dhaka Water and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) Dhaka Electric Supply Authority (DESA) Titas Gas Limited, Bangladesh Telephone and Telegraph Board (BTTB) Rajdhani Unnyan Kortripakhha (RAJUK) Dhaka Electricity Supply Company (DESCO) Department of Environment (DoE) Health, Education, Planning, Housing, Transportation and other Infrastructure related organizations do exist Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA _ currently holds 21 police Stations

The core authorities of Dhaka are still unable to fulfill the basic requirements like water supply and sanitation, solid waste management, power supply, flood control and transportation. Though the Health and education sectors are far more developed as compared to other sectors, they have yet to access all the residents. Only 25% of the population is served by the water-borne sewage system while another 30% are served with septic tanks. Two-thirds of households in Dhaka are served by the city water supply system. 9.7 million tons of solid wastes are produced in Dhaka city each year. While private and government efforts have succeeded in collecting refuse city-wide and using it as manure, solid wastes are more often than not dumped untreated in nearby low-lying areas and water bodies. These surrounding bodies of water have become polluted to the point of being black, and the smell is noticeable to surrounding buildings. The flood control infrastructure of Dhaka city is made up of hard infrastructures, levees, elevated roads and sluice gates. The hard infrastructure solutions to flood control don’t hold out flood waters in such overwhelming quantities. These solutions have been built up over time after devastating floods and, levees would have to be many meters high to have any hope to keep all river flooding out. In a monsoon

p.rand|48

water does not come just from the sky or travel over easy to control rivers, water seeps into every pore of the soil changing the anatomy of the landscape. So infrastructure solutions have become ineffectual, and Dhaka has too few controls in place. The solutions Dhaka has implemented have a clear political and social impact. They protect the political and prosperous centers of Dhaka, cutting out urban poor from protection. The Informal settlements reside on the periphery. Where the formal infrastructure leaves off the informal settlements begin, both in cause and effect. DWASA (Dhaka Water and Sewerage Authority) only installs tube wells for those with proof of land-ownership. The informal settlement is the settlement of land that is owned by no one or in taking over land that is publicly or privately owned. This leaves the over four million living in informal settlements without close access to clean water or waste disposal. Many have to travel over a mile to access water, or they obtain water from the polluted rivers they reside near. Human waste is disposed directly into the rivers. Toilets and homes are extended over the river’s edge to allow disposal directly into the rivers.


Fig. 48: water infrastructure in Dhaka

“There are times, however, and this is one of them, when even being right feels wrong. What do you say, for instance, about a generation that has been taught that rain is poison and sex is death? If making love might be fatal and if a cool spring breeze on any summer afternoon can turn a crystal blue lake into a puddle of black poison right in front of your eyes, there is not much left except TV and relentless masturbation. It’s a strange world. Some people get rich and others eat shit and die.” - Hunter S. Thompson Generation of Swine: Tales of Shame & Degradation in the ‘80’s

Existing Deep Tubewell Surface Water Treatment Plant Flood Wall Embankment Water Distribution Network 250-400 450-1800

49|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Waste and Water Infrastructure

Fig. 49: waste dumping sites in Dhaka

WASTE DUMPING SITE INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS WATER INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN PERI-URBAN

