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by Paula Maturana


Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU by Paula Maturana

An applied project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science in Design

Graduate Supervisory Committee: Chair: Assistant Professor Milagros Zingoni – The Design School Committee Member: Professor Dr. Gustavo Fischman – Mary Lou Fulton, School of Education Committee Member: Professor Kenneth Brooks – The Design School

Arizona State University May 2018


4

Introduction


This work is dedicated to my son, Xavier.

Introduction

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Acknowledgements Acknowledgements I would like to first express my very great appreciation and gratitude to my committee chair, Professor Milagros Zingoni. I want to thank her for her endless understanding, time and patience, as well as her selfless support, dedication and constant encouragement to complete this study and my degree. I'd like to thank her for believing in me, especially all those times where "life happened"and I believed I wasn't capable of completing this research study, she pushed harder and reminded me why I was doing this. I would also like to thank my committee members, Professor Kenneth Brooks of The Design School and Professor Dr. Gustavo Fischman of the Mary Lou Fulton School of Education for all their expertise and wise perspectives. I want to thank my boss, James Scriven, and my coworkers Thomas Denne and Katie Jones. I can't put into words my gratitude for your efforts, encouragement, understanding and many laughs that got me through this. My very special and profound gratitute is for my son, Xavier, and my mom, Luz Maria Perez. Xavier has been my motivation through this journey, and his constant reminder "Don't give up mommy, we don't quit" got me through many challenging situations. Thank you to my mom for being my example to follow. Seeing her as a recently single parent with three children, starting her bachelors degree at 35, made me believe maybe I can do this. Her constant support and encouragement made the difference for me to be able to say, I did it. I couldn't have done it without all of you.

Introduction

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Abstract The current study inquires on the infrastructure and programmatic needs of the growing population of graduate and undergraduate student parents. Students raising children, a sub-group of nontraditional students, has increased by 65% between 2004-2012, in the Southwest region alone (Noll et al. 2017). However, the change in student demographics has not been followed by a change in resources and infrastructure, nor is there an awareness of the needs of this population to enable opportunities in obtaining their college degree. It's imperative to rethink campus infrastructure to accommodate and serve not only student parents but the growing populations of non-traditional students to align with ASU's Charter and goals, "ASU is a comprehensive public Research University, measured not by whom we exclude, but rather by whom we include and how they succeed."*Through a qualitative research approach, utilizing surveys, semi-structured interviews, and case studies, this research study scrutinizes the disparity between what student parents at ASU really need from an infrastructure and programmatic perspective, and how this differs from what's available and offered to them. Findings are then analysed to identify and define a new set of design guidelines for infrastructure and programming taxonomy to consider within higher education campuses. This research examines and understands a gap in campus infrastructure and programming to address an informal learning atmosphere and potentially align ASU student parents' needs, with university resources that enable students who are parents to succeed in both academics and parenting. Keywords: ASU; Student parents; infrastructure; programming; resources; design guidelines.

* "New American University: Toward 2025 and Beyond" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://president.asu.edu/about/asucharter

Introduction

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Chapter One - INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction...................................................................................... 17

1.2

1.3 Objectives ........................................................................................ 28

1.4

Justification & Significance ................................................................ 22 Scope & Limitations .......................................................................... 29

Chapter Two - LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 34

2.2 Student Parents................................................................................. 39

2.3 Needs of Students Raising Children .................................................. 45

2.4

2.5 Higher Education Academic Success.................................................. 52

2.6 Programmatic and Infrastructure Needs of Student Parents................ 56

2.7 Infrastructure and Programming Resources

Performance of Multiple Roles, Student, Parent and Other................. 48

that Facilitate Multiple Roles.............................................................. 64

2.8 ASU Resources for Student Parents.................................................... 66

Chapter Three - METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 89

3.2

Research Topics & Questions.............................................................. 89

3.3

Research Approach............................................................................ 91

3.4

Surveys-Research method one........................................................... 92

3.5

Interviews-Research method two....................................................... 97

3.6

Case study-Research method three.................................................... 97

3.7

Sampling Strategy ............................................................................ 98

3.8

Data Analysis .................................................................................... 98

3.9

Institutional Review Board................................................................. 99

3.10 Data Collection................................................................................. 99

Chapter Four - FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction.................................................................................... 104

4.2 Sample............................................................................................ 104

4.3

Characteristics of Survey Participants............................................... 105


4.4

Survey Findings............................................................................... 108

4.5

Survey Statistical Analysis................................................................. 124

4.6

Characteristics of Interview Participants........................................... 130

4.7

Interview Findings.......................................................................... 132

4.8

A Student Parent's Day in Photos..................................................... 146

4.9

Case Study...................................................................................... 154

4.10 Reflections on Chosen Methods...................................................... 160

Chapter Five - RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.0 Introduction.................................................................................... 166 5.1 ASU and Inclusion of Student Parents.............................................. 167 5.2 Student Parents' Challenges and Preferences................................... 168 5.3 Student Parents' Time and Multiple Roles ....................................... 168 5.4 Re-purpose and redesign of existing resources at ASU..................... 170

5.5

Identifying Programming and Infrastructure Resources..................... 173

5.6

ASU Opportunities to Support Student Parents................................ 174

5.7

Summary of Existing Programming Opportunities at ASU ................ 189

5.8

Examples of Infrastructure and Programming from Other Institutions ....... 193

5.9

Programming and Infrastructure Recommendations......................... 196

5.10 Conclusion...................................................................................... 206 References..................................................................................................... 209 Appendices.................................................................................................... 215

APPENDIX A: IRB Initial Study, Modification and Continuation................... 215

APPENDIX B: Appendix B-CCAMPIS Annual Report 2012-2013................. 217

APPENDIX C:

SSM 701–10: Accommodations and Services for Pregnant Students............ 218

APPENDIX D: The Sanford School Internship Site List April 2018................ 219

APPENDIX E: Internship Guide................................................................... 220

Introduction

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12

Introduction


1.0 Introduction

Student parent and child both doing homework at home together.

Introduction

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14

Introduction


1.0

Chapter One - Introduction

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Chapter Overview 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Justification & Significance 1.3 Study Objectives 1.4 Scope & Limitations

Introduction

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Introduction


1.1

Introduction

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Postsecondary students raising children at ASU face many demands. They are students, parents and in most of the cases, full time or part-time employees. They undertake multiple roles that involve many duties: 1. AS A PARENT, they must spend time to take care of their child/children, attend to their biological needs, provide a safe and optimal environment, teach, support and motivate them with their school needs and/ or development when they are younger, listen and offer guidance assistance and help to take care of their emotional needs and discipline them, among other things. All of these responsibilities as a parent require a lot of time and focus. Many parents must work either full time or part-time to support their families as well. 2. AS AN EMPLOYEE, they must commit and abide by a set schedule, be on time and meet workload expectations, sometimes in inflexible working environments, adding pressure to an already demanding role as a parent. Additionally, many working parents choose to take on a role as a student, to better themselves and their families. 3. AS A STUDENT, they must complete homework and projects, attend class regularly,

be responsible with timelines, complete weekly assignments and required readings, plan extracurricular time for collaboration on projects if needed, among other responsibilities. All these high demand roles, not to mention trying to mentally and physically take care of themselves, can become a source of stress and a daily struggle for many students.

“

One problem for students is the constant, competing tension between life obligations and educational obligations.

�

—Jamie Merisotis, Lumina Foundation for Education

Introduction

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Average Child Schedule

Figure 1. Average child schedule

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Introduction

Average Student Parent Schedule

Figure 2. Average student parent schedule


Average Student Parent and Child Schedule

Figure 3. Average student parent and child schedule

Introduction

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Navigating all these obligations, especially for out of state or international students in the United States who have little or no outside support, leaves students at ASU that are parents feeling as if they are pulled in many different directions, with very different role expectations, all competing with each other. Time gets very restricted. Ott (2007) mentions her struggles executing different roles:

"I wake up when my kids wake up, which is hopefully sometime after 6:00 a.m., if no one is sick or teething. Now that I am ABD, I squeeze a full-time job into the mix to cover the costs of daycare. Fortunately, their 7:00 p.m. bedtime means I can work until 10:30 if I’m not completely exhausted." (Ott, 2007, p. 132).

Dillon (2012) in his study, "Unbalanced: An Autoethnography of Fatherhood in Academe," brings to light the obstacles experienced by students combining graduate programs and fatherhood. He describes his lack of sleep, juggling the time to prepare for defending his thesis while trying to move and start a Ph.D.,

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Introduction

spend time with his son, establish a social life in a new city, write papers for school and personal handle health issues among a long, ongoing list of everyday struggles. Full-time job responsibilities during the day while a child is at school and parent responsibilities toward the evening overlap with duties as a student, leaving little to no time to consistently commit to their role as a student other than the weekends, which is usually the time spent with their children. According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2014), "care for dependants can take up a significant amount of student parents’ time, which can threaten their ability to persist in college" (Gault, Reynolds & Froehner, 2014, p. 4). Raising a child or children while working full or part time and succeeding as a student introduces additional stress to an already overwhelming process (Springer, Parker & Leviten-Reid, 2009). After long days at work, it’s a conflict to take on responsibilities as a student while also handling parental responsibilities such as spending time with their child and supporting them in their school homework, while completing their own assignments. Spending all day away from their child while at work or school, the last thing


students want is more time away from their children, and this usually becomes a constant challenge on how to spend time with your children and fulfil school responsibilities. This research study focuses on the optimal infrastructure and programming resources at Arizona State University, Tempe campus, that can enable student parents to succeed in both roles simultaneously. Chapter 1 introduces the justification and significance of the study, defines the objectives, then explains the scopes and limitations of the study. Chapter 2 presents the conceptual framework of the research and examines literature review focusing primarily on these four areas: Student parents as a subgroup of non-traditional students and their challenges, their infrastructure and programmatic needs, how they combine their multiple roles and available resources at Arizona State University that support students raising children. Chapter 3 explains the research methodology, the research topic and questions, the research approach, methods of data collection and data analysis and sampling strategy. Chapter 4 reviews the findings of the study and their relationship to the four primary areas of focus:

student parents challenges, infrastructure and programmatic needs, their multiple roles and ASU resources that support them. Chapter 5 discusses conclusions and proposes design solutions that help student parents at Arizona State University, Tempe campus.

Introduction

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1.2

Justification & Significance Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Today one of the most significant challenges in higher education is meeting the diverse needs of the growing population of nontraditional students (Medved & Heisle, 2002), among them, 4.8 million independent higher education students raising children, while pursuing a degree (Gault et al., 2014). A study by the Institute for Women's Policy Research, reveals the rapid growth of the student parent population in higher education, doubling its number between the year 1995 and 2011 (Gault et al., 2014). Students raising children make up a considerable portion of the postsecondary education population, as more than 1 in 4 students in the United States are parents (Schumacher, 2013). Despite this fundamental shift in demographics, higher education institutions have yet to address the infrastructure and programmatic needs of student parents. Nor there is awareness of their struggles and the lack of physical and programmatic support. Although there is increased enrollment in online education, enabling many students that are parents to pursue their education remotely, they still have the same infrastructure and programming resource needs and challenges as students attending classes on campus.

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Introduction

A large percentage of students report spending several hours weekly looking after their children, stating that caring for their child/children is very likely to cause them to withdraw from higher education altogether, revealed a survey conducted by the University of Texas in 2014 (Gault, Reichlin, Reynolds & Froehner, 2014). Forty percent of student parents expressed their concern about their potential need to withdraw because of their child care responsibilities, compared to only 23% of nonparents (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). Parenting is not normative in higher education infrastructure: student parents struggle to navigate strollers in classrooms, find a clean space to feed their children or a discreet place for lactation. These become subtle but constant reminders that universities are not a social or physical environment for families, and children don't belong there (Springer et al., 2009). Facing these infrastructure challenges, student parents are constantly seeking the right environment for their children and themselves, where they can complete readings and assignments while spending time with their children. Searching for different places where


STUDENTS THAT COMPLETED THEIR PROGRAM BETWEEN 1989-1990 Undergraduate NON-TRADITIONAL

37%

Undergraduate TRADITIONAL

54%

Figure 4. Students that completed their program between 1989-1990

STUDENTS LEAVING THEIR STUDIES PARENTS

60%

NOT PARENTS

37%

children and parents could spend time together, especially during the weekend, where children could entertain themselves with other children while parents complete schoolwork, resulted in a lack of available options other than paid indoor playgrounds, which would be financially prohibitive. A 2006 study at Capella University that focuses on the value, motivation and possibility of pursuing a degree for non-traditional students reveals that just over half of participants had the desire to continue additional education, but far fewer felt they actually could. According to the study, a key obstacle is the ability to balance school, family and work responsibilities (Brown & Nichols, 2013). The National Center of Education Statistics, state that between 1989 and 1990 of non-traditional students enrolled in a bachelors degree, only 31% completed their program, compared to the traditional students completing their program at 54%. Also, another of their studies revealed that over 60% of students that are parents would eventually leave their studies, compared to just 37% students that are not parents (Brown & Nichols, 2013).

Figure 5. Students leaving their studies Figures 4 & 5 source: Brown & Nichols, 2013 prepared by author.

Introduction

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When a student who is a parent also works full time while their children are at school, their parenting time conflicts with their school time

(Faculty at The Design School, 2017)

Even though it's clear that the subgroup of students raising children is increasing and projected to grow even more, this change in enrollment hasn't always been met by adequate resources and program allocations to meet student parents' needs, and assist in their academic success (Brown & Nichols, 2013). Available resources in higher education need to accommodate the changing student population. "When considering the number of student-parents on campuses today, support services appear extremely disproportionate showing inequity for parents’ and their family’s academic success" (Lovell, 2014, p. 201). Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe, AZ is a public research university ranked #1 in the U.S. for innovation, dedicated to accessibility and excellence. The university's charter states that "ASU is a comprehensive public Research University, measured not by whom we exclude, but rather by whom we include and how they succeed." ASU President Michael Crow explained that, "Arizona State University is working to defeat the deep-rooted idea that

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Introduction


higher education is an exclusive enterprise, a privilege set for only a segment of the population. And the university is working to empower the current generation of students to carry out that mission" (Faller, 2016) ASU is evolving toward a student-centric model, having committed to meet its students needs in the past decade. One of ASU's eight design aspirations is to ENABLE STUDENT SUCCESS.* In order to accomplish this, all students' needs must be considered, from programs and resources to support everyone, to evolving infrastructure and programming resources to serve emerging needs of diverse students. ASU Family Resources conducted two surveys through the Office of University Evaluation in April 2009. "The survey was designed to determine the number of ASU students with children, understand the challenges these students face in pursuing their studies, and elicit information on the types of services student parents need at ASU" (Office of University Evaluation, 2009). Even though there is an initial awareness of the presence of

students that are parents at ASU, as reflected in the 2014 report, student parents feedback on how to better support ASU students raising children hasn't been addressed. An example of this is child care services and the recent closing of the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College Preschool, even though student parents did everything in their power to be heard during a meeting in April 2017 with the university leadership, voicing the many ways parents and children were negatively impacted by this decision. The preschool closed during summer 2017 and the decision was final. Although child care accessibility is an enormous barrier for student parents, the infrastructure that this research focuses on is one that combines an appropriate space for the student's child(ren) with the right environment for the student parent to study, allowing them to spend time as a family within ASU facilities. An environment of this kind would enable the inclusion of this population to the Tempe campus and welcome students' families.

* "New American University: Toward 2025 and Beyond" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://president.asu.edu/about/asucharter

Introduction

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We've seen higher education entities adjust and transform from a programming and infrastructure perspective to accommodate specific subgroups of students, implementing new programs and policies to enable these subgroups to succeed academically. Examples are the resources deployed for students with special needs, from providing classrooms accessible for wheelchairs, to adjusting academic requirements. Students that are athletes are also a subgroup with needs that have been addressed by university communities, supporting them with educational assistance such as tutoring, liaison services, and counseling among others. Even though the needs of students that are parents aren't, in any case, to compare to a student with special needs or a student that is an athlete, there is a confident, historical precedent for tailoring academic infrastructures and environments to serve, include and accommodate different kinds of students and enable their academic success by addressing their needs (Springer et al., 2009).

There are many reasons why to turn the focus in support of this population. Student parents, part of adult student learner population, are more likely to have a clear set of educational goals and a stronger focus on pursuing their degree (Miller et al., 2011), they prepare better for class and engage more in class discussions (Marine, 2012). Also, when parents attain their degree, not only may they improve their own lives but also their child's (Schumacher, 2013). Schumacher, a nationally recognized expert on early childhood policy with 20+ years of experience at the national, state and local levels (2013) affirms "researchers have found that the language skills of three-yearold children increase as their mothers further their education" (p.3). A study done by The Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR)*, reported that because of students' educational accomplishments they had improved their lives, their children had witnessed their efforts and now aspired to attend to college, had improved their grades and had developed better study habits. Additionally, they as

* The Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR) conducts rigorous research and disseminates its findings to address the needs of women, promote public dialogue, and strengthen families, communities, and societies. The Institute works with policymakers, scholars, and public interest groups to conduct and disseminate research that illuminates economic and social policy issues affecting women and their families, and to build a network of stakeholders who use that research. IWPR's work is supported by foundation grants, government grants and contracts, donations from individuals, and contributions from organizations and corporations. IWPR is a 501 (c) (3) tax-exempt organization that also works in affiliation with the women's studies and public policy and public administration programs at The George Washington University.

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Introduction


parents were potentially more engaged in their child’s learning success. This nontraditional group identifies and recognizes that "because they are parents they are better students, and because they are students they are better parents" (Estes, 2011, p. 214). Parents' educational success in the United States is a more substantial predictor of their child's educational, emotional and economic future outcome than in most European nations (Schumacher, 2013). Supporting students with children goes beyond the students' current enrollment, it encourages future generations that are watching their parents succeed, even with all the obstacles and barriers that being a student with children presents (Gault et al., 2014).

“

Student-parents articulate their identities by recognizing and asserting that because they are parents they are better students, and because they are students they are better parents. (Estes, 2011)

�

Introduction

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1.3

Objectives This research aims to understand what are the optimal infrastructure and programming resources that can enable students that are parents to succeed both academically and as parents. How campus settings can help find the right balance between their responsibilities as parents and students, all in the same place, allowing student parents to work on school assignments while being in proximity to their children. This study will identify and define a new infrastructure and programming taxonomy to be considered within higher education campuses through exploring the needs of parents, their current available resources or what they would like to see when they experience increasing time pressure and complexity in organizing daily life (Bakker, W., & Karsten, L. 2013).

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Introduction


1.4

Scope & Limitations The focus of this study is on the non-traditional subgroup of undergraduate and graduate students with children at a research-focused, public higher education entity, Arizona State University. This research aims to identify the physical and programmatic resources students that are parents need at Arizona State University. The specific cohort is student parents of children ages 3 to 17.

The last factor limiting this research lays in the geographical restriction bounded to a one specific study location, Tempe campus, Arizona State University.

Even though this study mentions child care as one of the large needs for students raising children, this research focuses on inclusive infrastructures for student parents and their children Due to a lack of a system to accurately quantify this growing population (Schumacher, 2013), limitations of this study begin first with the inability to establish any communication, either email or newsletters, targeting this specific group. Those who chose to answer the survey and agreed to the interview were self-identified. Second, there's an insufficient amount of data on the needs of students that are parents. Third, this is one research study, in one public university.

Introduction

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30

Literature Review


2.0 Literature Review

Student parent and child having dinner out on a weeknight, doing homework together.

Literature Review

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32

Literature Review


2.0

Chapter Two - Literature Review

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Chapter Overview 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Student Parents 2.3 Needs of Students Raising Children 2.4 Performance of Multiple Roles, Student, Parent and Other 2.5 Higher Education Academic Success 2.6 Programmatic and Infrastructure Needs of Student Parents 2.7 Infrastructure and Programming resources that Facilitate Multiple Roles

2.8 ASU Resources for Student Parents

Literature Review

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2.1

Introduction Student parents are part of the non-traditional student population. They are an increasing part of the current higher education body. Section 2 covers available demographics on this population. Section 3 defines the needs of students raising children. The influence of multiple roles and its benefits is explored in section 4, and academic success in higher education is explored in section 5. Programmatic and infrastructure needs are identified in section 6 and optimal infrastructure and programming resources to facilitate multiple roles are explored in section 7. Section 8 examines current available resources for students that are parents at ASU. Springer, Parker & Leviten-Reid (2009), affirm that "despite record numbers of men and women in graduate school during their peak childbearing years" (p.435), the challenges of balancing studies, work and family responsibilities of graduate students are nearly invisible to their peers, their professors and higher education institutions in general. The lack of available data to identify students as parents prevents raising awareness of their struggles and needs.

34

Literature Review


ASU student parents' programmatic and infrastructure needs

Optimal environmental settings that enable student parents at ASU to succeed academically Academic success ASU resources for students raising children

Conceptual

Figure 6. Conceptual framework

Literature Review

35


Second-Level Conceptual Framework

STUDENT PARENTS Choy, 2002 Radford & Skomsvold, 2015 Gault, Reichlin, Reynolds, & Froehner, 2014 Brown & Nichols, 2013 Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011 Springer, Parker & Leviten-Reid, 2009

ASU student parents' programmatic and infrastructure needs

PERFORMANCE OF MULTIPLE ROLES, STUDENT, PARENT AND OTHERS Lambert, Kass, Piotrowski & Vodanovich, 2006 Estes, 2011 Eller, Arujo & Arujo, 2016 Noll, Reichlin & Gault, 2017 Hoffnung & Williams 2013 Nelson, Froehner & Gault, 2013 Williams & Alliger, 1994 Kuperberg, 2009

Infrastructure and programming resources that facilitate multiple roles

Performance of multiple roles

Optimal environmental settings that enable student parents at ASU to succeed academically Academic success

HIGHER EDUCATION ACADEMIC SUCCESS Kuh et al., 2006 Fauria & Zellner, 2015 Ensign & Woods, 2014

Resources for students raising children

ASU resources for students raising children

Figure 7. Second level Conceptual framework

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Literature Review


PROGRAMMATIC AND INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS OF STUDENT PARENTS

NEEDS OF STUDENTS RAISING CHILDREN

Grabowski, 2016 Schumacher, 2013 Miller, Gault, and Thorman, 2011 Gault, Reichlin & Romรกn, 2014 Eckerson, Talbourdet, Reichlin, Sykes & Gault, 2016 Fraga, Dobbins & McCready, 2015 Wainwright & Marandet, 2010 Peterson, 2016

Bakker & Karsten, 2013 Taormina & Gao, 2013 Freitas & Leonard, 2011 Maslow, 1987 Schumacher, 2013 Gault, Reichlin & Romรกn, 2014 Wainwright & Marandet, 2010 Lovell, 2014

INFRASTRUCTURE AND PROGRAMMING RESOURCES THAT FACILITATE MULTIPLE ROLES Clark, 2000 Lambert, Kass, Piotrowski & Vodanovich, 2006 Martinez, Ordu, Della Sala & McFarlane, 2013

ASU RESOURCES FOR STUDENT PARENTS Grabowski, 2016 https://eoss.asu.edu/resources * "Enrollment Trends by Campus of Major." Arizona State University. Retrieved https://facts. asu.edu/Pages/Enrollments/Enrollment-Trends-byCampus-of-Major.aspx http://studentsforlife.org/2016/11/02/toppublicschools/

** "About: Office of Inclusion and Community Engagement" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://inclusion.asu.edu/about https://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/sites/default/files/ books_pdfs/crow_press_release.pdf Pending right reference style/ASU wriing center

Literature LiteratureReview Review

37


Parents’ education strongly predicts children’s educational outcomes. (Miller, Gault & Thorman, 2011) Student parent and child both doing homework at home together.

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Literature Review


2.2

Student Parents TRADITIONAL STUDENTS To define non-traditional students, it is easier to first describe traditional students. A traditional student is defined as “one who earns a high school diploma, enrolls full time immediately after finishing high school, depends on parents for financial support, and either does not work during the school year or works part time” (Choy, 2002, p.1). The traditional student has increasingly become the exception rather than the rule as early as 2000, when they reflected only 27 percent of the student population. (Choy, 2002). The U.S. Department of Education (2002b) suggests this is not a recent phenomenon: the change in these demographic characteristics and enrollment patterns started to occur in the 1970s.

PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WITH AT LEAST ONE NON-TRADITIONAL CHARACTERISTIC

According to The National Center for Education Statistics, 74 percent of all 2011–12 undergraduates had at least one non-traditional characteristic (Radford & Skomsvold, 2015, p. 1).

74%

26%

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS WITH AT LEAST ONE NON TRADITIONAL CHARACTERISTIC

TRADITIONAL STUDENTS

Figure 8. Percentage of students with at least one non-traditional characteristic. Source: Radford & Skomsvold, 2015, p. 1. Prepared by author.

Literature Review

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NON-TRADITIONAL STUDENTS By contrast, The National Center for Education Statistics (IES) states researchers consider "nontraditional students to have the following characteristics: • Being independent for financial aid purposes • Having one or more dependants • Being a single caregiver • Not having a traditional high school diploma • Delaying postsecondary enrollment • Attending school part time • Being employed full time (Radford, Cominole, & Skomsvold, 2015). For the purpose of this study, the focus is on the non-traditional subgroup of undergraduate and graduate students at ASU Tempe Campus who are raising children. From 1995 to 2011 the number of student parents nationally increased by 50% (Gault, Reichlin, Reynolds, & Froehner, 2014).

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Literature Review

NUMBER OF STUDENT PARENTS INCREASED Student parents as a percentage of fall enrollment, 1999-2011 4,822,747

5,000,000

4,000,000

3,000,000

2,000,000

1995

1999

2003

2007

2011

Source: IWPR analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).

Figure 9. Number of student parents increased

The number of student parents is rising, now compromising 26% of current enrolled students, and it is projected to increase even more in the next decade according to the National Center for Education Statistics, (Marine, 2012). They are projecting that nontraditional students in general will represent 3538% of the undergraduate students in the next 15 years (Brown & Nichols, 2013).


According to Mason, 2006, 24% of women and 28% men enrolled in doctoral programs are raising children and 42% of women enrolled in a Masters degree or first professional degree are raising children while completing their degree (Springer, Parker & Leviten-Reid, 2009).

DOCTORAL PROGRAMS

A study from the IWPR reveals that 28% of female community college students spent 30 hours or more providing care for their children. 30% of these students explained that this situation is very likely to cause them to withdraw from classes and even higher education altogether (Gault, Reichlin, Reynolds & Froehner, 2014).

STUDENT PARENTS ENROLLED IN GRADUATE PROGRAMS

28% MEN

24% WOMEN

MASTERS DEGREE

The Institute for Women’s Policy Research affirms student parents are more likely to have low incomes (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). For this reason they are unable to solely focus on school and they must work to make ends meet, adding pressure to their already existing obligations which affects their academic success (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011).

42% WOMEN Figure 10. Student parents enrolled in graduate programs. Source: Springer, Parker & Leviten-Reid, 2009. Prepared by author.

Literature Review

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“

The National Center of Education Statistics reports that approximately 53% of nontraditional students support more than one dependent and 29% are single parents between the age of 30 and 40 (2002); it is not known how many parenting students are of traditional college student age. (Brown & Nichols 2013)

�

Another study brings to light the additional amount of hours student parents spend per week in their paid and unpaid duties: GRADUATE STUDENTS Mothers

102 hours weekly

Fathers

95 hours weekly

Student without children

75 hours weekly

Table 1. Graduate students time spent on additional paid or unpaid duties

(Springer, Parker & Leviten-Reid, 2009). Also according to the U.S. Department of Education, women's enrollment in graduate programs has increased form 39 percent in 1970 to 58 percent in 2000 (Brus, 2006).

PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN ENROLLING IN GRADUATE SCHOOL

39% 1970

58% 2000

Figure 11. Percentage of women enrolling in graduate school. Source: Brus, 2006. Prepared by author.

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Literature Review


Generalized Demographic Differences Between Traditional and Non-traditional Graduate Students

TRADITIONAL GRADUATE STUDENTS

NON-TRADITIONAL GRADUATE STUDENTS

Twenty-two to thirty years old

Over thirty years old

Primarily Caucasian

Often from underrepresented populations; may be based on race, ethnicity, or gender

Primarily from families with higher socioeconomic status

Often from families with lower socioeconomic status

Single, partnered, or married students with no children

Married or single-parent students with dependent children

Parents provide financial and emotional support to the student

Parents increasingly dependent on the student for financial and emotional support

Fewer hours of paid work

More hours of paid work

Fewer general time constraints

Greater general time constraints

More opportunity for social interaction

Less opportunity for social interaction

More personal time for recreation and relaxation

Less personal time for recreation and relaxation

More academic flexibility

Less academic flexibility

More time on campus

Less time on campus

More opportunities to network

Fewer opportunities to network

More availability on short notice

Less availability on short notice

Increased probability of being mentored

Decreased probability of being mentored

Primary obligation is to excel in school

Primary responsibility is the welfare of their family

Table 2. Source: Brus, 2006, p.34

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Design School Faculty's children on campus because of a school holiday. They entertained themselves at Design North building, outside their parent's office, while their parent worked in their office.

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2.3

Needs of Students Raising Children Research exploring particular needs of students raising children is narrow (Bakker & Karsten, 2013). For the purpose of this study, need is defined as utilizing Abraham Maslow's (1954) five-level hierarchy of needs that mirror the degrees of growth that an individual moves through. This hierarchy was expressed in a pyramid which visually represents first Physiological needs on the very bottom, second Safety needs, third Love/Belonging and fourth Esteem needs. According to Maslow, unless the most essential survival needs are met, such as air, food, clothing and shelter, an individual cannot evolve to achieve higher levels of development (Freitas & Leonard, 2011). The highest needs involve Self-actualization, "where persons are concerned about their legacy, the needs of humankind, and how to make the world a better place for its inhabitants" (Freitas & Leonard, 2011, p10). "The pursuit and the gratification of the higher needs" (Maslow, 1987, p. 58), such as student parents' motivation to better themselves and enroll in higher education, with all the sacrifices that implicates, to model a better future for their children, "have a desirable and social consequences" (Maslow, 1987, p. 58). This can be seen in improvements of the lives of their children (Schumacher,

2013) as reflected in their grades and better study habits (Gault, Reichlin & Romรกn, 2014). Furthermore, "national data on children entering kindergarten have consistently shown that young children of parents with higher levels of education have better reading and math scores than young children of parents with lower levels of education" (Schumacher, 2013, p. 3). For parents, these benefits for their child highly exceed the degree of sacrifices. Students raising children have a common goal: to better themselves and the lives of their families (Peterson, 2016). Some said that their main motivation for the decision to complete their degree is their children. Key among the motivations that drive parents to become students are ambitions of social mobility and financial improvement, not only for themselves but for their families. Parents intend to lead and show by example in terms of educational choices and paid employment, becoming not only a student, but a role model to children. A study conducted by UNITE (2006) affirms that the main motivation for over half (55.4%) of students re-entering higher education, was to become a role model to their child. (Wainwright & Marandet, 2010).

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Five-Level Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid

Self-actualization

Esteem Love/Belonging Safety Physiological Figure 12. Maslow's Hierarchy Pyramid

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Students raising children entering postsecondary education are not only fulfilling their self-actualization needs but they are also impacting and empowering a future lifechanging experience for both parent and child (Wainwright & Marandet, 2010). For parents to fulfil their self-actualization need by pursuing a degree, their children's needs must be met for them be able to focus in their education. For many student parents, learning is a distress; they have a hard time balancing studies with domestic responsibilities, being many times caught up in wanting to study, keep up with family responsibilities and keep their job. The challenges are many: finding reliable child care that can meet their budget, being able to attend class while not jeopardizing their paid job, and conflicting schedules, among others. Parents that enroll in school adopt a new identity as a learner, adding to their already full responsibilities and roles as an employee and parent (Lovell, 2014).

“

National data on children entering kindergarten have consistently shown that young children of parents with higher levels of education have better reading and math scores than young children of parents with lower levels of education (Schumacher, 2013)

�

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2.4

Performance of Multiple Roles, Student, Parent and Other Student parents face a number of challenges to succeed in a higher education environment (Miller, 2013). They experience added tension and stress (Brown & Nichols, 2013), they have considerable children care obligations (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011), and these factors affect both their time and their financial situation (Gault, Reichlin & Romรกn, 2014) while pursuing their education (Brown & Nichols, 2013). Many of these challenges can hold students back from earning their degree within the expected years, and in many cases, from completing it at all (Schumacher, 2013). They also face economic insecurity, which affects their capability to financially commit to higher education (Gault, Reichlin & Romรกn, 2014). When a parent decides to pursue a college degree, they can't exclusively focus on school; they need to manage many priorities such as finances, their children's well-being, personal life, relationships, their work performance and school obligations (Miller, 2010). For students with children, their role as parents will be affected by sacrifices, such as their available time to spend with their children while pursuing their degree (Gault, Reichlin & Romรกn, 2014). Over the past two decades, literature review reveals an incremental scrutiny to work-family

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balance, as a result of striking shifts in family and professional roles. Organizations acknowledging this shift have been receptive to offering options that accommodate new needs (Lambert, Kass, Piotrowski & Vodanovich, 2006). Additionally, many working parents face even more challenges when they decide to better their future and their families and take on a new role as a student. Although combining the expectations of all these demanding roles can be a struggle, working parents will continue to grow as a population in higher education. Even though there is some exploration on studentparent challenges (Estes, 2011) and how this nontraditional group of students manage multiple roles (Eller, Arujo & Arujo, 2016), it is not enough to meet the rapid growth of the undergraduate student parents population, from 3.7 million in 2004 to 4.8 in 2012, making up the 26% of undergraduate student parents nationwide (Noll, Reichlin & Gault, 2017). There is a lack of discussion on how higher education entities address this growing population, their needs, and how campuses' infrastructure lacks the necessary changes to become a truly inclusive environment, to welcome all students.


Student parents must perform multiple roles through their years in college, sometimes transitioning several times a day within their roles as parents, employees and students. Literature review explains this phenomenon with the two following concepts: On one side are the traditional role theorists that build on the concept that psychological and emotional resources are limited, presuming that multiple roles have negative ramifications. Career and family roles' responsibilities and requirements would challenge each other, demanding time and energy causing role overload, conflict among roles, and therefore, stress. This approach is based on the perspective that the demands of each set of roles requires the same constrained resources which brings a lack of welfare and additional stress. On the other side, social support theorists affirm that multiple roles can provide advantages. Based on the approach that human energy is an abundant resource, managing multiple roles could boost energy and decrease stress. Considering that every role has its benefits, assets and pathways to selfimprovement, combining multiple roles provides more chances for sense of accomplishment and achievement, security, gratification and enjoyment (Hoffnung & Williams 2013). Student parent's child having fun at Kroc Center, Salvation Army, an all day, indoor water playground, while the student parent is doing schoolwork

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Multiple roles feed off of each other as they complement and incorporate resources and necessary skills to fulfill that certain role. For example in a family where both parents work, additional income and benefits from employment increases the family well-being, while management skills needed to care for a family and household can benefit the place of employment. Barnett and Hyde (2001), through their literature review, present extensive confirmation "that both women and men are generally benefited by multiple roles, in terms of psychological health, physical health, and relationship quality"(Hoffnung & Williams 2013, p. 322). Working parents' motivations to go back to school include not only improving job opportunities and bettering themselves in their role as providers, which directly strengthens the family as a whole, but also to be a role model for their children. Nelson, Froehner & Gault (2013) state that "research demonstrates that increasing parents’ educational attainment yields positive short and long-term gains for children, in the form of higher earnings, greater access to resources, more involvement in their child’s education and greater likelihood of their child pursuing a higher educational degree" (p.2). The role of parents

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feeds off the role of students in ways such as setting standards and examples for their children, influencing, leading and guiding them by example. On this positive benefit, a student raising children, performing multiple roles, brings additional factors to consider. A critical determinant of one's well-being while performing multiple roles is the quality of each role. For example, for a full time employee, it is not the job itself, but the quality in which his role as an employee is performed that determines its potential benefit. If it is experienced as exhausting and/or not gratifying, that is when multiple roles bring psychological distress (Williams & Alliger, 1994). In case of a student who is a parent as well, the time spent with their children becomes restricted and limited, which Moss' (2006) findings state that specially among mothers "the sense of guilt pervades as they feel their learning compromises time spent with their children" (p.460). This "guilt feeling," that most likely emerges from cultural expectations of what a parent's role should be (Estes, 2011, p.199), can trigger role constraints, the constant juggling between their roles as parents, head of household, employees and students, when exercising multiple roles. Media and popular culture often represents parents as educated, married, financially stable


and supportive, while students are often depicted as "traditional," that is, young and single with the ability to focus solely on their studies. Both roles are considered valued identities, held to high expectations on their own, but when individuals combine both roles it becomes a negative association and the role's identity value decreases. This discrepancy causes a constant struggle for students that are parents navigating all their intersecting roles (Estes, 2011, p.199). Even when executing multiple roles delivers important psychological advantages, under certain circumstances, the combination of roles may bring stress and strain. Work stress literature proposes a predictable relationship between a high amount of workload or responsibility and physical, mental and health issues (Williams & Alliger, 1994). Student parents have to choose daily between the time spent with their children and their responsibility at school. Their role as students often demands large amounts of time spent at school, keeping them away from their roles as parents and their time to devote to their family needs. As a result of this, students perceive that their role as student is interfering with their performance in their role of parent or vice-versa their family responsibilities constrain their time

and dedication to completing their degree. This can become a constant challenge for students, and experiencing this negative resentment towards one of their multiple roles, can hold back "for a short time, a person’s willingness or ability to meet obligations in the other role (Kuperberg, 2009, p 844). Should students raising children have to choose between their children's well-being "right now," by not choosing to better themselves because that would mean time away from their children, or should they choose the long term benefits from going back to school to acquire new skills, setting an example for their children and sacrificing time with them while they are growing up? These are the current dilemmas of this growing demographic of higher education students that need to be addressed by higher education institutions.

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2.5

Higher Education Academic Success The National Postsecondary Education Report (2006) defines academic success as "academic achievement, engagement in educationally purposeful activities, satisfaction, acquisition of desired knowledge, skills and competencies, persistence, attainment of educational objectives, and postcollege performance" (Kuh et al., 2006, p. 7). There are many factors that play a foundational role in students' success, including background characteristics, the quality of their high school academic experiences, their grades and their parents academic achievements. An additional factor is their persistence, determined by the efforts and hours student put in their studies combined with consistent institutional student support. The combination of personal aspirations, family support and parental expectations were high predictors in the students' inclination to higher education as well. All these factors come easier if their families have the necessary monetary resources to support students' financial needs. When this is not the case, financial aid is one of the resources that has dramatically increased its demand in the past years, according to the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education 2002. The last foundational factor to mention is enrollment patterns: full-time or part-

time status enrollment directly from high school or after a delay have an impact in the students' success. These foundational factors, paired with students behaviors, activities and experiences while in higher education and institutional conditions are associated with students' success. According to The National Postsecondary Education Report (2006) these are: THE INSTITUTIONAL CONDITIONS THAT ENABLE STUDENT SUCCESS • A clear, focused institutional mission • High standards and expectations for student performance • Assessment and timely feedback • Student learning centered culture • Peer support • Encouragement and support for students to explore human differences • Emphasis on the first college year • Respect for diverse ways of knowing • Integration of prior learning and experience • Academic support programs tailored to meet student needs • Ongoing application of learned skills • Active learning • Collaboration among student and academic affairs, and among students • Environment that emphasizes support for academic work • Out-of-class contact with faculty Table 3. The institutional conditions that enable student Success. Source: Kuh et al., 2006 p. 73.

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The study, "College Students Speak Success," explores students perceptions of non-cognitive variables that led to their academic success. According to this study, a successful student was someone who achieved a high GPA, and was determined and motivated to work hard. One of the non-cognitive variables was their passion and love for learning, and this was reflected in their attendance, good work ethic, and that they enjoyed their commitment to school work. Students themselves are primarily responsible for their own success, next were professors, followed by parents and spouses. Determination was a powerful quality of students that would overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Time management skills, emotional and financial support from their families, and their relationship with their professors played an important role in students' success (Fauria & Zellner, 2015).

“

The ultimate goal of a higher education institution is to provide a supportive campus environment where all students feel valued and are able to focus on their scholarly growth.

�

(Ensign & Woods, 2014)

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Student parents' child with two of his school classmates watching the superbowl at the Big Game Party 2018 event at The Walter Cronkite School, downtown ASU. Student parent working on school work on the back of the room.

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Another study, "Strategies for Increasing Academic Achievement in Higher Education," 2014, describes factors for student success as Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors:

Selected Predictors of Academic Success Intrinsic Factors • Level of effort and commitment • Self-efficacy, positive self-image, and sense of responsibility Ability to set appropriate goals, ask pertinent questions, analyze resources, and select effective learning strategies

Extrinsic Factors • Level of faculty–student interaction • Racially and ethnically diverse learning environments • Overall quality of the institution • Selectivity during the admissions process • Private vs. public institution • Size of the institution

Table 4. Selected Predictors of Academic Success. Source: Ensign & Woods, 2014.

Though each student’s academic path is different, the study draws two lessons in relation to students success. First, students should seek out and utilize universities' academic resources. There are many missed learning opportunities, such as peer tutoring, free of charge, or other academic resources to be used by students before their struggles become beyond repair. The second lesson was that students themselves are the main party responsible for their own academic success. Their success is a product of their own efforts (Ensign & Woods, 2014). Higher education institutions play a role in students' academic success: they"(...) provide a supportive campus environment where all students feel valued and are able to focus on their scholarly growth" (Ensign & Woods, 2014, p. 22).

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2.6

What can be studied is always a relationship or an infinite regress of relationships. Never a 'thing.'

(Bateson, 1978, p. 249)

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Programmatic and Infrastructure Needs of Student Parents DEFINING INFRASTRUCTURE For the purpose of this study this how infrastructure and programmatic are defined: INFRASTRUCTURE: “Infrastructure is a fundamentally relational concept, becoming real infrastructure in relation to organized practices. Analytically, infrastructure appears only as a relational property, not as a thing stripped of use" (Star and Ruhleder, 1996, p.113). Star, (1999) begins to define infrastructure as the way people frequently visualize it, an organization of layers - “railroad lines, pipes and plumbing, electrical power plants, and wires. It is by definition invisible, part of the background for other kinds of work. It is ready-to-hand." Star mentions how well this visualization holds up when explaining the basics of infrastructure - “turn on the faucet for a drink of water and you use a vast infrastructure of plumbing and water regulation without usually thinking much about it." Until this visualization becomes more challenging when one begins to scrutinize “the situations of those who are not served by a particular infrastructure. Someone with a disability on a wheelchair, stairs to enter a facility are nothing but a challenge (Star, 1991) but for


someone else it’s just a part of that infrastructure. “One person's infrastructure is another's topic, or difficulty” (Star, 1999, p.380). DEFINING PROGRAMMING "The planning, scheduling, or performing of a program" 4 PROGRAM "A plan or system under which action may be taken toward a goal"5 PROGRAMMING The arrangement, scheduling, and/or performing under which action may be taken toward a goal. Postsecondary students raising children, only in the Southwest region, has increased by 65% between 2004-2012 (Noll, Reichlin & Gault, 2017). This enrollment increase brings different programmatic and infrastructure needs to be met by educational institutions. "Non-traditional students report that stress resulting from environmental factors poses one of the biggest challenges to academic achievement and degree completion" (Grabowski, 2016, p.4). Finances, child care arrangements, housing, family

responsibilities and support, and employment demands are some of the environmental factors that add constant pressure to the process of graduating (Grabowski, 2016). There's a lack of information about what this population needs to succeed due to the lack of ability to track and accurately quantify students raising children. A focus group conducted by the graduate and undergraduate student parent support programs at the University of Alabama, inquiring into what this population wanted, came to the following results:

• Affordable and flexible child care • Opportunities to meet with other student parents

• Information about campus and community resources • Lactation centers • Affordable and safe housing, and • Acknowledgement of their special needs and supports from the department (Schumacher, 2013).

Programming. (2018). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/programming Program. (2018). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/program

4 5

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Ahead is a discussion of each point that implicates infrastructure and programmatic needs discovered in this focus group, reinforcing other literature review sources in this matter. AFFORDABLE AND FLEXIBLE CHILD CARE Child care is a vital resource for student parents; is not only necessary for them when they decide to enroll, but it is vital for their retention and degree completion. On campus child care provides high quality early childhood education, socialization, and reliable care, together with the possibility for student parents to focus and succeed as students and parents (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). Even though "success rate of student parents who had access to campus child care was higher than the general student population" (Miller, K., Gault, B., & Thorman, A., 2011, p.15), "on-campus child care is both scarce and unaffordable for student parents, and the availability of on-campus child care has declined over time" (Gault, Reichlin & RomĂĄn, 2014, p.15). One of the infrastructure needs of students raising children is available child care on campus.

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The study Campus Children's Centers: Support for Children and Families, revealed 80% of student parents affirm that their decision to enroll in higher education highly depended on child care availability, and 46% stated that child care was the most vital aspect to drive their decision (Keyes & Boulton, 1995). The lack or decreasing availability of child care on campus, is one of the issues; there is also the capacity of the already established child care on campus. Comparing the need of care and the estimated number of existing slots available showed that only about 5% of child care needs of students were being met. In many cases, if these needs are met, it is only after months on the waiting list. If a student parent manages to get through the waiting list and enroll their child in on-campus child care, the student faces financial barriers (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). According to Gault, Reichlin & Romån (2014), "the cost of full-time child care ranges from $3,900 to $15,000 a year depending on location, quality, and a child’s age" (p.15). An example of this is the Child Development Lab (CDL) at T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics at ASU, which currently has a 3 to 5 year waiting list, and if a student is fortunate enough to enroll


their child, it is financially impossible for student parents to afford this center's fees to have their children on campus. Improving availability and affordability of oncampus child care for students with children, would be likely to increase higher education persistence and degree completion (Gault, Reynolds & Froehner, 2014). Unmet needs of student parents for child care contribute to the low rate of degree completion. Only one third attains their degree within six years, and many of these cases could have succeeded with better environmental infrastructure support (Eckerson, Talbourdet, Reichlin, Sykes & Gault, 2016) The Institute for Women's Policy Research, (2016) analysed data from the U.S. Department of Education on higher education institutions that provide child care on their campuses to determine financial and quality challenges among states. As previously mentioned, the "number of student parents increased from 3.2 million in 1995 to 4.8 million in 2012 (Institute for Women’s Policy Research 2015)," from which population, 43% are

single mothers facing financial challenges. This means parents not only struggle with juggling school, work and their children, but finances also become an added stress. According to the analysis, campus child care that supports student parents has been declining, even though the number of students in need of this resource is consistently growing. According to Fraga, Dobbins & McCready (2015) in their report about child care costs, Arizona is among the 10 top states that are the least affordable when it comes to center-based afterschool care for school age children in 2014. 10 TOP STATES THAT ARE THE LEAST AFFORDABLE CENTER-BASED AFTER-SCHOOL CARE FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN 2014 Rank

State

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Montana Wisconsin Nevada Hawaii Illinois West Virginia New York Arizona Utah Nebraska

Average annual cost of school-age care in a center+ $7,778 $8,849 $7,219 $8,919 $8,498 $6,605 $8,346 $6,361 $6,012 $6,455

Single parent Cost of care as State median a percentage of income ++ median income $20,044 $23,702 $28,248 $27,683 $24,017 $17,591 $25,937 $25,228 $26,784 $24,258

38.8% 37.3% 25.6% 32.2% 35.4% 37.5% 32.2% 25.2% 22.5% 26.6%

Married couple State median income ++ $72,172 $84,375 $69,580 $87,567 $88,403 $71,003 $93,157 $72,137 $73,995 $79,890

Cost of care as a percentage of median income 10.8% 10.5% 10.4% 10.2% 9.6% 9.3% 9.0% 8.8% 8.1% 8.1%

Note: Affordability is a comparison of average cost against state median income. State rankings do not include the District of Columbia. + Source: Child Care Aware® of America’s January 2015 survey of Child Care Resource and Referral State Networks. Some states used the latest state market rate survey. ++Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011-2013 three-year estimates. Table B19126.

Table 5. 10 top states that are the least affordable when it comes to centerbased after-school care for school age children in 2014

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This is one of the reasons why student parents end up spending even more time away from their children, having to work extra hours to be able to pay for child care so they can be able to attend class. According to the previously mentioned focus group, child care on campus is much more than where you take your child while you attend class, it can provide opportunities to interact with many other parents going through the same struggles. Also, when there is accessible and affordable child care on campus, this provides proximity between the child and the student parent. The same study from the University of Alabama inquires about the following needs of student parents: OPPORTUNITIES TO MEET WITH OTHER STUDENT PARENTS Infrastructure such as child care on campus, catering to student parents, not only is a resource that allows these students to attend class, study, and perform other students duties, but also permits parents to connect with other parents, understand how other students in the same situation are dealing with similar challenges and to share their solutions and experiences.

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INFORMATION ABOUT CAMPUS AND COMMUNITY RESOURCES Even though many higher education institutions have available resources to support student parents, they lack the necessary channels to deliver them to student parents in need. Many times students face challenges that could have been addressed by existing resources, but if this information is unknown by this population, it defeats the purpose. A survey revealed that almost half (47.1%) of students raising children wished they had received better information about available support with child care (Wainwright & Marandet, 2010). LACTATION CENTERS Although there has been an increased awareness of student mothers and their needs, and lactation centers have been established among higher education institutions, there is still a lack of accessibility to this type of infrastructure that supports student parents. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THEIR SPECIAL NEEDS AND SUPPORTS FROM THE DEPARTMENT According to literature review, programmatic


flexibility and adjustment would potentially support part of the needs of students raising children and their success in higher education. Understanding that their needs can be unique, and often uncertain and under unpredictable circumstances, is key to having an impact in supporting this population. Additionally, a study done at Mountain West Community Colleges, Colorado, explores detailed experiences of student parents, their struggles and what success meant for them (Peterson, 2016). The study reveals the following major areas were themes of persistence among student parents: SUPPORT This involved financial, academic, social, emotional, psychological and child care support. Additionally, it was important that their own resolve to reach out for support was a factor for their persistence. METHODS FOR ADDRESSING STRESS Even though stressful situations arose daily, involving family, classes and job, having a plan of action to cope with these situations was a must to reduce levels of stress.

Forms of infrastructure facilitate and mediate interaction – between people, between things, between people and things – and also shape an environment that ‘holds’ these interactions. (Tonkiss, 2014)

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Student parent's office working on school work while child playing with legos.

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STUDY AND PARENTING Peterson's findings mention creative ways in which parents juggled parenting and study.

"Sometimes my son gets homework from the preschool. Which is really great, so then we do homework together. Sometimes I can tell them [her children] a little bit about what I am doing. Having to explain it to them in simpler terms, I can better master what it is I am supposed to be learning. So that’s helpful." (Peterson, 2016, p. 377)

Work responsibilities, when organizing and readjusting schedules to attend to class, can increase challenges with inflexible work schedules. Potential unforeseeable schedule change due to child illness increases pressure on students with rigid class and work schedules, as well as studying responsibilities (Gault, Reichlin & RomĂĄn, 2014). Accommodating students with an option for flexible courses, such as classes held on weekends, evenings, online or a hybrid of these may increase retention and degree completion (Grabowski, 2016).

SELF-AWARENESS Their past and current experiences had increased their self-awareness, which enabled them to assume a positive mindset in their responsibilities. INSTRUCTORS Student parents valued their instructors' support and understanding of the multiple demands on their time. They appreciated faculty that made themselves available for one-on-one time with them, building a sense of trust among student parents (Peterson, 2016).

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2.7

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Facilitate Multiple Roles Infrastructure can affect students performance. Using Border Theory serves to demonstrate how infrastructure settings affect student parents in their multiple roles (Clark, 2000). Although school, work and personal life (family) are different systems, they are always somehow integrated. Clark's Border Theory "explains how individuals manage and negotiate the work and family spheres and the borders between them in order to attain balance" (Clark, 2000, p.750). Balance is defined "as satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict. The domains in which Clark's theory is based are among "work" and "family" in which the border theory applies. Clark states that "borders are lines of demarcation between domains, defining the point at which domain-relevant behaviour begins or ends" "These borders have taken three main forms: physical, temporal and psychological" (Clark, 2000, p.756). Utilizing Border Theory as a framework, student parents are daily border crossers, transitioning between school, parenting and work, at times

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existing in two or more different domains. The different degrees of integration and segmentation leads to balance, depending on each individual and the characteristics of the different domains at play. Borders have different characteristics: • Permeability:"the degree to which elements from other domains may enter" (p.756) • Flexibility: "extent to which a border may contract or expand, depending on the demands of one domain or the other" (p.756) • Blending: "when a great deal of permeability and flexibility occurs around the border" (p.756) Coordinating everyday life for student parents, balancing social roles, responsibilities and commitments (Lambert, Kass, Piotrowski & Vodanovich, 2006), can be a source of stress among this population. This is amplified by incompatible demands and particular internal conflicts to this type of students (Martinez, Ordu, Della Sala & McFarlane, 2013).


Campus infrastructure doesn't suggest support to students with children, higher education institutions are "traditional student" oriented, and children are most likely not welcomed. This poses a bigger challenge for students with children to balance different roles, unable to comfortably have their child on campus, while taking care of assignments.

children, or should they choose the long term benefits of going back to school to acquire new skills, setting an example for their children but sacrificing time with them while they are growing up. These are the current dilemmas of this growing demographic of higher education students that need to be addressed by higher education institutions.

Border Theory suggests that institutions have the power to modify domains. ASU Tempe campus is an institution able to modify infrastructures and facilitate flexible borders, in order to increase balance for students raising children while in school. Based on Clark's theory, domains should be more flexible, "be more like employees' homes in terms of values and purpose" (p.765). Tempe campus infrastructure and absence of specific programming for this population, suggests a lack of support for students raising dependants. The challenge is, should students raising children have to choose between their children's well-being "right now" by choosing not to better themselves, because that would mean time away from their

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2.8

ASU Resources for Student Parents Arizona State University is a public research university, and one of the largest public universities by enrollment in the U.S. with 51,869* students on Tempe campus alone during fall 2016.

