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SURVIVAL HANDBOOK IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE

ROYAL MARINES

COMMANDOS


SURVIVAL

HANDBOOK IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE

ROYAL MARINES

COMMANDOS


CONTENTS LONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, DELHI Senior Editors Nicky Munro, Richard Gilbert

8

Introduction

Senior Art Editors Michael Duffy, Gillian Andrews Editors Bob Bridle, Chris Hawkes, Philip Morgan, Gill Pitts, Clare Weber Designers Sarah-Anne Arnold, Katie Eke, Brian Flynn, Phil Gamble, Sharon Spencer Lead Illustrator Mike Garland Assisting Illustrators Darren Awuah, Phil Gamble, Peter Liddiard, Tim Loughead, Mark Walker Production Editor Tony Phipps Production Controller Norma Weir Managing Editor Stephanie Farrow Managing Art Editor Lee Griffiths Art Director Bryn Walls Publisher Jonathan Metcalf First published in Great Britain in 2009 by Dorling Kindersley Limited Second edition published in Great Britain in 2012 by Dorling Kindersley Limited 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL A Penguin Company 24681097531 Copyright © 2009, 2012 Dorling Kindersley Limited The Royal Navy and Royal Marines name and logo are trade marks of the UK Secretary of State for Defence and used under licence. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright owner. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-1-4053-9356-0 Printed and bound in Hong Kong by Hung Hing Discover more at www.dk.com

IMPORTANT NOTICE Some of the techniques desribed in this book should be used only in dire emergencies, when the survival of individuals depends upon them. The publisher cannot be held responsible for any injuries, damage, loss, or prosecutions resulting from the use or misuses of the information in this book. Do not practise these techniques on private land without the owner’s permission, and obey all laws relating to the protection of land, property, plants, and animals.

BEFORE YOU GO 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 50 52 56 58 60

Introduction: Prepare yourself Getting into shape Mental preparation Planning your journey Emergency plan of action Introduction: Know your environment Temperate environments Tropical environments Mountain environments Desert environments Cold environments Marine environments Introduction: Get the right gear Choosing your kit Choosing a backpack Dressing for the outdoors Extreme survival – in the wilderness Sleeping systems Eating on the trail Camping stoves Your survival kit


FEK?<KI8@C 64 66 68 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 98 100 104 106 108

Introduction: Find your way Maps and map-reading Get your bearings Route finding Navigating without a compass Natural navigation How weather works Weather phenomena Understanding local weather Introduction: Make a move Travelling on foot Crossing rivers Scrambling and climbing Extreme survival – in the mountains Moving over snow Using pack animals Four-wheel driving Kayaking and canoeing Building a raft Swimming

:8DG:I8=K 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 134 136 138 142 146

Introduction: Camp essentials Organizing your site Staying clean Making fire The elements of fire Char cloth and fire tin Types of fire Making sparks and flames Extreme survival – in the desert Fire by friction Introduction: Manual skills Man-made cordage Natural cordage Tying knots Using cutting tools


K8B@E>J?<CK<I 154 156 158 162 166 172 174 176 178

Introduction: Taking shelter Hollows and caves Use-anywhere shelters Forest shelters Tropical shelters Extreme survival – in the jungle Desert shelters Shoreline shelters Snow shelters

N8K<I8E;=FF; 184 186 188 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 212 214 216 220 222 224 226 228

Introduction: Find and treat water The importance of water Finding water: Temperate climates Finding water: Hot climates Finding water: Cold climates Finding water: At sea Carrying and storing water Treating water Introduction: Find and prepare food Wild cooking Edible plants Catching fish Preparing fish Extreme survival – adrift at sea Trapping animals Preparing small mammals Preparing large mammals Preparing other animals Catching birds Preparing birds


@E8E<D<I><E:P 8GG<E;@O 232 234 236 242 244 246 250

Introduction: In an emergency Assessing your situation Attracting rescuers Wild animals Extreme survival â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in cold conditions Environmental hazards Surviving at sea

=@IJK8@; 258 260 262 266 268 270 272 274 275 276 278

Introduction: First aid First aid essentials Flesh wounds Bites and stings Poisonous plants and intestinal parasites Bones, joints and muscles Treating exposure Treating shock Breathing difficulties Unconsciousness Moving a casualty

Wild food 280 Temperate plants 282 Desert plants 284 Tropical plants 286 Plants in cold climates 288 Coastal plants 290 Mammals 292 Birds 294 Amphibians and reptiles 296 Fish 298 Invertebrates Natural Dangers 300 Wild animals 302 Insects and arachnids 304 Poisonous plants

306 308 312 319 319 320

Resources Glossary Index About the author Acknowledgements About the Royal Marines


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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

Treat the wilderness with respect: carry in only what you can carry out; leave only footprints, take only pictures Survival knowledge and skills must be learned – and practised – under realistic conditions. Starting a fire with dry materials on a sunny day, for example, will teach you very little. The real survival skill is in understanding why a fire won’t start and working out a solution. The more you practise, the more you learn (I am yet to teach a course where I didn’t learn something new from one of my students). Finding solutions and overcoming problems continually adds to your knowledge and, in most cases, will help you deal with problems should they occur again. There are differences between teaching survival courses to civilians and teaching them to military personnel. Civilians have enrolled on (and paid for) a course to increase their knowledge and skills, not because their life may depend on it (although, should they find themselves in a lifethreatening situation, it may well do), but because they are interested in survival techniques in their own right. In contrast, the majority of military personnel who undergo survival training may very well need to put it into practice, but they invariably complete the training simply because they are required to do so. While no one in the military forces would underestimate the importance of survival training, it is a fact that, if you want to fly a Royal Navy Harrier, or become a Royal Marine Mountain Leader, survival training is just one of the many courses you must undertake.

9


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INTRODUCTION

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Understanding your environment will allow you to select the best equipment, adopt the best techniques, and learn the correct skills N\Xcjfk\XZ_X[mXeZ\[jlim`mXck\Z_e`hl\jkfj\c\Zk\[g\ijfee\cn_f dXpY\Zfd\`jfcXk\[]ifdk_\`ifne]fiZ\j#jlZ_Xjn_\efg\iXk`e^ Y\_`e[\e\dpc`e\j%K_\]fligi`eZ`gc\jf]jlim`mXci\dX`ek_\jXd\# Ylkn\jlYjk`klk\ÈcfZXk`feÉn`k_È\mXj`feÉ%K_\d`c`kXip[\Ôe`k`fef] \mXj`fe`ji\Zf^e`q\[Xj1ÈY\`e^XYc\kfc`m\f]]k_\cXe[n_`c\i\dX`e`e^ le[\k\Zk\[Ypk_\\e\dpÉ%K_`j`emfcm\jc\Xie`e^_fnkfYl`c[Xj_\ck\i k_XkZXeefkY\j\\e#_fnkfdX`ekX`eXÔi\k_Xk[f\jeËk^`m\XnXppfli gfj`k`fe#Xe[_fnkfc\kpflifne]fiZ\jbefnn_\i\pflXi\Ylk i\dX`ele[\k\Zk\[Ypk_\\e\dp%


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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

an environment and being at its mercy. The more you understand both the appeal and dangers of an environment, the better informed you will be to select the right equipment and understand how best to utilize it should the need arise. Remember, no matter how good your survival equipment, or how extensive your knowledge and skills, never underestimate the power of nature. If things aren’t going as planned, never hesitate to stop and re-assess your situation and priorities, and never be afraid to turn back and try again later – the challenge will always be there tomorrow. Finally, always remember that the most effective method of dealing with a survival situation is to avoid getting into it in the first place.

Colin Towell

Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn't do than by the ones you did do MARK TWAIN

13


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BEFORE YOU GO VGI<G8I<PFLIJ<C=

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  how keeping in shape can keep you out of trouble...  the importance of a positive mental attitude...  that where there’s a will to survive there’s a way to survive...  the difference between a coping strategy and an aggravating factor...  how “show-stoppers” could scupper your trip...  why an emergency plan of action could save your life...


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Never assume that the amount of prior preparation required is directly related to the length of a trip or its perceived danger


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KNOWING YOUR LIMITS Having a general idea of how fit you are and knowing how much you are capable of achieving before entering the wilderness will mean you can set yourself realistic goals – which will help to keep you out of danger.

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EXERCISING REGULARLY Any effective training schedule must include at least three 45-minute sessions per week, with exercises that raise the heartbeat to more than 120 beats per minute.

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WARMING UP AND COOLING DOWN Time spent warming up and cooling down after exercise will help to improve your endurance levels and will also accelerate the recovery process. Get into the habit of starting and ending your session with a five-minute jog.

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THIRST

Initially, hunger is not a problem, but a long-term lack of food will cause psychological changes to occur. Symptoms include: Apathy Irritability Depression Lack of concentration

Thirst is a serious problem, especially for survivors at sea or in the desert, and its effects are more acute than hunger. Agitation is commonplace; other symptoms include: Irrational behaviour (see box, right) Delusions Visual hallucinations

TRAINING

MOTIVATION

People who are properly prepared, who know their environment and how to use their equipment, and have an understanding of what to expect in a survival situation, will be far more effective if they find themselves in one. Adequate training and practice using your equipment will help you to function effectively at an automatic level. Prior knowledge is key to your survival.

Often known as “the will to survive”, motivation involves a refusal to accept death, and to hang on to the belief that you were not meant to die under these conditions. It involves overcoming the emotional and physical discomforts of extreme conditions. Linked to motivation is the ability to establish goals, work out the steps to those goals, and to follow those steps through.


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Pre-impact period

Impact Period

Recoil period

Post-trauma period

The “pre-impact” period is divided into two stages:  Threat: danger exists but, though obvious to those who recognize it, those who will not accept it respond with denial and under-activity.  Warning: threat of danger is now apparent to all; response is now likely to be over-activity.

This is the life-threatening stage. Statistically, individuals behave in one of three ways:  10–20 per cent of people are calm and retain full awareness. Up to 75 per cent of people are stunned, bewildered, and unable to react rationally. 10–25 per cent exhibit extreme behaviour, such as screaming.

This follows on directly from the impact period; for example, victims may have escaped a sinking ship and are in the liferafts. It can last for up to three days, but generally lasts for around three hours. In most cases, it is characterized by a gradual return to normal reasoning abilities, awareness, and emotional expression.

If the recoil period is not fully successful, individuals may develop psychiatric disorders. The full impact of the incident becomes apparent and a range of emotions – guilt, depression, anxiety, aimlessness, and a feeling of bereavement – may develop. These are often referred to as PostTraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD).

FATIGUE In many cases, physical exhaustion is present from the outset. At other times, it may result from sleep deprivation and the physical hardship endured over time. Most survivors agree that fatigue overwhelms them, but when they want to sleep they can’t – they have an inability to relax. Fatigue causes a deterioration in mental and physical performance, followed by a psychological and physical debility.

ATTACHMENT One of the strongest motivating forces for survival is the desire to be reunited with principal figures of attachment in your life. These may include: Husbands Wives Partners Children Grandchildren Close friends

SEA-SICKNESS Sea-sickness often brings about an overwhelming desire to curl up and die, which in survival situations can easily become a reality. It’s important not to give in to this urge. Fight sea-sickness with the following methods: Keep a fixed point such as the horizon in sight. Take small sips of water (not salt water) if you have sufficient supplies – but ration them if you’re in a life or death situation.

HOPE To hope means to entertain ideas that a distressing situation will improve and get better. In any survival situation it’s important to cling on to hope, despite information or perceptions to the contrary. Thinking positively will help to ward off psychological trauma. It’s often easier to be optimistic in a group situation than it is if you’re on your own, as people can support each other.

HYPOTHERMIA Hypothermia (see p. 273) produces both physical and psychological effects – the psychological consequences occur early in the condition, and cause: Loss of concentration Loss of memory Motor impairment Faulty decision-making Irrational behaviour

IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Irrational behaviour can take many forms. Examples include the earthquake victims who were found collecting flowers instead of helping the injured, and famously, the band of the Titanic, who played while the ship sank rather than trying to save themselves.

ACCEPTANCE

HELPING OTHERS

An inability to accept one’s situation or condition leads to frustration, anger, and irrational behaviour, and it’s important to avoid these feelings in a survival situation. The ability to accept the situation doesn’t equate to giving in to it – far from it. Those who have this ability, and know when to be active and when to be passive often have a better chance of long-term survival.

First, monitor your own condition and check that you’re really up to the task. Determine who is genuinely disturbed rather than showing “normal” reactions. Psychological first aid is only required for those who are failing to recover. Simple words of comfort and interest will make the majority who are numbed more responsive. Those who are disturbed should be monitored closely. Avoid giving sedatives.

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MONEY

  

PASSPORT



   

VISA

 



VACCINATION

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WARNING! The social customs of a country are not the same all over the world. Many cultural differences stem from ancient cultural or religious pasts, and are taken extremely seriously. While ignoring or breaking some customs may lead only to embarrassment, breaking others can result in a penalty, punishment, or even imprisonment. Cultural differences may require females in your group to dress so that they don’t show bare arms or legs, or they may dictate which hand you use to greet someone politely. Always research a country’s customs thoroughly when planning your trip.

SHOW-STOPPERS

  

TICKETS

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INSURANCE

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You’ll need enough to cover your needs plus extra for emergencies. It must be in the correct currency for the country you are visiting. Ensure your bank card is set up for use in that particular country. Make sure you have a secure way of storing your money. Your passport must be valid. If you need to renew it, do so well in advance. Some countries require your passport to be valid for a number of months after your visit. Keep your passport number in several places, such as inside your survival tin. Keep your passport safe, and in a waterproof container, such as a Ziploc bag. Research the regulations regarding visas relevant to the countries you’re travelling to. Find out how to apply, how far in advance you should apply, whether or not you can apply in the country, and what other documents you need. As with your passport, always keep your visa safe, dry, and in good condition. Check the regulations for the country – many have strict vaccination policies. Ensure you have the vaccinations, and any boosters, within the correct timeframe. Some inoculations last only for six months, so for extended trips you might have to have more while away. This can usually be arranged through local hospitals or clinics. Make sure you have the correct tickets for your journey. Read the tickets and make sure they have the correct names, dates, and locations. Should you need to prove your movements, always keep your tickets in a safe place and never throw them away – often the return journey is included on the same ticket. It’s advisable to get insurance against your trip being cancelled. Ensure that your insurance will cover your medical expenses should the worst happen. You don't have to be climbing Everest – even a twisted or broken ankle when hill-walking could prove to be very expensive if you don’t have adequate insurance.


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OPERATING UNDER REALISTIC CONDITIONS When training with new equipment, always practise using it under realistic conditions. For example, if you’re going to be using your GPS in cold conditions, can you operate it using the gloves you have selected? If you’re pitching a tent, have you got all the necessary components, and can you put it up in the dark and rain?

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BEFORE YOU GOVGI<G8I<PFLIJ<C=

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USING YOUR EPA An EPA should contain up-to-date information about you as a person. This may change very little over the years, so you may only need to create a standard EPA and just update the details specific to each trip.

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<D<I><E:PGC8EF=8:K@FE

EMERGENCY PLAN OF ACTION FORM Full name as appears on passport: Af_eN`cc`XdJd`k_

Date of birth: (dd/mm/yy) )/&',&-'

Passport number: )''/OOOOO-* Expires: ((&'*&(*

Driving licence number: A?P)/'..(jd`k Expires: )/&()&))

Distinguishing marks (scars, tattoos): JdXccjZXiÆZ\eki\f]]fi\_\X[ CXi^\jZXiÆi`^_k_Xe[#d`[[c\Ôe^\i :_`e\j\jpdYfckXkkffÆi`^_kXid

Languages spoken (fluent/basic): <e^c`j_ÆeXk`m\ =i\eZ_ÆYXj`Z >\idXeÆYXj`Z

Medication: D\[`ZXk`feÆXek`$dXcXi`XkXYc\kj

Swimmer: Jkife^jn`dd\i Outdoor skills/experience: 8kk\e[\[YXj`Zd`c`kXipjlim`mXckiX`e`e^% 8kk\e[\[YXj`ZYlj_ZiX]kZflij\ <og\i`\eZ\[`ec`m`e^flk[ffij

Allergies: 8dfo`Z`cc`e Next of kin 1: =Xk_\i N`cc`XdJd`k_ ('(/=licfe^8m\el\ 9ilejn`Zb#DX`e\# LJ8'+,,,

Tel: ''( ,,,,,)*,Email: n`ccjd`k_7`ek\ie\k%Zfd

Next of kin 2: 9ifk_\i 8e[i\nJd`k_ (')*GXib^c\e 8j_]fi[#B\ek# KD)+,?Q LB Tel : ''++ ' (,,,,,)*,. Email: Xe[i\njd`k_7`ek\ie\k%Zfd

Trip details: :Xdgj`k\(4>i`[JK+,--,+ :Xdgj`k\)4>i`[JK-,+0/. M\_`Zc\j1CXe[ifm\i(4n_`k\#i\^D?,,,,,  CXe[ifm\i)4Ycl\#i\^D?,-,,, >iflg49\eAfe\j#B`dJd`k_#Xe[dpj\c] ;Xp(1GXibCXe[ifm\i)Xk:Xdgj`k\)#Xe[[i`m\`e CXe[ifm\i(kf:Xdgj`k\( ;Xp)1=fccfnn\cc$[\Ôe\[gXk_Xcfe^k_\;\in\ekC`e\KiX`c# X`d`e^kfZXdgfm\ie`^_kXk>i`[+,-(,,0 ;Xp*1:fek`el\Xcfe^k_\;\in\ekC`e\KiX`c#X`d`e^kfY\Xk :Xdgj`k\)Ypd`[$X]k\ieffe%:Xdgfm\ie`^_kXk:Xdgj`k\) Communications plan: N`ccjg\Xbkf;X[fek_\dfie`e^f];Xp(Xe[kipkfg_fe\ [li`e^k_\ki\bYlkXdlejli\f]dfY`c\i\Z\gk`fefeZ\fe k_\kiX`cjf[feËknfiip`]pfl_\Xiefk_`e^% N`ccg_fe\;X[X^X`en_\en\i\XZ_ZXdgj`k\)fe[Xp*%

Date: )*Efm\dY\i)''0

Height: ,Ë('É(./Zd Weight: ()jkfe\ .-b`cfj Hair colour: 9ifne

;Xp+1KiXm\c`eCXe[ifm\i)kfZXdgj`k\(Xe[i\ki`\m\ CXe[ifm\i( Foreseeable problems/intentions: ;Xp(1Efe\ ;Xp)1Efe\Ylkn`cclj\IXe^\iJkXk`fe(/#^i`[,,,,,, K\c%------- XjXe\d\i^\eZpi\e[\qmfljgf`ek ;Xp*1Efe\Ylkn`cclj\IXe^\iJkXk`fe(0#^i`[------ K\c%,,,,,,, XjXe\d\i^\eZpi\e[\qmfljgf`ek ;Xp+1Efe\

My mobile: '.0.0,,,,,, My email: anj7`ek\ie\k%Zfd Alt. No: 9\e',,,,,,,,,, Alt. No: B`d',,,,,,,,,, Alt. No: :Xdgj`k\(,,,,,,,,,,, Alt. No: :Xdgj`k\),,,,,,,,,,,

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BEFORE YOU GO VBEFNPFLI<EM@IFED<EK

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  the difference between tundra and taiga...  why you should step up the size of your survival footprint...  the way to go when it comes to snowy peaks or swampy creeks...  how to avoid getting lost in the permafrost... the best way to stay at the top of the food chain... how to feel at home where the tropical butterflies roam...  how a high-visibility survival suit could really get you noticed...


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We rely so heavily on modern technology: water at the turn of a tap; heat at the flick of a switch; food raised, harvested, and prepared by others

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FIND OUT MORE… P PROTECTION Shelters pp. 156–65, 178–81 Fire pp. 118–33, 204–05 Dangers pp. 242–49, 300–05 L LOCATION Navigation pp. 66–77 Movement pp. 86–89 Signalling pp. 236–41 L J_\ck\i\[Xi\Xj1j`k\pfli j_\ck\ifek_\c\\$j`[\f]_`ccj# YlkdXb\jli\k_\_`cc[f\jeËk XjX]\[`jkXeZ\]ifdilee`e^nXk\i% =cff[`e^`jXi`jb#Xe[Xe`dXcjXe[`ej\Zkj `ek\i]\i\n`k_pfliiX[`fj`^eXc% :_ffj\Xjgfkk_Xk]XZ\jk_\jle Xi\[iXnekfnXk\i%K_\ef`j\dXpXcjf kfdXo`d`q\nXidk_Xe[c`^_k _`[\k_\jfle[f]Xe`dXcjfii\jZl\ij P Ilee`e^nXk\i1j`k\pflij_\ck\i

W WATER Finding pp. 188–91 Purifying pp. 200–01 F FOOD Plants pp. 206–07, 280–81 Animals pp. 208–13, 216–29, 290–99


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WARNING! One of the most dangerous animals in mountain areas is the cougar, also known as the puma, panther, and mountain lion. Found in North and South America, more than 20 per cent of attacks are fatal.