p.rand|50


There really is no water or waste infrastructure in Dhaka. Only about 40% of the waste generated by the city is collected. This waste which is not collected ends up in the roads, allies and water bodies (Fig. 59 ). The waste comes from the Industrial, commercial, medical and residential sectors. The industrial sector makes up about 24% of the waste in the city. Large and medium plants result in 6000 tons and small industrial plants 24000 tons of waste per day. Within this there are 4 water treatment plants and 300 types of industry. These results industrial waste which is 6% vegetable and fruit , 6.28% newspaper, 4.32% tree timings and straw and 9. 49% stone ceramics and debris. The commercial sector makes up 21% of the waste in the city with 722 tons of solid generation per day. This waste is primarily vegetable and fruit matter at 62.05%. The remaining commercial waste is made up of newspaper, trimmings, straw, metals, glass, stone ceramics and debris. The Medical sector makes up only 6% of waste in the city but has some of the most hazardous 200 metric tons generated daily. The medical waste originates from hospital and clinics. This is made up of 26 government hospitals, 133 private hospitals and clinics and 318 diagnostic centers. About 40 metric tons of waste is directly hazardous and infectious wastes. These can be infectious waste, sharps, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, genotoxic, vaccine, radioactive and high levels of heavy metals. Human limbs have even been reported outside medical facilities. Waste disposal for these materials has included in the past burning, selling, dumping, reuse, and removal from municipal bins. These materials are often dumped on the street or in the rivers. The highest amount of city waste comes from the residential sector at 49%. This comes to 1.50 kg of excreta per person per day or 135000 tons per day. With only 40% coverage, this leaves 60% of the city without coverage and most without clean water access as well. The domestic waste comes from primarily vegetables, fruit polythene, plastic, tannery related garbage and rubber which comes to 70 % of refuse. The remainder is grass and shrubs (4.17%) trash papers and cloth (10.76%) sands, dust, and brick pebbles (8.86%) wood and glass (5.1%) and metals (0.51%). The residential sector is made up largely of informal settlements with latrines (Fig. 50 ) which dump directly into the waterways, both rivers and lakes. All sectors freely dump into the water bodies and the land. Fig. 50: informal latrine typology

â&#x20AC;&#x153;To different minds, the same world is a hell, and a heaven.â&#x20AC;&#x153; - Ralph Waldo Emerson

51|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Waste and Water Infrastructure

SUNLIGHT

Waterways are used for Transportation and Fishing Minimal Nitrogren, Phosphurus and Sediment Inputs

Wildlife Fig. 51:healthy water habitat

Little Sunlight reaches water and potential wildlife

Waterways are filled with waste

Excessive Nitrogren, Phosphurus and Sediment Inputs

River Errosion

Fig. 52:black water habitat

Because of the large amount of water borne waste, which has come from the dense urban center of Dhaka, the waterways which surround the city are forever altered. The former healthy water condition (Fig. 51) of the rivers allowed for economic and ecological survival and growth. A healthy natural river hosts wildlife. Natural grasses, fish, algae and shell fish like snails or mussels thrive together. These require enough sunlight to access deep enough. In these conditions there are minimal nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment inputs. With enough wildlife people may use the rivers to fish to both sell and eat. Now excessive waste the industrial, commercial, medical and domestic sectors is being deposited in the rivers. This waste is either directly

p.rand|52

poisonous to wildlife or in too large a quantity for them to metabolize. In addition the silt erosion is destroying and blocking out much of the sunlight for wildlife. Because waste and erosion makes the waters uninhabitable the fish and grasses are wiped out creating a black water condition (Fig. 52). So the water surrounding Dhaka becomes unsuitable for, swimming, drinking or cleaning. This river water is the same water which floods and people in informal settlements obtain drinking, cleaning and cooking water. The contaminated water contaminates the people who drink it as well as the ground surrounding it and the areas it floods (Fig. 53).


Normal ground water saturation

Flood water ground water saturation

Waste and water ground saturation

Fig. 53: water saturation and contamination

“In wine there is wisdom, in beer there is freedom, in water there is bacteria.” — Benjamin Franklin

53|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Informal Dwelling

Fig. 54: stores within the informal settlements

Displacement of Bengaliâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s to the nations urban centers is due to environmental and artificial causes. The resulting informal settlements are transitory. The settlements exist in relationship to water, without water or waste infrastructure. WASA (the Dhaka water management facility) will not provide water infrastructure without proof of land ownership. The settlement dwellings are temporary and transitory; made of found materials such as corrugated steel and cardboard (Fig. 54 ). Water is the source of plenty and fertility in Bangladesh as well as extreme catastrophe. Nearly one-third of the total population of Dhaka resides in informal settlements and supports the city with cheap labor. These dwellers work outside the settlements as rickshaw

p.rand|54

pullers, in construction activities, working in workshops and factories, small business, and trade, hawking, and as household domestic help. The informal settlements also have an internal marketplace. Filled with small scale industries like garment makers and industry. The dense fabric of the settlements contains shops for food and day to day goods, and TVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s for locals to watch when a home TV is unaffordable and electricity is unavailable. These slums function in relation to the monsoon season, flooding and refuse found in the surrounding rivers, as well as the limited access to utilities (Fig. 55)