TEN LARGEST PUBLIC UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES BY ENROLLMENT DURING THE 2016–17 ACADEMIC YEAR 1

University of Central Florida

Orlando, Florida

64,335

2

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas

60,435

3

Ohio State University

Columbus, Ohio

59,482

4

Florida International University

Miami, Florida

55,111

5

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida

52,367

6

Arizona State University

Tempe, Arizona

51,869

7

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota

51,580

8

University of Texas at Austin

Austin, Texas

51,331

9

Michigan State University

East Lansing, Michigan 50,344

10

Indiana University

Bloomington, Indiana

49,695

Table 6. Ten largest public university campuses by enrollment during the 2016–17 academic year

https://eoss.asu.edu/resources * "Enrollment Trends by Campus of Major." Arizona State University. Retrieved https://facts.asu.edu/Pages/Enrollments/Enrollment-Trends-by-Campus-of-Major.aspx

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“ Michael M. Crow has been serving as the president of Arizona State University since 2002. He conceived the New American University model when he moved to Arizona State in 2002. "The New American University is ASU’s reconceptualization of 21st century higher education," a new prototype for the American public research university. More than a decade ago, ASU set forth a new and ambitious trajectory to become a comprehensive knowledge enterprise dedicated to the simultaneous pursuit of excellence, broad access to quality education, and meaningful societal impact. From that point forward, and founded on a vision for a new “gold standard,” all of its energy, creativity and manpower have been brought to bear on the design of a uniquely adaptive and transdisciplinary university committed to producing master learners.* To accomplish this, Arizona State University seeks to "promote equal opportunity through affirmative action in employment and educational programs and activities,"** implementing different programs, initiatives and resources through Office of Inclusion and Community Engagement.

*"A radical blueprint for reinventing American higher education" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://jhupbooks.press. jhu.edu/sites/default/files/books_pdfs/crow_press_release.pdf ** "About: Office of Inclusion and Community Engagement" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://inclusion.asu.edu/about

Equity and inclusion are at the heart of this mission, in concert with the university's charter, which says we will measure ourselves not by whom we exclude but by whom we include and how well they do. (...) I want to reflect on what Projecting All Voices and inclusion mean to me personally and my own journey to have more courage, more knowledge, more empathy and more resolve to change my own behaviour and the culture of our college and our university.

A letter to our community from Dean Tepper Literature Review

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ASU is academically and socially inclusive, with an 83% acceptance rate during Fall 2016. Fall Freshman Statistics Fall 2016 Fall 2015 Fall 2014

Fall 2013

Applicants

33,466

33,575

30,840

28,980

Admits

27,111

27,452

25,496

22,910

%

81.0

81.8

82.7

79.1

Enrolled

10,415

10,391

9,678

8,931

Avg. HS

3.49

3.48

3.46

3.46

Admitted

GPA Table 7. Fall Freshman Statistics https://facts.asu.edu/Pages/New%20Undergraduates/First-Time-Freshman-Profile.aspx https://uoia.asu.edu/

Within the past decade, ASU has opened its doors to a more diverse body of students by increasing scholarships, financial aid programs and community recruitment services such as: • Hispanic Mother-Daughter Program, designed to increase first generation Arizona students • American Dream Academy (ADA), which in 2016 celebrated 10 years serving families in Arizona, graduating more than 33,000 parents and students

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• Foster Youth Bridging Success, a program that connects foster youth to ASU and supports them until they graduate with a college degree. • Out @ ASU, an iniciative that provides educational opportunities, advocacy and programming that empower all students to thrive. They work to promote and sustain a campus environment of respect, compassion and equity for all at Arizona State University. • Pat Tillman Veterans Center, helps veterans navigate and succeed at ASU — with academic resources and transition services — in the spirit of service and dedication that is the legacy of Pat Tillman. The Center supports veterans and their dependents so these students can use their education benefits to their fullest extent and potential. Not only the university enrollment has increased but ASU also has helped students succeed, graduating a larger percentage of students than all other public univesities. ASU accomplishes this through a large variety of extra curricular academic programs, such as: • University Academic Success Programs provide tutoring in different areas, from writing to statistics, for undergraduate and graduate studies, all free of charge


• ASU

Counseling Services offers professional, confidential counseling for students experiencing emotional concerns, problems in adjusting, and other factors that affect their ability to achieve their academic and personal goals. Service is available to any Sun Devil, regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, age, student status, religion, ability, size, financial situation, the issue a student is dealing with or whether a student has counselling before. Something as simple as talking to someone can help students feel better, improve their grades and manage stress. • Among other resources that support students' academic and personal success.

students self-identified as parents, universities do not have a system to acknowledge the fact that a student is also a parent and address their diverse needs.

Rapid enrollment increase at ASU brings challenges such as the ability to track and quantify different demographics, cultures, backgrounds and circumstances of all groups of students attending ASU every year, and for this reason, the university is not able to serve all their students' needs and enable them to succeed and thrive.

It's imperative to rethink campus infrastructure to accommodate and serve, not only student parents but the growing populations of nontraditional students. Grabowski (2016) affirms that although "...non-traditional students constitute a significant portion of post-secondary schools’ consumers, institutions have not sufficiently accommodated the infrastructure that supports the needs of this population (Grabowski, 2016, p.1).

This is the case of students that are parents at ASU: their needs haven't been met, since, unless

In alignment with ASU's New American University mission & goals, the university must find a way to

"Maintain the fundamental principle of accessibility to all students qualified to study at a research university, maintain university accessibility to match Arizona’s socioeconomic diversity,"*

* "ASU Mission & Goals" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://president.asu.edu/about/asucharter

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By exploring and identifying design opportunities in the Tempe campus from an infrastructure and programmatic perspective, ASU could support its mission and goals to "Demonstrate leadership in academic excellence and accessibility," facilitating academic success and accessibility for all students, non-traditional students included. Connecting and enhancing existing campus infrastructure environments with programmatic opportunities, to assist ASU student parents, may also help with the goal to

"Meet the needs of 21st century learners by empowering families in the education of their children, increasing student success through personalized learning pathways, and promoting a college-going culture in Arizona's K-12 schools."*

children an opportunity to immerse in Tempe campus, the benefit from the unexplored programmatic possibilities could potentially "Strengthen Arizona's interactive network of teaching, learning and discovery resources that reflects the scope of ASU's comprehensive knowledge enterprise."* The following section presents all resources that focus on student parents at Arizona State University. It begins with a comparison chart of other universities and colleges that offer an extensive web of services that support student parents. Although none of the following institutions mentioned fall among the ten largest public university campuses by enrollment during the 2016–17 academic year, and their enrollment numbers are significantly below these 10, these insitutions do make continuous efforts to identify, include and support student raising children while in school.

By providing a more inclusive environment for all students and families, may also, "enhance university graduation rate."* By giving

* "ASU Mission & Goals" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://president.asu.edu/about/asucharter

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Enrollment Numbers from Top 12 Public Colleges and Universities for Pregnant and Parenting Students Enrollment fall 2017 University of Washington, Seattle, WA Los Angeles Valley College, Los Angeles, CA

46,1651 17,729*2

Winona State University, Winona, MN

8,1403

University of California, San Diego, CA

36,6244

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

32,7605

Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

30,8966

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

43,8207

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

26,2788

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

61,6409

City College of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

27,10310

Norwalk Community College, Norwalk, CT

13,00011

University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

30,34012

Arizona State University 71,82813 Even though ASU's enrollment is a lot higher than any of these higher education institutions, ASU is NOT included in the top 12 public colleges and universities that support student parents.

Table 8. Enrollment fall 2017. Source: http://studentsforlife.org/2016/11/02/toppublicschools/. Table prepared by author.

1. https://studentdata.washington.edu/quick-stats/ 2.http://datamart.cccco.edu/Students/Enrollment_Status.aspx 3.http://datamart.cccco.edu/Students/Enrollment_Status.aspx*Spring enrollment, fall enrollment not available https://www.winona.edu/ ipar/Media/Fast%20Facts%202016-2017%20Final.pdf 4.http://ucpa.ucsd.edu/images/uploads/About_UC_San_Diego.pdf 5.https://www.obia.utah.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Fast-Facts-vDec2017 6.http://institutionalresearch.oregonstate. edu/sites/institutionalresearch.oregonstate.edu/files/enroll-fall-2017.pdf 7.https://www.wisc.edu/pdfs/uwmadison-factsheet-dec-2017.pdf 8.http://oia.unm.edu/facts-and-figures/fall2017-oer.pdf 9.https://dars.tamu.edu/Student/files/SP-18-20thClass-Day-Headcount.aspx *Spring enrollment 10.https://www.ccsf.edu/en/employee-services/research-planning-and-grants/Research/fact-sheets--regional-and-accreditation-data/enrollment.html 11.https://norwalk.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/NCC-2017-Fact-Sheet.pdf 12.https://www.umass.edu/oir/sites/default/files/publications/factsheets/enrollment/fall/FS_enr_01_f.pdf 13.https://uoia.asu.edu/sites/default/files/asu_facts_at_a_glance_-_fall_2017_final.pdf

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Winona State University, Winona, MN University of California, San Diego, CA University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM Texas A&M University, College Station, TX City College of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Norwalk Community College, Norwalk, CT University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA Arizona State University, Arizona

• •

Table 9. Enrollment fall 2017. Source: http://studentsforlife.org/2016/11/02/toppublicschools/. Table prepared by author. 72

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• • • • • •

• • •

• • • •

• •

• • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Family-friendly campus

Resources offered to pregnant and parenting students

Student parent support center/ family resource center

• • •

Parenting support groups

• • • • •

Family friendly housing options

Child care financial assistance

Easy access lactation spaces throughout campus

• • • • •

Diaper changing stations

Los Angeles Valley College, Los Angeles, CA

• • • • • • • • • •

Backup and sick child care

University of Washington, Seattle, WA

On site child care

Students for Life of America, the nation’s largest prolife youth organization, released this year’s list of Top Colleges and Universities for Pregnant and Parenting Students – Public School Edition.

Child care resources off campus

TOP 12 PUBLIC COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES FOR PREGNANT AND PARENTING STUDENTS

• • • •

• •

• •


• • •

• • • • •

• •

• •

• • • • •

• • •

• • • • •

• • •

• • •

Family swim program

Free child care

Drop-in program

• •

Work-study volunteer program

• •

Co-op child care resources and opportunities

Special transportation services

Special parking for breastfeeding parents

Bring your kid to campus day

Family workshops/ parents courses

Free child care programs (Parent Night Out, Finals Week Child Care, and Drop in Evening Care)

Child care scholarship

CCAMPIS child care subsidy grants

Family counseling

• • •

Priority enrollment for undergraduates with children

Child-friendly study rooms for students that bring their children to campus

Babysitting resources

Free diapers, wipes, and infant formula to student parents in need

Breastfeeding support

Breastfeeding/lactation stations

Lactation rooms available with electric-grade pumps

• •

http://studentsforlife.org/2016/11/02/toppublicschools/

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2.7

ASU resources for student parents The following section describes of the current available resources for ASU students that are parents.

Resources for Students with Families ASU Family Resources strives to: • • •

https://eoss.asu.edu/students-families

Provide university families with appropriate resources Advocate for the needs of families Collaborate with departments, in the development and delivery of programs and services to the ASU community Expand family responsive policies to ensure a healthy and productive environment Educate individuals and the community about ASU Family Resources

ASU's Family Resources provides information regarding on-campus children's programs. Information can be provided via the telephone, e-mail or by appointment. As parental choice is of utmost importance, all options are discussed and resource materials are provided to families to assist them in finding the best care for their unique situation.

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Contact information

ASU Family Resources PO Box 872112, Tempe, AZ 85287-2112 Phone: 480-965-9723 Fax: 480-965-6894


Child Care Services ASU's Family Resources provides referrals to student, faculty and staff families seeking an early care and education program. Information can be provided via the telephone, e-mail or by appointment. As parental choice is of utmost importance, all options are discussed and resource materials are provided to families to assist them in finding the best care for their unique situation.

Website https://eoss.asu.edu/students-families/child careservices

Services: • On Campus • Off Campus • Child Care Financial Assistance

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ASU resources for student parents On Campus Child Care: Tempe Campus

Campus Children's Center (CCC) 910 S. Terrace Tempe, AZ 85281 480-921-2737 CCC Director

Information The Campus Children's Center (CCC) enrolls children one to 5 years of age. The CCC only serves ASU students, faculty and staff. ASU contracts with Bright Horizons to operate the center. CCC is NAC (National Accreditation Commission for Early Care and Education Programs) accredited and state licensed. Open since 1992, the CCC offers lower staff/child ratios than those required by the state, serving a maximum of 75 children at any given time. The center offers mainly full-time child care with some part-week options available. The center is closed for ASU holidays, two days in June for maintenance and staff in-service. The center is open from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m., Monday -Friday. The CCC typically enrolls children from their waitlist. CCC 2017- 2018 Enrollment Policies and Weekly Fees https://eoss.asu.edu/sites/default/files/CCC_2017-2018_ENROLLMENT_POLICIES_WEEKLY_FEES.pdf

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Child Development Lab (CDL) T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics Forest Mall, south of University Drive 480-965-7257

The CDL is a research, teaching and service program that enrolls children two to five years of age. This full-time early care and education program is open to the community from 7 a.m. - 5:30 p.m., Monday - Friday. The CDL closes for the first two weeks in August, two weeks in December, one week in March, all major holidays and occasional in-service days. The center has two older multi-age preschool classrooms and one young preschool classroom for children two to three and a half years old. Each classroom is staffed with a Lead Teacher, Assistant Teacher and college student classroom aides. Lead teachers have a minimum of an undergraduate degree in a child related field of study. Tuition, teacher home pages, annual calendar and other program information is available on the website, along with an online application to place your child on their waitlist. The CDL is state licensed.

Child Study Lab (CSL) Psychology Department Psychology Building, first floor 480-965-5320

The CSL is a part-time developmental early childhood education program. The CSL is open to the community and is considered a research, teaching and service program offering morning and afternoon classes for children 15 months to five years old. The CSL is open during the academic year and the first summer session.

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Off Campus Child Care: Tempe Campus

For Off Campus Child Care Tempe Contact the Program Coordinator: at Maureen.Duane@asu.edu or 480-965-9723

Information They offer support and information, which is sometimes all you need. If you need more help, they can refer you to others on and off campus. For example, they maintain an internal database of licensed child care centers in targeted zip codes surrounding the four ASU campuses. Their goal is to offer expertise, information and educational materials to assist you in finding the best fit for you and your family. • On and Off Campus Child Care Centers • Nanny, Sick and Temporary Child Care Options • Child Care Financial Assistance and other scholarships • Campus Children's Center • Breastfeeding Support • ASU Dependent Care issues and policies • Advocacy for Families • ASU Family Resources Advisory Board • Elder Care referral • Family Assistance for Financial, Counseling, Support Groups, etc. • School-age Resources https://eoss.asu.edu/students-families/offcampus

Choosing Child Care

Choosing a child care center, family home, or in-home provider is often the most difficult decision a family can make. ASU Family Resources has created the two documents: Child Care Checklist and Choosing Child Care to help families make these decisions, based upon what is most ageappropriate for their child(ren). • Child Care Checklist • Choosing Child Care

Back Up Care

Sometimes there is a breakdown in your regular child care situation. For your convenience, ASU Family Resources has compiled a list of agencies in the community that provide options: • Nanny, Sick and Temporary Referral Services https://eoss.asu.edu/sites/default/files/webform/NANNY_SICK_AND_TEMPORARY_REFERRAL_SERVICES_2017.pdf

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ASU resources for student parents Child Care Financial Assistance

Sun Devil Child Care Subsidy: Purpose:

Who may apply? To be eligible for the Sun Devil Child Care Subsidy, you must be:

How do I apply for this Subsidy?

Information The intent of this Subsidy is to support ASU student parents in obtaining their degree. The Graduate and Professional Student Association and Undergraduate Student Governments fund the program. The Subsidy program includes an evaluation component in order to gather information on usage and effectiveness of the program as well as to summarize attitudes, opinions and experiences of the Subsidy recipients. https://eoss.asu.edu/students-families/financial

• • • •

Enrolled in a degree granting program at ASU. Undergraduates: Be enrolled for at least 12 credits per semester. Graduates: Be enrolled for at least 6 credits and/or 1 credit for doctoral students per semester. Be the parent(s)/legal guardian of a child(ren) utilizing child care services (can include nonparent, in home options). • Demonstrate financial need as established by a 2017-2018 FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid). OR • Demonstrate financial need as established by completion of a Student Parent Financial Need Form for 2017-2018. COMPLETE the Sun Devil Care Subsidy Application and attach financial Information: For those who have completed a FAFSA, a copy of your Student Aid Report (SAR); -ORFor those who did not complete a FAFSA (including International Students), complete a Student Parent Financial Need Form for 2017-2018 --AND a copy of your current bank statement (with sensitive information censored) Note: Any student with an FSA ID can view or print his/her SAR by clicking Login on the FAFSA on the Web home page to log in, then selecting View or Print your Student Aid Report (SAR) from the “My FAFSA” page. IMPORTANT: Please make sure that all documents you submit include your First and Last name in the document name.

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What else do I need to know?

• Awards are anticipated to be $500 per semester. • Other exceptions/minimum requirements may apply. • In the case where two student parents are applying for a Subsidy for their child(ren), subsidy monies will be awarded to a single individual on behalf of the family.

Dependent Care and Tax Liability Issues

Child care can be a major expense for student parents and cost could be a reason why student parents do not utilize child care options available in the community. Please contact a tax advisor to determine if you are eligible for a tax credit. In addition, subsidized monies applied toward child care expenses can be considered “scholarship” income and may be subject to taxation. This information is not intended to serve as tax advice. Please consult a professional tax advisor to identify the full tax implications of program use and to determine the optimal use of dependent care offerings.

How does the Subsidy work?

• Funds are disbursed into the Awarded applicant’s Student Account, either as a direct deposit into a student’s bank account or as a check mailed to them.

Responsibilities: a penalty, cancellation or repayment of the Subsidy can result from:

1. Loss of funding 2. Student fails to make satisfactory progress towards their degree 3. Failure to enroll in a minimum of 12 credits for undergraduates or 6 credits for masters students, 1 credit for doctoral students, during the Fall and Spring semesters

4. Withdrawal from classes OR a significant reduction in classes during a semester 5. Withdrawal from ASU 6. Not complying with Subsidy requirements and/or providing inaccurate information. When can I apply? Starting on July 3, 2017 When is the application due? August 25, 2017 What happens next?

• • • • • • • •

Applicants will receive confirmation of receipt of their application. Applications are reviewed by the Subsidy Coordinator. Financial information on each applicant is verified based upon submitted documentation. You may be contacted with further questions. Applications are scored on financial need and the responses to the Essay questions. Sun Devil Child Care Selection Committee, comprised of undergraduate and graduate students, reviews and scores the essay portion of the application. All applicants will be contacted, via the email listed on their application, of the final status of their application. Students awarded a Subsidy will be sent a Subsidy acceptance form to complete and return. This form includes the Subsidy amount, time periods covered, and their responsibilities as a Subsidy recipient. All awarded students will be notified when disbursement of their subsidy is expected to occur.

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ASU resources for student parents Breastfeeding Support

Information Arizona State University’s Breastfeeding Support Committee has developed this website to provide nursing mothers with resources to support their breastfeeding goals. Whether mothers are planning to pump while on campus, or are able to bring their infant with them, the intent is to help nursing mothers by the provision of private designated spaces on campus. Currently there are six clean, comfortable and private designated spaces for mothers to express their milk: two on the Tempe campus, three on the Downtown campus, and one on the West campus. These spaces provide electrical outlets, comfortable chairs, and nearby running water. This website provides you with their locations and, if needed, reservation information. https://eoss.asu.edu/students-families/breastfeeding

Tempe campus - Memorial Union, lower level, L1-41

Tempe campus - Memorial Union, lower level, L1-43

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This room is equipped with a lockable door, chair, foot stool, small table, electrical outlets, sink, counter space, and lighting with a dimmer switch. Mothers must bring their own pump and storage accessories. Room is available without a reservation on a first come, first served basis.

This room is equipped with a lockable door, chair, foot stool, small table, electrical outlets, sink, counter space, and lighting with a dimmer switch. Mothers must bring their own pump and storage accessories. Room is available without a reservation on a first come, first served basis.


Clinical Psychology Center

Contact Info Phone: 480-965-7296 Clinical Psychology Center Location is the University Center Bldg A, Suite 116 just east of Rural Road at 1100 E. University Drive, Tempe.

Does your child have a hard time making or keeping friends? Social Skill-Building Groups for Children Ages 7-13

Children will learn a variety of skills including how to: › Make and keep friends › Join a group at play and be fun to interact with › Resolve conflict with peers › Cope with peer rejection and teasing › Have a 2-way conversation › Make a good first impression and develop a good reputation › Be a good sport on a play date

Groups will meet one night per week for 9 weeks. Parents will also receive helpful information about enhancing their child's social skills.

Please contact the ASU Clinical Psychology Center For Cost and Other Details ASU Psychology Building, 2nd floor, Suite 289 Tempe, Arizona 480-965-7296

Information Established in 1959 as an outpatient clinic and training facility for doctoral students in clinical psychology, the mission of the Clinical Psychology Center (CPC) is to provide outstanding service to our clients using evidence based best practices. CPC Specialty Teams Outpatient therapy is available to children, adolescents and adults and is provided for a broad range of problems including anxiety, depression, family problems, stress, child behavior problems, relationship problems, anger issues, ADHD, sleeping disorders, and adjustment to chronic health problems. The CPC also offers psychological evaluations and specialized groups for social skills training, sleep disturbances, and teen depression.

Our child and family team specializes in: • child anxiety and/or mood disorder • family therapy • ADHD - including evaluation and behavioral intervention • parent-child communication and effective discipline • divorce adjustment in low conflict families • reducing tantrums • improving ability to follow directions • social skills training

Our health and wellness team specializes in the treatment of: • depression or anxiety associated with adjusting to a medical diagnosis • headache/migraine, back pain, or other chronic pain symptoms • stress related to a cancer diagnosis or any medical condition complicated by stress • fatigue • sleep disorders

• Teen Cope - for Parents and Teens

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Counselor Training Center Hours of Operation The CTC offers morning, afternoon and evening appointments throughout the semester. Please call 480-965-5067 to find an appointment time that is right for you. Fees Full-time ASU students and staff — $20 per semester Part-time ASU students and staff — $40 per semester Community members — $80 per semester

Counselor Training Center life can get complicated we are here for you

ASU’s Counselor Training Center offers low-cost, weekly counseling for staff, students, faculty and community members.

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Information About the Center Established in 1956 as the community counseling clinic for the Counseling and Counseling Psychology graduate degree programs, the Counselor Training Center (CTC) provides confidential counseling services for ASU students, staff, and faculty as well as the larger community. Through the center, clients receive counseling services to enhance their well-being in all areas of life. ASU’s Counseling and Counseling Psychology graduate programs are ranked among the nation’s best. Internationally renowned scholars and professors guide a dynamic curriculum that combines innovative research with best practices and hands-on experiences. The faculty of the CTC is committed to training the next generation of highly skilled professional counselors and psychologists. The Counselors Providing services under the close supervision of experienced clinical faculty members who are experts in the field of mental health, the counselors-in-training work with individuals, couples, and families to help them resolve issues that are barriers to healthy relationships and productive lives. Clientele At the CTC we strive to provide therapeutic services that respect and affirm the race, ethnicity, gender identity, age, sexual orientation, national origin, sex, religious affiliation, size, physical or mental disability, and socioeconomic status of all persons. We fully embrace the provision of multiculturally sensitive services that honor the dignity of all individuals. All ASU and Phoenix metro community members are eligible for services. Services Counseling services are tailored to the concerns presented by the client, which might include but Depression Anxiety Personal problems

Relationships Family problems Career counseling

Life transitions


Information

Counselor Training Center

Location The CTC is located in Suite 401 of Payne Hall on ASU’s Tempe campus. Payne Hall is on the northwest side of campus near Myrtle Avenue and 10th Street (1000 S. Forest Mall, Tempe 85281).

are not limited to: Clients are assigned to a counselor and scheduled for standing one-hour weekly appointments for the duration of the semester. Depending on when services are initiated, each client could receive up to 12 weeks of counseling services. Counselors and clients work collaboratively to determine whether additional counseling is needed at the end of the semester. The CTC as a Retention Intervention Recent research (Baskin, Slaten, Sorenson, Glover-Russell, & Merson, 2010) has demonstrated that counseling can have a pronounced impact on academic outcomes, such as increased GPA and retention. ASU students are welcome to use services provided at the CTC to address and help resolve issues complicating their experience at the university. Students who struggle with adjusting to the university, making academic and career decisions, or addressing personal issues that interfere with academic progress might particularly benefit from referral to the CTC. As CTC clients, students can participate in weekly counseling sessions to discuss concerns about career, academic progress, relationships, behavioral problems, or emotional difficulties. Prospective clients may contact the CTC to schedule an intake appointment, during which primary concerns and related issues will be assessed. In subsequent sessions, the counselor will work with the client to develop and implement a treatment plan to move toward the client’s goals. Counseling at the CTC can play a role in student retention as well as promoting general well-being. Baskin, T. W., Slaten, C. D., Sorenson, C., Glover-Russell J., & Merson, D. N. (2010). Does youth psychotherapy improve academically related outcomes? A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 290–296. https://cisa.asu.edu/graduate/ccp/ctc

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3.0 Methodology

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3.0

Chapter Three - Methodology

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Chapter Overview 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Topics & Questions 3.3 Research Approach 3.4 Surveys - Research method one 3.5 Interviews - Research method two 3.6 Case study - Research method three 3.7 Sampling Strategy 3.8 Data Analysis 3.9

Institutional Review Board

3.10 Data Collection

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Children's area, Phoenix Public Library

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3.1

Introduction The objectives of the present research study are the following: Understand ASU student parents' perceptions of their infrastructure and programming needs on Tempe campus to fulfil their responsibilities as parents and students. Gather experiences and perspectives of performing multiple roles, to identify optimal resources that enable them to succeed academically and as parents. The completion of this research study recognizes existing and emerging needs of student parents and recommends settings that inform a new taxonomy and/or program as resources that support and enable ASU students that are parents to be both simultaneously within the university campus, identifying the best type of infrastructure, location and programmatic opportunities by combining existing and new resources.

3.2

Research Topics & Questions In light of the importance and the increased frequency of the issue of how to manage work, family time and student responsibilities, this study aims to explore the optimal infrastructure and programming resources that enable ASU student parents' success. RESEARCH TOPIC: Identify student parents' perceptions of their programmatic and infrastructure needs that can enable them to succeed academically and as parents. Identify how ASU Tempe campus' infrastructure and programming can support them managing their diverse roles and responsibilities as parents and students, all in the same place. RESEARCH QUESTION 1: What are the optimal infrastructure and programming resources that enable students at ASU that are parents to succeed academically? Having a child or raising a family while completing coursework, exams and a dissertation introduces new barriers to an already stressful and often overwhelming process (Detore-Nakamura, 2003; Gerber, 2005; Jirón-King, 2005; O’Reilly, 2002). The exploration of what are the optimal

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infrastructure and programming resources that enable ASU students that are parents to succeed will allow ASU university campus and SCUP to identify a new typology and programs within campus settings, which give the means to students to succeed in both roles. RESEARCH QUESTION 2: What are the perceptions of the physical infrastructure needs of students raising children that enable them to academically succeed at Arizona State University? The Institute for Women’s Policy Research, in a study conducted in 2014, states that 4.8 million college students were parents of dependent children in 2011. With the rapid increased enrollment of this subgroup through the years, it becomes essential to evaluate campus infrastructure to address these new students necessities. RESEARCH QUESTION 3: What are the perceptions of the programmatic needs of students raising children that enable them to academically succeed at Arizona State University? Graduate students often struggle to balance their academic pursuits with their personal lives

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and responsibilities. (Brus, 2006). Maintaining a balance between family and academics is frequently described by mothers as a challenge (Cox & Ebbers, 2010; Marklein, 2010; Rico, Sabet, & Clough, 2009; Van Cleve, 1994). The identification of these needs makes possible an implementation plan to facilitate the success of students in their respective programs. RESEARCH QUESTION 4: How can higher education institutions address and support students raising children through infrastructure and programmatic resources? Work-family issues of graduate students are nearly invisible due to the lack of available data on the size of this population and their daily challenges. Despite record numbers of men and women in graduate school during their peak childbearing years, very little is known about what, if any, services are available for graduate student parents. (Springer, Parker, & Leviten-Reid 2009;2008;). Understanding how student parents navigate and manage their roles as students and parents, and identifying their needs to succeed in this endeavor, provides insight on how campus


3.3

infrastructure can support them to find the right balance between their responsibilities as parents and students, all in the same place.