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FIND OUT MORE… P PROTECTION Shelters pp. 156–65, 178–81 Fire pp. 118–33, 204–05 Dangers pp. 242–49, 300–01 L LOCATION Navigation pp. 66–77 Movement pp. 90–91, 94–97 Signalling pp. 236–41 W WATER Finding pp. 188–91, 194–95 Purifying pp. 200–01 F FOOD Plants pp. 206–07, 280–81, 286–87 Animals pp. 208–13, 216–23, 290–97

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FIND OUT MORE… P PROTECTION Shelters pp. 156–65, 178–79 Fire pp. 118–33, 204–05 Dangers pp. 242–49 L LOCATION Navigation pp. 66–67 Movement pp. 94–97 Signalling pp. 236–41 W WATER Finding pp. 194–95 Purifying pp. 200–01

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FIND OUT MORE… PROTECTION Shelters pp. 156–61, 176–77 Fire pp. 118–33, 204–05 Dangers pp. 250–55, 300–01 P

L LOCATION Movement pp. 106–07 Signalling pp. 236–41 W WATER Finding pp. 196–97 Treating pp. 200–01 F FOOD Plants pp. 206–07, 288–89 Animals pp. 208–13, 224–29, 292–99

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  the meaning of the term “bomb-burst gear”...  that it’s always good to share when you’re in a group...  which backpacks are the best backpacks to pack...  why you should hike around the house to break in your boots...  a good reason to take a three-season tent...  how to sleep like a mummy...  what gorp is and when you should eat it...


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Trekking with less equipment Ylkjk`cc jkXp`e^jX]\Xccfnjpfl^i\Xk\i]i\\[fdkf\eafp k_\n`c[\ie\jjÆZXiip`e^c\jjn\`^_kglkjc\jj jkiX`efepfliYf[p#\eXYc`e^pflkfZfm\i ^i\Xk\i[`jkXeZ\j%LckiXc`^_kZXdg`e^ZXe Y\Zfd\X[[`Zk`m\Xe[`jjX]\`]pfllj\Zfddfe j\ej\ÆYlke\m\iZfdgifd`j\fek_\hlXc`kpf] \hl`gd\ek%Kip1 Lj`e^X_\oXd`e\jkfm\kfZffb]ff[Xe[Yf`c nXk\iÆpflnfeËk_Xm\kfZXiipXZffb\iXe[]l\c% KXb`e^fe\gfkkfZffb]ff[Xe[Yf`cnXk\i% Lj`e^eXkliXcdXk\i`XcjXjXdXkki\jj%

The wrong time to realize that your equipment isn’t up to the task in hand is when your life depends on it doing what it was designed to do


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Backpacks (see pp. 44–45) are available in a wide range of volumes – from 30 litres (a day pack) to 80 litres (suitable for a trip of a week or more). Bear in mind that you’ll have to carry whatever kit you take with you, and that the weight of the pack will determine what you’re realistically able to achieve each day in terms of distance and activity. Pack only the bare minimum: there’s no room for luxuries when travelling on foot.

MOUNTAIN/ TOURING BIKE

ON FOOT

WEIGHT AND SPACE RESTRICTIONS

Pannier bags for bicycles are designed to fit on front, rear, or side pannier racks, and are available in a range of shapes, sizes, and capacities (from 5 to 50 litres). Larger bags will provide you with enough space to pack essentials, such as tent, sleeping bag, cooking equipment, and spare clothes, but you’ll be restricted by the weight, and also by the need to carry cycle-maintenance kit, such as spare tyres, inner tubes, cables, and tools.

MOTORBIKE

When you’re going to be travelling on foot, it’s important to get rid of all the excess weight and volume you can, even if it’s only by a small amount. The larger and heavier your backpack, the harder you will find the journey. If you have already ruthlessly pared your gear down to the bare essentials, try to reduce the weight or volume of the kit itself. First concentrate on the big three items: tent, sleeping bag, and backpack. Consider using a hooped bivi or tarpaulin rather than a tent; look for a lighter sleeping bag – some can weigh as little as 0.9kg (2lb); and consider buying a backpack with a lighter frame.

Pack your gear in reverse order: the things you want to get to first should be the last things you pack. Stash items you may need during the day in side or lid pockets, for easy access. Coil and tape long straps so that they’re not a snagging hazard. Use a dry bag inside your backpack.  Ensure that all pockets are fully closed and zipped. Air out anything packed wet as soon as you stop for the day.

Side panniers have a capacity of up to 80 litres and tank bags up to 25 litres, and kit weight is not a major issue. However, you’ll need to take extra protective equipment, maintenance tools (including spare tyres), and, in some cases, spare fuel, all of which will impact on available space.

PACK ANIMAL

LIGHTENING THE LOAD

KEY PACKING TIPS

Ideal for rough terrain, such as mountains or desert, pack animals can carry considerable weight. A horse can transport up to 20 per cent of its body weight; a camel can carry a weight of up to 450kg (990lb) – although 150kg (330lb) is more common. You’ll need to factor in the animal’s food and water.

VEHICLE

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The size of the vehicle will determine the amount and the weight of gear you can take with you, but you shouldn’t have to compromise; extra equipment can be packed in peli boxes – waterproof storage containers with a hard, plastic exterior – that can be strapped to the outside of the vehicle. The main issue will be the weight-versus-fuel ratio: the heavier the vehicle, the more fuel it will use.

CANOE/ KAYAK/BOAT

+)

Some kayaks and canoes are designed to bear loads of up to 300kg (660lb), including the craft’s occupant(s), so you should be able to take all of your essential gear, plus a few luxuries. Given your proximity to the water, keeping your gear dry is the main priority. Weight and space restrictions don’t apply for larger vessels.


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CARRY ONLY WHAT YOU NEED Regardless of your pack size, you are the one who has to carry it. If in a group, many communal items can be shared. Try not to double up on basics (a party of four does not need four tubes of toothpaste, for example).

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REGULATING BODY HEAT Don’t be tempted to overdress. Sweat can soak you as much as rain, and a sudden change of temperature can leave you vulnerable to hypothermia. Wearing layers helps you to control your body temperature.

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Gaiters are useful, both in temperate areas for keeping the feet and lower trouser leg dry, and in polar regions for keeping out snow.


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BREAKING IN BOOTS Your boots and feet should co-exist in perfect harmony when you’re on the trail. When you buy a pair of boots, wear them around the house and go on short hikes to make sure you have broken them in.

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BLAKE STANFIELD, 38, AND HIS 65-YEAR-OLD FATHER

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“THE RAFT CRASHED AT SPEED INTO A MASSIVE SHEET OF ICE”

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TIPS ON BUYING A SLEEPING BAG There are many types of bag available. Here are a few things you should consider to ensure you buy the right sleeping bag for you. Determine the lowest temperature you’re likely to encounter on your trip and choose a bag that will perform at this temperature. Synthetic bags are cheaper and easier to clean than down bags, and continue to provide insulation even when wet. Down bags are more expensive than synthetic bags, but provide a better warmth-to-weight ratio and last longer. A mummy-shaped bag provides better insulation than a rectangular-shaped bag, but has less room to move around in.

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USING YOUR SLEEPING BAG Before using your sleeping bag, always check inside for spiders and other dangers, and shake it to make sure the filling is distributed evenly. During use, if the bag is too warm, simply unzip it to cool down, or use the bag as a quilt. If it’s too cold, either put on some clothing, or use a silk liner or waterproof bivi bag to increase its performance. Always air your sleeping bag well after using it.

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WARNING! In some climactic conditions, such as extreme high winds, severe storms, or heavy snow cover, stakes and guylines may not be enough to anchor the tent securely to the ground. This could result in the tent being blown away – and could have severe consequences for the tent’s occupants. In such conditions, use extra means – such as rocks or logs – to anchor your tent securely.

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=FF;=FIC@=< PfliYf[pi\hl`i\j\e\i^pkf]l\ck_\Z_\d`ZXcXe[Y`fcf^`ZXc i\XZk`fejk_XkkXb\gcXZ\n`k_`e`k#Xe[kfgfn\ipflidljZc\j% K_`j#Xe[fk_\ielki`\ekj#Zfd\j]ifdk_\]ff[pfl\Xkj\\Y\cfn % TYPES OF NUTRITION 

CARBOHYDRATE

  



PROTEIN

  



FAT

  



FIBRE

  



VITAMINS AND MINERALS

BODY FAT AND SURVIVAL Being physically fit and active keeps you strong and less prone to injury, but being slightly overweight can actually be an advantage in a survival situation: 1⁄2 kg (1 lb) of body fat converts to roughly 3,500 calories – the amount of energy you would usually expend during an average day.

EXAMPLES

  

BENEFITS

Rice, pasta, bread, and cereals Fresh and dried fruit Root vegetables Chocolate and sweets



Meat and poultry Fish, such as tuna and salmon Eggs and dairy products Beans, pulses, and seeds



Nuts and seeds Dairy products, such as butter and cheese Meats, such as bacon and sausage Cooking oil

 Good source of energy.

Fresh and dried fruit, especially the skins Vegetables, beans, pulses, and seeds Wholegrain cereals Wholemeal bread, wholemeal pasta, and brown rice

 Provides bulk to help your digestion.

Fresh and dried fruit Green vegetables Meat and fish Nuts and seeds



Pfli\gcXZ\k_\\e\i^pk_Xkpfl\og\e[feX [X`cpYXj`jk_ifl^_k_\]ff[pfl\Xk%K_\\e\i^p fYkX`e\[]ifd]ff[`jd\Xjli\[`eZXcfi`\j#Xe[ pfli\hl`i\XZ\ikX`eeldY\if]ZXcfi`\j\XZ_ [Xpkfi\dX`eXc`m\%@]pflZfejld\kff]\n ZXcfi`\j#pfln`cccfj\n\`^_k%?fn\m\i#\Xk`e^ kffdXepZXcfi`\jn`ccc\X[kfn\`^_k^X`e#n_`Z_ ZXeZXlj\cfe^$k\id_\Xck_`jjl\j%K_\eldY\i f]ZXcfi`\jpfli\hl`i\g\i[Xp[\g\e[jfedXep k_`e^j#jlZ_XjpfliX^\Xe[c\m\cf]XZk`m`kp j\\i`^_k %N_\epfl[feËki\gcXZ\k_\\e\i^p \og\e[\[Xe[Zfek`el\kfnfib#pfljkXikkflj\ k_\\e\i^pjkfi\ZfekX`e\[`epfliYf[pËj]Xk%

Major source of energy, as it converts most readily to glucose, which is your body’s preferred source of fuel.

Essential for growth and repair of muscle tissue. Increases your stamina and energy levels, and helps you fight fatigue.  Makes you feel satisfied after eating. 

 Makes you feel satisfied after eating.

 Helps to make you feel full.

 

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Essential for growth and the repair of your body’s tissues. Help you to maintain healthy teeth and eyes. Aid bloodflow and the production of energy.

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N@C;<IE<JJ;@E@E> <m\e`]pflËi\fecp^f`e^feXj_fik_`b\#pflj_flc[kXb\]ff[n`k_ pfl#jlZ_Xj]il`kXe[Z_fZfcXk\#kfi\gcXZ\k_\\e\i^ppflËi\lj`e^% =ficfe^\i\og\[`k`fej#pflËcce\\[kfkXb\XeldY\if][`]]\i\ek ]ff[jkl]]jÆ]fi\e\i^pXe[]fimXi`\kp% TYPES OF FOOD

  



TRAIL SNACKS

  



HIGH-CALORIE SNACKS

  



PRE-PREPARED MAIN MEALS







MEAT, FISH, AND CHEESE

 



BEANS, PULSES, AND GRAINS

  



MIXERS

  



FLAVOURINGS

  



BEVERAGES

In a survival situation, don’t eat for the first 24 hours unless to replace expended energy. Ration your food, as digestion uses up water.

EXAMPLES 

BREAKFAST CEREALS AND DRIED FRUIT

WARNING!

  

BENEFITS

Trail mix – also known as “gorp” Muesli or granola Porridge oats Dried fruit



Biscuits and crackers Energy bars and cereal/granola bars Fruits, such as apples, pears, and oranges Nuts and seeds



Custard powder and dehydrated ice cream Chocolate Boiled sweets Pudding mixes

 Provide a quick boost of energy, when required.

Boil-in-the-bag meals – you can buy a wide variety of fully prepared meals, sealed in a foil bag. Cook for five to seven minutes. Freeze-dried and dehydrated meals – simply add boiling water, stir, and wait about five minutes. Extremely lightweight and take up little space. Tinned meals – a great variety of them are available, but they are bulky and heavy.

 Provide a balanced range of food groups, vitamins,

Tinned fish, such as sardines or tuna Cured meats, such as ham, salami, and beef jerky Hard cheese, such as cheddar and parmesan



Lentils and dried peas Dried beans and pearl barley Rice and pasta Couscous





Can be used to bulk up main meals and help you to feel full. An important source of carbohydrates. Also provide fibre and protein.

Flour Salt Suet Sugar



Flour and salt can be used to make dough.



Suet is an invaluable source of fat that can be used to supplement meals.

Powdered soup Tomato puree Powdered sauces Gravy cubes



Add flavour and variety to your meals. Especially useful if you’re cooking with wild food.

Tea Coffee Chocolate powder Dried milk

 Provide warmth and comfort, although they





Provide a vital source of carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals to set you up at the start of the day. Contain dietary fibre to aid digestion.

High in carbohydrates to help you maintain energy levels. Help to keep your hunger pangs at bay between main meals.

 Offer a comfort factor, although they are of

limited nutritional value.

and minerals to help your body to recover and repair itself after the day’s exertions.  Quick and easy to prepare, and require few utensils.  Many require minimal fuel to cook them, or water to rehydrate them.  Can be bulked out with beans, pulses, and grains.  Smaller tins may have a pull-top to open them.





A great source of proteins and fats. Easy to store and long-lasting, although tins are heavier than other sources of food.

 Sugar and salt help to make wild food palatable.



are of limited nutritional value.  Chocolate powder is high in carbohydrates.  Dried milk is an excellent source of calcium.

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BEFORE YOU GO V><KK?<I@>?K><8I

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TRANSPORTING FUEL There are many factors to consider when transporting fuel to make your expedition safer:  When hiking, pack your fuel container upright in the middle of your backpack, and surround with clothing to protect it from knocks. Make sure you can access it easily when you reach camp. Use similar principles when travelling by other methods.  Ensure that your fuel bottles look very different from your water bottles to prevent confusion.  If you‘re going on a long expedition, check the availability of the fuel, and consider how you will dispose of cylinders safely.

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:?FFJ@E>8>8J$FIC@HL@;$=L<CC<;JKFM< >Xj$]l\cc\[jkfm\jXi\jX]\i#Zc\Xe\i#c`^_k\i#Xe[\Xj`\ikflj\k_Xec`hl`[$]l\cc\[ jkfm\j#YlkXi\c\jj\Zfefd`ZXc#Xe[efkjl`kXYc\]ficfn$k\dg\iXkli\#_`^_$Xck`kl[\ lj\%C`hl`[jkfm\jf]]\i^i\Xk\ijkXY`c`kp#]l\cm\ijXk`c`kpXe[\Zfefdp#Ylkpfle\\[ kfgldgXe[gi`d\gi\_\Xk k_\dY\]fi\lj\#Xe[k_\pXi\c\jjZc\Xe%

TYPE OF STOVE

GAS-FUELLED STOVES

PROS

INFORMATION

BUTANE OR ISOBUTENE Both fuels sold in disposable, pressurized

BLENDED FUEL

PROPANE Fuel sold in disposable, pressurized

Fuel sold in disposable, pressurized

canisters. Used in most portable stoves and barbecue grills.

Is a mix of butane, propane, and/or

Lightweight, sealed fuel container.

Lightweight, sealed fuel container.

Lightweight, sealed fuel container.

Butane very efficient and burns at

Fuel burns at a very hot, steady heat,



canisters.

a high temperature. Isobutene more efficient than butane, and performs better in cold conditions.

Higher cost and lower heat output than liquid fuels. Fuel efficiency reduced at higher altitudes.  Butane less efficient than isobutene in temperatures below 10°C (50°F). 

CONS

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canisters. isobutene.

and produces an almost sootless flame. Performs very well in cold conditions. 

Higher cost and lower heat output than liquid fuels. Fuel efficiency reduced at higher altitudes.  Highly combustible, so less safe than other fuels. 

Fuel safer than pure propane, and performs better than either pure butane or isobutene in cold conditions. Isobutene blends give a more efficient flame.

Higher cost and lower heat output than liquid fuels. Fuel efficiency reduced at higher altitudes. 


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LIQUID-FUELLED STOVES

TYPE OF STOVE

WHITE (COLEMAN) FUEL





Stove uses a range of fuels.

Fuel is non-pressurized, so can be stowed

to burn the fuel in, and a windshield that also acts as a cooking platform.

safely in almost any airtight container.

 

 

safely in almost any airtight container. Stove tends to perform reliably, efficiently, and quickly, producing a hot flame.

Economical and produces a clean flame.

Potential for spillage of flammable fuel. Stove must be pumped to generate required pressure for use. Fuel needs to be primed. Some fuels produce soot and noxious fumes.



 Stove is lightweight, stable, and safe.  Usually supplied with pots and pans.

Potential for spillage of flammable fuel.

Stove slower to heat up than other liquid

stoves, because it’s not pumped.  Flame vulnerable to wind and other

environmental conditions.

CONS



Stove must be pumped to generate required pressure for use. Fuel needs to be primed.

Stove basically consists of a vessel

Fuel is non-pressurized, so can be stowed 



Fuel sold in disposable plastic containers.

unleaded petrol, paraffin (kerosene), aviation fuel, and white fuel, to diesel – most of which are readily available.

PROS



Fuel can withstand low temperatures, high altitudes, and most weather conditions. Produces a clean flame.

Stove can use a variety of fuels, from

INFORMATION

Fuel sold in disposable canisters.

METHYLATED SPIRIT

MULTI-FUEL

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BEFORE YOU GOV><KK?<I@>?K><8I

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LAYER 1 (BOTTOM LAYER)



Blister medical pads and plasters: useful for minor cuts and blisters. Include a range of plasters (both waterproof and fabric) in a selection of sizes. Waterproof plasters can also be used to mend holes in tents and tarpaulins.

LAYER 2



LAYER 6







Survival saw, or pocket chainsaw: can be wrapped around the inside of the tin or cut in half, if space is limited. Single-edged razor: multi-purpose – from skinning an animal to cutting cord. Store in its packaging. Needle and cotton: use strong, waxed cotton, pre-threaded through the needle.

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Antiseptic wipes: for treating wounds and cleaning bites. Can also be ignited by a spark and used to get a fire going.

LAYER 3



LAYER 8

LAYER 7



     

Flashlights: two small Photon lights – one white and one red – taped in “off” position. Mini multi-tool: see panel, opposite. Chainsaw handles: use with pocket chainsaw. High-viz card, signal mirror: location aids. Compass: an emergency back-up. Flint, fire steel, tampons: for starting fires. Snare wire: for animal traps and lashing.

Water purification tablets: choose from puritabs or iodine (but don’t use iodine if you’re allergic to it, or to shellfish). Water will need to be filtered before being purified.



 

Waterproof matches and tinder balls: for starting fires. Store the matches in a small, resealable plastic bag. Pencil: sharpened at both ends. Potassium permanganate: dissolve in water to sterilize water at low concentration, and to clean wounds at a high concentration. Can also be used with sugar to make fire. Store in a waterproof container.


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LAYER 4



Petroleum jelly: apply to chapped lips, rashes, and sores. Can also be smeared onto tampons to make them burn longer. Store in a small, resealable plastic bag.









Waterproof notepaper: for drawing maps or leaving messages. Photograph of loved ones: a psychological incentive in a survival scenario. Credit card: an effective means of extracting insect stings (see pp. 266–67). Money: wrapped in cellophane.

TIN LID SEALED WITH TAPE

LAYER 9

Non-lubricated condoms: can be used to carry water, or as a waterproof cover for smaller items, such as your mobile phone. Mini fishing kit: if you are near water, fish can be easier to catch, prepare, and cook than mammals. Fishing line can be also used for other survival tasks. Should contain a selection of hooks, flies, swivels, and split-shots.