Fig. 55: informal settlements in relationship

“The experience of space is not a privilege of the gifted few, but a biological function” - László Moholy-Nagy

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS AIRPORT RAILROAD URBAN PERI-URBAN RURAL

55|p.rand


BACKGROUND ANALYSIS Informal Dwelling

Fig. 56: flooded homes

p.rand|56


Like those displaced by river erosion, drought and flooding; those in the informal settlements and rural towns become heavily impacted by Bangladesh’s intense weather (Fig. 56). The homes in the informal settlements are built out of temporal and found materials. Common building materials to the area bamboo, cloth, straw and jute mate. These materials are commonly found in the area as refuse and easy to construct quickly. Corrugated steel makes up many roofs, making some homes semi weather proof. Cutcha houses are earthen structures which are common in both the rural and urban setting. Semi-pucca structures are also constructed, partially of concrete. In addition to these common materials people create homes out of found materials. This includes cardboard and scrap-wood. This type of construction is easily destroyed and constructed. The annually intense weather becomes very destructive for this construction. These homes become washed out causing those who live there to lose much or everything. These same people re-build in the same construction techniques and must then re-build when intense weather comes again (Fig. 57).

Fig. 57: the cycle of flooding, destruction and rebuilding

““I’ve been hungrier than this,” the hobo told billy “ I been in worse places than this. This ain’t so bad”” - ”Slaughterhouse Five” (Chapter 3), Kurt Vonnegut

57|p.rand


CASE STUDIES


INFRASTRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS Flood Control Typologies

 





 

   

   

 



   



 

p.rand|60








   



  







 

  

 





 

  

 Fig. 59: methods of flood control

“They watched the rain and downed their Cokes like a pair of diabetics in a suicide pact.” -Paco Ignacio Taibo II

61|p.rand


CULTURAL SOLUTIONS Flood Control

MEMPHIS

LITTLE ROCK

JACKSON

BATON ROUGE

NEW ORLEANS

Fig. 60: flood control on the mississippi

LEVEE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

p.rand|62


Fig. 61:flooding over an industrial canal levee during Hurricane Gustav; New Orleans, September 2008

The patterns of flooding depend on the intensity of the storm and type, the land topology, soil taxonomy and artificial controls already put into place to control the flooding. The flood control on the Mississippi river is limited to primarily artificial intervention. This artificial intervention of the levee cuts both the human off from the river and its ecology and vice versa. When extreme flooding occurs, the mediation is interventions which are already in place and emergency engagements. The common emergency measures are high volume water pumps or sand bags. The emergency measures must be deployed in time to save any life or property, and require anticipation and energy to do so. Levees are usually raised in height and length after each new larger inundation shows it to be necessary rather than in anticipation of an event. Effective flood control may also integrate a soft infrastructure. This often includes re-routing water bodies and lad to create soft barriers and reservoirs or wetlands to absorb floods.

water body

ee

lev

Fig. 62: levee’s grow in response to growing flood risk

“If you can’t fight and you can’t flee, flow.” - Robert Elias

63|p.rand


INFRASTRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS WATER REMEDIATION

Water Remediating Plants

p.rand|64

Fig. 63: water hyssop

Fig. 64: indian mustard

Fig. 65: mangroves

Fig. 66: jackfruit

Fig. 67: wild celery

Fig. 68: mussels


  

 







 











 







   



      