Research Approach A qualitative approach was chosen to examine and gain intimate awareness of ASU student parents' needs, perceptions and experiences through rich engagement in their reality. Choosing ethnography as methodology helps understand the world from the perspective of students raising children (O'Leary, 2014). The immersion in their day-to-day lives and analysis of how they juggled school and parenting responsibility, brings realization of how this population is structured and bounded by cultural experiences (O'Leary, 2014). Ethnography allows access to the study of this cultural group in their natural setting, their social and cultural interactions, for more profound insight and empathy on the final suggested design guidelines (Hanington & Martin, 2012). After identifying demographics, common patterns, needs and behaviours through a ethnographic approach, it was necessary to gain a deeper understanding of student parents' lived experiences through a phenomenological investigation, to understand a phenomenon experienced by the sample population of students raising children at Arizona State University.

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3.4

Surveys- Research Method One Students raising children, who are performing multiple roles, experience a lot of time constraints. Given that any request to participate in activities would require them to make use of their limited time, and bearing in mind the necessity of gathering a sufficient amount of data, easy-to-access and to-the-point surveys were selected as the first research method. An efficient tool to collect self-reported information from ASU student parents (Hanington & Martin, 2012), was to conduct an ethnography study (O'Leary, 2014). As previously mentioned as a limitation for this study, it is unknown how many student parents currently attend ASU. It is not part of the registration process to ask students if they have children or dependents. Their peers, faculty and professors are not aware a student is raising children unless they self-report as parents. To contact student parents to request their voluntary input, efforts were made to reach out to child care centers on campus, emailing faculty and the Graduate & Professional Students Association (GPSA) to reach graduate students and identify parents. Visits were made to child care centers in the proximity of Tempe campus to leave small flyers with a QR code for potential ASU students that are parents who have children in the center, to learn about the survey and access it through the flyer.

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Enter to win a TARGET GIFT CARD and 4 TICKETS TO LEGOLAND DISCOVERY CENTER!

ASU?

Are YOU a Student & Parent at

Do you struggle with spending

time with your child and studying? Please use this QR CODE to fill out this quick survey to find out a viable solution for your needs as a student/parent

If you prefer to fill out this survey from your computer, please email me to paula.maturana@asu.edu to send you the link.

Surveys were distributed through email to ASU students between November 2016 to November 2017. Their participation in this study was voluntary and involved no more than 2025 minutes of their time to fill out the survey. They had the right to not answer any question, and to stop their participation at any time. There were no foreseeable risks or discomforts to their participation. Responses were linked to email addresses, but they were kept confidential. When they choose to participate in the parent/student survey, they were entered into a drawing to win one of two $25 Target gift cards. In the second part of this survey, there was an opportunity for


3. Are you a single parent? * Mark only one oval. Yes No 4. Are you a: * Mark only one oval. Full-time student Part-time student Other: 5. Do you work: * Mark only one oval. Full-time Part-time I don't have a job at the moment I'm focusing on school and decided not to work Other:

their child to participate by submitting a drawing of their dream tree house, the child was entered in a drawing to win 4 tickets to LEGOLAND Discovery Center Arizona. Tickets were donated by LEGOLAND Discovery Center Arizona. The survey consisted first of demographic questions, followed by questions that would help understand their daily lives, their needs as students and as parents.

6. Are you an? Mark only one oval. ASU staff Faculty Student worker Other: Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

7. What's your age group? * https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform Mark only one oval.

Page 2 of 11

18-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 Other:

DISTRIBUTED SURVEY

Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

1. Are you a student and a parent at ASU? * Mark only one oval.

8. How many children are you currently raising? * Mark only one oval. 1 2

Yes No

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

Stop filling out this form.

3 4

2. What's your gender? * Mark only one oval.

5 6

Female Male 3. Are you a single parent? * Mark only one oval. Yes No 4. Are you a: * Mark only one oval. Full-time student Part-time student Other: 5. Do you work: * Mark only one oval. Full-time Part-time I don't have a job at the moment I'm focusing on school and decided not to work Other: 6. Are you an? Mark only one oval. ASU staff

9. How old is/are your child/children? *

10. Is your extended family here in Arizona? * Mark only one oval. Yes No Part of my family is here in AZ Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

Very Unlikely Unlikely Somewhat Unlikely Undecided Somewhat Likely Likely

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

Page 3 of 11

Very Likely 12. Not including classes, how many hours a WEEK do you need the support of your family for the care of your child/children while you complete school homework, assignments and readings? * Mark only one oval.

Faculty

1-3 hours

Student worker

3-5 hours

Other:

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

11. How likely do you have to rely on family/friends support when you have to study, read or complete assignments? * Mark only one oval.

5-8 hours 8-10 hours 10-12 hours 12-15 hours

Methodology

93


Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

11. How likely do you have to rely on family/friends support when you have to study, read or complete assignments? * Mark only one oval. Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

Very Unlikely Unlikely

17. How likely would it be that a family resource center, where you can spend time with your child while you complete your school work, would help your academic success? Mark only one oval.

Somewhat Unlikely

Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

Undecided Likely Very Likely

Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

Undecided Very Unlikely

12. Not including classes, how many hours a WEEK do you need the support of your family for the care of your child/children while you complete school homework, assignments and readings? * Mark only one oval.

3-5 hours

10-12 hours 12-15 hours

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

Somewhat 17. How likely would Likely it be that a family resource center, where you can spend time with your Unlikely child while you complete your school work, would help your academic success? Likely Somewhat Mark only one oval.Unlikely Very Likely Undecided Very Unlikely Somewhat Likely Unlikely 18. What are your environmental settings that you struggle with as a student at ASU raising Likely children? * Somewhat Unlikely Very Likely Undecided

5-8 hours 8-10 hours

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

Very Unlikely 17. How likely would it be that a family resource center, where you can spend time with your Unlikely child while you complete your school work, would help your academic success? Somewhat Mark only one oval.Unlikely

Somewhat Likely

1-3 hours

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

Somewhat Likely 18. What are your environmental settings that you struggle with as a student at ASU raising Likely children? * Very Likely

Other: 13. How many hours during the WEEKENDS do you need to reach out for help to watch your child/children, either friends, family or a daycare center, to be able to study and complete your assignments? * Mark only one oval. 0-3 hours 3-5 hours

18. What are your environmental settings that you struggle with as a student at ASU raising children? * 19. What are the available resources in ASU campus, that you are aware off, offer the necessary support for students that are parents?

19. What are the available resources in ASU campus, that you are aware off, offer the necessary support for students that are parents?

5-8 hours 8-12 hours 12-15 hours Other:

Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

14. How often do you take your child to work with you? Mark only one oval. Never Once a month 2-3 times a month

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

More than 5 times a month

15. How many times a week do you have the need to reach out for help after hours (after 5pm on weekdays) to watch your child/children, either friends, family or a daycare center, to be able to study and complete your assignments? * Mark only one oval. 1 2 3 4 5 Other:

19. What are the available resources in ASU campus, that you are aware off, offer the necessary support for students that are parents? 20. Which of the available resources for ASU students raising children do you currently use or

Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU 3/25/18, 12)05 AM have used in the past?

Finding solutions students parents at ASU 20. for Which ofthat theareavailable resources

for ASU students raising children do you currently use or3/25/18, 12)05 AM have used in the past? 21. What would be the ideal type of setting assistance for you as a Student and parent at ASU for you academic success? *

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20. Which of the available resources for ASU students raising children do you currently use or have used in the past?

22. How often do you struggle with spending time with your child while you complete your

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform school work? *

Very Satisfied Satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Undecided Somewhat Unsatisfied

Never 22. How often do you struggle with spending time with your child while you complete your school Less work? * Once a Month than Mark only one oval. Once a Month

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

Less than Once a Month Once a Week Once a Month 2-3 Times a Week Once a Week 23. To what2-3 extent Timesisathere Weeka need for you as a ASU student raising a child/children for a place/system/facility/educational setting that provides the right environment for you to Dailyspend time with your child in the same place? * study and Mark only one oval. 23. To whatExtremely extent isnecessary there a need for you as a ASU student raising a child/children for a place/system/facility/educational setting that provides the right environment for you to study and spend time with your child in the same place? * Necessary Mark only one oval. Somehow Necessary

Unsatisfied

Extremely necessary Neutral

Very Unsatisfied

Necessary Not necessary at all Neutral Not necessary at all

Methodology

Page 6 of 11

Never 2-3 Times a Month https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

Somehow Necessary

94

Page 6 of 11

Mark only one oval.

2-3 Times a Month Daily 16. How satisfied are you with ASU support to students that are parents? * Mark only one oval.

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

21. What would be the ideal type of setting assistance for you as a Student and parent at ASU for you academic success? *

Page 6 of 11


Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

27. What's important to you when choosing a place where your child can be entertained? * Check all that apply. Age appropriate toys Age appropriate books Age appropriate video games Computers Indoor setting to enable your child physical activity (ex: Indoor jungle gym, trampolines, etc) Outside park Safety Other: 28. Any suggestions or comments you'd like to add?

Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

24. When your child/children are with you and you have to complete school work, what are the activities your child usually engages while you take care of school responsabilities? Check all that apply. Television School homework

To explore the child's perspective, the survey 29. Would you like a to beportion contacted to learn from their participation as included for the outcome of this project? If so, please leave your contact info here. follows:

Nap Reading

Your child's perspective

Legos

Now we would like to understand your child's perspective. Please fill out the next part of this survey wit your child. a) Can you please ask your child to draw their dream tree house, inside to please include everything they enjoy playing with b) Please add notes to the drawing if necessary to explain what your child meant c) Please take a photo of the drawing and upload it in the next step.

Drawing Dolls Videogames Movies

By completing this part of the survey your child will be eligible to enter a drawing to win 4 tickets to LEGOLAND Discovery Center Arizona

Movies Other:

Finding solutions for students Discovery that are parents at ASUArizona LEGOLANDÂŽ Center

25. Do you utilize any ASU Tempe Campus facilities with your child to do your homework? Check all that apply. Hayden Library Design Library Music Library Noble Science and Engineering Library

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

Page 9 of 11

Outside tables/areas within ASU Tempe campus Computing Commons Other: 26. What are the settings that make you choose these places within ASU Tempe Campus? Check all that apply. Quiet setting Setting that enables your child to play (grass, open place to run Comfortable for students to complete school work Outside setting Inside setting Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU Other:

Drawing example of dream tree house

3/25/18, 12)05 AM

27. What's important to you when choosing a place where your child can be entertained? * Check all that apply. Age appropriate toys Age appropriate books https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

Page 8 of 11

Age appropriate video games Computers Indoor setting to enable your child physical activity (ex: Indoor jungle gym, trampolines, etc) Outside park Safety Other: 28. Any suggestions or comments you'd like to add?

29. Would you like to be contacted to learn from the outcome of this project? If so, please leave your contact info here.

Methodology

95


Drawing example of dream tree house

Drawing example of dream tree house (8 year old boy) Please ask your child to draw his/her dream tree house. Above is an example for you to have guidance. The request was explained as follow: Please draw your dream tree house and what are the things you must include in it to be entertained in it for a long period of time. Please have him explain you what he/she meant to draw and you can make note in the drawing, take a photo and upload it. 30. Your child's dream tree house Files submitted: Send me a copy of my responses.

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1bXL3j-f8ovpLorx_A8guXr3bTvBQY0gIMk8d7741iio/printform

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Methodology

Page 10 of 11


3.5

Interviews - Research Method Two

Although surveys can provide a significant portion of the necessary data, interviews grant development of empathy and trust, providing rich and detailed qualitative data. Therefore, semi-structured interviews supporting the surveys were chosen as a second research method (O'Leary, 2014). To learn about the perception of ASU students parents' needs to be able to fulfil their responsibilities as parents and students, 27 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with students who were interested in participating. When surveys were completed, survey participants were invited to participate in a interview. These were conducted from February 2017 to November 2017. No incentives were offered. The one thing that was offered; assistance in caring for their children while conducting the interview. Some student parents' time was very restricted and a Skype interview was needed, and the same was the case with a student working abroad in South America. Students that had filled out the survey and indicated interest in a follow-up were contacted to request their participation. The topic of

the interview was first learning demographics about students attending ASU including a few specific demographic short answers, and the rest of the questions required a more elaborate response about personal experiences and perceptions when navigating in their roles as students and parents, to be able to identify their needs. The time needed for each interview was approximately 20 to 40 minutes. Participants from the interviews were invited to participate in self documenting their day through text and photos to support and complement the indepth interviews.A photo study that supports the interviews of a small sample of student parents documenting their daily life through photos and a small description is presented the following chapter. 3.6

Case Studies - Research Method Three

Case studies are the third research method chosen to triangulate research methods 1 and 2. To gain detailed and in-depth knowledge of ASU students' day-to-day practices in their roles as parents and students, the case study method was selected by "studying elements of the social through comprehensive description and analysis

Methodology

97


of a single situation (...)" (O'Leary (2005) p.79). Taking a closer look at a specific student parent's complete description and analysis of daily experiences provides an additional body of knowledge on student parents' needs to succeed. Another case study provides ASU Family Resources' perspective on student parents and how this corresponds or differs to the survey and interview findings. Through case studies, an in-depth exploration of ASU: available resources for student parents brings new variables to light and a deeper awareness to what the University is able to offer and to what extent is able to support students raising children (O'Leary 2005) Through an indepth interview with the ASU Family Resources coordinator, comes a better understanding on current university resources offered to students raising children and what other opportunities there are to explore. 3.7

Sampling Strategy

One of the objectives of this study was to examine perceptions and experiences of a specific demographics, Arizona State University students raising children; consequently, a nonrandom, sampling strategy was followed. This

98

Methodology

procedure can accurately characterize the desired targeted population when the selection is made with the purpose of representing the desired demographics and action is taken to assure samples cohere to population attributes (O'Leary, 2014). 3.8

Data Analysis

The collected data from surveys and interviews are analysed separately, first starting with surveys, exploring word repetition among the open-ended questions, studying their context and usage. A more in-depth content is deducted from interviews, which were examined line by line to build up levels of understanding, to ultimately reduce it, and sort it into various themes. A photo study is included as well from the self documented data from student parents. The study explored content analysis and the context where they were used, clustering characteristics and concepts with similar connotation (O'Leary, 2005).


3.9

Institutional Review Board

The current study was submitted for review in September 2016 and approved by October 2016 by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) with exempt status. Continuation of research activities was filed in December 2017 and was accepted in the same month (see Appendix A)

3.10

Data Collection

Data collection for surveys and interviews developed from November 2016 to November 2017. Participants were given a comprehensive description of the study and consent forms.

The goal of content analysis is to provide knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon under study.

“

�

(Downe-Wamboldt, 1992, p. 314).

Methodology

99


100

Data Analysis - Findings


4.0 Data Analysis

Data Analysis - Findings

101


102

Data Analysis - Findings


4.0

Chapter Four - Findings

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Chapter Overview 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Sample 4.3 Characteristics of Survey Participants 4.4 Survey Findings 4.5 Survey Statistical Analysis: Chi- Square Test 4.6 Characteristics of Interview Participants 4.7 Interview Findings 4.8 A Student Parent's Day in Photos 4.9 Case Study: ASU Family Resources 4.10 Reflections on Chosen Methods

Data Analysis - Findings

103


4.1

Introduction This chapter examines the findings from surveys, interviews, self-reported photos and case study methods. Findings are presented from a broader perspective from the surveys, to deeper view of student parents' daily lives through the in-depth, semi-structured interviews. To triangulate findings, this chapter also includes a case study understanding student parents from ASU Family Resources' perspective and how this corresponds or differs to the survey and interview findings. Findings from surveys and interviews are reviewed separately. Participants' characteristics are discussed first, including their demographics, challenges and needs. Interviews examined students' priorities, how they spend their time, descriptions of their daily schedules, what their struggles are as parents and students, and perception of their needs and preferences of infrastructure and programmatic support that would enable them to succeed as parents and students.

104

Data Analysis - Findings

4.2

Sample Distribution of the survey was made through different venues including emails distributed by child care administrators, Hayden library staff and faculty members, and current and past classmates to request assistance in identifying student parents to distribute and fill out the survey. The initial survey had 67 student respondents, two of whom were not parents, which made the final number of participants, 65 (n=65). Survey respondents constituted of 15 males and 50 females. 28 student parents participated in-depth interviews (4 males and 24 females).


4.3

Characteristics of Survey Participants

SURVEY PARTICIPANTS

15 23% MALE

22%

SINGLE PARENTS

50

=

65

77% FEMALE

11% PART-TIME STUDENT

89% FULL-TIME STUDENT

The survey inquired about student parents' demographics, their external available support, how often they need to rely on family and/or friends to help with children while students complete school related tasks during the week and weekends. Also, how aware students are of ASU resources and their level of satisfaction with ASU support for student parents, their experiences if they are currently using any of these resources or have used them in the past. The last portion of the survey asked students about their perspective on infrastructure and programmatic settings that would support them in their academic success and as parents at the same time, including preferences in children's activities while they are doing school work and preferred environmental settings for their child. Student parents that participated in the survey were 77% female and 23% male, and 22% of the total were single parents. Eighty-nine percent of the students are full time students and only 11% were part-time students.

Figure 13. Survey participants' characteristics.

Data Analysis - Findings

105


Thirty-seven percent of the students were between 30-35 ages with 34% of students of ages between ages 24-29. Ages 36-41 and above 41 were both next with a 14% each, and only 1% of the population was within the traditional student model, ages 18-23. Among student parents a considerable percentage, 26%, worked full-time and 34% worked parttime. Twenty-one percent of the population was able to solely focus on school and decided not to work, and 11% did not have a job at the moment but did have the intention or need to find one. Over half of the participants reported having one child, 24.6% indicated having two children and the rest had three or four children. Ages of children varied from months old to over 15 years old, with 46.2% having children of ages 0-3 years old, 21.5% ages 4-6 years old, 7-10 years old accounted 15.1%, children 1115 years old were 12.9% and 15-18 years old only 4.3%

106

Data Analysis - Findings


HOW MANY CHILDREN

AGE GROUP

30-35

24-29

36-41

37%

34%

14%

41

18 -23

14%

1%

AND ABOVE

Figure 14. Survey participants' age group

1 CHILD

2 CHILDREN

3 CHILDREN

4 CHILDREN

58.5%

24.6%

9.2%

6.2%

Figure 15. Survey participants' number of children.

AGES OF CHILDREN

WORK

PART-TIME

34% Figure 16. Survey participants' work status

FULL-TIME

26%

I'M FOCUSING ON SCHOOL I DON'T HAVE AND DECIDED A JOB AT THE MOMENT NOT TO WORK

21%

11%

OTHER

0-3

8%

4-6

7-10

11-15

15-18

YEARS OLD

YEARS OLD

YEARS OLD

YEARS OLD

YEARS OLD

46.2%

21.5%

15.1%

12.9%

4.3%

Figure 17. Survey participants' ages of children.

Data Analysis - Findings

107


4.4

Survey Findings The findings represent student parents' current support from family or friends support, how much they have to rely on them, their struggles with time and family, and how satisfied they are with the University's support. When students were asked about available family support in Arizona, 29% indicated that they have local family support and 55% indicated no family support other than their spouses. From the 29 students who reported having local family support, 37% were likely to rely on family and/or friends' support to be able to study and complete assignments, 29% indicated they were very likely to do the same. A little over 30% were unlikely or very unlikely to have to rely on family support to complete school work. Student parents were asked if they struggled between spending time with their child/children and school responsibilities, almost 40% indicated that it was a daily challenge for them to do both, 29% struggled at least 2 to 3 times a week, and 16.9% at least once a week. Almost 30% of student parents had to reach out after hours (after 5 p.m. on weekdays) for

EXTENDED FAMILY HERE IN ARIZONA

YES 29

45%

NO 36

55% Figure 18. Survey participants' extended family.

108

Data Analysis - Findings


HOW LIKELY STUDENT PARENTS WERE TO RELY ON FAMILY SUPPORT TO COMPLETE SCHOOL WORK

36.9%

Likely

29.2%

Very likely

16.9%

Very unlikely

13.8%

Unlikely

Undecided

3.1%

Figure 19. How likely survey participants were to rely on family support

FREQUENCY STUDENT PARENTS STRUGGLE WITH SPENDING TIME WITH THEIR CHILD Daily

36.9%

2-3 times a week

29.2%

16.9%

Once a week

13.8%

2-3 times a month

Once a month

3.1%

Figure 20. The frequency that survey participants struggled with spending time with their child

Data Analysis - Findings

109


help with their child, to either family, friends or a daycare center, because of their need to complete assignments at least once a week. Twenty-six percent indicated at least twice a week, 20% needed assistance three times a week, almost 14% struggled with this at least 4 times a week and 12.3% of student parents all 5 weekdays. The majority of student parents, 73.8% were unsatisfied with ASU support for student parents (figure 22). Only 7.7% were very satisfied and 18.5% were satisfied. Figure 23 and 24 describe, the amount of hours a week student parents need the support of their family for the care of their child/children while they complete school homework, assignments and readings, not including classes. Thirty percent of students needed between 1 to 5 hours a week, almost 28% needed an average of 13-14 hours weekly. Of the rest of the participants, 13.8% required from 5 to 8 hours, another 13.8% between 9 to 10 hours a week and the last 13.8% from 10 to 12 hours weekly. During the weekends, 29% indicated needing 3 to 5 hours, 26% from 5 to 8 hours and 25% required from 0 to 3 hours on the weekends. Twelve percent needed beetween 8 to 12 hours during the weekend and 8% required 12 to 15 hours a weekend.

110

Data Analysis - Findings

TIMES A WEEK STUDENT PARENTS REACH OUT FOR HELP WITH THEIR CHILD TO COMPLETE ASSIGNMENTS Once a week

27.7%

2 times a week

26.2%

3 times a week

4 times a week

5 times a week

Figure 21. Times a week survey participants rely on family support

20%

13.8%

12.3%


WEEKLY HOURS OF SUPPORT NEEDED

LEVELS OF SATISFACTION WITH ASU SUPPORT FOR STUDENT PARENTS

30.8%

1-5 hours

27.7%

12-15 hours

73.8%

Unsatisfied

10-12 hours

13.8%

8-10 hours

13.8%

5-8 hours

13.8%

Figure 23. Survey participants' weekly hours of support needed

Satisfied

WEEKEND HOURS OF SUPPORT NEEDED

18.5%

29%

3-5 hours

26%

5-8 hours

25%

0-3 hours Very Satisfied

7.7%

12-15 hours Figure 22. Survey participants' levels of satisfaction with ASU support

12%

8-12 hours

8%

Figure 24. Survey participants' weekend hours of support needed

Data Analysis - Findings

111


Figures 25 and 26 identify student parents' perspective on ASU resources for student parents, their awareness or lack of awareness of what is available for them, their needs from an infrastructure point of view and their environmental settings preferences that would support their academic and parenting success at ASU Tempe campus. Were students were asked if they knew about ASU resources for student parents, 55.4% of participants indicated that they were not familiar with any resources that supported them at ASU. Twenty-four percent reported being aware of the childcare subsidy, 12.3% knew about childcare on campus, 6.2% mentioned their awareness about the existence of lactation rooms and 1.5% knew about the availability of counselling. When inquiring about their understanding of ASU resources for student parents, they were asked if they currently use any of them or have used them in the past, and 63.1% indicated they didn't, 18.5% benefited from the childcare subsidy, 9.2% had utilized either counselling, childcare referrals, insurance or parenting groups, 6.2% had used the available lactation rooms and only 3.1% had used childcare on campus.

112

Data Analysis - Findings


AWARENESS OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES FOR STUDENT PARENTS Unaware of resources

55.4%

Childcare subsidy

24.6%

RESOURCES STUDENT PARENTS USE OR HAVE USED

63.1%

None

18.5%

Childcare subsidy

Other (counselling, parent

Childcare

Lactation room

Counselling

Figure 25. Survey participants' awareness of available resources

12.3%

6.2%

1.5%

groups, summer day care program, TRIO STEM, childcare referral, insurance)

9.2%

6.2%

Lactation room

Child care

3.1%

Figure 26. Resources that survey participants use or have used

Data Analysis - Findings

113


FACILITIES STUDENT PARENTS USE WITH THEIR CHILD/ CHILDREN AT ASU TEMPE CAMPUS

70.8%

None

Other

Outside areas at ASU Tempe Campus

Hayden Library

On-campus office

SETTINGS THAT MAKE THEM CHOOSE THOSE FACILITIES WITHIN ASU TEMPE CAMPUS

10.8%

Quiet setting

9.2%

Grass, open place to run

13%

Comfortable for students

13%

6.2%

3.1%

Other (open lawn-courtyard, lab space, outside tables, McCord Hall, unanswered, none, personal TA office, Old Main) Figure 27 a. Facilities that survey participants use at ASU Tempe Campus. b. Settings that make them choose these places within ASU Tempe Campus

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Data Analysis - Findings

52.2%

Other

Outside setting

14.1%

7.6%

Other: A place that is not too quiet so my child's activities don't annoy others, supervised environment, I do not take my children on campus, toys, other kids, play area, napping facility, inside setting, outside setting


Seventy percent of student parents reported not using ASU Tempe campus facilities to do their homework while they were with their child, 9.2% indicated utilizing outside areas in Tempe campus, 6.2% said they use Hayden library and 3.1% mentioned using their own offices on campus. The follow up question was intended to identify the settings that made students choose the facilities on campus mentioned in figure 27. Even though a majority reported not using facilities on campus with their child or children while completing their assignments, they answered the following question indicating their preferences in settings. The answers for preferred settings were coded in 5 categories, in which 52% corresponded to "other," which constituted of a place not too quiet so their child wouldn't bother others, a closed environment, presence of other kids, and a napping area, among others. A quiet setting was favoured by 14.1%, 13% preferred an outside setting where children could run. Another 13% preferred comfort for students and 7.6% indicated preferring an outside setting.

Data Analysis - Findings

115


When student parents were asked about their environmental settings and struggles as an ASU student parent, 49.2% affirmed that it was a challenge for them to find a place to study while their child is with them. A challenge for 20% was class flexibility in terms of time and days, 13.8% struggled with finances, lactation rooms, sick child care and affordable housing. Parenting support programs were mentioned by 9.2%, and 7% struggled with affordable childcare. Considering that almost half of the participants struggled with an environment where they can study while they are with their children, 53.8% affirmed that was extremely necessary to have a place/system/facility/ educational setting that provided the right environment for them to study and spend time with their child in the same place. Another 20% considered it necessary, 13.8% indicated that was somehow necessary, 6.2% was neutral and the last 6.2% indicated that was not necessary at all.