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LAYER 5





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Sailmaker’s needles: multi-purpose – can be used as an arrow point, or for mending tents and tarpaulins. Wide eyes are best. Safety pins: for securing clothing, or mending your sleeping bag or tent. Mini glowsticks (cyalumes): useful for emergency lighting, and as a location aid. Single-edged razor: multi-purpose (see Layer 6) – store in its packaging.

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  how to use your map to tell the lie of the land...  that the path ahead is as long as a piece of string...  the difference between eastings and northings and an ERV and a GPS...  how a detour could be the most direct route...  how to navigate using your hair...  why an anvil of cumulonimbus is no fair-weather cloud...


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Never underestimate the combined power of a map, a compass, a GPS unit, and the skills and knowledge to use them well – your life may depend on it

JK8IK@E> GF@EK


66

ON THE TRAIL _ FIND YOUR WAY

MAPS AND MAP-READING A MAP IS A TWO-DIMENSIONAL representation of a threedimensional area – from a map you can determine distance and height on the ground. If you are able to read a map, and can interpret the information it contains, you can visualize what an area looks like and use these features as landmarks to make navigation easier. Your map is very important, so keep it safe.

UNDERSTANDING MAPS Although there are many types of map available – with varying levels of detail and scale – topographic maps are best for hiking. They show important features, such as rivers, roads, railways, paths, buildings, and wooded areas, and also depict the lie of the land through the use of contour lines (see opposite) to represent height.

THE LEGEND Topographic maps incorporate a legend, or key, which deciphers the information shown on the map. It’s important to familiarize yourself with the symbols used, as this will help you visualize what’s being represented on the map more effectively. Some examples are listed below: HEIGHTS AND NATURAL FEATURES Water

Mud

Sand; sand and shingle Vertical face/cliff

These symbols represent the vegetation type

Contour lines join points of equal height Loose rock

Boulders

Outcrop

Scree

VEGETATION Coniferous trees Non-coniferous trees Coppice Orchard Scrub Bracken, heath, or rough grassland Symbols represent features of interest and are decoded in the legend

Marsh, reeds, or saltings

TOURIST AND LEISURE INFORMATION Fishing area

Campsite

Walks/Trails

THE SCALE

Different colours show different types of ground: mud, sand etc

Grid numbers are useful for grid references Grid lines divide the map into 1km squares

Hiking paths are clearly marked on the map

Hiking maps are always drawn to a scale provided in the legend. This is a ratio of how much you would have to enlarge the map to reach actual size. 1:25,000 – whereby 4cm on the map equates to 1km on the ground (21⁄2in to 1 mile) – is the most useful level of detail for hikers. A smaller-scale of 1:50,000, for example, will provide a more basic overview of the terrain.


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TAKING AN ACCURATE READING Always hold the compass level to allow the needle to rotate easily. A compass is simply a magnetized piece of metal and, as such, is susceptible to interference. To avoid this, never use your compass near: Metal or other magnetized objects Electric currents, such as overhead high-tension power cables Buildings and vehicles – these often contain metal and electricity that might affect the accuracy of your compass readings

-0

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BACK BEARING A back bearing enables you to find your position by taking a bearing from a feature back to you. To do this, take a bearing to a point in the normal way and either add or subtract 180 degrees. You can also read the bearing exactly opposite to the index line. This is useful when working out the bearing from a feature back to you and transferring it to your map (see below).

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GET YOUR BEARINGS

Walk in the direction indicated by this arrow

Ensure red orienting arrow points to the top of the map

Vertical grid line

FINISH

FINISH

The bearing on the index line reads 320° in this example Orienting lines are now aligned with the grid lines

Orientate the compass so the north magnetic arrow sits underneath the orienting arrow START

START

Turn the compass housing around until the orienting arrow and the orienting lines within the housing line up with the vertical grid lines on the map. Read the bearing between the two points from the index line on the compass.  For this grid bearing to deliver you successfully to your destination, you’ll need to convert it to a magnetic bearing by using the magnetic variation information on the map legend (see p. 69). Add or subtract your figure, and adjust your compass accordingly.

In order to walk on this bearing you must now orientate your compass.  Hold the compass level and at a height that allows you to comfortably look squarely down on it (close to your chest is a good position).  Turn your body until the north end of the compass needle sits inside the orienting arrow. The direction of travel arrow is now pointing exactly in the direction that you need to walk.

FINDING YOUR POSITION

NOT AT A KNOWN FEATURE If you are not at a known feature, but can see other recognizable features on the ground that you can identify and locate on your map, you can take bearings on these features and transfer them to your map. In order to do this you need two features that are at least 1km (6⁄10 mile) away and at least 40° apart. After you have transferred both bearings onto your map, the point at which the two lines cross will reveal your exact location. For greater accuracy, plot a third feature onto your map. The lines will cross and form a triangle – your position will be inside this triangle.

If you are unsure of your position but can see features on the ground that you also recognize marked on your map, you can take bearings on these features with your compass and transfer them onto your map (see far left, and left) to accurately determine where you are. This process is called “triangulation” (also known as “resection” in military terminology). You’ll need to transfer your compass bearings into grid bearings. AT A KNOWN FEATURE If you are at or on a known feature on a map – such as a river, road, or track – and you can see another recognizable feature, you can take a bearing on that feature and mark it on your map. Where that line crosses your known feature is your position. In the example below, you know you are somewhere along the banks of a river and can see a church that you can identify on your map.

You know you are somewhere along this river

Take a bearing from the church

Where the bearing crosses the river reveals your exact position

Extend bearings back from both features

Using your compass, take bearings to the features on the ground.  Transfer these bearings to back bearings (see box, above left), and draw them on the map from your chosen features.

Where the two lines cross indicates your location

Extend these lines further over the map until they cross each other.  The point at which the lines cross shows your location.  If you want to be more accurate, repeat the process with a third feature.

71


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ROUTE PLANNING Break your route down into small sections. This will focus your navigation and make the overall distance seem less daunting. If you’re in a group, designate an emergency rendezvous (ERV) point within each section – if someone gets separated you should all head there. If you can, include water sources and a safety point, such as a campsite, on your route.

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NAISMITH’S RULE Naismith’s rule takes into account distance and topography, and is used for estimating the duration of hikes. Allow one hour for every 5km (3 miles) you will travel Add 30 minutes for every 300m (985ft) you will climb Subtract 10 minutes for every 300m (985ft) you will descend. However, for very steep slopes you should add 10 minutes for every 300m (985ft) you will descend

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PRINCIPLES OF NAVIGATION You will never get lost if you know: Where you started from  What bearing or course you have been travelling on  How far you have travelled

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS You will need an improvised needle or razor blade, plus one of the following: Knife Hair Silk Magnet Battery and wire; paper and tape

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PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETIZING In general, the longer you work on the needle the stronger the magnetization will be and the longer it will last. To tell when it is magnetized sufficiently, hold the needle up against another metal object – if it is attracted to the metal and has enough strength to hold itself against it then it will be strong enough. Once the needle is magnetized you will need to allow it to float freely (see below), and then determine which end points north by using natural aids, such as the sun (see pp. 76–77). Mark the north end of the needle with a pen or a small scratch. Jkifb\k_\e\\[c\ ,'Æ(''k`d\j

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SHADOW STICK BASICS Use a shadow stick to determine direction and time anywhere between the Arctic (66.5°N) and Antarctic Circles (66.5°S). In the northern hemisphere the shadow of the stick will be on the north side of the east-west line In the southern hemisphere the reverse is true: the shadow of the stick will be on the south side of the east-west line. When the shadow is at its shortest, it is midday.

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ON THE TRAILV=@E;PFLIN8P

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HOW CLOUDS FORM Clouds form by a cooling process. This process can be compared to breathing on cold glass, when condensation appears because invisible water vapour in your breath, once cooled to a temperature known as the “dew point”, condenses into its visible liquid state. Clouds form in a very similar way. Air temperature falls at an average rate of two degrees celcius per 300m (1,000ft). When air containing moisture – perhaps because it has travelled over sea – reaches the height at which it meets its dew point temperature, the water vapour condenses to form visible cloud.

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WARNING! Never shelter under a solitary tree during a lightning storm – get in your vehicle if possible or find low ground.

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/(


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ON THE TRAILV=@E;PFLIN8P

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CHANGING WEATHER Watch out for alterations in the wind direction or strength as this may lead to a change in the weather. A dry, steady wind that changes direction or decreases in strength often indicates that rain is on its way.

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WIND SPEED KPH (MPH)

WIND EFFECT ON LAND AND AT SEA

0

Calm

0 (0)

Smoke rises vertically. Sea like a mirror.

1

Light air

1–3 (1–2)

Smoke drifts gently. Sea ripples like scales.

2

Light breeze

4–11 (3–7)

Leaves rustle. Wind felt on skin. Small wavelets.

3

Gentle breeze

12–19 (8–12)

Leaves and twigs move. Large wavelets with scattered whitecaps.

4

Moderate breeze

20–29 (13–18)

Small branches move. Small waves with frequent whitecaps.

5

Fresh wind

30–39 (19–24)

Small trees begin to sway. Moderate waves with some foam and spray.

6

Strong wind

40–50 (25–31)

Umbrella usage is difficult. Large waves of 3m (10ft) with some spray.

7

Near gale

51–61 (32–38)

Whole trees sway. Sea heaps up and foam begins to streak.

8

Gale

62–74 (39–46)

Walking is difficult. Moderately high waves of more than 5m (18ft).

9

Severe gale

75–87 (47–54)

Damage to roofs. High waves with toppling crests.

10

Storm

88–101 (55–63)

Trees uprooted or broken off. Very high waves and sea surface appears white.

11

Severe storm

102–119 (64–74)

Houses damaged. Exceptionally high waves of more than 11m (38ft).

12

Hurricane

More than 120 (More than 75)

Buildings destroyed. Huge waves of more than 14m (46ft).

/*


/+

ON THE TRAIL VD8B<8DFM<

D8B<8 DFM< While some survival situations Xi\j`dgcpleXmf`[XYc\#dXepXi\ \ek\i\[`ekfY\ZXlj\YXj`Zk\Z_e`hl\j i\c\mXekkfXgXik`ZlcXidf[\f] kiXejgfik_Xm\efkY\\e]fccfn\[ Zfii\Zkcp%K_`jZflc[Y\[l\kfXcXZb f]befnc\[^\#Xcfjjf]ZfeZ\ekiXk`fe# Xe`e[`m`[lXcËjfm\i$Zfe]`[\ekY\c`\] `e_`jfi_\ifne\hl`gd\ekfijb`ccj# fiXjXi\jlckf]j_\\ii\Zbc\jje\jj% K_\i\]fi\#Y\]fi\pflm\ekli\`ekf Xele]Xd`c`Xi\em`ifed\ek#dXb\jli\ k_XkpflZXi\]lccpi\j\XiZ_k_\kpg\ f]k\iiX`epfln`ccY\\eZflek\i`e^

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  how to make a paddle (so you’re never up a creek without one)...  the difference between your finger shelf and your hand jam...  how to pull your own pulk and scramble over scree...  when to blaze a trail or ski without skis...  how to tell your front-wheel skid from your skidoo...  when to let the camel train take the strain...  how chewing gum can stop that sinking feeling...


MAKE A MOVE

85

A walking staff is one of the simplest yet most important survival aids you will ever need. It’s the first piece of equipment to improvise should you find yourself in a survival situation.

equipment and most appropriate clothing, and enable you to familiarize yourself with the survival techniques relevant to a particular environment. Whether you’re planning to travel on foot, by bike, on horseback, in a 4WD vehicle, or by boat, you must consider not only your own capabilities and those of other members of your team, but also the capabilities of your equipment. Remember, pushing anything beyond its limits – whether that be a person, an animal, or a vehicle – will invariably lead to it failing.

THE “SURVIVOR’S THIRD LEG” – as a walking staff is also known – increases your ability to support yourself by allowing you to have two points of contact with the ground at any one time. This will reduce the chance of you slipping – a crucial factor given that your ability to walk is your main means of rescue; reduce your mobility and you seriously reduce your ability to survive. A versatile tool, your survivor’s third leg can be employed in many different survival situations. Among its many uses, it can be employed to:  Support you as you walk  Protect your face when you’re walking through thickets or gorse  Check for adequate support when you’re crossing marshy ground  Test the ground ahead for obstructions  Check the depth of water when crossing streams and rivers  Protect you against wild animals  Form a ridgepole for your shelter  Help you with your pace counting  Spear fish or catch game  Dig up roots or plants

Your ability to walk may be your primary means of rescue; reduce your mobility and you dramatically reduce your chances of survival


/-

ON THE TRAILVD8B<8DFM<

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//

ON THE TRAIL VD8B<8DFM<

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Wear footwear when wading to protect your feet from rocks and other dangers. Remove trousers to keep them dry and decrease resistance in the water. Use a walking staff for added support.

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WARNING! Never cross white water, or rivers that have flooded. In these situations it is safer not to cross at all than to risk injury.

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WARNING! Climbing is a dangerous activity that should only be considered as a last resort. Ideally, plan ahead using your map to find a way around the obstacle.

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ON THE TRAIL _ D8B<8DFM<

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0*


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ON THE TRAILVD8B<8DFM<

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WARNING! Walking over deep snow without snow shoes is called “post-holing” and should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Sinking into the snow will leave you exhausted and very wet, which in cold conditions can quickly lead to hypothermia. The exertion can also cause sweating and a dangerous reduction in your body temperature when you stop.

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Survival saw or pocket chainsaw Knife Cordage Forked branch (for bulk of sledge) Two branches (for bracing pieces) Sticks (for cross-pieces)

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PACKING TIPS Know the capabilities of your animal, and what weight they can safely carry over the necessary distance.  Before loading the animal, groom it well and check for sores or ticks. Place heavier items at the bottom of your panniers and lighter items at the top.

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WARNING! Do not attempt to use pack animals without expert help or extensive training. The animals require a lot of care, and you will need to organize your days meticulously. KipkfdXb\k_\gXk`\ek XjZfd]fikXYc\Xjgfjj`Yc\

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REGION

Horse

Worldwide

Mule

Husky

Eurasia, Americas

Arctic

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

 80–110kg

 Easy to train, with a good temperament

 Require grooming

(175–240lb)  20 per cent of body weight

 Strong

 Can stray from camp



Can manage steep terrain

 55–80kg





Will stick by a mare closely – this can be used to keep them moving and to keep them within the camp at night Very hardy and can manage steep terrain



(120–180lb)  20 per cent of body weight

Hardy – can cope well with snow and cold conditions Can travel fast



Versatile on different terrains Can drink up to a quarter of its body weight and then go without water for several days



Minimal environmental impact Travels well at high altitudes on difficult and steep terrain



Can carry very heavy loads Can manage steep terrain



AVERAGE LOAD

 

Camel

Llama

Central Asia, North Africa, Australia



Andes







Elephant (Indian)

South Asia





Ox

Eurasia, Americas





if not securely tethered

 Can tolerate heat

40kg (85lb) 7 dogs can pull 270kg (600lb)



90–140kg (198–308lb) 30 per cent of body weight



35–55kg (77–123lb) 25–30 per cent of body weight



750–1,250kg (1,650–2,750lb) 25 per cent of body weight



135–205kg (300–450lb) 30 per cent of body weight























 

Hardworking Very strong Surefooted and can manage steep terrain

 

Young mules can be easily startled, so good training is essential Stubborn Need a lot of fresh meat, which must be carried Prone to fight among themselves Strong-willed and difficult to control Violent – can spit and bite

Makes horses and mules nervous Can be difficult to control if poorly trained Slow-moving Requires large amounts of food and water Takes time to train Slow-moving Stubborn

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EXPEDITION CHECKLIST  Check your map and inform others

of your route and intended timeframe.  Ensure the vehicle is fit for the journey,

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with all necessary spares. Check the fuel, oil, water, brakes, and hydraulic fluids, and check that there are no leaks. Inspect the tyre treads, wheel nuts, lights, and steering arms. Always carry spare water, wheel(s), and fuel, as well as survival equipment, sand ladders, a 12v heavy-duty tyre inflator, winching strap, and first aid kit.

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WARNING! Don’t hook your thumbs around the steering wheel when driving over rough terrain. Hitting a rut can jerk the wheel and break them.

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MAXIMUM TRACTION On soft surfaces your vehicle’s traction can be improved by lowering your tyre pressure slightly. As a guide, place a brick 1cm (1⁄2in) away from the side of a rear tyre on flat ground, deflate the tyre until it touches the brick, measure this pressure, and apply to all four tyres. Make sure you can reinflate them.

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EQUIPMENT LIST Winching mechanism and strap Cable or tow rope Spare tyre (inflated) Shovel and saw Sleeping bag or blanket Branches or stakes Sand ladders or mats

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WARNING! When winching, don’t stand within range of the cable in case it snaps under the strain. A breaking cable can cut a tree – or a person – in half. Place a blanket or sleeping bag over it to absorb some of the shock and reduce whiplash.

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WARNING!

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Always wear a lifejacket. Empty water bottles in your pockets can be used as makeshift flotation devices in an emergency. In a survival situation, never leave your kayak or canoe unless it is lifethreatening not to do so. A kayak is highly visible, especially from the air, and is far more likely to be spotted first by rescuers.

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TANDEM CANOEING In a tandem canoe, one person should sit at the front and one at the back. Each person paddles on either side – swap sides regularly to avoid muscle fatigue and strain. The person at the back generally controls the steering, using his or her paddle like a rudder.

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Knife or small saw  Poncho, shelter sheet, or tarpaulin Long sticks, brushwood,

and thatch Cordage

WARNING! Apart from the brushwood raft (below), most improvised rafts will float half-submerged, so you’ll be constantly sitting or kneeling in water. This could lead to hypothermia in certain conditions, so build an additional raised platform if necessary.

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WARNING! As with any survival activity involving water, try to avoid getting wet – find a way around the obstacle if possible, or find shallower water to wade across. The cold water increases your risk of hypothermia so ensure you have the necessary equipment for building a fire. Never enter water where there are likely to be dangers such as crocodiles or hippos.

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  how to make a shower before you take a shower...  why keeping clean is good for both body and soul...  how to work up a lather with wood ash...  when a thatched screen could protect your modesty...  what turns a boiled sweet into a firestarter...  the difference between cattails and fire dogs...


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The psychological effects of being able to start a fire should not be underestimated; neither should the effects of not being able to start one

((*


((+

CAMP CRAFT V:8DG<JJ<EK@8CJ

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WHERE NOT TO CAMP  Don’t set up your shelter on sloping, poorly drained ground.  Don’t pitch your camp too close to water because of the risk

of flooding and the presence of insects and animals.  Avoid camping near noisy water sources, such as waterfalls,

because they mask any other sounds that could alert you to the presence of threats, such as wild animals, or even possible rescue, such as a helicopter or emergency whistles.

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CAMP CRAFT V:8DG<JJ<EK@8CJ

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CLEAN CLOTHING The condition of your clothing and equipment can affect your state of mind. If your clothing is dirty and unkempt, your attitude to survival will lack discipline. Try to keep your clothing clean and in good repair.

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WARNING! If you intend to have a fire in front of your shelter, bear in mind some basic rules:  Don’t build the fire too close to the shelter as it may get out of control or a spark may blow into the shelter and ignite it.  Make sure you have fully extinguished your fire before you decamp and leave the site. Pour water (if you have enough) onto the fire and the immediate surrounding area, or use damp soil, sand, or earth.

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KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER  Carry some form of firelighter with you at all times.  Practise your skills before you need them – in

different conditions and using different materials. You’ll soon learn what works and what doesn’t.  Collect tinder as soon as you enter the forest. If it’s wet, dry it in your pockets against your warm body.  Collect everything you need to get a fire going, then multiply it by ten. If you’re in a dire situation, you may have only one or two chances of getting a fire going before you either run out of matches or tinder, or you suffer from exhaustion or hypothermia.

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120

CAMP CRAFT _ CAMP ESSENTIALS

THE ELEMENTS OF FIRE THE THREE MATERIAL ELEMENTS you need to build a fire are tinder, kindling, and fuel. They must be dry and collected in sufficient quantities. A well-made feather stick effectively provides tinder, kindling, and fuel on one piece of wood – and it needs only a spark to set it alight.

MAKING A FEATHER STICK

EMERGENCY TINDER Carry tinder, such as a tampon or cotton wool balls, in a 35mm film canister or a Ziploc bag in your emergency kit. For each fire, use some cotton wool or a small piece of tampon. Cotton wall balls smeared with petroleum jelly make a flame last ten times longer.

Between four and six well-made feather sticks provide enough combustible material to get a fire going. Keep a few already made and packed away to use in an emergency. The best feather sticks are made from standing dead wood, but just about any type of dry wood will do. If you use small, dead branches that have snapped off a tree, remove the bark first.