    Fig. 69: remediators

“You come back, wavering shapes, out of the past ” - Goethe

65|p.rand


CULTURAL SOLUTIONS WATER REMEDIATION

ALEXANDRIA CAIRO

LUXOR

KHARTOUM

Fig. 70: water table and damning of nile river

p.rand|66


Fig. 71: irrigation in nile river flood zone

The Nile River, its tributaries and its delta have resulted in one of the one of the world’s oldest and most important fertile regions (Fig. 70). The Nile river valley is all the more important because of its location as both an oasis in the desert and a link as a trading empire. For the Egyptians the Nile’s historic flooding was predictable and necessary to the growing season. Without the fertile soils the flooding brought each year the Egyptians would not have been able to make the harvest or irrigate their crops. The boon of the river with little destruction meant that the waters were worshiped as gods and goddesses (Fig. 72) like the sun and the moon. These being natural life giving elements who were regular. The sun rose and set on the east west axis, and the Nile flows on the south north. This regularity was something the Egyptians felt in their lives and could depend on and were able to use to regulate in their every day lives by way of simple infrastructure (Fig. 71) and in their regimented government. Fig. 72: hapi, Egyptian god of the nile flood

“It is therefore senseless to think of complaining since nothing foreign has decided what we feel, what we live, or what we are.” -Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness

67|p.rand


INFRASTRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS WATER CAPTURE

    

              

 



   

p.rand|68

      

         

   












   





 Fig. 73 : water capture methods

“If anyone on the verge of action should judge himself according to the outcome, he would never begin.” -Søren Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling

69|p.rand


CULTURAL SOLUTIONS WATER CAPTURE

The Indian step well is both spatial and socially active. The primary function for the step well is to collect rain water and let water filter down the porous stone steps into the catch bellow. This simple function though is accomplished with a mostly belowground structure of intricately carved stone. Unlike a normative well, where water is lifted up with a bucket, you enter down into the step well. In this case the structure is socially activated water capture. The deeper down a person enters the more spiritual, serine and quiet the tone. Near the surface children play, people wash and people socialize. Today many of the old step wells are in disrepair and are contaminated, but the principle of their functionality remains sound.

Fig. 74 : step well capture

p.rand|70


Fig. 75 : step well interior

Fig. 76 : step well capture

â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is merely the etheralization of common sense.â&#x20AC;? -Lord Kelvin

71|p.rand


SOURCES Images

Fig. 1: Dhaka City : http://whatwaterfeelsliketofishes. wordpress.com/ Fig. 2: Korail Slum: by, Allison Joyce, Photo Journalist Fig. 3: Dhaka City : by Mohammad Moniruzzaman Fig. 4: People cross the Buriganga river : ESPN Crticinfo Fig. 5: World Water Map : Paula Rand Fig. 6: Dhaka City Children : Adbusters magazine Fig. 7: Malevolent and Benevolent Water : Paula Rand Fig. 8: The Entry of the Animals into Noah’s Ark : by Jan Breughel the Elder (1613) Fig. 9: Atum : “Treasures of Tutankhamun” 1972, The British Museum Fig. 10: The Kraken : by Bob Eggleton Fig. 11: Blue (Moby Dick) : by. Pollock, Jackson c. 1943 Fig. 12: Peter and Wendy, by J. M. Barrie Fig. 13: Present from Carl Jacobsen to the city of Copenhagen in 1913 Fig. 14: Colonial trade : Paula Rand Fig. 15: World Governments : Paula Rand Fig. 16: Children on Train : Akash Photojournalist Fig. 17: Sunderbans : http://thankyoubd.blogspot. com/2011/09/sundarban-of-bangladesh-02.html Fig. 18: Dhaka Market : Karin Fankhauser Fig. 19: Bangladesh Context : Paula Rand Fig. 20: National Assembly Building (center), Sher-eBangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. c. 1972. Louis I. Kahn Collection, University of Pennsylvania, and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission Fig. 21: growth of Dhaka City, Bangladesh : Paula Rand Fig. 22: Multiple Jurisdiction : Paula Rand Fig. 23: Physical Dhaka : Envisat ASAR Fig. 24: Dhaka population Density : Paula Rand Fig. 25: People on Train : Akash Photojournalist Fig. 26: Migration to Dhaka : Paula Rand Fig. 27: Water flow on through Bangladesh : Paula Rand Fig. 28: Water Patterns of Bangladesh : Paula Rand Fig. 29: Flooding Severity in Bangladesh : Paula Rand Fig. 30: River Erosion in Bangladesh : Paula Rand Fig. 31, Fig. 32: http://www.emse.fr/~bouchardon/ enseignement/regard/bangladesh/regard-bangladeshjamuna-river/page_01.htm Fig. 33: mechanics of river erosion : Paula Rand Fig. 34: mechanics of flooding : Paula Rand Fig. 35: Scales of flooding in Dhaka : Paula Rand Fig. 36: Land Use Percentages : Paula Rand Fig. 37: Agricultural Income : Paula Rand Fig. 38: Land and crop type map : Paula Rand Fig. 39: aman cropping map : Paula Rand Fig. 40: boro cropping map : Paula Rand Fig. 41: aus cropping map : Paula Rand Fig. 42: wheat cropping map : Paula Rand