116

Data Analysis - Findings


ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS THAT STUDENT PARENTS STRUGGLE WITH Place to study while with their child

HOW NEEDED IS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR STUDENT PARENTS TO STUDY AND SPEND TIME WITH THEIR CHILD IN THE SAME PLACE

49.2%

Class flexibility in time and days

20%

53.8%

Extremely necessary

20%

Necessary

Other (finances, parking,

more lactation rooms, few hours drop off, sick child drop off, affordable housing)

13.8%

Somehow necessary

13.8%

Parenting support programs

9.2%

Neutral

6.2%

Affordable childcare

7.7%

Not necessary at all

6.2%

Figure 28. Survey participants and environmental settings they struggle with

Figure 29. Survey participants and how needed is an environment to study and spend time with their child in the same place

Data Analysis - Findings

117


Seventy-six percent of student parents reported that is very likely that a family resource center where they can spend time with their child while working on school assignments would help their academic success. They were followed by a 15% of participants who considered this very unlikely and 9% who were undecided whether or not this would support their academic success. Student parents indicated their child or children was engaged in the following activities while they were completing their homework: 38.2% reported that their child would be engaged in electronics such as television, movies or video games. Eighteen percent indicated that the child or children would play in their room, have tummy time, play with infant toys, use an infant bouncer or nap, 15.6% of parents reported that their kids would be engaged in school homework or reading while they complete assignments, 14.6% would be drawing and 13.6% would play with Legos and dolls.

118

Data Analysis - Findings


HOW LIKELY WOULD BE THAT A FAMILY RESOURCE CENTER WOULD HELP THEIR ACADEMIC SUCCESS

76%

Very likely

ACTIVITIES CHILDREN ENGAGE IN WHILE STUDENTS TAKE CARE OF SCHOOL RESPONSIBILITIES Electronics, television, movies or videogames

38.2%

18.1%

Other

Very unlikely

Undecided

15%

9%

School homework or reading

15.6%

Drawing

14.6%

Play with Legos or dolls

13.6%

Other: Playing in his room with his toys, swing, tummy time, YouTube, Play-dough, play with grandma, infant toys; bouncer, friends, nap, nursing, play outside. Figure 30. Survey participants and how likely would it be that a family resource center would help their academic success

Figure 31. Survey participants and activities children engage while taking care of school responsibilities

Data Analysis - Findings

119


As shown in figure 32, a considerable percentage of student parents, 41.5%, indicated that a child-friendly study area with extended hours would be the ideal type of setting for them as a student and parent at ASU. 24.6% of student parents indicated other alternative types of assistance for their academic success: a few hours of free babysitting where they could be close by, knowledge of programs without having to actively seek assistance, having lectures video recorded so that if they miss class due to a child's illness they can still get all of the information, having after 5pm care options for night classes, more convenient parking for someone with a child or pregnant, family center and facilities, preschool for younger children, book rental service for children, a place for children above 5 to hang out when parents have class, an emergency fund or loan that they could qualify for and pay back with tax returns or income based debt repayment. Twenty-one percent indicated that their ideal assistance would be affordable daycare exclusively for students on all of the

120

Data Analysis - Findings

campuses, 9.2% were inclined to a drop-off based child care and 3.1% considered flexible class hours and important assistance for them. When student parents were asked about what was important for them when choosing a place for their child to be entertained, 35.7% preferred the inclusion of age appropriate toys and books, 26% indicated safety, children of similar age, adult supervision, accessible all hours, internet access, a study space for them, emphasis on learning and emotional/social development, among others. For 16.3% an indoor setting where their child could stay active was important, 14.1% preferred an outside park and almost 8% mentioned computers and age-appropriate video games.


IDEAL TYPE OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND PROGRAMMING ASSISTANCE FOR STUDENT PARENTS Extended hours child friendly study areas

41.5%

Other

24.6%

Affordable daycare exclusively for students on all of the campuses Drop-off care

Flexible class hours

WHAT'S IMPORTANT TO STUDENT PARENTS WHEN CHOOSING A PLACE WHERE THEIR CHILD CAN BE ENTERTAINED

21.5%

9.2%

3.1%

A few hours of free babysitting where I could be close by, knowledge of programs without having to actively seek assistance, have lectures video recorded so that if you miss class due to a child's illness you can still get all of the information would be helpful, having after 5pm care options for kids would be very helpful for night classes, not sure but more convenient parking for someone with a child or pregnant would be very helpful, family center and facilities. Preschool for younger children, there is nothing for infants, book rental service for children. A place for children above 5 to hang out when parents have class. An emergency fund or loan that I could qualify for that I could pay back with tax returns or income based debt repayment. Figure 32. Survey participants and Ideal type of setting assistance

Age appropriate toys and books

Safety-other

35.7%

Indoor setting child physical activity

Outside park

Computers and age appropriate video games

26%

14.1%

16.3%

14.1%

7.9%

Other: Kids similar age, Adult supervision accessibility & hours, internet access, and study space for me, near play space for her, emphasis on child led learning and emotional/social development, baby food - healthy learning environment - so they can be learning something, space for my children to also do their own homework with supervision

Figure 33. Survey participants and what's important to them when choosing a place where their child can be entertained

Data Analysis - Findings

121


Data Analysis - Findings

doll house Blocks

toys

footballs

snacks

comfort

movies television

art activities

122

art supplies music couch

Legos

These are the things children mentioned their dream tree house included: Twelve year old boy: • Television, movies, art activities • Food to snack on • Money to buy games • Couch to be comfortable • Areas to play basketball and football • Music • Someone to help in case of support needed Nine year old boy: • Jacuzzi (place to swim) • Television, movies • Toys (superheroes) • Video games • Art supplies to draw • Computers • Books • Legos • Soccer and footballs • Hanging ladder to climb (physical activity) Nine year old girl: • Bicycle • Toys • Books • Electronics • Swing • Doll house • Legos Next child, unknown age: • Blocks • Dolls • Bear • Drawing supplies (ruler)

books bicycle Computers electronics v i d e o Someone to help games basketball

food

These drawings represent what kids imagined as their dream tree house. Five drawings were submitted

soccer

Drawings


Data Analysis - Findings

123


4.5

Survey Statistical Analysis:

Chi Square Test of Independence Between Two Categorical Variables

CHI SQUARE TEST 1: To identify any existent relationship between Student parents' work status (full-time, part-time, no job at the time, chose to focus on school only) and How often do student parents struggle to spend time with their child while they complete their school work, a chi square test was conducted.

Because the p-value is much larger than our alpha, we reject the Ha (alternative) and accept the Ho (null).

Is there a relationship between the response variable "Student parents struggle to spend time with their child" variable and the explanatory variable "Student parents; work status."

It is reasonable to assume that the "Student parents' work status" variable does not influence/affect the "Student parents struggle to spend time with their child" variable.

Ho (null): "Student parents' work status" variable is independent of the "Student parents struggle to spend time with their child" variable.

In conclusion, there is no significant statistical relationship between them.

Ha (alternative): "Student parents' work status" variable is NOT independent of the "Student parents struggle to spend time with their child" variable. Alpha = 0.05

124

Data Analysis - Findings

The sample evidence suggests that "Student parents' work status" variable is independent of the "Student parents struggle to spend time with their child" variable.


OBSERVED COUNTS

EXPLANATORY VARIABLE

RESPONSE VARIABLE

Full-Time

No job

Other

Part-time

School only

Grand Total

2-3 Times a Month

3

0

0

3

1

7

2-3 Times a Week

7

4

1

3

7

22

Daily

4

1

3

12

5

25

Once a Month

0

0

0

1

0

1

Once a Week

3

2

1

3

1

10

17

7

5

22

14

65

Grand Total EXPECTED VALUES

EXPLANATORY VARIABLE

RESPONSE VARIABLE

Full-Time

No job

Other

Part-time

School only

Grand Total

2-3 Times a Month

1.830769231

0.753846154

0.538461538

2.369230769

1.507692308

7

2-3 Times a Week

5.753846154

2.369230769

1.692307692

7.446153846

4.738461538

22

Daily

6.538461538

2.692307692

1.923076923

8.461538462

5.384615385

25

Once a Month

0.261538462

0.107692308

0.076923077

0.338461538

0.215384615

1

Once a Week

2.615384615

1.076923077

0.769230769

3.384615385

2.153846154

10

17

7

5

22

14

65

Grand Total Expected Values All>=5

FALSE

Chi Square test p-value

0.489757788

Data Analysis - Findings

125


CHI SQUARE TEST 2: To identify any existent relationship between How likely student parents had to rely on family/friends' support to complete school work and Full-time or part-time student parent, a chi square test was conducted. Is there a relationship between the response variable "Likelihood of relying on family/friends' support" variable and the explanatory variable "Full-time or parttime student parent." Ho (null): "Full time/Part Time Student" variable is independent of the "Likelihood of relying on family/friends' support" variable. Ha (alternative): "Full Time/Part Time Student" variable is NOT independent of the "Likelihood of relying on family/ friends' support" variable. Alpha = 0.05

126

Data Analysis - Findings

Because the p-value is much larger than our alpha, we reject the Ha (alternative) and accept the Ho (null). The sample evidence suggests that "Full time/Part Time Student" variable is independent of the "Likelihood of relying on family/friends' support" variable. It is reasonable to assume that the "Full Time/Part Time Student" variable does not influence/affect the "Likelihood of relying on family/friends' support" variable. In conclusion, there is no significant statistical relationship between these two variables.


OBSERVED COUNTS

EXPLANATORY VARIABLE Full-time student

Part-time student

Grand Total

Likely

20

4

24

Undecided

2

0

2

Unlikely

8

1

9

Very likely

17

2

19

Very unlikely

11

0

11

Grand Total

58

7

65

RESPONSE VARIABLE

EXPECTED VALUES

EXPLANATORY VARIABLE Full-time student

Part-time student

Grand Total

Likely

21.41538462

2.584615385

24

Undecided

1.784615385

0.215384615

2

Unlikely

8.030769231

0.969230769

9

Very likely

16.95384615

2.046153846

19

Very unlikely

9.815384615

1.184615385

11

58

7

65

RESPONSE VARIABLE

Grand Total Expected Values All>=5 Chi Square test - p -value

FALSE 0.655435458

Data Analysis - Findings

127


CHI SQUARE TEST 3: To identify any existent relationship between How likely student parents were to rely on family/friends' support to complete school work and Single parenting, a chi square test was conducted. Is there an association between the response variable "Likelihood of relying on family/friends support" variable and the explanatory variable "Single parent." Ho (null): "Single parent" variable is independent of the "Likelihood of relying on family/friends' support" variable. Ha (alternative): "Single Parent" variable is NOT independent of the "Likelihood of relying on family/friends support" variable. Alpha = 0.05

128

Data Analysis - Findings

Because the p-value is much larger than our alpha, we reject the Ha (alternative) and accept the Ho (null). The sample evidence suggests that "Single parent" variable is independent of the "Likelihood of relying on family/ friends' support" variable. It is reasonable to assume that the "Single parent" variable does not influence/affect the "Likelihood of relying on family/ friends' support" variable. In conclusion, there is no significant statistical relationship between these two variables.


OBSERVED COUNTS RESPONSE VARIABLE

EXPLANATORY VARIABLE No

Yes

Grand Total

Likely

17

7

24

Undecided

2

0

2

Unlikely

8

1

9

Very likely

14

5

19

Very unlikely

10

1

11

Grand Total

51

14

65

EXPECTED VALUES RESPONSE VARIABLE

EXPLANATORY VARIABLE No

Yes

Grand Total

Likely

18.83076923

5.169230769

24

Undecided

1.569230769

0.430769231

2

Unlikely

7.061538462

1.938461538

9

Very likely

14.90769231

4.092307692

19

Very unlikely

8.630769231

2.369230769

11

51

14

65

Grand Total Expected Values All>=5 Chi Square test - p -value

FALSE 0.521772584

Data Analysis - Findings

129


4.6

Characteristics of Interviewed Participants

When survey participants were invited to participate in a interview, a total of 28 student parents agreed to do this. The interview included 22 questions beginning with general demographic characteristics, followed by inquiries about the use of their time, priorities and struggles as students and as parents, and concluding with their perspective on the settings they considered would support them as ASU student parents.

3

Interviewed participants were 86% female and 14% male with a total of 28 interviews.

UNDERGRADUATE

25

11%

89%

GRADUATE

FAMILY SUPPORT

4

24 NO

14%

MALE

Figure 38. Interviews participants' characteristics.

130

Data Analysis - Findings

86%

FEMALE

19

68%

YES 9

32%


MAJOR

29%

28%

18%

11%

7%

7%

Other

Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts

College of Public Service and Community Solutions

College of Integrative Sciences and Arts

Other: W.P. Carey School of Business, College of Law, College Health Solutions, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, School of Human Evolution and Social Change

HOW MANY CHILDREN

1 CHILD

2 CHILDREN

3 CHILDREN

5 CHILDREN

50%

21%

18%

7%

89% were graduate students and only 11% undergraduate student parents. Their majors varied with a 29% of students from W.P. Carey School of Business, College of Law, College of Health Solutions, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, 28% from Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, 18% from College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 11% Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts and 7% each from College of Public Service and Community Solutions and College of Integrative Sciences and Arts. From the 28 student parents interviewed, 19 indicated lack of family support in Arizona other than their spouses, and only 9 students did count on external support.

Figure 38. Interviews participants' characteristics.

Data Analysis - Findings

131


4.7

Interview Findings STUDENT PARENTS' DAY The following is a visual representation of the description of specific student parents' day, from the time they wake up till their bedtime. The most complete and representative descriptions were chosen to be included in this sample.

STUDENT 1 Morning

Mid-day

Afternoon

Evening

7:30 a.m. Usually gets up, her son gets up around same time. 8:00 Feeds him breakfast and then around. 8:15 a.m. Her 3 1/2 month old would be hungry again so she'll feed her while son playing. All this while doing her best to try to do her school work and also prepare to teach two classes, do grading, work on her dissertation while taking care her baby and her oldest.

11-11:30 a.m. Feed her son lunch while carrying her baby. 12:00 p.m. Both would take a nap, sometime the baby doesn't, and she'll try to work while having lunch. 1:00 p.m. Breastfeeding.

2-3:00 p.m. Her son wakes up from nap, gives him snack and tries to let him play while she works. 3:15 p.m. When her husband comes home and takes care of their oldest child, she takes care of the baby and works.

6:00 p.m. They eat together as a family always. 7:30-8:00 p.m. Oldest child goes to bed. 11:00 p.m. Baby goes to sleep. 10:00 p.m. Tries to take an hour for herself. 12:00 a.m. She goes to bed. Her baby still gets up every 2 to 3 hours to eat. On Fridays her husband will get up and feed her in the middle of the night so she can sleep, so at least get to sleep then.

Figure 39. a. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

STUDENT 2 Morning

Mid-day

Afternoon

Evening

They wake up to breastfeed their son while he can organize things like make the bed, housework and then tried to help with his breakfast or changing his clothes and everything to get him ready for the day. We kind of make shifts in doing that. After that we try to have breakfast together most of the time.

Then usually they go out somewhere story-time or park or something. He stays home and work on my stuff.

They come back we have lunch or he take his nap. Then in the afternoon he works at home.

Then is dinner time which is together, then we get him ready for bed time which means take a bath and everything. Then after he goes to bed I usually work.

Figure 39. b. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

132

Data Analysis - Findings


STUDENT 3 Morning 7:00 a.m. His day starts with breakfast with the family, then gets his kids ready and takes them to school. He goes back home around nine, then he starts studying all the way to noon.

Mid-day Studying till noon.

Afternoon After noon he goes to school he picks up his kids and then goes back to study again so usually his studying hours should finish everyday by 5 p.m.

Evening Time for family or fitness.

Figure 39. c. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

STUDENT 4 Morning

Mid-day

She wakes up before the kids wake up. She will get in the shower, get ready come into the office if it's an office day, usually she tries to be there between 7 and 7:30 a.m. and her husband takes the kids to school.

At work/school all day.

Afternoon She will usually pick up her kids from school, so she leaves the university about 4:30 p.m., picks up her kids and goes home.

Evening Makes dinner and they go to bed between 7:30 p.m. and 8 p.m. Then she usually works after she puts them to bed as well and she usually goes to bed between 10:30-11 p.m.

Figure 39. d. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

Data Analysis - Findings

133


STUDENT 5 Morning

Mid-day

5:30-6 a.m. She wakes up and takes care of their pets. She then makes her kids lunches, their breakfast and get them up. 7:00 a.m. They are out of the house to school. 7:35 a.m. Drop her kids off then she goes home and showers and then goes to work.

Either her research and writing for her dissertation and her paid work.

Afternoon

Evening

3:10 p.m. She picks up one of her kids 3:25 p.m. She picks her other child and she drives them, one to Boy Scout and the other one to a mountain biking team and then her other one plays club soccer. She brings her computer to study or work while her kids in practice.

They get home shower, feed them and then they start kids homework and her homework when possible. 9-9:30 p.m. Her kids go to bed 9:30 p.m. She does the dishes laundry and her homework. 12:00 a.m. Goes to bed.

Figure 39. f. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

STUDENT 6 Morning

Mid-day

She wakes up at 5:30 and workouts at home. Gets breakfast ready and cleans up the home as much as she can and then baby wakes up around 7 so she feeds her, plays with her, gets her dressed and leaves the house at 7:30 a.m. Walks her daughter to daycare and then walks home and she is back home by 8 a.m.

Between 8 and 4 she works on research from home, teaching at ASU, teaching at one of the community colleges or working for GPSA a from home. She has a service position with them and then was starting her dissertation study the week so she'll be driving to school every day from like 9:45 until 10:15 everyday basically until the semester is over

Figure 39. g. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

134

Data Analysis - Findings

Afternoon Around 4 or 4:30 her husband brings the baby home and then they have family time, etc, until she goes to bed about 7 that she's down for the night.

Evening The two of them eat dinner and then just relaxing time, watching TV, reading a book, talking to each other.


STUDENT 7 Morning 6 a.m. She wakes up every day and she gets her daughter ready. 7 a.m. They are out of the house . 7:30-7:45 Drop her daughter off at the sitter. 8:20-8:30 Her day begins at work.

Mid-day 12:00 She doesn't get a lunch because of how busy they are at work. She usually grabs something quickly and brings it back to her desk.

Afternoon Working till 5 p.m.

Evening 5:00 p.m. Begins her work with her internship. 6:30-7 She heads over to class in Tempe. 7:30 - 9:30 p.m. Class time. 9:30 p.m. She leaves to Tempe and drives to Glendale, where she lives. 10:30 She gets home, and doesn't get to see her child since she is asleep by then. Her husband has to be the one to pick up their child, take her home, take care of dinner and bath and all of that other stuff.

Figure 39. i. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

STUDENT 8 Morning

Mid-day

Afternoon

6:00 a.m. She wakes up and gets dressed first and then she wakes her kids up and gets them dressed. 7:10 a.m. She drops them off at their school. 7:15 a.m. She drives to class. 8-8:30 a.m. Starts class.

In class all day.

In class or at school til 4:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m. She drives to pick up her kids from Tutor Time

Evening 5:30-6 p.m. She goes to Tutor Time to pick up her kids and go home. 6:00p.m. Makes dinner, takes care of her kids' needs, their homework, gets them ready for bed so she can study. 8:30 p.m. Kids bedtime. 8:30 p.m. Starts cleaning. 9 to 11p.m. Reading for school. 11:00 p.m. Bedtime.

Figure 39. j. Interview participants' description of a day in their life.

Data Analysis - Findings

135


136

Data Analysis - Findings


Visually represented schedules of a student parents' day clearly shows how the parent/ student schedule and the child schedule are constantly conflicting. Students raising children don't have the same amount of time that students without children have: After class they can go home and continue and finish their homework or readings, while a parent must first take care of their child's needs and it's not till they have done so that they can focus on school again. This was a recurrent challenge identified in the interviews: students shared their daily struggles as students and as parents, and the majority affirmed that having enough time to do it all was their number one conflict. "There is a challenge with the amount of time I've got to do the amount of work I don't have the same amount of time as other people who spend longer hours on weekends to go home and do their homework, and I don't have that time, so it's just that my biggest struggle school-wise is the amount of work." Student 13

“

There's just not enough time in the day to do everything that you need to do to be as successful as you would like. And I'm just speaking for myself but I also know because I've been an advisor for students in the past before so I know this.

�

Graduate Student Parent Higher and Postsecondary Education MaryLou Fulton Teachers College

Data Analysis - Findings

137


Mid-day

S 1

11-11:30 a.m. Feed her son lunch while carrying her baby. 12:00 p.m. Both would take a nap, sometime the baby doesn't, and she'll try to work while having lunch. 1:00 p.m. Breastfeeding.

S 2

They wake up to breastfeed their son while he can organize things like make the bed, housework and then tried to help with his breakfast or changing his clothes and everything to get him ready for the day. We kind of make shifts in doing that. After that we try to have breakfast together most of the time.

Then usually they go out somewhere story-time or park or something. He stays home and work on my stuff.

S 3

7:00 a.m. His day starts with breakfast with the family, then gets his kids ready and takes them to school. He goes back home around nine, then he starts studying all the way to noon.

Studying till noon.

S 4

She wakes up before the kids wake up. She will get in the shower, get ready come into the office if it's an office day, usually she tries to be there between 7 and 7:30 a.m. and her husband takes the kids to school.

At work/school all day.

Either her research and writing for her dissertation and her paid work.

S 5

5:30-6 a.m. She wakes up and takes care of their pets. She then makes her kids lunches, their breakfast and get them up. 7:00 a.m. They are out of the house to school. 7:35 a.m. Drop her kids off then she goes home and showers and then goes to work. She wakes up at 5:30 and workouts at home. Gets breakfast ready and cleans up the home as much as she can and then baby wakes up around 7 so she feeds her, plays with her, gets her dressed and leaves the house at 7:30 a.m. Walks her daughter to daycare and then walks home and she is back home by 8 a.m.

Between 8 and 4 she works on research from home, teaching at ASU, teaching at one of the community colleges or working for GPSA a from home. She has a service position with them and then was starting her dissertation study the week so she'll be driving to school every day from like 9:45 until 10:15 everyday basically until the semester is over 12:00 She doesn't get a lunch because of how busy they are at work. She usually grabs something quickly and brings it back to her desk.

S7

6 a.m. She wakes up every day and she gets her daughter ready. 7 a.m. They are out of the house . 7:30-7:45 Drop her daughter off at the sitter. 8:20-8:30 Her day begins at work.

In class all day.

S 8

6:00 a.m. She wakes up and gets dressed first and then she wakes her kids up and gets them dressed. 7:10 a.m. She drops them off at their school. 7:15 a.m. She drives to class. 8-8:30 a.m. Starts class.

S 6

Morning 7:30 a.m. Usually gets up, her son gets up around same time. 8:00 Feeds him breakfast and then around. 8:15 a.m. Her 3 1/2 month old would be hungry again so she'll feed her while son playing. All this while doing her best to try to do her school work and also prepare to teach two classes, do grading, work on her dissertation while taking care her baby and her oldest.

Indicates student parents responsibilities as parents and family Indicates student parents responsibilities as students and employees

138

Data Analysis - Findings


Afternoon

Evening

2-3:00 p.m. Her son wakes up from nap, gives him snack and tries to let him play while she works. 3:15 p.m. When her husband comes home and takes care of their oldest child, she takes care of the baby and works.

6:00 p.m. They eat together as a family always. 7:30-8:00 p.m. Oldest child goes to bed. 11:00 p.m. Baby goes to sleep. 10:00 p.m. Tries to take an hour for herself. 12:00 a.m. She goes to bed. Her baby still gets up every 2 to 3 hours to eat.

They come back we have lunch or he takes his nap. Then in the afternoon he works at home

Then is dinner time which is together, then we get him ready for bed time which means take a bath and everything. Then after he goes to bed I usually work.

After noon he goes to school he picks up his kids and then goes back to study again so usually his studying hours should finish everyday by 5 p.m.

Time for family or fitness.

She will usually pick up her kids from school, so she leaves the university about 4:30 p.m., picks up her kids and goes home.

Makes dinner and they go to bed between 7:30 p.m. and 8 p.m. Then she usually works after she puts them to bed as well and she usually goes to bed between 10:30-11 p.m.

3:10 p.m. She picks up one of her kids 3:25 p.m. She picks her other child and she drives them, one to Boy Scout and the other one to a mountain biking team and then her other one plays club soccer. She brings her computer to study or work while her kids in practice.

They get home shower, feed them and then they start kids homework and her homework when possible. 9-9:30 p.m. Her kids go to bed 9:30 p.m. She does the dishes laundry and her homework. 12:00 a.m. Goes to bed.

Around 4 or 4:30 her husband brings the baby home and then they have family time, etc, until she goes to bed about 7 that she's down for the night.

The two of them eat dinner and then just relaxing time, watching TV, reading a book, talking to each other.

Working till 5 p.m.

5:00 p.m. Begins her work with her internship. 6:30-7 She heads over to class in Tempe. 7:30 - 9:30 p.m. Class time. 9:30 p.m. She leaves to Tempe and drives to Glendale, where she lives. 10:30 She gets home, and doesn't get to see her child since she is asleep by then. Her husband has to be the one to pick up their child, take her home, take care of dinner and bath and all of that other stuff.

In class or at school til 4:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m. She drives to pick up her kids from Tutor Time

5:30-6 p.m. She goes to Tutor Time to pick up her kids and go home. 6:00p.m. Makes dinner, takes care of her kids' needs, their homework, gets them ready for bed so she can study. 8:30 p.m. Kids' bedtime. 8:30 p.m. Starts cleaning. 9 to 11p.m. Reading for school. 11:00 p.m. Bedtime.

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INTERVIEWS FINDINGS AND EXPERIENCES After asking participants how they prioritize for their day, 36% reported without hesitation their kids were their priority. One of the subject's experience was as follows: "Probably homework last. The hierarchy of needs for the children fed the meals throughout the day, they're clean they are entertained, and I guess basically the needs of the children and then I got to go last." Student 5 Twenty-five percent indicated that school was their focus.

PRIORITIES FOR THE DAY

Kids

School

36%

Depends on day

25%

18%

Family

11%

Calendar

10%

Figure 40. Interviews participants' priorities for the day

DAILY STRUGGLES AS A PARENT "Classes. It's law school, it is no joke I'm competing with these graduate students who all live here on campus you know, 20 - 24 years old, probably one of the oldest people in my class. And then, you know law school is based on a curve so you can't all get A's, okay, 15% of the class get As, the others are forced into B's and C's so you really compete against each other." Student 10 Eighteen percent of respondents reported that their priorities depended on the day, 11%

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Balance kids care and school

Other

Time with their kids

Kids' behavior

57%

22%

14%

7%

Other: Parenting, special needs child, patience, stress, mental healthand time for themselves. Figure 41. Interviews participants' daily struggles as a parent


indicated their family was their priority and 10% reported that a calendar would be set up in advance to set their priorities for their day. (Figure 40) When inquiring about student parents' struggles first as a parent, 57% reported they were challenged with balancing their kids care and their school work. The following is a testimony of one of the subjects and her struggles: "I'm constantly feeling like I'm having to choose school over my children, especially with my oldest child. My little one doesn't understand, but with my oldest especially when he wants to do something like read, and I have to say, no I'm sorry I can't read right now, can you give mama some time? I feel guilty. That even something good for him as reading I have to say no mama can't read right now. So just feeling guilty for not being able to be there whenever he wants me to be there. Not being able to spend that time with him because I'm basically on my computer all day trying to get work done because it's so sporadic,

15 min. here and there. I'd never really put my laptop away until we eat dinner because when I can come back to computer to work those 15 minutes, I wanted to be up and ready so I can do it. For me, that is my biggest struggle is just feeling guilty that I don't have time for him. Then when you add a second baby to the mix, everything is different. When they both have needs at the same time, who do you pick? One's hungry, the other one wants to be picked up, or both need to be put down for a nap, or they are both hungry, how do you choose whose need to take care of first." Student 1 Twenty-two percent of students struggled with stress, mental health and time for themselves. This 22% included a special need child which brings additional challenges: "As a parent I feel that my child needs a lot of attention because she is a special needs child so she cannot play on her own I have to be with her all the time that's why I struggle when I want to study and take care of her the same time I really don't get a lot done when she's around because she needs a lot of attention." Student 21

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DAILY STRUGGLES AS A STUDENT

Fourteen percent struggled as a parent with the time they would get to spend with their child and 7% with their kids' behavior. When students were asked about their daily struggles as students, 46% reported struggling with caring for their child while having school responsibilities:

Care of their child and schoolwork

TIme

Other

46%

29%

25%

Other: coursework, prioritize, overwhelmed, parking, schedule Figure 42. Interviews participants' daily struggles as a student

FREE TIME

"I'm working full-time 40 hours a week, classes full time, right now I'm pulling 16 credits plus another 3 for my internship online, and then that leaves a couple hours in the evening that I have with her, to get her ready to read a book and then get her to sleep." Student 23 Twenty-nine percent indicated that time is their struggle, as a graduate student parent from Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College affirms:

None

Family

Other

46%

36%

18%

Other: sleep, once a month, 1/2 an hour a week, some time on the weekends, summer Figure 43. Interviews participants' free time.