Choose the side of a stick with an even grain and no knots. Work on a hard, flat surface to stop the stick slipping.  Lay the blade flat on the stick and run it all the way down without cutting into the wood – do this ten times. This gives you a feel for the wood and how your knife moves over it.

TINDER The first element you use to make a fire is dry, combustible material called tinder. You may have tinder in your equipment (see pp. 122–23), or you may need to find natural or other man-made sources. The key to success is to experiment with what’s around you before you actually need it. Make sure it’s dry – leave it in the sun if it’s damp. When you use some tinder, replace it at the earliest opportunity. TYPES OF TINDER Natural sources: Feather sticks (see above), shavings from the outside of a bamboo stem, bark shavings, fine wood dust, pine pitch, plant and animal down, powdered dung, and fire dog (a charred stick). Also, birch bark (silver birch bark can be lit even when it’s wet), clematis, honeysuckle, cattail, dry grass, dead and dry moss, and some fungi. The best tinder for friction methods of firelighting (see pp. 130–33) is tree bark, dry grass, fungi, lichen, plant roots, fibres, and down. Man-made sources: Cotton wool balls, tampons, char cloth, fire tin (see p. 123), lint, tissue paper, camera film, strips of rubber, and candle wick.

Hold your knife so that you can use the part of the blade closest to the handle – this gives you more control and puts less strain on your wrist

Use sticks 25cm (10in) long and up to 3 fingers in diameter

Loosen the fibres so they catch alight easily

Buffed tinder looks like a mouse’s nest

TINDER BUNDLE A good way to prepare your tinder to take a spark or a coal is to make it into a tinder bundle. Vigorously tease, rub, and pull the fibres with your fingers until it becomes a ball the size of a grapefruit. Push the finest, most combustible material into the interior of the ball. Try mixing up your tinder to make it more effective – for example, dry grass, birch bark, and cattail.


THE ELEMENTS OF FIRE

STANDING DEADWOOD A tree that’s died but hasn’t fallen over has no green foliage and the bark falls off without being replaced. This is the ultimate wood for firelighting, as it can provide kindling and fuel and, when split, makes excellent feather sticks. The bottom few inches may be wet where the tree wicks up moisture from the ground. Angle the blade slightly towards the wood

The stick gets thinner as you make the shavings Curled shavings collect at the bottom of the stick

The shaving should curl as the blade moves down

Now tilt the angle of the blade slightly towards the wood.  Keeping a part at the top of the wood to use as a handle, run the blade down the wood to cut a shaving.  Stop just before the bottom so that the shaving stays attached to the stick.

Keep the stick firmly on the ground to steady your action

Turn the stick slightly and run the knife down the edge created in step 2 to create a second shaving. Turn the stick again and repeat, working around the stick.  Try to get a rhythm going, and put your body behind the cutting action.

Collect any shavings that fall from the stick

Once you have mastered the technique, continue to feather the rest of the stick.  When you’ve finished you will have a thin stick with curled shavings still attached, and ready for use as kindling.

KINDLING

FUEL

Kindling is the second material element of firelighting and, when dry, is added to burning tinder. Kindling can be as thin as a match or as thick as a finger. You should be able to snap it with your hands. If it doesn’t break with a crack then it’s probably not completely dry. If it’s damp, remove the outer bark (this retains most of the moisture) and break the kindling down into small sticks 15cm (6in) long.

Initially, your fire needs constant tending, but once it can sustain itself for five minutes it’s established and you can add increasingly larger fuel to create a good heart – a bed of hot coals that sustains the fire with minimum effort on your part. The fuel should be about as thick as your wrist or forearm. At first, use dry fuel split into sticks that catch alight easily. Add green (live) wood and larger logs (whole or split) once the fire is established. In wet conditions, build your fire under cover to keep off the rain.

TYPES OF KINDLING  Soft-wood twigs are very combustible, while wood with flammable resin, such as pine, burns hot and long.  You can use some types of tinder as kindling – for example, bark, palm leaves, pine needles, grass, ground lichens, and ferns – but you will need larger quantities for kindling than you needed for tinder.

Strip off the bark with your knife

TYPES OF FUEL  Hard woods from mainly deciduous trees (such as oak, maple, ash, beech, and birch) burn hot and long, produce good coals, and are more efficient. But they are hard to get going.  Soft woods from conifers (such as pine, fir, and spruce) are easier to light as they can contain resin, but burn faster and produce less heat than hard woods. They also make more smoke.  Peat is found on well-drained moorland and can be cut with a knife. However, it needs a good air supply.  Charcoal is lightweight, smokeless, and burns hot.  Dried animal droppings provide a good smokeless fuel.

121


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TOOLS AND MATERIALS  A tin with a tight-fitting lid, such as

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FIRE ESSENTIALS There’s plenty of advice surrounding the pros and cons of making fires, but three general tips will help:  Never make things any harder than they need to be. Choose a fire that requires the least effort for the maximum gain.  It is more efficient to build a small fire and sit close to it, than to build a large fire and sit far away from it.  If all your wood appears wet, remove the bark and split the wood – the centre will usually be dry.  Once the fire is established, place damp tinder, kindling, and larger pieces of wood close to the fire to dry out. Keep watch on them so that they don’t dry out to the point where they catch fire!

TYPE OF FIRE

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TEEPEE

AUTOMATIC

LONG LOG

Surround the tinder ball with kindling in the shape of a teepee. Arrange small, medium, and large fuel logs in a square at the foot of the teepee.



Arrange large non-porous stones in a circle, place a tinder ball in the middle, with kindling around it. Add fuel logs when the fire is established.



Line a hole 1m (3ft) deep with non-porous stones. Put tinder and kindling inside and rest large logs against the sides so they drop down as they burn.



Put tinder, kindling, and fuel logs in a depression 2m (6ft) long. Lay two long fuel logs on top of the burning fire.



Areas with abundant fuel, because the fire requires lots of firewood



Windy locations Popular areas with existing fire rings and where lowimpact camping is vital



Rock-free earth or sand, because it’s easy to dig



Forested areas, because the fire requires long logs for fuel

Quick to light Wet wood can be burned because it’s dried by the heat of the inner fire



Stones shelter fire from wind Using an existing fire ring reduces the fire’s impact on the environment



Self-feeding once lit, which means you don’t need to keep adding fuel



Long-lasting (the fire can stay alight all night) Emits a great deal of heat

Warmth Cooking Signalling (if green vegetation is burned)



Warmth Cooking Signalling (if green vegetation is burned)



Cooking Signalling (if green vegetation is burned)



HOW WHERE WHY

STONE-LINED



 



USES

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Warmth (in cold weather, build a fire either side of you). Cooking (once embers have formed)


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TYPE OF FIRE

SNAKE HOLE 









  



Dig a large hole for the fire and a slightly smaller hole for the chimney, with a tunnel linking the two. Use small logs as fuel and cook at ground level.

kindling, and any type of fuel. Place two long logs either side of the fire in a V-shape.

Windy locations Rock-free earth or sand bank



Forested areas, because of the logs the fire needs

 Cold or windy locations



Anywhere you can dig a hole, because the fire requires very little fuel once established

Chimney creates a draught, giving a high-temperature fire Sheltered from the elements



Long-lasting Good embers for cooking

 Hardwood logs shelter the



fire from the wind  Produces a great deal of heat



Concentrated heat Flames are below ground so fire is hidden

Warmth Cooking Waste disposal



 Warmth



 Cooking



Cooking Keeping warm Drying wet clothing

USES



 Make a fire out of tinder,

WHY



Build a fire from tinder, kindling, and fuel. Arrange four logs so they meet in the middle. Push logs in as they burn.

DAKOTA HOLE



Cooking – balance a pot on the logs  Heating water



WHERE



HUNTER

HOW

Create a hole in the side of a bank and a chimney up through the earth. Light a fire inside using any fuel.

STAR-SHAPED

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MATCHES/LIGHTERS

KIT

 



WHAT TO DO





COMMENTS

()-



MAGNIFYING GLASS

Waterproof box of matches. Cigarette lighter taped to a piece of cord around your neck. Dry tinder



To light a match “commando style”, strike it away from you on the box and then cup it in your hands (see above).



Waterproof matches are usually just standard matches that have been coated with wax and varnish. Always have a lighter around your neck on a piece of cord.





Magnifying glass Dry tinder

DRINK CAN  

Empty drink can Dry tinder

BATTERY   



With the magnifying glass, focus bright sunlight onto some dry tinder and create a hot spot. Hold the magnifying glass steady until the tinder catches alight.



When you choose a compass, make sure it has a magnifying glass incorporated into it (for reading the details on maps). You can also use the lens in reading spectacles.





Polish the bottom of the can (see Signal mirror, p. 245). Catch bright sunlight on the shiny surface and reflect it onto tinder to create a hot spot. Hold the can steady until the tinder catches alight.



You’ll need to practise this technique so that you can rely on it in a survival situation.







Flashlight and its battery Wire or wire wool Dry tinder

Lay the wire across the battery terminals to create some sparks. Remove the bulb from the flashlight and place wire wool over the terminal. Switch on the flashlight to create sparks.

The thinner the wire the better this will work, especially with lower voltage batteries (1.5v). Use this method for a short period only, otherwise you will drain the battery.


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WARNING! Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer that can, when mixed with certain chemicals, create an explosive mixture. It can also stain your clothes and skin.

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TYPE OF DEVICE

FIRESTEEL  



 



  

Hold striker next to the tinder. Place the firesteel under the striker, directly onto the tinder. Draw the firesteel back across the striker to direct the sparks onto the tinder. The firesteel moves, not the striker.



Lasts for about 12,000 strikes. Temperature reaches 3,000°C. Works in all weathers and at any altitude.



Magnesium-alloy rod Steel striker (usually a short piece of hacksaw blade) Dry tinder

 A magnesium-alloy rod and



steel device that can be operated using only one hand  Dry tinder



Follow instructions for the firesteel (left).

 Place the flint rod in the tinder.





 Press the thumb button onto

the rod and push the handle down the length of the rod.  Pushing harder creates greater friction, which leads to a more intense spark. There are many variations and kits; one has a magnesium block for the holder and the striker shaves slivers of magnesium into the tinder to help with ignition.



 



Works in all weathers. Has a safety feature that prevents accidental use. Designed for fighter pilots, who may injure an arm or hand after ejecting.





Potassium permanganate Sugar Knife Dry tinder Mix potassium permanganate and sugar in equal amounts on a hard surface. Press down on the mixture with your knife and drag the blade along to create a spark (see above).

You can also mix a small amount of potassium permanganate with glycol or antifreeze. Quickly wrap in paper and put on the ground. Warning: stand well clear as the combustion can be sudden and dangerous.

COMMENTS



Ferrocerium firesteel Metal striker Dry tinder

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

WHAT TO DO



ONE-HANDED STRIKER

KIT



FLINT AND STEEL

().


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DO

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THE FOUR SKILLS There are many ways to make fire by friction, including a hand drill, bamboo fire saw (see p. 133), and bow drill. Each has its own advantages, depending on the materials available and your practical skills. Regardless of the method, however, there are four main elements to producing fire by friction – each a skill on its own:  Identifying and procuring the correct types of wood.  Manufacturing the individual pieces that make the fireset.  Using the fireset to produce a coal.  Nurturing the coal into a flame.

TOOLS AND MATERIALS Cordage such as paracord, fishing line, shoelaces, or bailing twine Wood Knife Bradawl (optional)

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS  Bow drill set (see pp. 130–31)  Thin, dry piece of bark to use as

an ember pan  Buffed tinder, kindling, and fuel

GETTING INTO POSITION Place the ember pan on a flat, dry surface and align it with the V on the hearth board. Rest one foot on the board. Loop the bow cord once around the drill, starting on the inside. Insert the drill into the hole on the hearth board, slot the block on top (with a green leaf in the notch for lubrication), and lock your wrist into your shin as support. Kneel on the other leg and bear down on the block.

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  the merits of a hank in your pocket... how to strip a nettle stem and not get stung...  when to twist and when to roll...  how to tell a working end from a standing end...  the uses of a sheet bend or a Siberian hitch...  the difference between a parang and a kukri...  how to fell a tree with a thumping stick...


D8EL8CJB@CCJ

(*,

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USING THE BEST KNOT,cXj_`e^#fi_`kZ_ ]fiXgXik`ZlcXikXjbd\Xejk_Xkpfln`cclj\Zfi[ dfi\\]ÔZ`\ekcpXe[#k_\i\]fi\#\ejli\k_Xkpfli jlggcpn`cc^f]lik_\i%@eXjlim`mXcj`klXk`fe# n_\i\pfldXpY\dfm`e^\m\ip[Xp#pfle\\[ kfY\XYc\kflj\k_\jXd\g`\Z\jf]Zfi[X^\ [XpX]k\i[Xp% Lj\befkjk_Xk[feËki\hl`i\Zlkk`e^Xe[k_Xk ZXeY\lek`\[hl`ZbcpXe[\Xj`cpkip`e^kfle[fX befkn`k_Zfc[#n\k_Xe[j`ek_\[Xib#Xe[n_\e pflXi\k`i\[Xe[d`j\iXYc\#ZXeY\Xe\dfk`feXc \og\i`\eZ\k_XkljlXccp\e[j`e]iljkiXk`feXe[ j\m\iXcg`\Z\jf]ZlkZfi[X^\ % 9\]fi\pflj\kf]]`ekfk_\n`c[\ie\jj#c\Xie X]\nYXj`Zbefkj#jlZ_Xjk_\J`Y\i`Xe_`kZ_Xe[ k_\kXlk$c`e\_`kZ_#n_`Z_Xi\^i\Xk]fii`^^`e^X j`dgc\gfeZ_fj_\ck\i% GiXZk`j\k_\j\befkjlek`cpflZXek`\Æ Xe[lek`\Æk_\dn`k_pfli\p\jZcfj\[% @]pflXi\ki\bb`e^`eXZfc[\em`ifed\ek# giXZk`j\kp`e^k_\dn\Xi`e^^cfm\j%

The ability to improvise what you need when you don’t have it can mean the difference between continued survival and despair


(*-

CAMP CRAFT VD8EL8CJB@CCJ

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USING CORDAGE It is vital that you use your limited supply of cordage as efficiently as possible.  Use only the minimum cordage that is absolutely necessary to accomplish each task.  Use simple, strong knots that, if possible, can be released without cutting. This leaves the cordage intact for the next task.

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SEALING PARACORD KXb\k_\_Xeb\[Zfi[X^\f]]pflik_ldY Xe[c`kkc\Ôe^\i% J\Zli\k_\_XebYpkp`e^k_\kX`cXifle[`kn`k_ Xi\c\Xj\_`kZ_befkj\\g%(+* %

Paracord can be awkward to use because its ends, if left unprotected, eventually unravel. Try to seal the ends after you have cut them by holding a flame next to them until they melt. Be careful, as the melted nylon can drip and burn.

(*.


CAMP CRAFT VD8EL8CJB@CCJ

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WARNING! Take extreme care when you collect and work with plant fibres, especially removing plants such as green ferns from the ground. Bending a stem at its base and pulling it up can expose fibres that are razor-sharp. Cut the plant with a knife or wear gloves. The juice of some plants can irritate the skin, so wash your hands when you’ve finished.

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:?FFJ@E>PFLII8ND8K<I@8CJ DXepb`e[jf]iXndXk\i`XcZXeY\lj\[kfdXb\eXkliXcZfi[X^\#]ifdYXib Xe[iffkjkfjk\djXe[j`e\nj%J\XiZ_pfli`dd\[`Xk\\em`ifed\ekÔijkkf j\\n_XkZXeY\lj\[ÆpfldXpefk_Xm\kfcffbkff]Xi% ROOTS  Many tree roots make good cordage and lashings, but evergreen trees, such as pine, fir, spruce, and cedar, work best.

 The bark of trees such as willow and lime make good cordage.  Use other types of bark, such as clematis or honeysuckle, as they break from the tree or vine.

 Look for new roots near the surface of the soil; these are flexible. Cut slightly thicker roots than you need, as you have to remove the bark. Remove only a few roots from each tree and repair any damage you do to the topsoil.

 Strip the bark from a dead tree, then beat it to loosen the inner cambium fibres.  Pull off the cambium fibres in long strips. Use them as they are (clematis and honeysuckle), or braid them into stronger lengths.

 Cut a slit along the root. Peel the bark and let the bare root dry and shrink before splitting in half or into quarters.  Keep the bark for tinder or kindling. You could also put it on a fire to produce smoke that keeps away flies.

FACTS

 Tree trunks have layers between the bark and heartwood called the “cambium” layers, which are best for cordage.

FINDING

BARK

PREPARING

(*/


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MAKING CORDAGE FROM PLANTS K\Xj\k_\ÔYiflj cXp\iXnXpn`k_ pflik_ldY

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PREPARING

FINDING

FACTS

WITHIES

To begin with, you must have access to enough quantities of the plant. Don’t start making cordage with the only plant in the area. There should also be some basic characteristics present in order for plant material to work well as cordage.  The fibres need to be long enough. If you have to splice them together to make workable lengths, you will weaken the line.  If you’re braiding pieces together to make a stronger line, use rougher fibres, as they will bite together better. Shiny or smooth fibres tend to unravel easily. The fibres need to be strong. Pull on them to see how much strain they take before breaking. They also need to be pliable enough so they don’t break when you bend and tie them.

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LEAVES

SINEW

 The strong, flexible stems of willow, birch, ash, and hazel are called “withies” and are used for thatching and in gardening.  Withies make useful and robust lashing and are best used in spring or summer.

 The leaves of many plants, such as the lily family, agave, and sisal hemp, contain useful fibres.

 Animal sinew makes strong and versatile cordage – some sinews can support the weight of a man.  Sinew has been used to bind arrow heads to shafts and to sew together everyday clothing, such as leather and mukluks.

 Choose a young sapling or branch that’s long and flexible. The fewer the stems or branches the better, as they will need to be removed.

 To find out if the leaves of a plant contain useful fibres, simply tear a leaf apart to see if it breaks into stringy layers.

 Sinews are the tendons connecting bone to muscle. The largest are on both sides of the spinal column, running parallel to it.  Shorter lengths can be taken from the calves of the hind legs.

 Remove stems or branches. Grasp the wand at the base and twist until the fibres break, working your way to the tip. Bend the wand into an S-shape and crank the middle of the wand to loosen the fibres. Then cut the wand from the tree and use the withies.

 Soak the leaves in water to make the inner layers swell and burst. Bacteria work on the cell tissue, separating it from the fibres.  Rinse the fibres in fresh water to stop further bacterial decay and then dry them.

 Take a tendon from an animal’s body, remove its outer sheath, then clean it and let it dry. Separate the dried fibres and use them as individual threads, or splice or braid them together to form stronger cords. You can soften dried sinew with water or saliva.

(*0


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CAMP CRAFT VD8EL8CJB@CCJ

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS A sufficient quantity of prepared natural fibres (see pp. 138–39) to enable you to make the length of cordage that you require for the task.

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IFCC<;:FI;8>< SIMPLE ALTERNATIVE TWIST You need to start with two fibres of different lengths so that when you splice on additional lengths the splices are staggered. Start by tying one end of one fibre with one end of the other.  Clamp the tied ends in your left thumb and forefinger and the two tails in your right thumb and forefinger about 5cm (2in) down.  Roll both fibres between your fingers away from you for one complete roll. Repeat this until you have about 7.5cm (3in) of rolled fibres, then clamp them in your right thumb and forefinger.  Release your left thumb and forefinger and the rolled fibres will naturally twist together to form a strand of cordage.  Repeat the process until you have enough for your needs.

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CAMP CRAFT VD8EL8CJB@CCJ

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THE ENDS OF A LINE The end of a rope or line that takes the most active part in knot tying is the working end. The other end is called the standing end – it’s more passive, as the knot is tied around it.

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(++

CAMP CRAFT VD8EL8CJB@CCJ

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KP@E>BEFKJ

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(+,


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CAMP CRAFT VD8EL8CJB@CCJ

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8Ôi\jk\\ck_XkÔkj`ekfpfli j_\Xk_d\Xejk_Xk#Xjcfe^ Xjpfl_Xm\pflibe`]\#pfl ZXeXcjf^\kXÔi\^f`e^

WARNING! If you drop a bushcraft knife, never attempt to catch it because there’s a very good chance you will lose your fingers!

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KNIFE KNOW-HOW  A bushcraft knife is used primarily for carving, cutting, and

splitting small logs. If you need to chop large logs, use either a machete or a saw.  A knife doesn’t need to be longer than 20–22.5cm (8–9in).  Don’t use a knife with a serrated edge when working with wood, as the serrations make it hard to use the part of the blade closest to the handle (essential for making feather sticks, etc).  Keep your knife safe when not in use. Clean and dry the blade and return it to its sheath.  Wear your sheath on your belt or around your neck on a lanyard. Belt sheaths may be high (the handle is above the belt) or low (the handle is below the belt, which allows you to sit down without the handle poking you in the side).