Fig. 43: crops and cropping patterns : Paula Rand Fig. 44: rice pattern : Paula Rand Fig. 45: Flooded villages and fields in the aftermath of the Bangladesh cyclone, 1991. Staff Sergeant Val Gempis–Air Force Photo/Department of Defense Fig. 46: Jessica Carter’s blog, Red Shoes & Cobblestones Fig. 47: uraban - rural Dhaka : Paula Rand Fig. 48: water infrastructure : Paula Rand Fig. 49: waste dumping site : Paula Rand Fig. 50: latrine typology : Paula Rand Fig. 51: healthy water condition : Paula Rand Fig. 52: black water condition : Paula Rand Fig. 53: ground saturation/ contamination : Paula Rand Fig. 54: Yusuf Hashim Fig. 55: informal context : Paula Rand Fig. 56: flooded home and woman : Akash Photojournalist Fig. 57: rebuild cycle : Paula Rand Fig. 58: mussels : Scott Camazine, New York Sea Grant Fig. 59: methods of flood control : Paula Rand Fig. 60: Flood Control on the mississippi : Paula Rand Fig. 61: New Orleans levee : Stephen Morton/Getty Images Fig. 62: levee response : Paula Rand Fig. 63: http://www.alsearsmd.com/herb-of-grace/ Fig. 64: http://www7a.biglobe.ne.jp/~flower_world/ Brassicaceae/Brassica%20juncea.htm Fig. 65: re. Fig. 17 Fig. 66: http://panasamwonders.blogspot.com/2011/01/ popularising-off-season-jackfruit.html Fig. 67: Tim Carruthers Fig. 68: re Fig. 58 Fig. 69: methods of remediation : Paula Rand Fig. 70: Nile river : Paula Rand Fig. 71: nile river irrigation : http://www.halcrow.com/ Areas-of-expertise/Water/ Fig. 72: Hapi : http://room162d.edublogs.org/tag/nile-uses/ Fig. 73: methods of water capture : Paula Rand Fig. 74: step well : Paula Rand Fig. 75: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ dharmesh84/42659820/ Fig. 76: Varun Shiv Kapur from Berkeley, United States Fig. 77: mussel reproduction : Paula Rand Fig. 78: mussel anatomy : Paula Rand Fig. 79: limestone : DH Wall Fig. 80: http://www.picsed.com/keyword/marble+rock Fig. 81: http://www.photos-public-domain.com/2010/12/04/ piece-of-chalk/ Fig. 82: Jon Sullivan Fig. 83: Alexey Sergeev Fig. 84: http://nhes.wordpress.com/tag/coral-reefs/ Fig. 85: growth and nutrients of mussels : Paula Rand