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"There's just not enough time in the day to do everything that you need to do to be as successful as you would like. And I'm just speaking for myself but I also know because I've been an advisor for students in the past before so I know this. So I've heard them before as well as the struggle


is always finding enough time to be able to be successful because if they had more time they know they can go from a C to a B or a B to an A. I want to be able to put more time and effort into a course. So I thought I'd like to think that I'm someone who's very disciplined and I always do my work to the best of my ability but I know that if I had more time it could have been better." Student 13 Twenty-five percent of participants struggled with prioritizing their school and family expectations, workload and conflicting schedules, feeling overwhelmed and parking. The following students mentions her struggle with priorities: "I think the priority issue comes up, because going to school is making me feel fulfilled as a person and I know it will pay off in the end and I know I'm setting a good example for my son. I'm a first-generation college student so like, even getting to my Master's today is a big deal, and it's going to be great for him, but I think what is hard as I'm there, a lot of the people in my classes

aren't parents, and I'm lucky that my program is so interdisciplinary that my professors a little more understanding, but they are professors expect work to be done at a certain way and I think that's where I have like, a struggle is like okay my son's not feeling well tonight. Which is more important, my son not feeling well or getting my homework done." Student 27 When student parents were asked about their free time, the most common, inmediate phisical response was to laugh, 46% affirm it doesn't exist, 36% say their free time is with their family, and 18% said during their free time they sleep, or it's only once a month or 1/2 an hour a week, some time on the weekends or during the summer. A student parent says: "My free time looks like dreaming make a list of stuff I'd like to get done and never really get done. I don't really have any time, the weekends is the closest thing. We go to church on Sunday, so that takes up a chunk of Sunday and then any free time I have is generally doing something with the kids. Relaxing with the kids, like we watch a lot of movies together." Student 13

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WHEN STUDENT PARENTS FIND/HAVE/ MAKE THE TIME TO COMPLETE THEIR ASSIGNMENTS AND STUDY

When everybody goes to bed

Family watching children

During the day

38%

27%

27%

Weekend

8%

Figure 44. When interview participants complete their assignments and study.

Thirty-eight percent of students reported they completed assignments when everyone in their home went to bed and mentioned a second instance: everybody goes to bed or morning, everybody goes to bed or weekend, everybody goes to bed or lunch break. Twentyseven percent indicated a family member would watch their children for them to be able to complete their school work. Another 27% said they would do their homework during the day and 8% would do this on the weekends.

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THREE AREAS STUDENT PARENTS WOULD CHOOSE TO IMPROVE AT ASU

Childcare

Family Housing

Financial resources such, as Sun Devil Child Care Subsidy

65%

27%

8%

Figure 45. three areas student parents would choose to improve at ASU.

When students were asked if they could choose improvement in either childcare, financial resources such, as Sun Devil child care subsidy or family housing at ASU, which one they would choose, 65% reported childcare needed improvement, either its affordability, the long waiting lists or the required full-time schedule for children to attend. A student tells her experience with her mother in school when she was a child: "My mother used to work at Sinaloa State University. She was also a


student there and I was born when my mother was 21 so of course she was very young when she needed all the help that she could get and I clearly remember that I used to be babysat at the University. She would drop me off at this sort of like I like a preschooler or kindergartener that was adjacent to the university and it was part of the University. We wore the same colors for a uniform. I clearly remember her dropping me off and then picking me up when she was done with her work and her school and I was there all day long and it was free." Student 6

enormous weight off my shoulders because that would seem to me to solve a lot of the other problems." Student 13 Eight percent of student parents mentioned the need of improvement for financial assistance.

Twenty-seven percent preferred improvement in family housing, either the location, quality and more opportunities of it for student parents. A W. P. Carey MBA student parents explains his preference: "I would say housing if I could be in a place that was well priced so I wouldn't have to take out a lot of loans. Or housing closer to the school so my commute was less and was decent price in a community with a lot of other families, that would be an

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“

This was an interesting and kind of strange experience. I look back over the photos and the day seems so calm, when in reality there is so much keeping up with the kids and doing dishes and switching over the laundry in those minutes between pictures that the day feels chaotic from the time we wake up until the time the kids go to bed.

�

PhD Candidate and Graduate Teaching Associate in English Literature. 146

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4.8

A Student Parent's Day in Photos After the interviews, 4 students were asked if they would participate in a self-documented data collection by capturing their day, every hour, through photos and a quick description of what was happening at that given time of the day. As follows, their photos and descriptions are used to visually explain the many tasks student parents accomplish in an average day. Although they took photos every hour, one student did mentioned that the photos do not completely reflect everything that really goes on in their lives, describing chaos in her actual scenario, while the photos represented in her case a more peaceful day than it really is.


GRADUATE STUDENT, EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND EVALUATION, MARYLOUFULTON TEACHERS COLLEGE STUDENT 12 6:30 a.m.

Late and preparing myself for the day

7:00 a.m.

Preparing Sofia for school

7:30 a.m.

In the way to Sofia’s school

8:10 a.m.

Starting to work in a paper submission for today

9:30 a.m.

Still working

10:30 a.m.

First coffee

11:30 a.m.

Second coffee and improvised lunch

12:40 p.m.

Driving to park my car before leaving for classes

1:00 p.m.

Waiting for the bus

1:10 p.m.

On the bus

1:20 p.m.

Getting to class

2:20 p.m.

Could not concentrate in class craving for sweets

3:30 p.m.

On class ready to go home

4:00 p.m.

Falling asleep on the bus

5:00 p.m.

Picked up Sofia and now starting to clean and prepared dinner

6:30 p.m.

Dinner

7:30 p.m.

Bath and play until now 10pm

10:00 p.m. Today she goes to bed early because she had to meet 4 deadlines this week and stayed up every night Figure 49. A day in photos Graduate Student, Educational Policy and Evaluation, MaryLou Fulton Teachers College.

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PHD CANDIDATE AND GRADUATE TEACHING ASSOCIATE IN ENGLISH LITERATURE STUDENT 19 10:30 a.m.

Waking up about an hour later than usual, as this little one is teething and was up most the night

11:30 a.m. We’ve had breakfast and are reading some books before getting dressed

Figure 50. A day in photos PhD Candidate and Graduate Teaching Associate in English Literature.

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12:30 p.m.

Laundry. Always laundry.

2:00 p.m.

Making macaroni and cheese for the kids while they eat an appetizer of peaches at the table.

2:12 p.m.

Ten minutes to check and reply to emails while kids eat lunch.

3:10 p.m.

Post lunch melt down. Time to attempt a nap (he’s been fighting them hard lately).

5:00 p.m.

My spouse is home from work, so now is my dissertation work time.

7:00 p.m.

Dinner break from working - Erik is a much more ambitious and knowledgeable cook than me, for which I’m grateful!

8:00 p.m.

Back to work on my dissertation for about an hour before it’s time to put the kids to bed.

9:30 p.m.

We have picked up, gotten in our pajamas, brushed our teeth, and read books, so now it’s time for bed (for the kids).

2:00 a.m.

Brushing my teeth before heading to bed. I can hear my 3yo crying though, so I’ll be checking on her first.


GRADUATE STUDENT, DESIGN (VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN), HERBERGER INSTITUTE STUDENT RESEARCHER

6:06 a.m.

Snoozed from 5:00 am

6:24 a.m.

Yesterday's news while preparing lunch/breakfast and Xavier gets ready

7:10 a.m.

Late on our way to school

8:33 a.m.

Working at home on applied project. I'm usually at work at this time but dealing with home repairs and waiting for the repair guy

10:08 a.m.

Just getting to work

11:08 a.m. Working 12:08 p.m.

Still at work

2:00 p.m.

Met my stat tutor for help with data analysis

3:00 p.m.

At home to work on applied project and to meet repair guy

5:00 p.m.

Worked at home till 5:30

5:30 p.m. Picked him up and brought him jumping with him friends 8:25 p.m.

Dinner with mom and grandma

9:30 p.m. In bed watching videos together before going to sleep 11:13 p.m. 12:13 p.m.

Trying to get some work done while he watches videos. Stays up later on Fridays

2:30 a.m.

Bedtime with a little Friday night visitor

Still working going to bed soon

Figure 51. A day in photos Graduate Student, Design (Visual Communication Design), Herberger Institute.

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GRADUATE STUDENT, BIOLOGY, LIBERAL ARTS & SCIENCES

STUDENT 9

Figure 52. A day in photos Graduate Student, Biology, Liberal Arts & Sciences.

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5:30-7:30 a.m.

Our oldest daughter, Olivia (4yo in June), normally wakes up bright an early before 6am. My wife and I trade off days (Tue is my day) with who gets up early to cook everyone breakfast and make sure Olivia doesn’t get in too much trouble. Our second daughter, Penelope (1yo in April) normally sleeps until ~7am. We all try to eat breakfast together and get ready for school/work.

7:30-8:30 a.m.

Luckily, Olivia’s school is only ~1 mile way, so when the weather is nice I load up both girls and bring the dog, Miley for some quality time before the day gets going.

8:30-10 a.m.

Penelope is still too young for school, so we have a nanny. On Tuesdays, the nanny doesn’t start until 10am so I hang out with Penelope and (try to) get a little work done. Penelope has hip dysplasia and has to wear a harness 23 hours a day. She’s a tough cookie, but the medical expenses from X-rays and medical equipment are a challenge (plus ASU does not offer dependents on our health insurance).

10-11 a.m.

Advocating for graduate students is important to me which I why I’ve been involved with GPSA for 3+ years. Part of my efforts involve frequent meetings in the Fulton building to develop new programs to benefit grads. Our latest endeavor is an alumni outreach program that provides partial support for students during the summer to reach out and connect with


ASU PhD alumni. Finding funding for these types of programs is always difficult, luckily people in the foundation are typically able to assist. 11-1 p.m.

The life of a graduate student… Writing normally takes up a significant portion of my days. Today I’m working on applications to get funding for my final PhD chapter. Fingers crossed.

1-2 p.m.

I am a committee member for a Barrett honors thesis. Mentoring undergraduate students is very important to me and promoting women in STEM has been my priority since starting at ASU. I am very proud of Brittany and spent the hour going through her thesis. I look forward to her defense this week.

2-3 p.m.

3-4 p.m.

I’m part of a weekly physiology reading group with other graduate students on my floor. Each week, someone picks a current paper for us to dissect. This week we’re meeting to discuss oxidative stress and how it is a proposed mechanism for aging. Staying updated on scientific literature is important in my development as a scientist, grad student, and researcher. We aren’t able to afford living in Tempe, so we’re renting a house in east Gilbert which is much more affordable. The downside is the long drive which is typically ~45min each way. The cost of parking at ASU is also pretty hefty too, luckily I have a super-secret

parking spot off campus where I can park for free and ride my bike to the lab. 4-5:30 p.m.

Cooking with two kids around is frequently impossible. I’m grateful that grad school is relatively flexible and I can start cooking before the nanny is done. My wife and I trade off days who cooks dinner. Generally, whoever had to wake up at the crack of dawn with Olivia is free from cooking that night.

5:30-7 p.m.

We are typically done eating by 530pm and then it’s time for my favorite time of the day: bath, jammies, and stories. Depending on how well the girls napped (Olivia, if at all) they typically go to bed around 7pm. Today was pretty typical and they were both snoozing by 7. I’ll admit we’re very lucky to have two good sleepers.

7-9 p.m.

Trying to find some semblance of work-life balance is important to me. Balancing work and family life challenging enough and my first two years of grad school didn’t equate to much physical self-care. For the past 6 months I’ve been going to martial arts two nights a week. It isn’t an exorbitant amount of physical activity, but it’s all I have time for and better than nothing.

9-10:30 p.m.

My wife and I typically try to be in bed no later than 10:30pm.

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STUDENT 4

STUDENT 3

STUDENT 2

STUDENT 1

Photo Study

Photos including their kids

152

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Photos including schoo/work tasks

Photos including home/personal tasks


4 8 3

4 4 4

7 5 2

5 4 3

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4.9

Case Study ASU Family Resources In the previous sections on student parents' perception of their programmatic and infrastructure needs, their view of ASU resources, and their perspective on opportunities ASU has to support them in their academic success had been identified. This study also includes Maureen Duane*, Senior Program Coordinator, for ASU Family Resources, experiences and perspective about the University’s challenges and efforts in supporting student parents since the program began. In 1988, a committee was established at ASU to determine the need for on-site childcare on campus. The committee created two surveys – one for faculty and staff and one for students. The faculty and staff survey was well-received and provided good data. The student survey, however, revealed a lack of participants. The committee reported their findings, along with recommendations, to the president's office. Foremost was the recommendation to create a position that would focus on providing Child Care Resource and Referrals for student parents and determine the needs of families at ASU.

The Senior Program Coordinator for ASU Family Resources position was created. Duane’s background and experience in early childhood education made her a great fit and she was offered and accepted the job. Her first task was to survey student parents on their needs and the resources currently available to them at ASU. She reported that historically, many universities around the country spent up to 20 years studying childcare needs on campus but not acting on it. That was the start of ASU Family Resources, an office that provides resources and referrals to students, faculty and staff with dependent care needs. This ranges from providing information for on and off-campus child care canters, backup care, nanny, emergency and sick child care. A large part of Duane's role is managing the third party contract for the on campus children’s center which has been in existence for 25 years. She works with on and off-campus partners in the development of program policies and services for families and searches out other resources in the community that could provide services for ASU families with childcare needs.

*Maureen Duane, Program Coordinator Sr, Dean of Students Tempe. ASU Family Resources Advisory Board

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Duane mentioned a couple of signature programs she helped create: • Picnic during family weekend, on the only weekend for student parent transfers, especially international families with young children • Thanksgiving dinner for student parents. On Thanksgiving, a turkey and all the trimmings are provided. • The Car Care Clinic for single parents. Provides basic free car services such as oil change, help with financing tires if needed, among other basic car needs. • The Adopt an ASU Family program helps parents who can’t afford presents for Christmas. Parents will put together a “wish list” and volunteers have the opportunity to “adopt” them and buy the gifts for the family. “That’s been really a great program; it’s been around since 2001,” says Maureen. • Cap & Gown Loan program for student parents. All that’s required is a nonperishable food donation and a $20 deposit that’s refunded when the gown is returned.

HOW DO WE KNOW WHO'S A STUDENT PARENT AT ASU ASU doesn't ask in the admission form if a student is a parent or not for legal reasons. Duane confirmed that, to her knowledge, no other higher education institution in the country does it either. This is not an ASU- only challenge. It's a higher education issue. Supporting prior statements mentioned in literature review, lack of information about what this population needs to succeed, potentially comes from the inability to track and accurately quantify student parents (Schumacher, 2013). “I didn’t know about you!” is something she hears often, says Duane. In continuing efforts to find ways to identify student parents on campus, Duane reached out to financial aid years ago when she had to obtain the number of Pell grant recipients at ASU. They asked her if she wanted to have any additional data to which she agreed. The number of student parents reflected on the FAFSA for a single year seemed low to her. She was concerned about using FAFSA data

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Students not only come to the university with children but they have children while they are here. Students are in their childbearing ages.

Maureen Duane, Program Coordinator Sr, ASU Family Resources

156

Data Analysis - Findings

to quantify this population. From surveys conducted through the years and based on their sample survey results, FAFSA showed 9 to 10% of ASU undergrads had dependents and 25% of grad students were parents.

ESTIMATE OF STUDENT PARENTS AT ASU

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

GRADUATE STUDENTS

10%

25%

ONE PERSON "TEAM" CHALLENGES AND HER PARTNERSHIP MODEL One of Duane’s challenges of being a one person office plus the lack of funding, was the missed opportunity to get involved with programming. Another challenge has been the lack of space within the university, which affects breastfeeding support. Even though there are lactation rooms on campus, there are not enough to meet student parents' needs. Duane mentioned


a wellness and sustainability initiative now focuses on this issue, but lack of space remains a challenge. Through the years, Duane has had sporadic office and administrative support. For this reason, she says, it is so important to have a system in place. She sometimes has had to be in two places at one time; that’s when she makes sure she has the right networks to connect with. For example, Sun Devil Child Care subsidy financial assistance for student parents. This is funded by all the campus governments, GPSA, Downtown, West, Poly and Tempe. These entities pooled their funds and have $250,000 available for undergraduate and graduate student parents. When applications are being accepted, Duane has a variety of ways to spread the word to apply for these funds. She enjoys reading student parents’ essays which often can bring her to tears. In her years running the program, she has found how powerful it is to see their focus is on their kids. They want to make it better for their children and they want to use the on campus child care because they think it would be the best option for their families. PAST SUCCESS On several levels Duane mentioned having great champions for what she is trying to do. On the other hand, one of the challenges in the last

decade, is ASU becoming much more collegecentric. For example, the WP Carey Business School or the Ira Fulton Engineering College do everything for their students, with the exception of initiatives to address student parents' needs. Having one child care to serve all the University's needs is just an impossible task, she affirms. A visible example is to see how much ASU has grown while early childhood programs have decreased. She mentioned a wonderful center at West campus, one of the first NAEYC accredited centers, which is now gone. In 2017, the Mary Lou Fulton childcare center was eliminated, too. ASU used to have a federal grant that focused on supporting on-campus child care and partnered with off-campus centers as well, It was a large child care subsidy for students to be able to use on campus childcare. Duane identified partnerships with not only the campus children center, but also the nationally accredited child study development lab at the West campus. Another important partnership was with the downtown Phoenix campus, a center that was licensed to serve the needs of infant care. On a sliding scale, the ASU Family Resource center was funding basically 85% of actual child care costs for student parents. When evaluating the efforts of this partnership, students reported

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ASU family resource center was funding basically 85% of actual childcare costs for student parents. When evaluating the efforts of this partnership, students reported they were graduating on time, they had higher GPA than the rest of the student population, and this was only undergrad students.

Maureen Duane, Program Coordinator Sr, ASU Family Resources 158

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they were graduating on time, they had higher GPAs than the rest of the student population and this was only the undergrads*, said Duane. This is a clear example of the impact that ASU support can have on student parents' academic success. INFRASTRUCTURE THAT SUPPORTS STUDENT PARENTS Discussing possible infrastructure and programs where students can have their child on campus while studying, Duane mentioned a grad student who was working with her and the GPS 3 years ago, and talked about a ”drop off” room - a child-friendly space. She said she had often heard limitations developing an official space for students and their children that had to do with liability issues. But she then shared an alternative for this issue. She mentions an initiative from international students, somehow a way around the liability issue, where a group of international student parents would reserve a room in the MU - doing things on an informal basis. When it came to physical infrastructure, she saw it as a challenge. She couldn't get space for breastfeeding, imagine getting space for anything else, she says.

See Appendix B

*


Another physical infrastructure she mentions, which used to be centrally located at the MU, was the adult re-entry center. It became a good space for older students to connect with each other and deal with similar struggles. This center was close to her office and she witnessed a lot of student parents struggle with their relationships as a student when their spouse or partner wasn't; how hard it was for students to go from having their full partner's support to have no support from them. NOT ONLY STUDENTS ARE PARENTS Duane brings up a very important point. Often faculty and staff, not surprisingly, have many of the same issues. “Why can’t we bring them together and support each other?” she asks. She recently had a lengthy phone conversation with a staff member who was struggling to pay for childcare. “Just imagine a student,” she says. WHAT NEXT? One of the things that was interesting for Duane to report was when she asked student parents how supportive they thought ASU was with families. Their answer was that ASU is not supportive. They thought their fellow students

and faculty were supportive but not ASU as a whole. Student parents face many challenges, as she illustrated with a recent example. She had received a student's email stating, "I'm heading into some really busy times with my degree, I have a child with a lot of health issues and I need to know how I can legitimately say to my professor, this is real and I might miss class, I might miss deadlines.” In this case, there was the advocacy assistance office that helped the struggling student. But Duane feels that maybe, "all just stands back to a deeper culture acknowledging that everybody has a family and sometimes those family issues are going to come to work or come to school with you. Ask ourselves, are we empathetic enough, progressive enough to realize that in the long term we have to help folks go through those kinds of things?" Many think of infrastructure support exclusively as a tangible facility, Duane suggests thinking of it in other ways; other things in place that would advocate to not only become a more family-friendly campus, but ultimately a shift to an inclusive university family culture.

See Appendix C

*

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159


160

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4.10

Reflections on Chosen Methods Surveys as a research method was chosen because of student parents time constraint, they were an easy-to-access way, to get sufficient amount of data. Surveys provided a to-the-point method for student parents to fill them out through their phone without using much of their time. Even though this method was an effective way to gather student parents perceptions, interviews provided a more indepth, rich and detailed data from student parents experiences. Self documented photos and description of their day, were an insightful way to learn from student parents day, what’s important to them and how they spent their time. For future studies, additional number of interviews and a larger sample of self documented photos and descriptions are recommended, including student parents’ children's perspectives and preferences.

parents. Case study served to triangulate other two methods by confirming how resources differed in more than one way to what student parents need from the university to succeed as students and parents. The continuous increase of this population while, infrastructure (such as childcare) and programmig for student parents, such as CCAMPISwhich supported students by paying 85% of childcare costs, closing of Mary Fulton preschool in 2017, were some of the examples that affected this population at ASU that were confirmed with the cas study. There is high confidence in the results because all three approaches confirm each other.

Case study with Sr. Coordinator from ASU Family Resources was chosen to gain detailed and in depth information about the history and missed opportunities of support for student

Data Analysis - Findings

161


162

Discussion & Design Suggestions


5.0 Discussion + Design

Student parent and child at home working on respective homework

Discussion & Design Suggestions

163


164

Discussion & Design Suggestions


5.0

Chapter Five - Design Guidelines

Infrastructure and Programming Resources that Support Student Parents at ASU

Chapter Overview 5.0 Introduction 5.1 ASU and Inclusion of Student Parents 5.2 Student Parents' Challenges and Preferences 5.3 Student Parents' Time and Multiple Roles 5.4 Re-purpose and Redesign of Existing Resources at ASU 5.5 Identifying Programming and Infrastructure Resources 5.6 ASU Opportunities to Support Student Parents 5.7 Summary of Existing Programming Opportunities at ASU 5.8 Infrastructures for Student Parents 5.9 Examples of Infrastructure and Programming from Other Institutions 5.9 Programming and Infrastructure Recommendations 5.10 Conclusion Discussion & Design Suggestions

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More than 2 out of 3 college students today are not coming straight out of high school. Half are financially independent from their parents, and 1 in 4 are parents themselves.

Introduction Chapter 5 incorporates the research findings described in Chapter 4 and recommends programming and infrastructure design guidelines, based on the findings. These guidelines are visually represented to explain the many available opportunities from an infrastructure and programming perspective within ASU.

�

Interview with David Scobey, American studies and history professor at the University of Michigan*. April 2018

*Interviewer Anya Kamenetz, NPR's lead education blogger.

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5.1

ASU and Inclusion of Student Parents Arizona State University is ranked #1 in the U.S. for innovation, dedicated to accessibility and excellence. The school strives to be "... measured not by whom we exclude, but rather by whom we include and how they succeed." Welcoming and being inclusive of this market segment not only follows the moral ethical aspect of the university but also operationally would be more productive. "Students who interact with diverse students in classrooms and in the broad campus environment will be more motivated and better able to participate in a heterogeneous and complex society" (Gurin, Nagda, & Lopez, 2004).

* "New American University: Toward 2025 and Beyond" Arizona State University. Retrieved https://president.asu.edu/about/asucharter

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5.2

Student Parents Challenges and Preferences Findings from research questions that inquired about student parents’ struggles with existing infrastructure and programming at ASU, indicated students' challenges were to balance spending time with their child while having to work on their school responsibilities, their access or ability to pay for childcare or have someone to watch their child so they can work on school related tasks. Findings indicate student parents' feelings of being pulled in different directions, constantly having to choose school over their child or other adult responsibilities and viceversa. They want to spend time with their child, but they have to complete their homework, adding financial barriers with childcare that is expensive or not available at all due to waiting lists. Findings indicate additional struggles such as class flexibility, parking on campus for parents or pregnant students, family housing, their commute and their kids' commute, among others. Student parents, when considering their ideal type of setting that would support them described: a kid’s library within ASU’s libraries to leave their child while studying, a “childcare” type of setting where they could study and be close to their child, ASU students majoring in education & family studies to work on campus in after school programs with extended hours,

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child friendly study areas on campus where they could bring their infant, free activities for their child during the evenings while they finish working, a place where their children could feel comfortable, surrounded with others their own age, where they could communicate and get help with their homework, while students parents complete their own homework as well.

5.3

Student Parents' Time and Multiple Roles

Findings confirm what's discussed from other studies in Chapter 2 and the amount of time student parents required to take care of all their other responsibilities besides school. Twentyseven percent required an additional 12 to 15 hours a week of support from their families and/ or friends with the care of their child in order to complete their school work, 26% require between 5 to 8 hours during the weekend. This is a large amount of hours considering all their obligations as parents, students and additional responsibilities as employees. Thirtyfour percent of student parents worked parttime and 26% work full time. Juggling among their diverse roles led over 50% of students to


reach out to family or friends for help with their children, between once to twice a week, in order to meet their school responsibilities after 5 p.m. In their efforts to succeed in all their roles, 38% reported their daily struggle to spend time with their children and succeed in school.

of space would very likely help their academic success and 53% considered this type of space extremely necessary.

ASU RESOURCES The majority of students reported their discontent with the lack of support for student parents at ASU. Findings indicated that over 50% were unaware of any resources that supported them as student parents and 63% reported not using any of the available resources at all. Participants also indicated not utilizing any of ASU facilities with their children to do their homework through the surveys, and during the interviews, they explained they felt ASU wasn't a family friendly institution: " I think it's about creating a very family oriented culture here at ASU, understand that you have family needs." Student 1 Student parents were asked their thoughts on an infrastructure at ASU where they could spend time with their child while they complete their school work, and 74% reported that type

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5.4

Re-purpose and Redesign of Existing Resources at ASU Findings confirmed the studies discussed in Chapter 2, and that enrolment numbers increased at ASU, childcare services had decreased for students, as previously mentioned in Chapter 1. This chapter focuses on the continuous pattern found in the data indicating the need of student parents to integrate their life as a parent and as a student. When a student parent enrolls in school, they never stop being parents, and interview findings indicate their struggle with the time spent on school duties and their feeling of guilt for not spending more time with their child. Even though student parents mentioned childcare as a part of a solution to manage their challenges with school responsibilities, they also affirm how much of a struggle it is for them to spend more time with their child on a daily basis or at least two or three times a week. Having access to childcare as the only possible solution for student parents to have time to solely focus on school would most likely increase how much they already struggle with spending time with their children and their feelings of guilt in having to choose between one or the other.