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WARNING! Ensure your blade is sharp. Keep what you’re cutting between you and the blade, with the blade pointing away.

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SAFE WORKING AREA Chop wood in a safe area that other people won’t wander into and where there are no snagging hazards or objects to impede your swing and knock your knife off-target.

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STRONG BLADES Use a full tang knife (the metal of the blade continues in one piece to the end of the handle). The rivets that hold the handle may loosen eventually, but the blade is stronger than one that doesn’t go all the way up the handle or a knife with a folding blade.

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K8B@E>J?<CK<I


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TAKING SHELTER

K8B@E> J?<CK<I A shelter is yourprimary meansf] gifk\Zk`fe`eXjlim`mXcj`klXk`fe%@kZXe Y\jfd\n_\i\kfj`dgcpb\\g[ip[li`e^ Xjl[[\e[fnegflifiXgcXZ\kfjg\e[ j\m\iXce`^_kjn_`c\flk`ek_\n`c[j% @kËj`dgfikXek#k_\i\]fi\#k_Xkpfl le[\ijkXe[_fnkfZfii\ZkcpZfejkilZk pflij_\ck\i%8]k\iXcc#`kj\]]\Zk`m\e\jj Zflc[d\Xek_\[`]]\i\eZ\Y\kn\\e i\cXk`m\Zfd]fikXe[XYa\Zkd`j\ip  @eXjlim`mXcj`klXk`fe#`kËj`dgfikXek kfgcXpXgifXZk`m\ifc\`epflifne Zfek`el\[jlim`mXcXe[i\jZl\%PflZXe fecpXZ_`\m\k_`j\]]\Zk`m\cp`]pflËi\

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  when to lie low in a hollow or camp in a cave...  how to modify your poncho to put up a shelter...  the difference between a bothy and a bivi...  how to bed down with duck down or wake up in a wickiup...  the importance of using your noggins to secure your shelter...  how to configure your fig leaves to keep out the rain...


K8B@E>J?<CK<I

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A SPACE BLANKET#_fn\m\i#`jhl`k\ j`dgcpXe\jj\ek`Xcg`\Z\f]b`kÆ`]pflgXZb efk_`e^\cj\#dXb\jli\pflZXiipfe\Xe[b\\g `kn`k_pflXkXcck`d\j%JgXZ\YcXeb\kjgXZb [fnem\ipjdXccXe[Xi\XmX`cXYc\n`k_fe\j`[\ j`cm\ikfi\Õ\Zk_\Xk Xe[fe\j`[\Yi`^_kfiXe^\ kfX`[cfZXk`fe %EfdXkk\in_Xk\em`ifed\ek pflËi\\ogcfi`e^#XjgXZ\YcXeb\kZXef]]\i pfl`dd\[`Xk\gifk\Zk`fe]ifdk_\\c\d\ekj% With a little ingenuity#XjgXZ\YcXeb\k ZXeXcjfY\Zfem\ik\[`ekfXYXj`Zj_\ck\i%Pfl n`ccÔe[`ejkilZk`fejfe_fnkfYl`c[XmXi`\kp f]j_\ck\ijk_ifl^_flkk_`jZ_Xgk\i#YlkXcnXpj i\d\dY\ik_\]fccfn`e^^\e\iXck`gj#kff1 =`ijkcffb]fieXkliXcj_\ck\i`e^gcXZ\j Cffbflk]fi_XqXi[jjlZ_Xjj`^ejf]Õff[`e^ :fejkilZkpflij_\ck\in\ccY\]fi\e`^_k]Xcc :c\Xik_\^ifle[Y\]fi\pfljkXikkfYl`c[ Gfj`k`fek_\\ekiXeZ\Xki`^_kXe^c\jkfk_\n`e[ 9l`c[]fik_\nfijkgfjj`Yc\n\Xk_\iZfe[`k`fej DXb\jli\pflij_\ck\i`jjkli[pXe[j\Zli\ ;feËkfm\i\o\ikpflij\c]XjpflYl`c[ IX`j\pflijc\\g`e^Xi\Xf]]k_\^ifle[ @]feXjcfg\#jc\\gn`k_pfli_\X[_`^_\ik_Xe pfli]\\k

The effectiveness of a shelter can mean the difference between relative comfort and abject misery


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TAKING SHELTER

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Sturdy digging stick Strong branches (or poles) and logs Saw, such as pocket chainsaw Tree bark, turf, leaves, forest mulch, moss,

bracken, and pine boughs for the roof

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shelter with branches, boughs, and mulch to help retain heat. If your material has no grommets, use button ties instead (see p. 161).

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(-'

TAKING SHELTER

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(-)

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(-+

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boughs, leaves, and moss

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NEED TO KNOW Build your shelter so that the wind blows across the front of it at a slight angle, rather than into it. This maintains its effectiveness and prevents smoke entering from the fire. If the shelter backs on to the wind, there’s a risk the wind will blow around it and curl into the entrance.

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TAKING SHELTER

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 Poncho fitted with press-studs  Cordage  Long, heavy poles or wide

bamboo stalks  Spacer bars  Knife, saw, machete, or parang  Needle  Strong, waxed, cotton thread

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS

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PONCHO BED BENEFITS A modified poncho offers a bed that’s easy and quick to assemble, keeps you off the forest floor, and provides a comfortable place for quality sleep.

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(-.


(-/

TAKING SHELTER

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS  Long poles and ridgepole  Cordage and pegs  Knife, saw, machete,

or parang  Modified poncho bed  Tarpaulin, groundsheet,

poncho, or shelter sheet


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TAKING SHELTER

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS  Strong posts and poles  Branches for platform  Knife, saw, machete,

or parang  Digging tool  Broad leaves for

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thatching the roof

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TAKING SHELTER

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Digging tool Driftwood and/or rocks Broad-leaved plants or grass,

or poncho or tarp Knife Cordage and pegs

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Remember, if you have abandoned ship in a liferaft, it can be used as a ready-made immediate shelter – even on land.

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Boughs and branches Bedding Long pole Spade or mess tin for shovelling

snow Long knife or saw Knife (or other long blade) Tarpaulin or shelter sheet

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  that birds can show you the way to water...  when to suck on a small pebble...  how to make a gypsy well and a solar still...  why a Finnish marshmallow could save your life...  how to absorb water without drinking it...  how to improvise a basic bladder...  the importance of surgical tubing...


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We tend to take water for granted until we don’t have any – at which point it becomes the most important thing in the world


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THE EFFECTS OF WATER LOSS 1–5% LOST         

Thirst Discomfort Urine becomes darker Loss of appetite Impatience Drowsiness Lethargy Nausea Headache

11–12% LOST

6–10% LOST         

Dizziness Dry mouth Blueness of extremities Slurred speech Swollen tongue Blurred vision Tingling in limbs Inability to walk Difficulty in breathing

        

Stiffness of joints Deafness Defective vision Shrivelled skin Lack of feeling in skin Inability to swallow Delirium Unconsciousness Death

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PARASITES

BACTERIUM

VIRUS

PROTOZOA

DISEASE

SYMPTOMS

Cryptosporidium

Loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal pain, usually followed by profuse, foul-smelling, watery diarrhoea, and vomiting.

Giardiasis

Loss of appetite, lethargy, fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, blood in the urine, and abdominal cramps.

Infectious hepatitis (Hepatitis A)

Nausea, loss of appetite, mild fever, aching muscles, dark-coloured urine, jaundice, and abdominal pain.

Amoebic dysentery

Feeling of fatigue and listlessness. Faeces may be solid, but will smell foul and contain blood and mucus.

Bacillary dysentery (Shigellosis)

Fever, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, high temperature, and blood, pus, and mucus in stools.

Cholera

Vomiting, poor circulation, cold and clammy skin, muscle cramps, rapid dehydration, and increased heart-rate.

E. coliform

Diarrhoea and vomiting. Can cause death in vulnerable groups such as the very young or the elderly.

Leptospirosis

Jaundiced appearance, lethargy, high temperature, aching muscles, and vomiting. Can be fatal if not diagnosed early.

Salmonella

Nausea, diarrhoea, headaches, stomach cramps, fever, possible blood in the faeces, and vomiting.

Bilharzia

Irritation to the urinary tract and blood in urine, rash or itchy skin, abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, and fatigue.

Hookworms

Anaemia and lethargy. Larvae travel to lungs and are coughed up and swallowed into the stomach, where they grow into worms.

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Tarpaulin Four sticks String Heavy stone Container

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WARNING! In a survival situation, even if you think your chances of rescue are high and that help is imminent, you should start to look for water sources as soon as you have addressed the immediate problems of protection and shelter (see pp. 154–81). Remember that you can survive for up to three weeks without food; without water, you won’t be able to survive for more than a few days.


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CHARACTERISTICS

SPRINGS

These occur when the water is forced to the surface as a result of subterranean pressures or from gravitational flow from higher sources. Found in low-lying areas, springs normally provide a permanent water source. Contrasting green vegetation is an indicator of their presence.

STREAMS AND RIVERS

Rivers and streams are an invaluable source of water, but there are still a few things you need to bear in mind when collecting water from them. The closer to the mountain top the river or stream is, the clearer the fast-running water will be. The further downstream the water travels, the more likely it is to pick up minerals, debris, and pollutants that might be harmful to you. If possible, either check upstream for dead animals that may have contaminated the water, or follow the water downstream. Always try to collect the fast-flowing water near to the surface. In arid areas, rivers and streams tend only to flow during floods and will contain more pollutants and debris.

ROCK HOLES

Usually found in high ground, rock holes are natural collectors of rainwater. If the water appears to be trapped deep down, you can use your surgical tubing to retrieve it. Make sure you filter and purify the water before you drink it.

WELLS AND BORES

In some areas, you may find wells or old bore holes. Wells, which may be featured on local maps, can be deep and covered, making water procurement more difficult. In remote areas, wells are covered and marked in certain ways by the locals – find out what the markers are for your area.

LAKES AND PONDS

Rivers, streams, and water run-offs all flow into lakes or ponds. If you’re collecting water from these sources, always try to collect it as it runs into the body of water, as lakes and ponds are more static than flowing water and can, therefore, become increasingly stagnant. Try to find the cleanest-looking area and avoid areas where debris has collected or where algae has formed. Note that the presence of fish indicates that the water is still oxygenated.

SEEPAGE

SOAKS

Usually located at the base of cliffs, high ground, or rocky outcrops, seepage is caused by slow-running channels that drain off these features. Soaks are found close to rivers and creeks in low-lying areas, and are normally lower than the existing water table. The presence of soaks is often indicated by vegetation and they may be subject to pollution as a result of their use by animals. Make sure you filter and purify the water before you drink it.

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DELAYING DEHYDRATION When water is scarce, the following points will help you delay the onset of dehydration: Conserve what water you have and use it as efficiently as possible. Work only in the coolest part of the day and avoid sweating. If the sun is shining, seek shade and keep covered. Suck a small, smooth button or pebble to help stimulate saliva and remove the sensation of thirst. Avoid eating protein-rich food as it requires more water to digest than those in other food groups.

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TOOLS AND MATERIALS Spade or shovel Two containers Vegetation and/or undrinkable water Piece of fabric or clothing Plastic sheet, tarpaulin, or space blanket Stones Surgical tubing

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Always pack a length of surgical tubing in your survival kit. It doesn’t take up much space and is an extremely versatile piece of equipment: It can be used as an improvised straw to reach water trapped in rocks, hollows, and trees. It allows you to access water procured from a solar still without taking the still apart. It can be built into transpiration and vegetation bags so that you can remove water without having to open the bag.

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WARNING! Water sources are plentiful in jungle and rainforest environments and, under normal circumstances, you should have no problem getting hold of enough water to satisfy your needs. However, rivers and streams may not be available during certain seasons, or if you have climbed too high, so knowledge of other water procurement methods could be crucial to your survival.

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THINK LATERALLY The chances are that if you’re having to procure water in the desert you’ll already be in a desperate situation. Bear in mind that, in addition to the methods mentioned above, if you have knowledge of the techniques outlined in the temperate environment section (see pp. 190–91) – such as solar stills, dew traps, and vegetation and transpiration bags – it could be enough to keep you alive in the desert.

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WARNING! Never try to melt ice or snow in your mouth, as it can cause freezing injuries to your mouth and lips. What’s more, your body will expend heat as it melts the ice, and this could cause you to cross that very fine survival line between being cold and being hypothermic.

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D<CK@E>JEFN STORING WATER

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Snow is a great insulator: even if the temperature dips to -40°C (-40°F), water in a bottle will remain largely unfrozen if placed under at least 0.3m (1ft) of snow. Make sure you store the bottles upside down. That way, if some of the water does freeze, it will freeze at the bottom of the bottle and not at the top.

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USING BODY HEAT

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Jefnfi`Z\gcXZ\[`e Xd\kXcZfekX`e\i d\ckjfm\ik_\ÕXd\

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When Inuit hunters capture a caribou, they empty out the contents of its stomach, turn the stomach inside out, fill it with snow, and tie it shut with a length of intestine. They then put the stomach back in the cavity while they skin the caribou. By the time they have finished, the heat given off by the animal’s body has melted the snow. The Inuit then open the bag carefully and suck out the water through a block of snow to filter it.

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WATER AND FOODV=@E;8E;KI<8KN8K<I

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WARNING! Never drink saltwater. Its salt concentration is three times higher than that of blood and ingesting it will dehydrate you. Continued use over a prolonged period will lead to kidney failure and, ultimately, death.

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WATER AND FOODV=@E;8E;KI<8KN8K<I

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WARNING! Mark your containers clearly. Late at night in camp it’s easy to confuse bottles that contain treated water with ones that contain untreated water or camping fuel.

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EMERGENCY WATER Sachets of emergency water can be bought and stored for emergency use. They usually come in a packet that contains five 50ml (17⁄10fl oz) sachets of water, each being little more than a mouthful. These should always only be used as a last resort. Always try to procure water by other means before turning to your emergency water supply.

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WATER HYGIENE Water stored in a mini-reservoir for any period of time will need to be filtered and purified before it’s safe to drink (see pp. 200–01).

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MILLBANK BAG Used extensively by military forces around the world, the Millbank bag is an effective water filter that packs down small and can be used many times to produce large quantities of filtered water. Set up the bag as soon as you arrive in camp, because the process is quite slow: the Millbank bag will filter 1 litre (13⁄4 pints) of water in five minutes. Note that water filtered in this way will still need to be purified.

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TREATING WATER

GRAVITY/PRESSURE FILTERS

DISINFECTING WATER If you drink untreated water, you run the risk of becoming infected with a water-borne disease (see p. 187), so it’s vital that you treat any water first. If you have the ability to start a fire, the most effective way of making water safe to drink is by boiling it. However, if you are unable to make a fire, there are several devices available that are capable of filtering and purifying water to make it safe for drinking. MINI PORTABLE WATER PURIFIERS These are specially designed units that filter the water and then purify it, by pumping the contaminated water through either micro-filters, chemicals, or a combination of both. Sizes vary from small emergency pumps capable of purifying up to 50 litres (13 gallons) of water, to larger units that can filter huge quantities of water.

Pump handle draws water through the pump

Drinkable water will flow from the output tube

Filter input tube is lowered into water that requires treatment

OTHER METHODS If you can’t boil water, or if you don’t have a waterpurification device, you’ll have to rely on non-mechanical techniques. The concentration and contact time required for some of these methods is dictated by the quality and temperature of the water being treated. METHOD

These devices are incorporated within drinking bottles. The water is either allowed to flow naturally through the system via gravity, or is squeezed through by the operator. All bottles of this type usually employ: a filter to remove sediment and organic contaminants; a micron filter to remove protozoa; and a chemical that kills water-borne bacteria and viruses.

SURVIVAL STRAWS Compact emergency water purifiers, survival straws contain a filter system and employ either carbon or iodine resin systems to eliminate water-borne diseases and harmful chemicals. You need to get the water to a point where you can reach it with your straw. If you want to draw a supply of water to carry with you, you’ll have to draw the water into your mouth and decant it into a container – a laborious process.

The filter system is housed inside a water bottle Water passes through a filter which removes debris and water-borne diseases The filter end of the straw can be placed into any accessible non-saline water source

Water is sucked through the straw

“BIG BUBBLES, NO TROUBLES” Micro-organisms and virtually all intestinal pathogens are killed at temperatures well below boiling point. The process of bringing water to the boil is sufficient to disinfect it – continuing to boil it just wastes fuel, time, and water.

DESCRIPTION

Iodine (Liquid and Tablets)

Iodine – which destroys bacteria, viruses, and cysts – can be used to disinfect water effectively and conveniently. Its action is dependent on its concentration, the water temperature, and duration of contact – a concentration of 8 mgs per litre at 20°C (68°F) will destroy all pathogens if left for ten minutes.

Chlorine tablets

Chlorine-based tablets will destroy most bacteria, but are less effective for viruses and cysts. They are more effective when used in combination with phosphoric acid and will destroy both Giardiasis and Cryptosporidium.

Potassium Permanganate

Potassium permanganate can be bought from most chemists. Mix a few granules with your water until it turns light pink. Leave for at least 30 minutes before drinking.

Bleach

Adding unscented household bleach is the cheapest way of adding chlorine to water (it contains 5 per cent sodium hypochlorite). Be careful to add just one drop of bleach per litre of water – two if the water is cloudy – and leave for at least 30 minutes before drinking. This method is not always effective against Giardiasis and Cryptosporidium.

Ultraviolet (UV) Light

When many harmful micro-organisms are exposed to UV light, the process of light absorption disrupts the cell’s DNA, rendering the organism harmless. The quality of the water will affect the amount of exposure to UV light required: the cloudier the water the harder it will be for UV to penetrate.

UV Passive

Fill plastic bottles with water, replace the lids, and place them in direct sunlight, preferably on a dark surface. The sun’s rays will kill the bacteria that cause common water-borne diseases.

UV Active (Steripen)

A small UV purifier that is placed in pre-filtered water and activated for a short time. Some models can purify up to 1 litre (13⁄4 pints) of water in as little as 48 seconds.

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In this sectionPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  how to cook with hot rocks...  how to make a fishing reel from a drink can...  why a snare must have a perfect end...  how to lasso a lizard and snare a squirrel...  that there’s more than one way to skin a rabbit...  which grubs taste like scrambled eggs...  how to catch a bird in a bush...


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Always ensure that the energy gained from the food is more than the energy you expended in procuring it, otherwise it’s a wasteful exercise

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WARNING! If you find a dead animal, you can eat the meat if you cut it into small pieces and boil it for 30 minutes. Don’t touch it if you have cuts on your hands – you don’t know how it died.

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WARNING! The Universal Edibility Test (see below) does not apply to mushrooms. For this reason alone, you should never eat any mushrooms that you have gathered (especially in a survival situation) unless you are 100-per-cent positive that you can identify each specific mushroom as being edible. In 2008, a British woman died after eating a poisonous mushroom that had been foraged by mistake with edible mushrooms.

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WHAT TO DO IF YOU HAVE AN ADVERSE REACTION If at any stage you experience any type of adverse reaction to a plant during the edibility test, you should: Stop the test immediately. Avoid eating anything else until the symptoms cease. Wash the affected area thoroughly (if the reaction is external). Attempt to induce vomiting (if the reaction comes after eating the plant) by drinking salt water or by pushing a finger into the back of your throat. Drink lots of warm water (this is why you must ensure that you have a plentiful supply of purified water and firewood before you begin the test). Crush a teaspoonful of charcoal taken from a partially burned log and mix it into a paste with warm water, then swallow the mixture. It will either induce vomiting or, if you can keep it down, it may absorb the toxins. Try swallowing a paste made from white wood ash and water to reduce stomach pain. If the tester is unconscious: Do not induce vomiting if the tester is unconscious – get medical help and monitor the casualty.

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ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS Guitar strings make great snares as they already have a “perfect end”. Natural cordage can also be used.

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KILLING A RABBIT Unless you’re an expert, breaking a rabbit’s neck by holding its head and pulling on its legs can be difficult and could result in you dislocating its hips, causing it more pain. The best method is to strike the rabbit on the back of the neck with a solid stick, thus avoiding having to pick it up and risk being bitten or scratched. The eyes will glass over immediately when the animal is dead.

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ANT CUISINE Ant larvae are best fried – they taste like shrimp. Adult ants also make a tasty snack – in Bogotá, Colombia, cinemas sell roasted leaf-cutter ant abdomens instead of popcorn.