Fig. 86: mussel shell : Paula Rand Fig. 87: http://indiatravelresearch.com/?page_id=56 Fig. 88: http://www.bestyears.co.uk/general.tem/ OREAJD479861 Fig. 89: cottage industry diagrams : Paula Rand Fig. 90: http://www.diytrade.com/china/pd/7312706/ calcium_chloride_anhydrous.html Fig. 91: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jute_Rope_(%E0 %AE%9A%E0%AE%A3%E0%AE%B2%E0%AF%8D_%E 0%AE%95%E0%AE%AF%E0%AE%BF%E0%AE%B1%E 0%AF%81).jpg Fig. 92: http://www.esuppliersindia.com/products/wastecotton-yarn.html Fig. 93: aggregated composite material concept : Paula Rand Fig. 94: crochet volume test model : Paula Rand Fig. 95: crochet tension rope test model : Paula Rand Fig. 96: crochet volume hybrid test model : Paula Rand Fig. 97: calcified crochet rope : Paula Rand Fig. 98: calcified crochet volume : Paula Rand Fig. 99: calcified strand : Paula Rand Fig. 100: (sampling) time-lapse progression of 3 tanks of river biologies : Paula Rand Fig. 101: Kamrangir Char Thana site : Paula Rand Fig. 102: Kamrangir Char Thana site program : Paula Rand Fig. 103: integrated time-line : Paula Rand Fig. 104: site program expansion : Paula Rand Fig. 105: collect and re-usable waste planning : Paula Rand Fig. 106: closed and open rain collector : Paula Rand Fig. 107: anatomy of adaptable rain collector_ stem : Paula Rand Fig. 108: anatomy of adaptable rain collector_ aquifer : Paula Rand Fig. 109: rain collector space planning : Paula Rand Fig. 110: rain collector site planning : Paula Rand Fig. 111: rain collector tension mechanism : Paula Rand Fig. 112: rain collector water path concept : Paula Rand Fig. 113: rain collector node social water program : Paula Rand Fig. 114: integrated programing : Paula Rand Fig. 115: riverside human reef bio-human interaction : Paula Rand Fig. 116: calcified woven landscape : Paula Rand Fig. 117: calcium flood and waste mediation : Paula Rand Fig. 118: Bazaar and mussel reef riverside : Paula Rand Fig. 119: Tiered housing and riverside dock : Paula Rand


CITATIONS References

The World Bank UNESCO FAO Dhaka City Corporation Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics The United Nations World Food Programme Aqua Stat Banglapedia USDA International Rice Research Institute Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council Bangladesh Rice Knowledge Bank Water Problems of Bangladesh : http://waterproblemsbd.blogspot.com/ “Building Safer Cities: The Future of Risk Management” by Alcira Kreimer An anthropological and photographic exploration of riverbank erosion and flood in rural Bangladesh : http://www. livingwiththejamuna.com/essayintroduction.html NationMaster.com Bangladesh Water Development Board http://globalspin.blogs.time.com/ http://discoveringdhaka.wordpress.com/category/see-the-sights/ NASA Visible Earth LANDSAT USGS Erosion and Deposition by flowing water : https://sites.google.com/site/earthscienceinmaine/erosion-and-depositionby-flowing-water Pollution kills Dhaka’s Rivers : http://www.reuters.com/video/2009/05/19/pollution-kills-dhakas-rivers?videoId=104896 Culture of Bangladesh : http://www.everyculture.com/A-Bo/Bangladesh.html Fishing in Bangladesh : http://www.carebd.org/mc_storydtls.php?id=10 Practical Action http://thesocialtruth.wordpress.com/category/place/ Resource Technologies : http://wasterecycleinfo.com/rd.html A Story of Climate Change Told Through Seashells : http://sciencelife.uchospitals.edu/2011/11/02/a-story-of-climatechange-told-through-seashells/#more-6523

p.rand|74


75|p.rand


Thesis Research Book  

B.Arch undergraduate thesis research book focusing on the mega city of Dhaka, Bangladesh and the flow of water.

Advertisement