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Border theory, as previously discussed in Chapter 2, helps explain how students are constantly managing their different roles as parents, spouses, employees and students, through borders or domains between each role in order to attain balance or satisfaction performing each particular role. Student parents are daily border crossers, transitioning between different domains: "school domain,""parent domain,"and "work domain," sometimes a multiples times a day. The different degrees of integration and segmentation of these domains is what leads to balance, depending on each individual and the characteristics of the different domains at play. Findings indicate student parents need to find this balance between being a parent and a student. Environments that would enable them to be parents and students at the same time would make their domain borders more permeable, flexible and even blend. ASU Tempe campus is an institution able to modify infrastructures and facilitate flexible borders in order to increase balance for students raising children while in school. In order to understand students' infrastructure and programming needs, they were asked


to choose programs they would implement to best support them as parents and students at ASU. Responses were divided between a type of infrastructure that provided few hours of drop off childcare and another space that provided a child-friendly environment where student parents could get their school work done. "The biggest thing I could think of, especially when he was very small and he was anywhere on campus I could go, a room that was child-friendly and I could get work done. Maybe getting somebody to watch him for like an hour while I attend a meeting." Student 22 Programming suggestions from interviewed student parents were usually innovative ways of using existing ASU infrastructure and programming resources already in place, re-purposing them to support student parents. Supporting this statement, a recent interview with Scobey, American studies and history professor at the University of Michigan mentions, "Adult learners are actually less expensive to educate, because they don't need many of the resources that late-adolescent, residential students require. Adults don't need more resources; they

“

Adult, nontraditional students have to fit their studies into complex lives with multiple roles and stressors, rather than being able to organize their work and social life around a central role as a college student.

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Interview with David Scobey American studies and history professor at the University of Michigan*. April 2018.

*Interviewer Anya Kamenetz, NPR's lead education blogger.

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need colleges and universities to redesign their resources in ways that meet adult students in their lives — for instance, by offering more flexible academic calendars" (Kamenetz, 2018). As one of the interviewed students indicates: "Sports activities for kids are really important and we have a school that has thousand undergraduate students and they need to do internships and those internships are for teaching sports fitness so nobody is taking advantage of this for the ASU community. You can have these kids to do a sports club. The infrastructure is there, you don't need to invest money because they need to do an internship. So you might need to hire somebody that coordinates but doesn't need to be high level person in public programs or take advantage of hiring another student worker. . Sports for big kids, and even you can make money, offer the program for a lower price the semester for soccer, design school could do the t-shirts for the screen printing you know like there's so many possibilities. Let me tell you most likely the instructors that kids are having in soccer clubs are ASU students." Student 2

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5.5

Identifying Programming and Infrastructure Resources

Considering the findings and existing available resources at ASU, two types of spaces are suggested

Types of infrastructure that provide few hours of drop-off childcare

Spaces that provides a child-friendly environment

• Opportunity to receive support with homework • Tutoring opportunities • Connect with different existing programs at ASU

• Students seek opportunity to do their work while their child is with them in the same space • Child can interact with other kids their age • Visual contact with parent • Able to approach parent at any time • Integrating their role as a parent and as a student • Opportunity for child to feel included in other areas of parent’s life

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• Through an initial enrollment to this program, student parents would have access to these resources through a mobile app

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5.6

ASU Opportunities to Support Student Parents

STUDENT PARENT IDENTIFIED CHALLENGES

RECOMMENDATIONS

Online and printed brochure that includes all available resources for student parents at ASU.

Lack of awareness of exisiting resources that may support student parents at ASU

This brochure could be designed and updated as a design school internship MOBILE APP THAT: A mobile app would enable student parents to be up to date with any type of resources that could support them. They would be able to connect with other parents and have their kids engage with other kids their age. This app could be develop and maintained as a PRIME center project*

Lack of connection with other student parents with similar experiences.

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CONNECTS • Parents support groups • Arrange playgroups INFORMS • Programming for student parents' kids • Schedule of activities • Upcoming classes • Transportation support for children • Registered students on call • All available resources

*AMP is a three-year project (2015-2018) funded by the National Science Foundation that capitalizes on: 1) the technology interests and talents of high school students to increase and sustain their interest in STEM fields; and 2) the desires of high school teachers to enhance their technology expertise and knowledge of technology applications to promote student learning.

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STUDENT PARENT IDENTIFIED CHALLENGES

Classes scheduled late in the evening, classes with unflexible schedules, being in two places at the time, long commute to school and parking were some of the student's additional challenges

Long waiting list for child care and if they were fortunate enough to move up the list, they were not able to afford it. No options for use of childcare as needed, they must enroll their child full time, even if parent only needs a few hours.

When child is sick and student parents had to care for them, their challenge was missed classes and valuable information they needed from that lesson.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Working with ASU parking and transit buses to design a bus route for school district child pick up and drop-off at designated areas on campus. This would support student parents with their class schedules, make better use of their time while their child is being picked up, they can go to class or complete school tasks without juggling with how to be in two places at the same time.

Students on call: a pool of qualified students willing to babysit student parents' child for a predetermined affordable fee due to last minute circunstances. For example, when normal childcare arrangements fall through at the last minute.

Buddy system implemented to have lectures video recorded and class notes shared, so that if they miss class due to a child's illness they can still get all of the information they need. This could be implemented through a mobile app

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Volunteer@ASU ASU students have the opportunity to serve their Community with Changemaker Central. Whether once a month or weekly, there is an opportunity out there for students to make a difference in the world. Tutoring, building homes, sorting food, assisting in a hospital are just a few of the many ways students can get involved in your community. VolunteerMatch at ASU is a database of local and on-campus volunteer opportunities for ASU students, Faculty and Staff. Using your ASU Login – you can create a profile in VolunteerMatch and:

• Search and sign up for volunteer opportunities on and off campus • Set a service goal and track your progress • Log your service and print a “service transcript”

https://changemaker.asu.edu/programs/volunteer-match

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University Service-Learning University Service-Learning offers ASU courses that link academic curriculum with service at Community Partner sites and provides service-learning resources to ASU faculty, K-12 teachers, and the community.

3-credit service-learning courses for students Make a difference in your community, satisfy graduation requirements, and gain resume-building “real-world” community service experience attractive to employers, graduate, and professional schools. Learn about community issues through academic coursework that correlates to your major and approved service activities. You select the type of community service and setting from a varied list of approved Community Partners.

Courses consist of two parts: academics & service. Students arrange their service schedule with their selected Community Partner to complete the required number of hours, spread evenly throughout the semester.

CATEGORIES Addiction Adults Animals Arts/Culture Crisis Intervention Design (all types) Disabilities Education

Elderly English Learners Environmental Fundraising Government Health Services Homeless Hospice

https://communityengagement.education.asu.edu/programs/university-service-learning

Hunger/Poverty Justice System LGBTQ Library Marketing/PR Mental Health Mentoring Refugees

Social Services Special Education Sports/Fitness Technology Youth


Opportunities at ASU Examples of service tasks/projects LOCAL TITLE I SCHOOLS • Work with classroom teachers to create and teach lessons to children • Tutor academically at-risk children • Provide in-class assistance for children • Lead children in physical fitness, music,or arts activities • Create and implement afterschool club programming • Mentor children, including raising their expectation of attending college • Lead children in service projects NONPROFITS/COMMUNITY OUTREACH

• Lead direct service projects (e.g. food •

• • • •

drives, recycling) Provide direct service (e.g. assist at a health clinic, teach classes at a senior center, serve food at a homeless shelter, or work with therapy animals) Fundraising, PR, Marketing, Graphic Design, Videography Organizing and recruiting volunteers Assist in planning and executing outreach events Promote free arts programs in low income communities

America Reads National program initiated in 1996 by President Clinton with the goal of ensuring that all children can read independently by the end of third grade. The ASU America Reads Program offers tutoring and mentoring programs staffed by paid students (those eligible for Federal Work-Study), as well as unpaid University Service-Learning students. America Reads tutors work with children one-on-one at partner community centers and schools. Paid positions are available only to students awarded Federal Work-Study funds. If students do not qualify for work study, they can earn 3-credits by enrolling in a University Service-Learning course and selecting America Reads as your service internship

• • • • •

Both graduate & undergraduate students are eligible No experience necessary — training provided Transportation from Tempe campus available Afternoon shifts available, Mon-Thu Morning shifts available during summer https://communityengagement.education.asu.edu/students/america-reads

AmeriCorps at ASU National community service program that supports civic engagement, focuses on increasing awareness of community issues, and rewards participants contributing significant amounts of service with Education Awards to pursue their educational goals. As a Teachers College AmeriCorps member, students will:

• Address common educational challenges affecting students at Title I schools and students with special needs.

• Earn a Segal AmeriCorps Education Award, which may be used to pay college costs or repay student loans

https://communityengagement.education.asu.edu/students/americorps

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School of Social and Family Dynamics Internships

Develop an Internship Internships are great opportunities for students to gain career-related work experience. ASU Career and Professional Development Services (CPDS) does not have a formal internship program – but rather, we offer resources to connect employers offering internships with students seeking internships. Internships that meet the criteria listed below and are in compliance with our Recruiting Policy can be posted to Handshake, our online career and internship board.

Students in the Sanford School are encouraged to seek internship opportunities during the last two years of their degree program. Students can earn course credit while gaining valuable practical experience working in community settings that relate to families, children, and occupational, diversity and urban health issues. These real life environments provide students with insight into the problems and issues that face contemporary families, individuals, and communities. Internships provide students with opportunities to: • Apply theories and knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday experiences in the field. • Gain relevant professional skills and knowledge. • Expand their awareness of social issues and community needs. • Become familiar with organizations, services, and systems of care within the local community. • Explore potential career options. • Strengthen graduate school and employment applications.

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https://thesanfordschool.asu.edu/internships

https://eoss.asu.edu/cs/employers/develop-an-internship

Appendix D

Appendix E

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Opportunities at ASU Earth and exploration programs K-12 FIELD TRIP PROGRAM Our half-day enrichment experience includes a 3-D astronomy show in the Marston Exploration Theater, along with a schedule of activities built around small group rotational modules, each designed to reinforce the spirit of scientific inquiry and exploration. Activities are correlated to the Arizona College and Career Ready Standards. This day trip experience is available Tuesdays and Thursdays and costs $7.75 per student. During 4 to 4.5 hours of onsite programming, students rotate through five activities: • The Marston Exploration Theater experience (MET) • The Gallery of Scientific Exploration (GSE) • Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) room COST The K-12 field trip experience is priced at $5 to $6.50 per student. For additional information, please contact SESE Outreach. 3-D ASTRONOMY SHOWS The Marston Exploration Theater features four different 3-D astronomy shows of topical interest. Presentations run approximately 60 minutes and include: "To the Edge of the Universe and Everything in Between": A live, narrated journey from earth to the cosmic background radiation. Stops along the way include current, topical space, science and news explorations. "The Search: Exploring Unknown Worlds": This show explores discoveries and current research of exoplanets (worlds beyond our Solar System). This presentation is a live, 3-D exploration of known exoplanets in our neighborhood in space. "The Secret Life of Stars": This show explores the birth, life and death of stars. It also answers questions about where stars come from, how they form, and what happens when they die, featuring spectacular simulated images of supernova explosions. "The Moon Revealed": This show looks at the Moon from the perspective of history, missions, and culture, including the latest research exposing secrets of our nearest celestial neighbor. Times Each Wednesday evening @ 7:30 p.m. Each Saturday afternoon @ 2:30 p.m. Cost Adults/general admission $7.50 Student admission $5.50 https://sese.asu.edu/public-engagement/k12-field-trip-program

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PRIME Center

Practice, Research, and Innovation in Mathematics Education PAST PROJECT EXAMPLE: STEM IN THE MIDDLE: IT TAKES A VILLAGE STEM in the Middle, funded by Helios Education Foundation, provided STEM activities for middle school students, and professional development for middle school teachers of mathematics, technology, and science. BENEFITS FOR TEACHERS:

• Updating knowledge of STEM concepts and skills. • Enhancing skills in the design of activities/projects for students

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Ask A Biologist online activities ACTIVITIES One of the best ways to learn is to play. This website provides a collection of activities that lets student parents and their children learn biology by playing. They can try a biology experiment or test their knowledge with one of the biology puzzles based on their stories. There are printable and online coloring pages and worksheets that studnets can use to practice your coloring skills. The Bird Finder tool can help studnets identify that mystery bird in their backyard. Children can also venture into Body Depot where they can learn about their body and the biology that keeps it going. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES:

that integrate key ideas from science, technology, engineering and mathematics. • Broadening knowledge of assessment strategies to identify students’ depths of understanding of key concepts and skills and their interests in STEM areas of study and careers. • Increased knowledge of methods to address student needs and talents.

Ant Farm Written by: Rebecca Clark Farming ants might sound like a crazy thing to do unless you might like to eat chocolate covered ants. It turns out we can learn a lot from ants and the best way is to build your own ant farm.

BENEFITS FOR STUDENTS: • Increased success with mathematics and the sciences. • Developing problem-solving and communication abilities. • Enhancing collaboration and critical thinking during project explorations. • Promoting interest in enrolling in more courses and more advanced courses in mathematics and science in high school.

Dr. Biology's Virtual Pocket Seed Experiment Written by: Dr. Biology Dr. Biology has been busy working on a new experiment and he needs your help. He has collected so much information from the experiment that he needs someone to analyze the data. All the results have been recorded in photographs, including some cool animations. Also in: Español | Français

https://vimeo.com/100535251

https://askabiologist.asu.edu/activities

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https://prime.asu.edu/content/stem-middle


Opportunities at ASU Ecology Explorers

SCIENCE IS FUN Internships

ASU interns of all academic backgrounds act as role models by conducting science demonstrations for kids in grades K-8. You earn 3 CHM or BCH upper division credits and help excite Phoenix area children about science. No experience is necessary. We provide the transportation to the schools that you will visit. This non-paid internship fulfills a semester's requirement of community service hours for many scholarships. It’s a wonderful opportunity to experience a variety of classrooms and schools for those considering a career in teaching. It’s also a wonderful opportunity for anyone who enjoys science or anyone who enjoys working with kids. All majors are welcomed so please refer other students who may be interested!

This program links Phoenix-area K-12 teachers and students with exciting scientific research opportunities to study their schoolyards, backyards, and neighborhoods! UNDERSTANDING OUR UNIQUE ENVIRONMENT Arizona State University scientists that are associated with the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Research (CAP LTER) project have been studying urban ecology since 1998. Through Ecology Explorers they encourage students and teachers to study the impact of urbanization on our ecosystem and contribute to a better understanding of our desert city.

• Students use the same methods as CAP LTER scientist • • • • • •

to collect data on insects, birds, and plants in their schoolyards and backyards Classes around the Valley analyze and share results with each other through the on-line database Conducting these long-term studies help students better understand how the built and natural environment interact in a sustainable city Resources on the Ecology Explorers website include: Inquiry-based activities related to local themes such as the urban heat island Interactive animated games about historical land use and bird identification Dynamic visual aids, including slide sets and “Meet the Scientist” videos

https://sustainability.asu.edu/ecologyexplorers/ https://le-csss.asu.edu/internships

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Art programs HIGH SCHOOL SUMMER WORKSHOPS ASU School of Art in the Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts offers summer workshops designed specifically for high school students, grades 9-12, though we also welcome high school art educators looking for continuing education opportunities. These one-week workshops are focused in studio disciplines such as printmaking, painting, fashion design, small metals and neon arts. The summer day camps are designed to give high school students an art immersion experience. CHILDREN’S ART WORKSHOP The Eleanor A. Robb Children’s Art Workshop is unique as a community program that has a mission to serve all of the students throughout the Phoenix area that are interested in learning about art. The workshop is part of the art teaching certification program in the Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts and the Mary Lou Fulton College of Education. It is only taught in the fall semester. Registration for the program is on-line see the Herberger website and search for Children’s Art Workshop. https://art.asu.edu/resources/k-12

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Music programs PREK-12 MUSIC PROGRAMS The ASU School of Music Prep Program provides superior instruction in piano, saxophone, and guitar to children and adults in a creative and highly motivating learning environment. The ASU String project offers a unique opportunity for Valley children grades 4-6. Group classes and private lessons are taught by string music education majors in the ASU School of Music under the supervision of Dr. Margaret Schmidt, professor of music education. ASU SCHOOL OF MUSIC PREP PROGRAM The Music Prep Program provides students from the community with opportunities for study with ASU faculty and graduate students. The Music Prep Program provides students from the community with opportunities for quality instruction in piano, guitar, saxophone, voice, flute, music theory, music history and early childhood music from ASU faculty and highly selected graduate students in performance/pedagogy. ASU SCHOOL OF MUSIC STRING PROJECT Award-winning member of the National String Project Consortium, offering low-cost, high-quality instruction on violin, viola, cello, and double bass. The mission of the ASU School of Music String Project is to offer low-cost, high-quality instruction on orchestral stringed instruments: violin, viola, cello, and double bass (with limited times for individual instruction on guitar). The program supports existing public school string programs and provides string education to those enrolled in schools where no program is available. An additional purpose of all String Projects in the country is to offer supervised teaching experience to music majors, to better prepare them for teaching in K-12 classes or for offering private instruction. The String Project offers classes on Saturday mornings and private lessons. Students will perform in a concert at the end of each semester. https://music.asu.edu/music-prep


Opportunities at ASU ArtsWork ArtsWork unites ASU artists and scholars with community leaders in research and programs focused on children and the arts. ArtsWork was created in 1996 with an endowment from Katherine K. Herberger. ArtsWork received a million dollar endowed gift from Bank of America in 2007. These generous gifts provide ArtsWork with resources to initiate and sustain numerous projects benefiting young people in the greater Phoenix area. Currently ArtsWork is undergoing a re-visioning process and thorough program evaluation under the leadership of youth invested faculty from all units in the Herberger Institute. We look forward to unveiling ArtsWork 2.0 in the near future. All ongoing programming continues but no new programs will be initiated. Potential partnerships could benefit the support of student parents.

https://herbergerinstitute.asu.edu/research-and-initiatives/artswork

Internship opportunities at the museum ACADEMIC CREDIT AND VOLUNTEER INTERNSHIPS Academic and volunteer internships at ASU Art Museum provide current ASU undergraduate and graduate students with exciting opportunities to work on a variety of hands-on projects under the direction of museum staff. A student pursuing any major is allowed to apply for a position; all we ask is that applicants are passionate about the art and museum sector. • Internships are project-based and span all departments • Interns have direct access to staff • Internships are open to all majors • Internships are part-time (120-160 total work hours) and offered three sessions per year: spring, summer and fall. • All interns receive a one-year membership to the museum WINDGATE INTERNSHIPS Beginning in January 2005, ASU Art Museum announced a series of paid internships sponsored by the Windgate Charitable Foundation, originally called the Windgate Curatorial Internships. Today, the museum offers five such internships that span multiple museum disciplines: • Windgate Curatorial Programs Internship • Windgate Conservation Lab Internship • Windgate Visual Communications Internship • Windgate Education Internship • Windgate Registrarial Internship Graduate and undergraduate students currently enrolled in degree programs at ASU are eligible for these annual internships, which are posted through the ASU Student Employment office. https://asuartmuseum.asu.edu/get-involved/internships

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Sun Devil Fitness programs

Sun Devil Fitness programs SUN DEVIL FITNESS PROMOTES INCLUSIVE RECREATION The SDFC celebrates diversity and authenticity by offering inclusive recreational facilities and activities, adaptive sports, and educational and cultural resources for the ASU community. These programs demonstrate our commitment to creating a welcoming place for everyone. INCLUSIVE FITNESS WORKSHOPS: We will be holding several Inclusive Fitness Workshops at our SDFC locations throughout the semester. These workshops are lead by certified staff from Ability 360, a recreation center specializing in providing recreation services to individuals with cognative and physical disabilities. The Ability 360 staff will teach you safe and effective exercise specific to your needs. Dates and times are listed in the table below. If you would like to join us for one of these workshop, please RSVP HERE so that we are able to plan for all individual in attendance. CUSTOMIZED RECREATION EXPERIENCE Opportunities to share a great idea for an event or recommendations on ways in which Sun Devil Fitness can best serve best If so, share in the form here and our staff will do our best to bring your idea to life. LEARN TO SWIM Sun Devil Fitness offers both group class lessons and private lessons. Private lessons can be for either individuals one-on-one or for a group. PRIVATE LESSONS Instructors will introduce topics based on your level of swimming and tailor lesson plans to help obtain your fitness swimming goals. They will also take into consideration your past experiences, current goals and physical characteristics to introduce basic to advanced swimming skills. Sessions are based around your schedule and instructors are chosen to fit your specific needs.

https://fitness.asu.edu/programs

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Opportunities at ASU Devil DanceSport

Devil DanceSport is the premier ballroom dance club at Arizona State University. Our goal is to introduce the world of ballroom dancing to the ASU community. Devil DanceSport represents ASU at regional and national ballroom dance competitions at the intercollegiate and amateur levels. In addition, we provide instructional classes, host social dances, perform showcases, and prepare ASU dancers for social and competitive dance. It’s a lifelong skill, so come out and dance! Practice day(s), time(s) and location ​Saturdays and Sundays, noon – 3 p.m., SDFC Tempe Small Gym D http://www.devildancesport.com/

Sun Devils Kids Camp Sun Devil Kids' Camp is a fun-filled, action-packed sports and activity summer camp for children. Kids will participate in a variety of sports-related games focusing on physical fitness and sportsmanship, arts and crafts activities for kids of all ages and interests. And they will swim every day! There are three locations to chose from: ASU's West Campus in Glendale, ASU's Polytechnic Campus in Gilbert and ASU's Tempe Campus.

https://fitness.asu.edu/camp

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Arizona PBS Kids resources NEW 24/7 CHILDREN'S CHANNEL TO FEATURE ARRAY OF PROGRAMMING TO HELP YOUNG LEARNERS MASTER IMPORTANT SKILLS “The quality programming on Arizona PBS KIDS promotes lifelong learning and encourages children to interact with the world,” said Arizona PBS CEO Christopher Callahan. “We are thrilled to be opening our doors to the public for children to have the opportunity to learn and play with some of their favorite friends on television.” The new channel will feature innovative, impactful programs designed for children from preschool through early elementary school to develop a strong educational foundation. The channel will broadcast popular programs such as “Arthur,” “Clifford,” “WordGirl,” “Wild Kratts,” “Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood” and “Sesame Street,” among others. TOURS Arizona PBS offers the public tours of its state-of-the-art facility located in the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication on Arizona State University’s Downtown Phoenix campus. Tours are available for groups ranging in size from 10-120 people. Tours provide a behind-the-scenes look at the Arizona PBS studios and control rooms as well as the Cronkite School Museum, which features journalism artifacts from Walter Cronkite’s career.

• Tours are one hour in length and offered during business hours, Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.

• Tours are available for school and youth groups (minimum age first grade/6 years old) and adult groups with a minimum of 10 people and a maximum of 120.

https://asunow.asu.edu/20170117-arizona-impact-arizona-pbs-kids-launches-fun-friends

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https://azpbs.org/about/arizona-pbs-tours/


Opportunities at ASU Arizona PBS Kids online resources

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5.7

Homework Support Tutoring University Service-Learning America Reads

Volunteer @ASU

AmeriCorps at ASU

Internships School of Social and Family Dynamics Internships

ASU Art Museum Internship opportunities

Develop an Internship

188

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Summary of Existing

Learning and Recreational Opportunities PRIME Center

Practice, Research, and Innovation in Mathematics Education

STEM activities

for middle school students

Ask A Biologist online activities

SCIENCE IS FUN

Online activities

Science demos

learn biology by playing

Internships

for kids in grades K-8

Ecology Explorers

Impact of urbanization through their own school-yard


Programming Opportunities at ASU Physical opportunities

Learning and Recreational Opportunities Earth and exploration programs

K-12 Field Trip Program Tuesdays and Thursdays

3-D Astronomy Shows Wednesday 7:30 p.m. Saturday 2:30 p.m.

Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts

Art programs

Music programs

High School Summer Workshops

PreK-12 Music Programs

Children’s Art Workshop

ASU School of Music Prep Program

Saturday mornings during Fall semester

Saturday mornings and private lessons

ArtsWork

Upcoming volunteer opportunities

Sun devil Fitness programs

Inclusive Fitness Workshops

Learn to swim

Devil DanceSport

Summer camps

Private Lessons

Discussion & Design Suggestions

189


Learning and Recreational Opportunities for Student Parents' Children PRIME Center

Practice, Research, and Innovation in Mathematics Education

STEM classes and activities for middle school students

SCIENCE IS FUN Internships

Science demonstrations for kids in grades K-8.

Ecology Explorers Understanding Unique Environment: Students and teachers to study the impact of urbanization on our ecosystem and contribute to a better understanding of our desert city.

Children are naturally curious. Different learning oportunities to engage their mind. https://wellness.asu.edu/

190

Discussion & Design Suggestions


Learning and Recreational Opportunities for Student Parents' Children Earth and exploration programs K-12 visiting programs 3-D Astronomy Shows

Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts Art programs High School Summer Workshops

Sun Devil Fitness physical opportunities Kids' Fitness Workshops

Children’s Art Workshop

Soccer lessons

Music programs PreK-12 Music Programs

ASU School of Music Prep Program

Swimming lessons Dance lessons

ArtsWork Upcoming volunteer opportunities

Oportunity for lessons

ASU Art Museum Kids' art classes at ASU Art Museum through the week and Saturdays Support children's physical well-being by imparting classes that help them stay active and eat healthy. https://wellness.asu.edu/

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5.8 10/6/2017

Examples of infrastructure

Family Study Rooms and Kits | PCC Library

Family Study Rooms and Kits

PORTLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE LIBRARY Offers family-friendly study options for all patrons. Each campus has a room designed for parents and their children. These rooms can accommodate one family at a time and are available on a first-come, first-served basis. The rooms do not provide Family room kits childcare, but offer a family-friendly place for Family Kits are available for check out and use by all patrons with children present. The kits are available at the Checkout desk. Use of the kits is limited to 4 hours. Students with children have student parents to study and work on projects priority over a single user for the first-come, first-served study rooms designated for this service. The kit includes: with their children. Hours Monday – Thursday 8:30 am - 8:00 pm Friday 8:30 am - 5:00 pm Family study room amenities Saturday May be checked out for 4 hours 8:30 am - 3:00 pm A reading area for children Sunday Comfortable seating 12:00 pm - 5:00 pm

Portland Community College Library offers family-friendly study options for all patrons. Each campus has a room designed for parents and their children. These rooms can accommodate one family at a time and are available on a first-come, first-served basis. The rooms do not provide childcare, but offer a family-friendly place for student parents to study and work on projects with their children.