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WARNING! Rabbits, hares, and rodents may be infected with a bacteria called tularemia, which can be fatal to humans. Do not touch these animals with your bare hands if you have a scratch on your skin. If you have no gloves, cover your hands in soap lather before handling the animal, and wash your hands when you have finished. The germ is destroyed by heat, so cook the meat well. Myxamatosis, a viral disease that affects rabbits’ mucous glands, is not harmful to humans.

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WARNING! Rabbits make an easy meal, but their flesh lacks fat and vitamins so, if your diet consists entirely of rabbit, your body will use its own vitamins and minerals to digest the meat. These are then lost from your body in your faeces and, if not replaced, you’ll get diarrhoea and so become hungry and weak. Eating more rabbit makes the condition worse and you will eventually die of starvation. You must supplement your diet with some vegetation and fatty food.

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Approach all game with caution, as the animal may still be alive and most wounded animals are extremely dangerous. To check, touch its eye with the tip of a long stick (or the muzzle of a gun). Even if the animal is unconscious, it will blink if it’s alive. Always skin, gut, and butcher game at the site of the kill. You don’t want the smell of fresh blood to attract predators or scavengers to your camp.

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KEEP THE GUTS If you’re able to carry them, take the guts, reproductive organs, and glands back to your camp in a sealed container. You can use them as bait in traplines or for fishing. Keep the fat that surrounds the intestines for cooking.

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SLUGS, SNAILS, AND WORMS Slugs should be avoided as they often feed on poisonous fungi. To prepare snails, either starve them or feed them safe food such as wild garlic for 24 hours to purge their guts before cooking. Either boil them in water or bake them in their shells in hot embers until the juices bubble over. Avoid all marine snails and any terrestrial snail with a brightly coloured shell as they may be toxic. All earthworms are edible. Place them in salty water until they are purged, then boil, though they can be eaten raw if necessary.

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WARNING! Tropical species of mussel should be avoided in the summer as they may be poisonous. The black mussel, which is found on Arctic and sub-Arctic coasts, may be poisonous at any time of the year. The symptoms of mussel poisoning are acute nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and fever.

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WARNING! Eggs are easy to collect, particularly from ground-nesters, although gulls, for example, will attack you if you try. However, taking eggs from nests is illegal in many countries and should only be done if absolutely necessary.

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WARNING! Handle scavengers and carrion eaters, such as crows, buzzards, and vultures, as little as possible, because they are more likely to be infested with lice and ticks, and are prone to infection. The meat of such birds must be boiled for at least 30 minutes to kill any infectious organisms. This will also tenderize the meat. Always wash your hands after handling any bird.

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POACHER’S METHOD The poacher’s way to quickly get the meat from a dead pheasant that hasn’t been decapitated is to place it face down on the ground with its head towards you, put a foot on each wing, take hold of the legs, and pull up sharply. This motion will tear the legs and breast meat away from the rest of the bird. Give it a sharp flick to detach the guts. In a survival situation, this is a good way to get meat off the bird if you don’t have a knife or razor.

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IN AN EMERGENCY

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In this chapterPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  how to recognize the enemies of survival...  why LEOs are so important...  when to set fire to a log cabin...  that tinsel isn’t just for Christmas...  what to do if a hippo yawns...  that you should go with the flow in an avalanche...  how to inflate your trousers...


IN AN EMERGENCY

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You are not a survivor until you have rescued yourself or been rescued by others

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IN AN EMERGENCY

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USE ALL YOUR SENSES

THE RULE OF THREES A common understanding among those concerned with survival is that various key time limits have a numerical value linked to the number three. Remembering the “rule of threes” can help you focus your decisionmaking, particularly if you are injured, at risk of further injury, or in immediate danger from the elements. In most cases:  Three seconds is the psychological reaction time for making a decision.  Three minutes is the length of time your brain can do without oxygen before it suffers irreparable damage.  Three hours is the critical time you can survive unprotected in extreme climates.  Three days is the approximate length of time you can live without water.  Three weeks is the approximate length of time you can live without food.

REMEMBER WHERE YOU ARE

VANQUISH FEAR

First, assess the particulars of your surroundings, physical condition, and equipment. If you’re in a group, you can share tasks and responsibilities, but remember that everyone will be affected by the consequences of your decisions.



Most people react to a true survival situation through either training (they automatically do what they’ve been trained to do in a particular situation) or by instinct (they automatically do what their mind and body tell them to do).



In any survival situation, it always helps to know where you are so that you can make the best decisions about what to do and where to go next.



Fear and panic can be formidable enemies, so it’s imperative that you have the knowledge and training to counteract them and prevent them from making your situation worse.

Your surroundings: every environment has its own idiosyncrasies – hot and dry, hot and wet, cold, exposed, or enclosed. Determine what you need to do in order to adapt to that environment. Your equipment: assess your equipment and consider how it can best be used in your particular situation. Your physical condition: remove yourself and others from danger. Check for injuries and administer first aid as necessary. Remember that the trauma and stress of a survival situation may cause you to overlook, or subconsciously ignore, injuries that you yourself may have received.



Whatever has happened, approach your predicament in a calm and rational manner. The situation requires careful thought and planning. If you act in haste, you may overlook important factors, lose vital equipment, or simply make matters worse. The saying “Undue haste makes waste” is especially true in a survival situation. Listen to your subconscious survival senses and gut feelings, and learn to act on them when they send you warning signals.

 Knowing your precise location



If uncontrolled, fear and panic can destroy your ability to make intelligent and rational decisions. They can cause you to react to your feelings and imagination rather than to your actual situation and your abilities. Moreover, they can incapacitate you and drain your energy, thus triggering other negative emotions. If you’re in a group, your responses can have a direct effect on others – positive responses are productive and can motivate, while negative responses can undermine confidence and morale.









can clarify whether rescuers are likely to find you or if you’ll have to rescue yourself. You’ll get a good idea of the obstacles you may face, whether you should remain where you are, and where best to position your aids to location. If you have made an Emergency Plan of Action (see pp. 24–25), someone will know your approximate location, and when you’re due back. Channel your efforts into making sure that when rescuers are looking for you, your aids to location are in place.




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IMPROVISE

VALUE LIVING AND LIFE

ACT LIKE THE LOCALS

LEARN BASIC SKILLS



The true skill of a survivor is to understand what’s required and improvise solutions to particular problems. Do you have the skills and knowledge to keep yourself alive and in a condition to be proactive in your own rescue?



Some people without training and equipment have survived the most horrendous situations. In many cases, this was simply because they had the will to live and refused to give up!



Whatever environment you’re trying to survive in, you can be sure that the local or indigenous people and the local wildlife have developed ways of adapting to it in order to survive.



Learning basic skills increases your chances of survival. Without training your prospects of survival are down to luck, which is never the best place to start. There is a saying: “Luck favours those who are best prepared.”



You may start out with all the right equipment, but it may get lost or broken, or simply wear out. Your ability to improvise may mean the difference between your continued struggle to survive in relative comfort, or absolute misery. Think laterally, like the climber who was stranded on the side of a mountain with no aids to location. He used the flash on his camera to signal his location to a rescue helicopter. Improvise and overcome!



The stories of prisoners of war often reveal what kept them alive: religious beliefs, thoughts of family and friends, or a determination not to let the enemy win. While these alone may not always be enough, they’re certainly a key factor in any survival situation. It helps to bear in mind that hardship means different things to different people and in different cultures. Survival is about dealing with hardships and having the will to live. If the will to live is not there, then just having the knowledge and equipment may not be enough.



Look at how the local people dress and act: in hot countries they leave manual work until the coolest parts of the day and work in a slow and deliberate manner to reduce sweating and therefore conserve water. If you’re in a desert, for example, watch where animals go to find shade: they’re mostly nocturnal and spend the day underground. Learn their tricks to find water, like the darkling beetle in the Namib Desert that drinks water from the fog that condenses on its carapace. If you’re in a jungle, pay attention when the animals go quiet or quickly leave an area – danger is usually around the corner.



Prior preparation is the key to survival: discover what you need to know about the environment you’re going to; familiarize yourself with all your equipment; and practise your basic skills until they become second nature. This thorough preparation will help you to combat the fear of the unknown and give you the self-confidence to meet the challenges of any survival situation you may be in.











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ATTRACTING ATTENTION When you’re in a survival situation, you need to employ your location aids in the best way possible. There are three main principles for attracting attention:  Attract: pick a place that maximizes your chances of attracting attention using your location aids, such as open or high ground. Place your aids carefully so they can be detected from as wide an area as possible. The more obvious the signal the better.  Hold: you need to hold the attention of rescuers by maintaining the signal until they indicate they’ve seen you. Try to send some critical information (the type of assistance you require or the number of survivors and their condition, for example) via a May Day, or Help message (see pp. 237–41).  Direct: regardless of which location aids you use, once rescuers have been alerted, do all you can to direct them to your present location. If you have voice communication, direct them to your position. If you leave notes before moving on from places, make sure they contain dates and precise details of your intentions.

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ATTRACTING RESCUERS

MOBILE TELEPHONES AND RADIOS SHOULD I STAY OR SHOULD I GO? You need to decide whether to stay where you are or to move to a location where you have a better chance of rescue or self-rescue. If you move on, remember the following:  Keep your aids to location at hand. It’s no good having your signal mirror at the bottom of your backpack when you may have only seconds to attract a passing vehicle or plane.  Deploy your aids to location at the end of each day, even though it takes effort and you’ll be moving in the morning.  To show where you’ve been and where you’re heading, leave markers, such as a note left in a visible position and visual clues on the ground or vegetation, to indicate your direction of travel.

Local User Terminals (LUTs) receive signals from the satellites and alert mission control

Mission control analyses data from the LUTs and mobilizes a rescue operation

Always take a mobile or satellite phone with you when travelling – they are essential in an emergency. On a sea trip, take a marine VHF radio to contact would-be rescuers. MOBILE AND SATELLITE PHONES Wherever you are in the world, you can hire or buy a mobile phone linked to local networks. Choose one with a GPS unit for fixing and tracking your position and a camera so you can send pictures of your location and any injuries you’ve sustained. Alternatively, hire or buy a satellite phone that’s connected to the Iridium Satellite Phone System, in which 66 low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellites provide complete coverage of Earth (including oceans, airways, and polar regions).

MARINE VHF RADIOS All large ships and most motorized small craft are equipped with marine VHF radios. These hand-held units transmit and receive on frequencies between 156 to 174MHz – usually on Channel 16, the international calling and distress channel. Channel 9 can also be used in some places. Transmission power ranges between 1 and 25 watts, giving a maximum range of up to about 110km (60 miles) between aerials mounted on tall ships and hills, and 9km (5 miles) between aerials mounted on small boats at sea level. Your VHF radio should be waterproof, able to float, and kept on charge. Follow the instructions whenever transmitting and receiving on VHF.

Search-and-rescue services are deployed to search for you A regional rescue coordination centre alerts the searchand-rescue teams

Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs) are for personal use and kept on the body

WARNING! PLBs are for emergency use only and should always be used responsibly.

A PLB is activated manually and sends a signal to one of the search-andrescue satellites

237


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IN AN EMERGENCY

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CREATING A STROBE EFFECT LED strobe lights are compact, robust, waterproof, and are sometimes incorporated within standard flashlights. They are very powerful and can be seen from a long way away. Many strobes can be set to produce a variety of sequenced flashes, including flashing SOS in Morse Code. Even if you don’t have a dedicated strobe light, you can still switch your regular flashlight on and off repeatedly to attract attention.

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WARNING! Don’t dazzle your would-be rescuers by continuing to flash directly at them. Using your signal mirror intermittently is more effective for attracting attention.

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PRECAUTIONS













WHAT TO DO IF…

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BIG CATS

Brown bears stand taller then black bears and weigh more. Polar bears are the largest land predator. All bears are powerful, with claws on their strong paws. Brown bears can run faster than humans. Bears are found in the Northern Hemisphere and parts of South America.



Look for signs of bears and check with locals about bear activity. Stow and cook food away from the campsite. Keep unused food and rubbish out of reach. Avoid thickets and streams where bears rest and feed. Carry a stick, knife, or spray (see opposite).



Make a noise to let a bear know you’re there. If you see a bear, stay calm. Make yourself look as big as possible by raising your arms. Walk slowly backwards. Don’t run. If the bear follows, stop and hold your ground. If the bear attacks, play dead, or fight back.













FERAL ANIMALS Wherever you go in the world there are animals that have escaped into the wild from zoos, wildlife parks, and domestic situations. These feral animals include pigs, cats, dogs, mink, and muntjacs. In many cases, they have become particularly aggressive and seem to have lost any fear of confrontation with humans. Try to find out which feral animals are common in the region you’re travelling in and avoid them if at all possible.

HIPPOS

Tigers are the largest cat, with lions a close second. All big cats have sharp teeth and claws. Other dangerous cats include cougars (also called pumas, mountain lions, and panthers), leopards, and jaguars. Big cats are found on all continents, except for Australasia.



The hippopotamus is the third-largest animal in Africa after the elephant and white rhino.  Hippos can weigh more than 3 tonnes. They have long, razor-sharp incisors and tusk-like canines.

Avoid coming into contact with big cats. They are most unlikely to attack unless you provoke them or threaten their cubs. An exception is the cougar, which is responsible for an increasing number of unprovoked attacks in urban areas of North America.



If a big cat approaches, stare at its eyes, shout, and make a noise to confuse it. Use a spray if you need to (see opposite). Don’t turn your back or run away. If a big cat sees you, do not crouch or bend down. An upright human makes less attractive prey than a four-legged animal.



ELEPHANTS 





African elephants have larger ears than Indian elephants and are more aggressive. Elephants stand up to 4m (13ft) tall and weigh up to 6 tonnes. They can reach speeds of 40–48kph (25–30mph).

CROCODILIANS 











Avoid provoking a hippo. Many encounters are the result of hitting a partially submerged hippo with a canoe or boat. Almost all hippo attacks are fatal. Stay vigilant on or beside rivers that hippos are known to frequent. Don’t get between a hippo and water.



If you encounter a hippo, go back on your tracks and find another route. If a hippo yawns at you, he’s not feeling sleepy – this is a threat. He’s showing you his teeth, tusks, and jaws that can snap a canoe in half! Make every effort to escape.











Keep away from places that elephants frequent, such as watering holes. If you do come across them, don’t get too close, especially if there’s a baby elephant nearby. Look for a safe place to retreat to, such as a vehicle, rocky outcrop, or a tree, before you need it.



If an elephant squares up to you with flared ears, trumpeting, and kicking the dirt in front of it, then back away. If an elephant charges, run to your safe place (see above). As a last resort, play dead and hope the elephant loses interest.













Crocodilians include alligators, gharials, and crocodiles. They can stay submerged for more than an hour at a time, can swim up to 32kph (20mph), and run as fast as 17kph (11mph) over short distances. Crocodilians live in many subtropical and tropical parts of the world.

Stay away from waters and river banks where crocodilians live. Be vigilant at all times. If you need to go near the water, watch the area for at least 30 minutes first. Don’t go to the same spot twice, as crocodiles may lie in wait the next time. Keep a defensive weapon, such as a knife, close by. If you meet a crocodilian on land, run away. If a crocodilian does grab you, it may let go – if it does, run. If it drags you into the water, fight back. Stab under its throat with a knife, hit or poke its eyes, strike its nostrils hard, or bang the large valve at the back of its throat.


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There are more than 450 species of shark, but only a few of them pose any danger to humans. These include great white, bull, and tiger sharks. Most attacks occur in coastal waters in the tropics and subtropics, especially where the water is murky or stirred up by the surf of breaking waves.



Avoid shark-infested waters or waters where sharks are known to feed or frequent. Ask the locals about recent sightings of shark activity. Carry something, such as a pole or spear, that you can use as a weapon.























If you see a shark, stay calm and move to safety. If it makes a move towards you, swim away smoothly but keep watching it. If it rushes at you, hit it on the nose with whatever you have to hand. If it grabs you, aggressively strike its eyes or gills.







Less than 15 per cent of the 3000+ types of poisonous snake are regarded as being dangerous to humans. Depending on the snake, venom either affects the blood, the nervous system, or the heart. Snakes live in every part of the world except for very cold environments.

AMPHIBIANS 



Many frogs, toads, and salamanders secrete poison through their skin. The most poisonous frog known is the golden poison-dart frog from South America. Amphibians live where the climate is sufficiently warm and wet for them to breed.

Wear long trousers and boots, and cover your neck. As you walk, tap the ground in front of you with a stick to alert snakes to avoid you. Step onto logs rather than over them. At night, place your boots upside down on sticks. Don’t put your hands into holes or cracks where snakes might be hiding.



You can touch a poisonous frog or toad with no illeffect. The poison only takes effect if it enters your system via an open wound or your mouth or eyes. If this happens, get emergency help without delay.

PRECAUTIONS



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If you come across a snake, try to remain completely still. Most snakes will instinctively move away and are more likely to attack a moving target. Don’t panic. If you have a stick, slowly bring it to a position ready for use. If a snake attacks, hit it hard on the head.



If contact with a poisonous amphibian is unavoidable, immediately wash the affected area. Keep the water you use away from open cuts or abrasions. Thoroughly wash your hands and don’t put your fingers in your mouth or rub your eyes.

WHAT TO DO IF…

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COMMONSENSE ADVICE No fail-safe guidelines will protect you from every environmental danger and hazard, but there is some commonsense advice that you will do well to heed before you venture into the wilderness:  Check the prevailing weather conditions of your destination at the time of your journey. Log onto the internet or tune into local radio stations.  Find out if you’re heading into a particularly risky season of weather – for example, monsoons in India or hurricanes in the Caribbean.  Take an emergency survival kit (see pp. 58–59).  Learn the relevant survival techniques either before you go or as soon as you arrive at your destination – you may not get a second chance.  Don’t challenge Nature – it rarely loses.

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SURVIVING AT SEA THE SEA IS ARGUABLY THE HARSHEST environment of all and you could be thrown into a sea-survival situation for any number of reasons: bad weather, fire, mechanical failure, or collision. However, there’s plenty of good advice to follow and equipment designed to protect you.

BE PREPARED If you’re venturing onto the open seas, you should plan for the worst and be prepared with knowledge, skills, and equipment.

SURVIVAL SUIT AND LIFEJACKET KNOW YOUR VESSEL Regardless of the size of your vessel, find out everything you can about what to do in the event of a major problem that requires you to abandon ship and take to the water. The points below are generic and may not apply to all situations or types of vessel. LARGE PASSENGER VESSELS If you’re a passenger on a large vessel, such as a ferry, liner, or cruise ship, make sure you learn the safety procedures.  Attend the “Abandon Ship” drills.  Find out which emergency alarms indicate fire, collision, and abandon ship.  Find out where the lifejackets are stowed, and how to put them on and operate them.  Learn the escape routes.  Locate the Emergency Lifeboat Stations and find out what your responsibilities are.  If you have children or people with special needs with you, make sure you have a system for getting them on deck and providing them with suitable survival equipment.

SMALL VESSELS These craft include yachts, small boats, canoes, and kayaks, so crew members need to agree on an emergency plan of action and delegate responsibilities relevant to the situation and the skills of each person.  Know where the emergency equipment is stowed and how it’s operated.  If your vessel has an EPIRB (see p. 236), make sure everyone knows where it is and how it’s operated. Those activated automatically are released hydrostatically from a bracket at a water depth of 1–3m (3–10ft). The buoyant EPIRB then floats to the surface and begins transmitting.  Make sure your EPIRB has been registered so that, once the signal is detected, the rescue services know who it belongs to.  Keep a grab bag to hand (see box, right).

A survival suit is designed to keep you warm and dry in extreme conditions and rough seas, and a lifejacket will keep you afloat with your head out of the water, even if you’re unconscious.

PROTECTION Survival suits and lifejackets are equipped with various protection features to help you survive in the sea. Hood and clear visor

Neoprene hood Reflector strips on hood aid visibility High-visibility lifejacket Top-up valve to reinflate lifejacket

Reflector strips are prominently positioned on lifejacket

Plastic whistle Lifejacket harness

Sea-activated light

Rescue loop/ winching point

GRAB BAG Prepare a bag that contains the minimum for your survival needs, such as:  Emergency water  First aid kit (see p. 260)  Personal locator beacon (see p. 237)  Hand-held GPS (see p. 75)  VHF radio  Mobile or iridium phone  Flares and signal rockets  Reverse-osmosis pump (desalination device) (see p. 197)  Survival tin (see pp. 60–61)  Solar still (see opposite)

Watertight zipper

Watertight cuffs

Survival suit is made from a highly visible material

Strap to prevent trapped air raising the leg while in the water


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Cold shock response is the body’s reaction to immersion in very cold water – for example, if abandoning a ship in winter in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a common cause of death in such circumstances. Symptoms include gasping for breath and hyperventilation, which can lead to the inhalation of water, disorientation, panic, and the possible onset of hypothermia. A sudden increase in blood pressure and heart rate can cause cardiac problems in some people. Prolonged immersion in water will make it hard to perform physical movements, making swimming, climbing aboard a liferaft, or firing a flare extremely difficult.  Body type or mental conditioning can help some people survive swimming in icy water.  Dressing in layers and/or wearing a survival suit improves your chances of survival.  Avoid entering the water if you possibly can.