Rolling backpack Leapfrog tablet with power cord Bag with memory card game pieces Bag with puzzle pieces Whiteboard lapboard with dry erase markers and eraser

Family study room amenities • May be checked out for 4 hours • A reading area for children • Comfortable seating

Toy

Family room kits Family Kits are available for check out and use Do not leave your children unattended. Parents are responsible forby their all children’s safety and patrons with children present. The kits are behavior. available at the Checkout desk. Use of the kits is limited to 4 hours. Students with children have priority over a single user for the first-come, first-served study rooms designated for this service. The kit includes: • Rolling backpack • Leapfrog tablet with power cord

Guidelines for using these spaces

https://www.pcc.edu/library/about/spaces/family-study-rooms-and-kits/

1/2

https://www.pcc.edu/library/about/spaces/family-study-rooms-and-kits/

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• Bag with memory card game pieces • Bag with puzzle pieces • Whiteboard lapboard with dry erase markers and eraser

• Toy

Guidelines for using these spaces • Do not leave your children unattended. • Parents are responsible for their children’s safety and behavior. • The Sylvania family room is only available for use by PCC students when their children are with them. At the other campuses, there are family room kits available for check out, and a designated study room is available that prioritizes families. There are other library rooms at all campuses available for individuals and groups. • Library resources are not censored. Parents are responsible for monitoring what their children access–both online and print materials.


and programming from other institutions Study Lounge Hours and Locations Family Resource Center Study Lounge: Tuesdays: 3:30 - 5:00pm Thursdays: 3:30 - 5:00pm Fridays: 12:00pm - 2:00pm ASU Lions Den (located above the cafeteria): Wednesdays: 4:30 - 6:30pm FREE Childcare Hours: Monday: 2:30 - 10:00pm Tuesday: 1:30 - 10:00pm Wednesday: 2:30 - 10:00pm Thursday: 2:30 - 10:00pm Friday: 2:30 - 5:00pm

LAVC KID-FRIENDLY STUDY LOUNGE Room for parents to study, where they can bring their children. Bring your child(ren) and our interns will supervise them while you study. Available in two convenient locations, four times a week, on campus. A tutor is available during study lounge to help you OR your child with school work.

and are there to observe and help facilitate play between the children. As a lab site you may be asked to be involved in a research project. Playgroups are staffed by child development faculty who have strong expertise in both child development and working with families.

FREE Evening School-Age Childcare To Students Enrolled In Our Student Parent Program REQUIREMENTS: • Child(ren) must be between the ages of 5 and 13 years of age. • Must be a student attending Los Angeles Valley College; enrolled in at least 3 units. • Must be Federal Pell Grant eligible. PLAYGROUPS Two-generation philosophy, which means that they address the needs of the whole family. Fun, safe environment for you and your child to be a part of; one that facilitates social connections with other children and parents. Child development students serve as interns, http://lavcfamilyresourcecenter.org/

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Examples of infrastructure Located at UCSD Mesa Graduate and Family Housing at Community Room, 9184 Regents Road. This room is great for studying, social events, play dates and more! The room is accessible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week with a code given to residents of Mesa Housing.

UC SAN DIEGO offers a child-friendly study room — with children's books and activities where you may supervise your children while you study. • Rooms designed to be used with direct adult supervision only. • Parents, not the university, are completely responsible for their child(ren)'s safety and actions at all times. • Never leave a child of any age unattended for any period of time, as such action would jeapordize the availability of this service. Please clean up after yourselves and do not leave outside toys or food inside the room when you leave. Nursing mothers and fathers with bottle-fed infants are welcome! Crawling infants may crawl around while the parent studies.

https://students.ucsd.edu/well-being/wellness-resources/student-parents/study-rooms.html

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and programming from other institutions Morris Library Monday: 7:30am – 12am Tuesday: 7:30am – 12am Wednesday: 7:30am – 12am Thursday: 7:30am – 12am Friday: 7:30am – 9pm Saturday: Closed Sunday: 1pm – 12am

SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY CARBONDALE Room 320D is configured as a place for students who must bring their children with them while studying. The room contains toys, books, and movies for children to use while their parent studies. • Only students who need to bring their children with them while studying may use this room. • The room is available on a first-come, first-served basis. It cannot be reserved in advance. • Use of the room, including the computers, is to be shared - with a maximum occupancy of six (6). While there is no time limit, please be courteous to others wanting to use the room. • Food is not permitted in the room. Note: food is permitted in the coffee commons area on the first floor. • Drinks are permitted as long as they are covered in acceptable containers (see Library food & drink signage). • Do NOT leave children unattended in the room. • Changing stations are located in the third floor restrooms, as well as the first floor

restrooms – by the northeast entrance, across from the Guyon Auditorium. • The room should be left clean and orderly. Please have your children pick up all games & return all pieces to the right games; rewind VHS tapes; etc. • No toys, books, or movies should leave the room. • Library books brought into the room from other areas need to be placed on a reshelving cart near the elevators. • The room is not sound-proof; please remind your children that the library is a quiet place and they should use soft voices; if using the TV please keep it at reasonable sound levels. • Please respect all items in the room as well as other occupants. • If you encounter problems (no lights, water leaks, etc.) when you enter the room, please notify the staff at the circulation desk on the first floor immediately. • Failure to follow the Family Friendly Study Room rules may result in loss of room privileges.

http://www.lib.siu.edu/facilities

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5.9

Programming and Infrastructure Recommendations As previously identified, two types of programs and infrastructure are recommended. Overview The Student Parent Program is a whole family support program for students enrolled in at least 3 credits, including online students, who have a child under the age of 18 living in the home with them. 1. Type of infrastructure that provides a few hours of drop-off childcare This infrasctructure could be managed by one staff and supported by student workers. Also could be linked to the many existing programs at ASU. Programs can be repurposed and redesigned to serve this community. For next page shows the opportunities for combining this type of infrastructure with existing and new re-purposed programming. Below is a way to visualize how exisiting programs could fit and be combined to serve student parents. This would need to be studied in depth with actual student parents' needs and their children's needs and preferences that enroll in this program. Hours

Monday

Wednesday

Thursday

3:30 - 4:45 p.m.

STEM classes

Tuesday

Science demonstrations

Ecology Explorers

Dance lessons

12 - 1:30 p.m.

5:00 - 6:15 p.m.

Tutor-homework support

K-12 visiting programs

Tutor-homework support

Tutor-homework support

1:45- 3:00 p.m.

6:30 - 7:45 p.m.

Children’s ArtArt Children’s Soccer training Workshop Workshop

8:00-9:00 p.m.

Friday

3-D Astronomy Shows

6:30 - 7:45 p.m.

PreK-12 Music Programs

8:00-9:00 p.m.

9:00-10:00 p.m.

9:00-10:00 p.m.

STEM activities

for middle school students

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Discussion & Design Suggestions

Hours

Online activities

learn biology by playing

Science demos for kids in grades K-8

Impact of urbanization through their own school-yard

Saturday

Swimming lessons ASU School of Music Prep Dance lessons Children’s Art Workshop

Sunday


1. Type of infrastructure that provides a few hours of drop-off childcare

Infrastructures where children can get help with their homework & tutoring among other programs

Homework Support & Tutoring for Student Parents' children

Ask A Biologist online activities with a biology tutor

Kids

Connect

Tutoring and help with homework through Volunteer@ASU Reading support lessons and practice through America Reads Specific subjects tutoring through AmeriCorps at ASU with Mary Lou Fulton Teacher’s College student teachers

Sports Opportunities

Check in!

Opportunity to learn biology through play with online activities with a biology tutor's guidance

Kids

Academic Opportunities

Future Sun Devils

Arizona PBS Kids resources

Social and Family Support School of Social and Family Dynamics Internships

Utilize online resources for tutors to effectively use educational media to build math and literacy skills in young children.

Develop Internship as needed

Discussion & Design Suggestions

197


2. Infrastructure that Provides a Child-Friendly Environment Considering this study's findings and ASU Environmental psychology professor the following are the recommended settings

The following were the identified spaces to serve as infrastructures that support student parents

1. Basic and contrasting colors 2. Stimulation 3. Biophilic approach in which elements and

This infrastructures information would be available through the mobile app. Students would be asked to provide their name, how many children and their ages that would come to use the facilities. Students would be required to check in and they would be able to see who is currently using this space and decide if their child’s age match their needs.

experiences are nature or nature like

4. Adaptability within the furniture and the space

5. Safety (enclosed area for crawlers. Even though this area would be separated slightly from the common area designated for student parents' children, it’s still integrated into the whole unit) 6. Visual connection at all times 7. Natural lighting is very important to consider when possible 8. Environmental semiotics shared values from the University and their students. Welcoming student parents on campus and creating a sense of community will be a clear message for student parents to feel they are really part of the ASU community as students and as parents.

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Discussion & Design Suggestions


Infrastructure Allowing Where Student Parents Can Study and Spend Time With Their Child on Campus

Kids

Connect

Sports Opportunities

Check in! Kids

A space that enables student parents to connect with their child while completing school tasks. Emotional need for family connection without disengaging in school responsibilities. Support from student volunteers with tutoring for children and social and family support for the family as a whole. Opportunity to socially engage with students that go through similar experiences and posibilitites to support each other, exchange resources and learn from how others find solutions for their shared challenges as student parents at ASU.

Inclusive and engaging infrastructure and programs that align with ASU's charter; "ASU is a comprehensive public Research University, measured not by whom we exclude, but rather by whom we include and how they succeed."

Hayden Library

Academic Opportunities

Future Sun Devils

Noble Library Downtown Phoenix Library Design School North

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Flexible spaces Kids

C

s Sporutnities rt Oppo

in! k c e Ch

ct onne Kids

emic Acadrtunities Oppo

200

Future

Discussion & Design Suggestions

evils

Sun D


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Hayden Library This area in Hayden library is within the group study section. As an enclosed area with suggested flexible furniture and age appropriate activities and toys, student parents could bring their child and sit at the tables that look into this room. This would enable them to study, have their eyes on their child at all times and connect with them when needed.

202

Discussion & Design Suggestions


Discussion & Design Suggestions

203


Noble Library This area in Noble Library is within the group study area. This could be redesigned to enclosed the area shown and add suggested flexible furniture and age appropriate activities and toys. Student parents could bring their child and sit at the tables that look into this room. This would enable them to study, have their eyes on their child at all times and connect with them when needed.

204

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Design School North

Discussion & Design Suggestions

205


5.10

“

ASU is a comprehensive public Research University, measured not by whom we exclude, but rather by whom we include and how they succeed. New American University: Toward 2025 and Beyond

�

Conclusions

As ASU measures itself by who they include, for this reason it's imperative to rethink campus infrastructure to accommodate and serve, not only student parents but the growing populations of non-traditional students. Universal access for all students means the inclusion and access for student parents and their needs as well. There are not only moral reasons for ASU to make the necessary efforts to support student parents, but also many benefits confirmed by literature review in chapter 2. Student parents are most likely to have clear educational goals and stronger focus (Miller et al., 2011). They are a positive influence to their child and from a recruitment perspective this may lead to future Sun Devils following their parents path. There are many benefits to the university when including student parents and they can be measured in more than just a simple economic cost-benefit ratio. "Diversity does not only bring positive consequences, there is also evidence for performance-increasing effects of diversity because it can improve creativity and innovation through the team members' greater variety of perspectives" (Roberge & Van Dick, 2010). Examples of what student parents bring to the community are reflected in one of the student parents description of their day:

*Interviewer Anya Kamenetz, NPR's lead education blogger.

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"Advocating for graduate students is important to me which I why I’ve been involved with GPSA for 3+ years. Part of my efforts involve frequent meetings in the Fulton building to develop new programs to benefit grads. Our latest endeavor is an alumni outreach program that provides partial support for students during the summer to reach out and connect with ASU PhD alumni. Finding funding for these types of programs is always difficult, luckily people in the foundation are typically able to assist."

a confident, historical precedent for tailoring academic infrastructures and environments to serve, include and accommodate different kinds of students and enable their academic success by addressing their needs (Springer et al., 2009). Engaging in redesigning and re-purposing existing resources at ASU to welcome and include student parents, would not only benefit students who are parents, but could potentially benefit all members of the ASU community are parents, and even extend to support families in the City of Tempe community.

"Mentoring undergraduate students is very important to me and promoting women in STEM has been my priority since starting at ASU. I am very proud of Brittany and spent the hour going through her thesis. I look forward to her defense this week." -Ph.D. student We've seen higher education entities adjust and transform from a programming and infrastructure perspective to accommodate specific subgroups of students, implementing new programs and policies to enable these subgroups to succeed academically. There is

Discussion & Design Suggestions

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208

Appendix


References Bakker, W., & Karsten, L. (2013). Balancing paid work, care and leisure in post-separation households: A comparison of single parents with co-parents. Acta Sociologica, 56(2), 173-187. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American psychologist, 56(10), 781. Brooks, R. (2013). Negotiating time and space for study: Student-parents and familial relationships. Sociology, 47(3), 443-459. Brown, V., & Nichols, T. R. (2013). Pregnant and parenting students on campus: policy and program implications for a growing population. Educational Policy, 27(3), 499-530. Brus, C. P. (2006). Seeking balance in graduate school: A realistic expectation or a dangerous dilemma?. New Directions for Student Services, 2006(115), 31-45. Campbell, K. P. (2012) Multiple Pathways: Access and Success for Non-traditional Students. Retrieved from http://archive.aacu.org/ocww/volume40_3/ Choy, S. (2002). Non-traditional Undergraduates (NCES 2002–012). Washington, DC: US Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human relations, 53(6), 747-770.

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human relations, 53(6), 747-770. Deil-Amen, R. (2011, November). The “traditional” college student: A smaller and smaller minority and its implications for diversity and access institutions. In Mapping Broad-Access Higher Education Conference at Stanford University. Accessed April (Vol. 1, p. 2014). Dillon, P. J. (2012). Unbalanced: An autoethnography of fatherhood in academe. Journal of Family Communication, 12(4), 284-299. Doble, N., & Supriya, M. V. (2011). Student life balance: myth or reality?. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(3), 237-251. Eckerson, E., Talbourdet, L., Reichlin, L., M.A., Sykes, M., M.A., Noll, E., Ph.D., & Gault, B., Ph.D. (2016, September). IWPR Publication. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from http://iwpr.org/publications/pubs/ child-care-for-parents-in-college-a-state-by-stateassessment/ ELLER, A., ARAUJO, B. F. V. B. D., & ARAUJO, D. A. V. B. D. (2016). BALANCING WORK, STUDY AND HOME: A RESEARCH WITH MASTER'S STUDENTS IN A BRAZILIAN UNIVERSITY. RAM. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 17(3), 60-83.

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Ensign, J., & Woods, A. M. (2014). Strategies for increasing academic achievement in higher education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 85(6), 17-22. Estes, D. K. (2011). Managing the student‐parent dilemma: Mothers and fathers in higher education. Symbolic Interaction, 34(2), 198-219. Falk, C. F., & Blaylock, B. K. (2010). Strategically planning campuses for the" newer students" in higher education. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 14(3), 15. Faller, M. B. (2016, February 18). Affirming inclusion as the ASU way. Retrieved from https://asunow.asu. edu/20160218-arizona-impact-preaching-inclusionasu-way Fraga, L., Dobbins, D., & McCready, M. (2015). Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report. Child Care Aware of America. Freitas, F. A., & Leonard, L. J. (2011). Maslow's hierarchy of needs and student academic success. Teaching and learning in nursing, 6(1), 9-13. Gault, B., Reichlin, L., & Román, S. (2014). College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report# C412. Institute for Women’s Policy Research. Gault, B., Reichlin, L., Reynolds, E., & Froehner, M. (2014). 4.8 million college students are raising children. Institute for Women’s Policy Research.

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Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J. L., Buckley, J. A., Bridges, B. K., & Hayek, J. C. (2006). What matters to student success: A review of the literature (Vol. 8). Washington, DC: National Postsecondary Education Cooperative. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J. L., Buckley, J. A., Bridges, B. K., & Hayek, J. C. (2006). What matters to student success: A review of the literature (Vol. 8). Washington, DC: National Postsecondary Education Cooperative. Kuperberg, A. (2009). Motherhood and graduate education: 1970–2000. Population research and policy review, 28(4), 473. Lambert, C. H., Kass, S. J., Piotrowski, C., & Vodanovich, S. J. (2006). Impact factors on workfamily balance: Initial support for border theory. Organization Development Journal, 24(3), 64-75. Law, J. (Ed.). (1991). A sociology of monsters: Essays on power, technology, and domination (No. 38). Routledge. Lovell, E. D. N. (2014). College students who are parents need equitable services for retention. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 16(2), 187-202. Marandet, E., & Wainwright, E. (2009). Discourses of integration and exclusion: Equal opportunities for university students with dependent children?. Space and Polity, 13(2), 109-125.

Marandet, E., & Wainwright, E. (2010). Invisible experiences: understanding the choices and needs of university students with dependent children. British Educational Research Journal, 36(5), 787-805. Marine, S. (2012). Bridges to a brighter future: Support programs for non-traditional women in postsecondary education. On Campus with Women, 40(3) Martinez, E., Ordu, C., Della Sala, M. R., & McFarlane, A. (2013). Striving to obtain a school-work-life balance: The full-time doctoral student. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 8(39–59). Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). New York: Harper and Row. Medved, C. E., & Heisler, J. (2002). A negotiated order exploration of critical student-faculty interactions: Student-parents manage multiple roles. Communication Education, 51(2), 105-120. Medved, C. E., & Heisler, J. (2002). A negotiated order exploration of critical student-faculty interactions: Student-parents manage multiple roles. Communication Education, 51(2), 105-120. Miller, K. (2010). Child Care Support for Student parents in Community College Is Crucial for Success, but Supply and Funding Are Inadequate. Fact Sheet# C375. Institute for Women's Policy Research.

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Seward, G. H., & Seward, J. P. (1937). Internal and external determinants of drives. Psychological Review, 44, 349–363. Springer, K. W., Parker, B. K., & Leviten-Reid, C. (2009). Making space for graduate student parents: Practice and politics. Journal of Family Issues, 30(4), 435-457. Star, S. L. (1999). The ethnography of infrastructure. American behavioral scientist, 43(3), 377-391.

Williams, K. J., & Alliger, G. M. (1994). Role stressors, mood spillover, and perceptions of workfamily conflict in employed parents. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 837-868. Williams, K. J., & Alliger, G. M. (1994). Role stressors, mood spillover, and perceptions of workfamily conflict in employed parents. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 837-868.

Star, S. L., & Ruhleder, K. (1996). Steps toward an ecology of infrastructure: Design and access for large information spaces. Information systems research, 7(1), 111-134. Taormina, R. J., & Gao, J. H. (2013). Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: Measuring satisfaction of the needs. The American journal of psychology, 126(2), 155-177. Tonkiss, F. (2014). Cities by design: the social life of urban form. John Wiley & Sons. Viteri, M. A., & Lusambili, A. (2009). Parenting as an International PhD Student. Anthropology News, 50(3), 4-6. Wainwright, E., & Marandet, E. (2010). Parents in higher education: Impacts of university learning on the self and the family. Educational Review, 62(4), 449-465. doi:10.1080/00131911.2010.487643

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APPENDIX A:

EXEMPTION GRANTED

APPROVAL: EXPEDITED REVIEW

Maria Zingoni The Design School MilagrosZingoni@asu.edu

Maria Zingoni The Design School MilagrosZingoni@asu.edu

Dear Maria Zingoni:

Dear Maria Zingoni:

On 10/20/2016 the ASU IRB reviewed the following protocol:

On 12/9/2016 the ASU IRB reviewed the following protocol:

Type of Review: Title: Investigator: IRB ID: Funding: Grant Title: Grant ID: Documents Reviewed:

Initial Study Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU Maria Zingoni STUDY00005146 None None None • HRP-502c -CONSENT DOCUMENT -SHORT FORM.pdf, Category: Consent Form; • HRP-503aTEMPLATE_PROTOCOL_SocialBehavioralV02-1015.docx, Category: IRB Protocol; • Survey.pdf, Category: Measures (Survey questions/Interview questions /interview guides/focus group questions); • Flyer for students that are parents.pdf, Category: Recruitment Materials;

The IRB determined that the protocol is considered exempt pursuant to Federal Regulations 45CFR46 (2) Tests, surveys, interviews, or observation on 10/20/2016. In conducting this protocol you are required to follow the requirements listed in the INVESTIGATOR MANUAL (HRP-103).

Type of Review: Title: Investigator: IRB ID: Category of review: Funding: Grant Title: Grant ID: Documents Reviewed:

Modification Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU Maria Zingoni STUDY00005146 (7)(b) Social science methods, (7)(a) Behavioral research None None None • HRP-503aTEMPLATE_PROTOCOL_SocialBehavioralV02-1015.docx, Category: IRB Protocol; • HRP-502c -CONSENT DOCUMENT -SHORT FORM.pdf, Category: Consent Form; • Survey.pdf, Category: Measures (Survey questions/Interview questions /interview guides/focus group questions); • Flyer for students that are parents.pdf, Category: Recruitment Materials;

The IRB approved the protocol from 10/20/2016 to inclusive. Three weeks before you are to submit a completed Continuing Review application and required attachments to request continuing approval or closure.

Sincerely,

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APPENDIX A:

APPROVAL:CONTINUATION Maria Zingoni The Design School 480/727-0267 MilagrosZingoni@asu.edu Dear Maria Zingoni: On 12/11/2017 the ASU IRB reviewed the following protocol: Type of Review: Title: Investigator: IRB ID: Category of review:

Continuing Review Finding solutions for students that are parents at ASU Maria Zingoni STUDY00005146 (7)(b) Social science methods, (7)(a) Behavioral research Funding: None Grant Title: None Grant ID: None Documents Reviewed: The IRB approved the protocol from 12/11/2017 to 12/7/2018 inclusive. Three weeks before 12/7/2018 you are to submit a completed Continuing Review application and required attachments to request continuing approval or closure. If continuing review approval is not granted before the expiration date of 12/7/2018 approval of this protocol expires on that date. When consent is appropriate, you must use final, watermarked versions available under the “Documents� tab in ERA-IRB. In conducting this protocol you are required to follow the requirements listed in the INVESTIGATOR MANUAL (HRP-103). Sincerely,

IRB Administrator 216

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APPENDIX B:

Child Care Access Means Parents in School (CCAMPIS) Evaluation Annual Report

University Office of Evaluation and Educational Effectiveness Arizona State University November 2013

Appendix

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APPENDIX C: Arizona State University

4/7/18, 4(50 PM

Paula SIGN OUT Search

Search ASU

Student Services Manual (SSM) Effective: 12/15/2015

Revised: 3/1/2016

SSM 701–10: Accommodations and Services for Pregnant Students Purpose To assist faculty and staff in providing reasonable accommodations and services to pregnant students

Sources U. S. Department of Education regulations 34 C.F.R. 106.40(b) Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972

Policy ASU does not discriminate against any student on the basis of pregnancy. In an effort to allow students to return to the same academic status as before the pregnancy the following accommodations, if medically necessary, are among those available: Excused absences Allowances for frequent trips to the rest room Opportunity to make up missed work University accommodations and services those with temporary disabilities receive, such as on–campus transportation Approval of Medical/Compassionate Withdrawals Each situation will be evaluated individually to determine what accommodations and/or services are appropriate given the medical necessity and the temporal requirements of class assignments (clinical rotations, group work, etc.). Admitted or enrolled students who believe they have a need for a pregnancy-related accommodation and/or service are responsible for registering with and requesting accommodations and/or services through the Disability Resource Center (DRC).

Cross-References For more information see: 1. SSM 701–01, “Disability Resource Center—General Policy” 2. SSM 701–02, “Eligibility for Accommodations—Required Disability Documentation” and 3. SSM 701–05, “On–Campus Transportation for Individuals with Disabilities—Tempe Campus Only” skip navigation bar https://www.asu.edu/aad/manuals/ssm/ssm701-10.html

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Alzheimer's Association Desert Southwest Chapter 1028 E. McDowell Rd Phoenix AZ 85006

American Cancer Society 4550 E. Bell Road Phoenix, AZ 85441 www.cancer.org

American Heart Association 2929 South 48th Street Tempe, AZ 85282 www.americanheart.org

American Lung Association of Arizona 102 W. McDowell Road Phoenix, AZ 85003 http://lungarizona.org/north/ Arizona Attorney General's Office of Victim Services, Attorney General Tom Horne 1275 West Washington Phoenix, AZ 85007 www.ag.state.az.us Note: This internship requires a separate applicate process with OVS and has November and April application deadlines. More information about the application can be found here: https://www.azag.gov/volunteer

Arizona Baptist Children's Services http://www.abcs.org/mission360/intern/

Prehab has community-based counseling center that provides in-home family therapy and develops community intervention and prevention programs, including school-based counseling, early-intervention, gang prevention and after-school services. www.prehab.org/outpatient.asp

The student will learn hands on social service provision for clients who are affected and impacted by Alzheimer's disease and related dementias which will include people living with the disease, their caregivers and family members. Through interactions with clients, interns will build cultural awareness and competency of geriatric services within the senior service community and how this relates to client:provider dynamic. Students will be involved in the following activities: Support all core programs of the Alzheimer's Association, conduct outreach, assist with special events, engage volunteers and data reporting

Contact agency for information on duties.

The Stroke Initiatives Intern will assis the Stroke Initiatives Director and Sr. Community Health Director with stroke outreach in Arizona, Washington, Oregon, Utah, Idaho, and Nevada. Such support will include outreach and recruitment of volunteers for events like Saving Strokes, as well as outreach and recruitment of stroke survivors and caregivers for those same events. Utilization of telephonic, digital, and in-person communication skills will be critical. After the stroke events and programs, there will be follow-up activities, including thank you cards, spreadsheet updates, equipment inventory, etc. General office duties - answering phones, data entry, processing mail, etc. will also be included but limited and not the majority of the work. There will be opportunities provided for the intern to educate the community about health factors regarding heart disease and stroke.

Coordination and implementation of current teen and adolescent prevention and intervention programs related to tobacco control; tobacco-free teens and students; teach students, etc. New Asthma program as well as a C.O.P.D. program.

Help an advocate with case work, go to court, help write letters to victims, answer public line phone, get refferals and answer general questions, perform administrative and filing tasks.

LAST SEMESTER HOSTING SANFORD INTERNS

November 2016

1/26/2020

Fall 2015

March 2017

8/2022

**New Site**

Barb Nicholas (602) 952-7550

Spring 2013

8/1/2017

Spring 2013

Cortney (HR) (602) 414-5343

August 2015

8/01/2020

Fall 2015

Milania Steigerwald (602) 258-7505

March 2014

1/13/2019

Spring 2014

December 2013

2/25/2018

Fall 2013

Bridget Talty (480) 464-4648 Paula Sellers psellers@turnanewleaf.org

James FitzPatrick, MAS jfitzpatrick@alz.org (602) 528-0545

Briana Balph 602-542-8454

X

X

X

Appendix Dane Clark, Director - Mission Encounter 360

May 2013

1/21/2018

Spring 2013

Advocacy & Public Policy

AFFILIATION AGREEMENT ON FILE (exp. Date)

Aging & Seniors

LAST UPDATED

CONTACT INFORMATION

X

A New Leaf - Dorothy B Mitchell Counseling Center 1655 East University Drive Mesa, AZ 85203 www.prehab.org ***undergoing changes Dec. 2016--not clear if they will be taking interns in the future, but you can still email them**** ďż˝

INTERNSHIP DESCRIPTION

Youth & Adolescence (6-18 years)

INTERNSHIP SITE

Early Childhood (0-5 years)

APPENDIX D:

X

X

219


APPENDIX E

Employer Guide: Developing a Quality Internship Program

Updated May 2017 220

Appendix


Appendix

221

Paula Maturana MSD Applied Project  
Paula Maturana MSD Applied Project  
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