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It’s very important to remain positive and to focus on your situation right now rather than on what might happen in a few hours or tomorrow.

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SECONDARY DROWNING A person who nearly drowns inhales water that can cause potentially fatal chemical and biological changes in the lungs. This is known as “secondary drowning”. It can be caused by inhaling fresh or salty water – even as little as 30ml (1fl oz). Secondary drowning may occur 24–72 hours after immersion and, while uncommon, it’s not rare. Take the following precautions to guard against secondary drowning:  Monitor anyone who has nearly drowned or has spent some time in water.  Ask the person to take a couple of deep breaths and check for any pain or discomfort that can’t be accounted for.  Look for symptoms such as coughing, breathing difficulties, chest pain, and saliva that looks like foam.  Make sure the person is sitting in an upright position.  If possible, provide oxygen – the blood levels of oxygen can fall quickly – and lots of rest and reassurance.

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In this chapterPFLN@CC;@J:FM<I%%%  that maggots have their uses...  how to improvise goggles to prevent snow blindness...  when to stop, drop, and roll...  how to treat snake bites and jellyfish stings...  when to eat charcoal or drink bark tea...  how to prevent frostnip becoming frostbite... when to perform a firefighter’s lift...


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The vast majority of injuries can be either dealt with or stabilized using a combination of basic first aid techniques and common sense


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WARNING! Protect yourself from danger at all times. You can’t help anyone if you become a casualty as well. If the area is unsafe, don’t approach the casualty – get emergency help and monitor the casualty’s condition from a safe distance.

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MAGGOT THERAPY If a wound is seriously infected and you have no antibiotics, expose it to flies for one day then cover. Maggots will develop and eat any dead tissue. Check daily, and flush the maggots out of the wound with sterile water before they start to eat healthy tissue.

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BLISTER PREVENTION Following these simple rules when out hiking should prevent blisters developing in the first place:  Ensure boots or shoes fit properly and are well “broken in” before you set out. Always wear clean, dry, comfortable socks next to your skin. Avoid wearing two pairs as they may bunch up, increasing friction.  Keep toenails cut short and straight. Remove boots and air your feet during rest periods. If you feel a “hot spot”, treat it before it becomes a problem: stop immediately and apply moleskin, a gel pad, or zinc-oxide tape.

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PORCUPINE QUILLS If you are pierced by a porcupine’s barbed quills, you must remove them or they will continue to work their way into the flesh and may pierce a vital organ. Cut off the ends of the quills, which are hollow, to allow them to deflate slightly. Pull the quills out, using pliers if you have them. Clean the puncture wounds and apply an antiseptic cream.

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SNAKE IDENTIFICATION Identify the snake if you can, since this will help medical teams find the correct antivenin. If you’re not certain of the identity, make a note of its colour or distinguishing features. If it’s safe, put the snake in a secure container, bear in mind though that venom is active even if a snake is dead. Don’t wash the venom off the bite; it can be used to identify the antivenin.

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WARNING! A sting in the mouth or throat can cause swelling that blocks the airway. To minimize this, give the casualty cold water to sip.

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WARNING! If you think you’ve handled a poisonous plant, don’t touch especially sensitive parts of your body such as the eyes, mouth, or genitals until you have washed your hands thoroughly. If you develop blisters on your skin, don’t scratch them – however much they itch. If you break the skin, you’ll run the risk of getting an infection. As well as painful blistering, some people may have an extreme reaction to the toxin. They should be monitored and treated for shock (see p. 274). Get medical help as soon as possible.

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STINGING NETTLES Found in many countries, stinging nettles usually cause only a temporary stinging sensation where the plant’s hairs touch the skin. Apply a soothing cold compress or rub the affected area with a dock leaf if you can find one. Watch for an itchy red rash that indicates an allergic reaction.

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FIRST AID

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WARNING! If a casualty becomes unconscious, be prepared to give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (see p. 277).

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ALTITUDE SICKNESS

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Symptoms of altitude sickness include nausea, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, and a headache that’s not relieved by medication. The casualty may also have difficulty sleeping and will feel unwell. The only solution is to start the descent immediately and remain at a lower altitude for a few days. Severe cases will need to be carried.

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FIRST AID

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ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK Anaphylactic shock is a rare but severe allergic reaction affecting the whole body. People who know they are susceptible to this carry a special adrenaline (epinephrine) autoinjector for use in an emergency. If the casualty has one, but is too weak to use it, take off the safety cap and, holding it in your fist, press it against the casualty’s thigh (through clothing if necessary).

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WARNING! If at any stage the casualty loses consciousness, open the airway (see p. 276) and check breathing; the throat muscles may relax enough to allow breathing. If he or she is not breathing, begin resuscitation as this may dislodge the blockage (see p. 277).

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CPR ON A CHILD Start by giving the child five rescue breaths. Give 30 compressions using the heel of one

hand only and slightly less pressure than you would for an adult. Depress the chest by approximately one third of its depth. Continue with 30 compressions followed by two rescue breaths until the child recovers, help arrives, or you become exhausted. If you are on your own, give CPR for one minute before you try to call for help.

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WARNING! Move a casualty only if his life is in immediate danger if he is left where you found him. Even then, only move him if by doing so you will not injure yourself. Don’t otherwise attempt to move a casualty, as it will make his injuries worse – stay with the casualty and send others for help.

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N@C;=FF; D8EPGF@JFEFLJGC8EKJ`ek\dg\iXk\i\^`feji\j\dYc\\[`Yc\fe\j#jfpflj_flc[ fecp\XkgcXekjk_XkpflZXegfj`k`m\cp`[\ek`]p%@]pflËi\`eXep[flYkXkXcc#ZXiipflkk_\ Le`m\ijXc<[`Y`c`kpK\jkL<K Ôijkj\\gg%)'-Æ'. %;feËk]fi^\kk_Xkjfd\gcXekjXi\ \[`Yc\fecpXkZ\ikX`ejkX^\jf]k_\`i^ifnk_%E\m\i\Xkn`c[gcXekj`]pfl_Xm\Xepbefne NAME BISTORT/KNOTWEED Polygonum spp.

BRAMBLE/BLACKBERRY Rubus fruticosus

WHERE 



IDENTIFICATION

Damp, grassy habitats, such as meadows, in North America and Eurasia.



In most temperate habitats worldwide, but particularly scrubland, hedges, and woodland.



EDIBLE PART

Perennial plant, 40–100cm (16–40in) tall. Green, triangular leaves. Small pink or white flowers form dense, cylindrical flowerheads at end of long, unbranched stem.



Scrambling deciduous shrub with thorny stems forming thickets. Green, toothed leaves. White or deep pink five-petalled flowers. Fruit ripens to blue-black in late summer.

 

Fruit Young shoots Leaves





Young shoots and leaves Roots

BUCKWHEAT Fagopyrum esculentum



Open grassland worldwide.



Red-stemmed plant up to 60cm (2ft) tall. Green, triangular leaves. Small pink, five-petalled flowers grow in clusters. Triangular seeds.



Seeds

DANDELION Taraxacum spp.



Widely distributed in temperate areas of Eurasia; introduced to the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand.



Rosette of green, jagged-edged leaves grows close to the ground from a central taproot. Large, bright yellow flower head matures into a spherical “clock” of several seeds.



Leaves Roots

DOG ROSE Rosa canina



In hedgerows, woodland margins, and scrubland in Europe, northwest Africa, and western Asia; introduced to other regions.



Scrambling deciduous shrub with spiny stems. Dark green, toothed leaves. Scentless, white, pink or deep pink five-petalled flowers. Fruit, or “hip”, is orange-red and oval.





By hedgerows and woodland margins in North America, Eurasia, and North Africa.



Perennial herbaceous plant, 50–150cm (20–60in) tall. Green, oval, strongly toothed leaves covered in stiff stinging hairs. Small green flowers sometimes have a red tinge.



Young shoots and leaves



Woods and forests in northeastern North America.



Deciduous tree, usually 25–35m (82–115ft) tall. Grey-brown bark smooth on young trees, furrowed and flaky on old trees. Green, five-lobed leaves turn bright red in autumn.

 

Sap Inner bark

STINGING/ COMMON NETTLE Urtica dioica SUGAR MAPLE Acer saccharum



 

Hips Buds and flowers Young leaves

WALNUT Juglans spp.



Temperate areas in Eurasia and North America. Common in the Himalayas.



Large deciduous tree up to 25m (82ft) tall with distinctive gnarled bark. Green leaves have many narrow leaflets. Nut has a thick, green husk, which rots away once it falls to the ground.



Nuts

WATER CHESTNUT AND WATER CALTROP Trapa natans and T. bicornis



In slow-moving water in warm temperate areas of Eurasia and Africa; introduced to North America and Australia.



Green, triangular, saw-toothed leaves float on surface. White four-petalled flowers. Fruit is borne underwater and has four sharp spines and one hard grey seed.



Seeds

WILD GRAPE Vitis spp.



In most habitats in North America and Eurasia.



Sprawling, high-climbing vine with large, lobed leaves. Fruit grows as hanging bunches of berries, which are amber or dark purple when ripe.



Fruit Young leaves




K<DG<I8K<GC8EKJ Xcc\i^`\j#Xgi\$\o`jk`e^d\[`ZXcZfe[`k`fe#fiXi\gi\^eXek%K_\L<K[f\jeËkXggcpkf dlj_iffdj#jfe\m\i\XkXepdlj_iffdjlec\jjpflZXegfj`k`m\cp`[\ek`]p\m\ipj`e^c\ fe\XjY\`e^\[`Yc\%8jgXikf]pfligi\gXiXk`fe]fipfliki`g#pflj_flc[]Xd`c`Xi`q\ pflij\c]n`k_k_\\[`Yc\gcXekj`ek_\i\^`fepflËi\m`j`k`e^#Xe[k_\`ij\XjfeXcXmX`cXY`c`kp% PREPARATION  

 

 





SIMILAR PLANTS

Young leaves and shoots can be eaten raw or boiled. Soak roots, then boil or roast.



Alpine bistort (P. viviparum) is common on rocky soils in northern alpine regions and the Arctic.

Fruit and peeled young shoots are edible raw. Infuse the leaves to make tea.



Wild raspberry (R. idaeus) fruit ripens to a bright red. Tea made from the leaves can be used to treat diarrhoea.

Hull and grind the seeds to make buckwheat flour. Roast seeds and cook with water to make porridge.

BEWARE OF



Catching yourself on thorns.



Buckwheat leaves are edible but can cause photosensitivity of the skin if eaten in large quantities.

Young leaves can be eaten raw; boil old leaves to remove the bitter taste (change the water once). Boil the roots. Buds and flowers are edible raw. Chew the pulp of raw hips, or dry and eat later. Boil leaves in water to make tea.

EXTRA INFORMATION 

Roots are twice twisted and are said to resemble two snakes. They contain starch and can be used to make flour.



Blackberries and raspberries are high in vitamin C and sugars. Blackberry leaf tea can be used to treat colds and coughs.



Roots can be roasted and ground to make a substitute for coffee. The leaves are high in vitamins A and C, iron, and calcium.



The hips of all wild roses (Rosa spp.) are edible, but do not eat the seeds if they are prickly as they will irritate the throat and stomach.



Rose hips remain on the shrub all year. They are rich in vitamin C. Boil crushed hips in water then strain to make a nutritious syrup.



Gather and handle the plants carefully, wearing gloves if you have them, to avoid being stung by the hairs.



Fresh nettles are rich in protein and vitamin K. The fibres in mature stems can be woven into cordage (see pp. 138–41).



To collect the sap, cut a V-shape into the trunk, make a hole below the cut, and insert a leaf to guide the drips into a container below.

Crack the shell and eat the ripe nut raw.



Rich in fat, protein, and vitamins. Crushed green husks of black walnut (J. nigra) are toxic to fish. Use to poison and catch them.



Seeds can be eaten raw or roasted.



Water chestnuts are a source of carbohydrate.



Ripe fruit is best eaten raw. Boil young leaves.



Ripe grapes are rich in vitamin C and sugar. Water can be obtained from the vine stem (see p. 192).

  



Boil the plants for 10 minutes to destroy the formic acid and histamine in the stinging hairs.



Dead nettles (Lamium spp.) are also edible if cooked. They have heart-shaped leaves and white or purple flowers. No stinging hairs.



Boil sap into a high-energy syrup. Eat inner bark raw or boil into a gelatinous mass, then roast and grind into a flour.



Red maple (A. rubrum) also produces sweet sap. White birch (Betula spp.) has edible inner bark.













Moonseed vines (Menispermum spp.) have grapelike fruits, which are poisonous. Unlike edible grapes, they only have one seed.

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WHERE

IDENTIFICATION

ACACIA/WATTLE Acacia spp.



Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Americas.



Thorny, medium-sized trees with grey-white bark. Green leaves divided into many small, oval leaflets. Small, ball-shaped yellow, white or pink flowers.

AGAVE Agave spp.



Southern USA and Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and northeastern South America.



Rosette of fleshy leaves with sharp tip and spiny margin. Central, tall flower stalk.

AMARANTH Amaranthus spp.



The Americas, Africa, and Asia.



Tall herb with alternating leaves and erect fleshy stems. Tiny brown/black seeds (one plant produces 40,000– 60,000 seeds).

BAOBAB Adansonia spp.



Africa and northern Australia.



Large trees with swollen trunks, up to 9m (30ft) in diameter. Green leaves have 5–7 digit-like leaflets. Oblong fruit up to 20cm (8in) long.

CAROB TREE Ceratonia siliqua



Mediterranean, northern Africa, Middle East, and India.



Evergreen tree up to 15m (50ft) tall. Shiny green leaves up to 20cm (8in) long. Small red flowers. Flat leathery seed pods; dark-green/black when ripe. Hard brown seeds.

CARRION FLOWER Hoodia spp.



Southwest Africa.



Numerous thorny, succulent stems up to 2m (6ft) tall. Star-shaped or shallowly bell-shaped flowers give off the smell of rotting meat.

DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera



West and North Africa, Middle East, and India; introduced to Mexico and USA.



Tall slender palms with a large crown of green leaves, divided into many narrow leaflets. Fruit reddish-brown when ripe.

PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS Opuntia spp.



The Americas; introduced to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Africa, and Australia.



Thick, jointed, flat, pad-like, green stems covered in spines. Red or yellow flowers. Fruit red when ripe.

WILD GOURDS Cucurbitaceae



Kalahari Desert (Namibia), the Sahara, islands in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and southeastern India.



Ground-trailing green vine. Bright yellow flowers. Orange-sized green or yellow fruit.


;<J<IKGC8EKJ ;feËk]fi^\kk_Xkjfd\gcXekjXi\\[`Yc\fecpXkZ\ikX`ejkX^\jf]k_\`i^ifnk_%;feËk \Xkn`c[gcXekj`]pfl_Xm\XepbefneXcc\i^`\j#Xgi\$\o`jk`e^d\[`ZXcZfe[`k`fe#fi Xi\gi\^eXek%N_\egcXee`e^pfliki`g#`kËjX[m`jXYc\kf]Xd`c`Xi`q\pflij\c]n`k_k_\ \[`Yc\gcXekj`ek_\i\^`fepflXi\m`j`k`e^Xe[k_\`ij\XjfeXcXmX`cXY`c`kp% EDIBLE PART  

 

 

PREPARATION

Seeds (from dark brown pods) Young leaves and shoots



Stalk, before in flower Buds and flowers



Young shoots and leaves Seeds









  

 

Shoots and young leaves Fruit Seeds



Pods Seeds



 



BEWARE OF

Roast seeds. Boil leaves and shoots.

 Catching yourself on thorns.

Roast the stalk. Boil buds and flowers.



Eat shoots and leaves raw or boiled or stir-fried. Remove chaff from seeds, then cook like popcorn or grind into flour to make bread.

Amaranth leaves are high in oxalic

Juice from many species can cause acute contact dermatitis, with reddening and blistering lasting 1–2 weeks. Leaves have needle-like ends.

EXTRA INFORMATION 

Roots may be tapped for water.



Roasted stalk tastes sweet, like molasses.



Amaranth leaves are a common leaf vegetable in the tropics and warm temperate regions.

acid, which can irritate the gut and cause kidney stones, so eat in moderation.

Tap the trunk for water. Kalahari

Eat the fruit pulp raw. Boil shoots and leaves. Roast seeds.

bushmen suck water through holes in the trunk using the hollow stems of grasses.

Eat the sweet, nutritious pulp of the pods raw. Grind the seeds into flour and make into porridge.



Stems



Tap the stems for their water.



The stems contain an appetite suppressant. Kalahari bushmen chew the stems of several Hoodia species before and during their long, arduous hunts.



Fruit Growing tip of the palm (heart) Young leaves Sap



Eat the fruit (dates) raw or sun-dried. Boil the leaves and heart. Boil the sap down to a syrup.



Date palms always grow near water. The leaves can be used to thatch a shelter.

Fruit Seeds Pads



Fruit (Tsamma melon only) Flowers Seeds Young leaves and shoots



  

  

   

 

 

  

Peel fruit and eat raw. Roast and grind seeds to a flour. Boil or grill young pads, first removing thorns by peeling or scorching over a fire.



Spines. Avoid any similar-looking plant that has milky sap as it may be poisonous.



The non-milky sap from the pads is a good source of water.

Pound fruit to a pulp and eat raw. Eat the flowers raw. Roast or boil seeds. Chew leaves and shoots for water.



The fruit of the wild desert gourd or colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) is very bitter and is a strong laxative.



The Tsamma melon (C. lanatus) is also known as the wild watermelon. The fruit pulp is a good source of water.

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WHERE

BAMBOO Bambuseae



BANANA AND PLANTAIN Musa spp.



Tropical and subtropical forests.

Native to Australia and Southeast Asia; introduced to other tropical regions.

IDENTIFICATION 



EDIBLE PART

Tree-like grasses with woody, segmented, hollow stems ranging from black to green to gold in colour. Green blade-like leaves. Species range in height from 0.5–3.5m (1 2⁄3 –11 1 ⁄2ft).



Tree-like herbaceous plants up to 10m (33ft) tall. Large, green, strap-like, split leaves. Flowers and fruit grow in dense hanging clusters.





Fruit Buds and flowers Shoots and young stems Roots



 

Young shoots Seeds

BRAZIL NUT Bertholletia excelsa



Along river banks in rainforests in South America.



Large dry-season deciduous tree up to 45m (150ft) tall. Green, oblong, crinkly leaves. Yellow flowers. Fruit is the size of a coconut with a hard, woody shell and contains 8–24 seeds.



Seeds or “nuts”

CEYLON/VINE SPINACH Basella alba



Widespread in tropical forests.



Trailing, vine-like plant reaching 30m (100ft) in length. Beetroot-red stems. Fleshy, oval or heart-shaped, green or red-purple leaves.



Young leaves and stems

FIG Ficus spp.

Variety of habitats in tropical



Evergreen tree with long aerial roots growing from the trunk and branches. Leathery green leaves. Pear-shaped fruit grow directly from the trunk or branches.



Ripe fruit

PAPAYA/PAWPAW Carica papaya



Native to tropical rainforests in the Americas; introduced to other tropical and some temperate regions.



Small tree up to 6m (20ft) high, with a soft hollow trunk. Large green leaves have seven lobes. Large melon-like fruit turn yellow or orange when ripe.

 

Fruit Young flowers, leaves, and stems

PEANUT Arachis hypogaea



Native to tropical rainforests in the Americas; introduced to other tropical and some temperate regions.



Small, bushy plant up to 50cm (1 2 ⁄3ft) tall. Paired, oval green leaves grow four to a stem. Yellow flowers. Underground legume (pod) contains 1–4 nuts.



Seeds or “nuts”

SAGO PALM Metroxylon sagu



Damp lowlands of tropical rainforests in Southeast Asia; introduced elsewhere.



Spiny-trunked palm up to 10m (33ft) tall. Crown of pinnate (feather-like) green leaves.



Pith Young shoots Young nuts

Lakes, ponds, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Also found in temperate regions.



WATER LILY Nymphaea

and subtropical regions.



 

Flat, green, heart-shaped leaves float on surface of water. Large, white, yellow, pink, or blue fragrant flowers.

  

Tubers Stems Seeds


KIFG@:8CGC8EKJ lec\jjpflZXeZc`dYk_\ki\\%Fecp\XkgcXekjk_XkpflZXegfj`k`m\cp`[\ek`]p%@]pfl Xi\`eXep[flYkXkXcc#ZXiipflkk_\Le`m\ijXc<[`Y`c`kpK\jkL<K Ôijkj\\gg%)'-Æ'. % ;feËk]fi^\kk_Xkjfd\gcXekjXi\\[`Yc\fecpXkZ\ikX`ejkX^\jf]k_\`i^ifnk_%;feËk\Xk n`c[gcXekj`]pfl_Xm\XbefneXcc\i^p#Xgi\$\o`jk`e^d\[`ZXcZfe[`k`fe#fiXi\gi\^eXek% PREPARATION  

 

SIMILAR PLANTS

Split the tough outer sheath of the shoots, and boil or steam. Boil the seeds or grind, mix with water, make into cakes, and bake.

BEWARE OF 

Shoots of the giant bamboo or volohosy (Cathariostachys madagascariensis) contain prussic acid (cyanide).

Fruit and flowers are edible raw or cooked. Cook shoots, stems, and roots.

The sapucaia tree (Lecythis spp.) produces edible seeds in a similar fruit capsule. They are called paradise nuts.

EXTRA INFORMATION 

Bamboo stems often hold water (see p. 190). The stems can be used for cooking (see p. 204) and building a shelter (see p. 169).



Banana and plantain fruit is rich in potassium and vitamins A, B6, and C. Hard, unripe plantain fruit is only edible when cooked.



Ripe fruit capsules fall to the ground. Rodents and monkeys are attracted to the nuts, which are rich in fats and selenium.



Break fruit capsule open, crack the nut’s shell, and eat raw.



Steam, boil, stew, or stir-fry the leaves and stems.



Don’t eat too much, as the plant can have a mild laxative effect.



Young leaves and stems are rich in vitamins.



Eat the fruit raw or cooked.



Don’t eat any hard, woody fruit, or those covered in hairs.



Edible figs are soft when ripe and green, red, or black in colour.



Flesh of ripe fruit is edible raw. Unripe fruit is edible cooked. Flowers, leaves, and stems must be boiled, and the water must be changed at least once.



Don’t get the milky juice of green, unripe fruit in your eyes as it will cause temporary blindness.



Ripe fruit is rich in vitamin C. Unripe fruit will ripen quickly if placed in the sun.



Remove the shell and eat the nuts raw.



Don’t handle or eat if you are allergic to peanuts.



Peanuts are a good source of protein, B vitamins, and minerals.



Crush the pith, knead it in water, strain into a pot, and let the fine sago settle. Squeeze and let it dry. Mix to a paste with boiling water.



Many palms have edible parts. The sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) has an edible sap which can be boiled down to a thick syrup.



Don’t eat a palm’s fruit unless you have positively identified it as an edible variety as the fruit of some species contain harmful crystals.



A mature palm, cut just before it flowers, will yield 150–300kg (330–660lb) of sago starch – almost pure carbohydrate.



Peel and slice the tubers, which can be eaten raw. Stems are best cooked. Dry and grind the seeds into flour.



All parts of the lotus (Nelumbo spp.) are edible raw or cooked.



The tubers are rich in starch. The seeds have a bitter taste but they are edible.



 



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LICHENS

NAME

PLANTS

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IDENTIFICATION

ICELAND MOSS Cetraria islandica



Mountainous areas in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and cold temperate regions in North America and Europe; lava slopes and plains of Iceland.



Mat-forming lichen, up to 10cm (4in) high. Grey-green to pale chestnut branches, rolled into tubes terminating in flattened lobes with fringed edges.

REINDEER MOSS Cladonia rangiferina



Tundra, bogs, and open woodlands in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and northern temperate regions.



Mat-forming lichen, 5–10cm (2–4in) high. Grey, rounded branches resemble antlers.

ROCK TRIPE Umbilicaria spp.



On rocks in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and northern temperate regions.

Rounded lichens with curling edges, usually grey

ARCTIC WILLOW Salix arctica



Tundra in North America, Europe, and Asia; mountainous areas in some northern temperate regions.



Mat-forming shrub, 30–60cm (1–2ft) high. Rounded, shiny green leaves. Flowers grow as yellow catkins.

BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

 Mountainous areas in Arctic



Dwarf evergreen shrub. Thick, leathery, club-shaped green leaves. Pink or white flowers. Bright red berries grow in clusters.

BOG LABRADOR TEA Rhododendron groenlandicum



Bogs and alpine areas in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate regions in North America and Europe.



Evergreen shrub, 30–90cm (1–3ft) high. Narrow, leathery, green leaves are hairy underneath and fragrant. Small, fragrant, white flowers grow in clusters and are sticky.

CLOUDBERRY Rubus chamaemorus



Bogs, marshes, and wet meadows in alpine and sub-Arctic regions of North America, Europe, and Asia.



Perennial shrub, 10–25cm (4–10in) high. Soft, green leaves have 5–7 lobes. White flowers have five petals. Rasberry-sized, amber berries grow at the top of the plant.

CROWBERRY Empetrum nigrum



Tundra, moorlands, bogs, and spruce forests in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and northern temperate regions. Also found in the Andes.



Dwarf, evergreen, mat-forming shrub. Short, pale green, needle-like leaves. Small, purple-red flowers. Black berries.

KERGUELEN CABBAGE Pringlea antiscorbutica



Rocky areas of sub-Antarctic islands in the Indian and Southern Oceans.



Cabbage-like plant.

or brown.

and sub-Arctic regions.


GC8EKJ@E:FC;:C@D8K<J XkZ\ikX`ejkX^\jf]k_\`i^ifnk_%;feËk\Xkn`c[gcXekj`]pfl_Xm\XepbefneXcc\i^`\j# Xgi\$\o`jk`e^d\[`ZXcZfe[`k`fe#fiXi\gi\^eXek%K_\i\Xi\efgf`jfefljkpg\jf] c`Z_\eXck_fl^_kj\\ifZbki`g\\ekip#Y\cfn #Ylkk_\pdljkXccY\jfXb\[`enXk\i fm\ie`^_kXe[Yf`c\[n\ccY\]fi\k_\pZXeY\\Xk\e% EDIBLE PART

PREPARATION

BEWARE OF

EXTRA INFORMATION



All



Soak for several hours then boil well.



All lichens contain an acid that will cause stomach irritation unless soaked and boiled before eating.



Lichens are low in protein but high in carbohydrates (lichen-starch).



All



Soak for several hours then boil well.



All lichens contain an acid that will cause stomach irritation unless soaked and boiled before eating.



High in vitamins A and B. Important source of food for reindeer (caribou). Partially digested lichens from the reindeer’s stomach are considered a delicacy by herders.



All



Soak for several hours then boil well.



There have been some reports of rock tripe poisoning so apply the Universal Edibility Test first.



Young shoots Leaves Young roots





Arctic willow leaves have 7–10 times more vitamin C than an orange.



Peel off outer bark and eat inner shoots raw. Eat the leaves raw. Peel roots and eat raw.



Forms mats in Arctic regions.



Pick individual leaves rather than whole branches and harvest from several shrubs. Northern Labrador tea (R. tomentosum) leaves also make a fragrant tea. The plant grows in peaty soils and on tundra.

 



Bears feeding on the berries.



Berries



Cook before eating.



Leaves



Infuse to make tea.



Berries



Edible raw.



Bears feeding on the berries.



Berries initially pink, ripening to amber in autumn. High in vitamin C.



Berries



Eat raw or cooked.



Bears feeding on the berries.



Previous year’s berries will last on plant until spring if not picked. Fresh berries can be dried for storage. Low in vitamins.



Leaves



Boil well.



Leaves have a bitter taste so must be well-boiled. High in potassium and vitamin C. Antarctic explorers and whalers used to eat Kerguelen cabbage to ward off scurvy, hence its scientific name.



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SEAWEEDS

NAME

WHERE

IDENTIFICATION

GUTWEED Enteromorpha spp.



Saltmarshes and rock pools in cold-temperate waters worldwide.



Pale or bright green, tubular, unbranched stems, 20–40cm (8–16in) long.

KELP Alaria spp., Laminaria spp., and Macrocystis spp.



Rocky coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.



Very long, strap-like, olive-green to brown fronds. Giant kelp (M. pyrifera) is the largest seaweed on Earth, reaching lengths of 45m (150ft).

LAVER Poryphyra spp.

 Rocky coasts worldwide.



Very thin, irregularly shaped membranous frond, up to 50cm (20in) long. Colour varies from olive-green to purple-brown or blackish.



Sandy, rocky, and coral coasts in tropics and subtropics worldwide.



Woody perennial tree, up to 22m (72ft) tall, with a crown of pinnate (feather-like) leaves. Grey trunk is ringed with growth scars.

GLASSWORT/ MARSH SAMPHIRE Salicornia spp.



Salt marshes and coastal mudflats of western and eastern North America, western Europe, and the Mediterranean.



Bright green, jointed, fleshy stems, 10–30cm (4–12in) high. Scale-like leaves and tiny flowers are sunk into the stems.

ORACHE/SALTBUSH Atriplex spp.

 Sandy and shingle beaches worldwide.



Sprawling plant with spikes of small, greenish flowers. Pale- or silvery-green leaves are either triangular or spear-shaped, sometimes lobed.

SCREW PINE Pandanus spp.

 Tropical coasts from Madagascar to

SCURVY-GRASS Cochlearia spp.

 Salt marshes and rocky coasts of

SEA BEET Beta vulgaris maritima

 Salt marshes, shingle beaches, and

SEAROCKET Cakile spp.

 Sandy shores in North America,

COCONUT PALM Cocos nucifera

SEASHORE PLANTS

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Tree up to 9m (30ft) tall, supported by stilt-like aerial roots. Strap-like, saw-toothed leaves are grouped in spirals. Large, globular knobbly fruit ripens from green to orange or red.



Creeping plant, 10–40cm (4–16in) high, with thick, fleshy, dark green, heart-shaped leaves. Small, white, four-petalled flowers.



Sprawling plant up to 1m (40in) high, with glossy green, stems and leaves often tinged red. Tiny green flowers grow in clusters on the stems.



Up to 40cm (16in) high with deeply lobed, fleshy, green leaves. Pale lavender, four-petalled flowers.

southern Asia and islands in the southwestern Pacific.

northern North America and northern Europe and Asia.

cliffs in Europe.

Europe, Asia, and Australia.


:F8JK8CGC8EKJ Xep[flYkXkXcc#ZXiipflkk_\Le`m\ijXc<[`Y`c`kpK\jkL<K Ôijkj\\gg%)'-Æ'. % ;feËk\Xkn`c[gcXekj`]pfl_Xm\XepbefneXcc\i^`\j#Xgi\$\o`jk`e^d\[`ZXcZfe[`k`fe# fiXi\gi\^eXek%N_\egcXee`e^pfliki`g#`k`jX[m`jXYc\kf]Xd`c`Xi`q\pflij\c] n`k_k_\\[`Yc\gcXekj`ek_\i\^`fepflXi\m`j`k`e^Xe[k_\`ij\XjfeXcXmX`cXY`c`kp% EDIBLE PART

PREPARATION



All



Eat raw or dry in the sun and grind to a powder, for ease of storage.



Fronds



Best boiled, though young fronds can be eaten raw.



All



Boil, then mash.



Seeds (coconuts)

 

Drink the milk fresh. Eat the flesh raw or sun-dried.



Stems



Steam or boil.



Leaves



Young leaves can be eaten raw, older leaves should be boiled.



Fruit



Inner flesh of ripe fruit can be eaten raw. Partly ripe fruit can be eaten if baked for two hours.



Leaves





Leaves



Leaves Young pods



BEWARE OF

EXTRA INFORMATION 

Gutweed is a good indicator of where fresh water runs across a seashore as it is particularly abundant in such sites.



Sugarwrack (L. saccharina) tastes sweet, as its name implies, and can be eaten fried or boiled. Kelp is high in iodine, small amounts of which are needed for good health.



The Welsh make a cake out of laver and oatmeal, called laverbread. The Japanese produce thousands of tons of paper-thin sheets of dried, processed laver, called nori.



Green, unripe coconuts are a good source of water (see p. 190). Coconut milk is rich in sugar and vitamins and contains protein. The oily flesh is also nutritious.



Also known as “poor man’s asparagus”. Rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum), which is found on cliffs and rocky shores, is unrelated but has edible succulent leaves.



Atriplex species are restricted to saline soils. As well as coasts, they are also found inland on the shores of alkaline lakes and in deserts. Grey saltbush (A. cinerea) is a type of bushfood in Australia.



Unripe, green fruit is inedible.

Eat the leaves raw or pulp and drink.



Scurvy-grass leaves are rich in vitamin C – sailors used to eat (or drink) them to prevent scurvy. They are very bitter, so are best leached in water, but you should eat them in a survival situation.



Eat raw or boiled.



Sea beet is the wild ancestor of beetroot, sugar beet, and Swiss chard.



Leaves and young pods can be eaten raw.



Searocket leaves have a peppery taste. One species of Cakile grows in the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula.







Large doses of iodine can be harmful.

Mature coconut milk needs extra water to be digested. It’s also a laxative, so don’t drink too much.

The leaves have small, thorn-like spines at the edges, which can scrape and irritate the skin.

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TREES / GROUND

AERIAL

NAME BATS Chiroptera

GROUND / BURROWS

WHERE  Temperate and tropical regions

IDENTIFICATION 

The only mammals with true wings and the ability to fly. Wingspans vary from 15cm (6in) to over 1.5m (5ft) in the large fruit bats, or flying foxes (Megachiroptera).

worldwide.

TREE SQUIRRELS Sciurus



North and South America, Europe, and temperate parts of Asia.



Small or medium-sized rodents, with large, bushy tails.

PORCUPINES Hystricomorpha



North and South America, Africa, and tropical Asia.



Large, rounded rodents, with a coat of sharp quills.



North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia.



Hoofed mammals, with long legs and barrel-shaped bodies. Male antelope have permanent horns; male deer have antlers, which they shed and regrow each year.

GUINEA PIGS Cavia spp.



Northwestern, central, and southeastern South America.



Small rodent, with dark, coarse fur, short legs, and no tail.

HEDGEHOGS Erinaceinae



Europe, Africa, and Asia; introduced to New Zealand.



Small, short-legged insectivorous mammal, with spines on back and sides of body.

KANGAROOS Macropus spp.



Australia.



The largest of the marsupials (pouched mammals), with long, strong tails, large back legs, and short forelegs.

RABBITS AND HARES Leporidae



Most habitats worldwide, from arctic tundra to semi-desert.



Small or medium-sized herbivorous mammals, with large ears and small, round, furry tails. Fur is usually brown or dark grey; the Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) has a winter coat: white with black ear tips.

BEAVER Castor spp.



North America and northwestern Eurasia.



Large semi-aquatic rodents, with coarse, brown fur, webbed feet, and a flat, scaly tail.

CANE RATS Thryonomys spp.



Sub-Saharan Africa.



Large rodents, with coarse, brown fur and a long, naked tail. The greater cane rat ( T. swinderianus) is semi-aquatic.

ANTELOPE AND DEER Bovidae and Cervidae

GROUND / AQUATIC

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EXTRA INFORMATION

BEWARE OF



Active at night. Roost in colonies in caves and trees during the day. Temperate species hibernate in the winter.



Sharp teeth. Some bats carry rabies or other diseases (see pp. 300–01), so cook the meat thoroughly. Bats are protected in Europe and some parts of North America.



Large, plump, fruit-eating bats, such as the Indian flying-fox (Pteropus giganteus), are considered a delicacy in many tropical areas.



Mostly active by day, feeding in branches and on the ground on shoots, nuts, and birds’ eggs. Nest in trees in a range of woodland habitats.



Sharp teeth and claws.



Flying squirrels (Pteromyini ) are nocturnal, tree-living members of the squirrel (Sciuridae) family. They glide from tree to tree rather than fly.



Some New World porcupines climb trees to feed, but all Old World porcupines spend all their time on the ground across a range of habitats.



Barbed quills (see p. 266 for how to remove).

 Slow-moving, so can easily be run down and



Antelope are mainly found in savanna, or marshland habitats, and deer mainly in woodland, forests, or tundra.



Horns or antlers.





Feed mostly at dawn and dusk, in shrubby grassland in mountainous regions.



Sharp teeth.

Have communal feeding runways. Traps can

Habitats range from woodland, hedgerows, and grassland to desert. Feed at night on small animals, such as worms and insects.





Live in open savanna woodland, feeding mainly at night on vegetation. Gather at waterholes in times of drought.









speared. Unlike most small game, the meat is fatty rather than lean.

Most active at dawn and dusk. Usually live in groups.

be baited with leafy vegetables.

Sharp spines. Usually infested with parasites, so handle carefully and cook well.

 Traditionally prepared for eating by covering



Sharp claws and a powerful kick.



Rabbits live in burrows, often in large numbers, coming above ground to feed on vegetation, using well-worn runs. Hares live above ground.



Rabbits and hares may be infected with germs, so handle them carefully and cook well. Their meat is very lean, and must be eaten with green vegetables (see p. 220).

 In most areas, these are the first animals

Look for the distinctive mud-and-stick lodges in the middle of a pond or lake. Beavers leave the lodge at night to feed on water plants and trees along the riverbank.

Strong, chisel-like teeth. The Eurasian beaver

Feed at night on reeds and grasses in marshland and on riverbanks, or on grasses in moist savanna, and on rocky hillsides.



with clay and baking in embers of a fire (see p. 205).

to try to trap. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is an invasive pest species in Australia. 

Use regular runs along streams. The tail can be eaten as well as the flesh.



Cane rats are a valuable source of bush meat in West and Central Africa. “True” rats (Rattus spp.) are edible but often carry diseases, so handle with care.

(Castor fiber) is protected in many of the countries in which it is found.

Sharp teeth.

Kangaroos are protected in some Australian states, but can be hunted (if you have a permit) in others.

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WHERE

IDENTIFICATION

GAMEBIRDS Galliformes



Worldwide, except Antarctica.



Typically have plump bodies, small heads, and short, rounded wings. Range in size from quail , which can weigh as little as 50g (2oz), to the wild turkey (Meleagris galloparvo), which can be as heavy as 10kg (22lb).

OSTRICH Struthio camelus



From West to East Africa south of the Sahara, and southern Africa.



The world’s tallest and heaviest bird, reaching 100kg (220lb), the ostrich is flightless. Long neck and long, strong legs, with two-toed feet. Males have black and white plumage, females brown.

OWLS Strigiformes



Every continent, except Antarctica.



Upright posture and a flattened face with large, forward-facing eyes. Strong, hooked bill and sharp talons (claws).

PIGEONS AND DOVES Columbiformes



Worldwide, except the polar regions.



Plump, full-breasted bodies, with a small head and bill. Thick, soft plumage, which can be brown or grey, or brightly coloured in some tropical species.

STORKS AND HERONS Ciconiiformes



Worldwide, except the polar regions.



Large bodies, with long legs and necks, and powerful bills. Range in height from 25cm (10in) for the smallest bitterns to 1.5m (5ft) for the largest storks.

VULTURES Accipitridae and Cathartidae



All continents, except Antarctica and Australasia.

 Large carrion-eating birds, with large wings,

WADERS AND GULLS Charadriiformes



Worldwide.



Vary greatly in size and shape, but most have subdued brown, grey, black, or white plumage. Waders (or shorebirds) usually have lightweight bodies and long legs. Gulls have compact bodies.

WATERFOWL Anseriformes



Worldwide, except Antarctica.



Typically have plump bodies, powerful wings, and short legs with webbed feet. Most species have a broad, flattened bill. Ducks usually have short necks, while geese and swans have long necks.

powerful feet with sharp talons, and a strongly hooked bill. Head and neck is often bald or sparsely feathered.


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EXTRA INFORMATION

BEWARE OF



Wide range of terrestrial habitats, from high mountains, to tropical forests, to Arctic tundra.



Short but sharp beak and claws. In some species (including pheasants), the males have sharp spurs on their ankles.





Open semi-arid plains (from desert to savanna) and open woodland.



Can run fast and deliver a powerful kick. Very protective of eggs in the nest and the young birds.

 The eggs are the largest of any bird,



In most habitats, from tundra to dense forest.



Sharp bill and talons.



Most species hunt at night and roost in trees during the day. Usually nest in holes in trees, under rocky overhangs, or, sometimes, in burrows.



Variety of forest habitats, from open woodland to dense, tropical rainforest, and grassland and semi-arid areas.



Often feed in flocks on the ground or in trees, and usually roost communally in trees. Can be taken by hand from the roost if you approach slowly and quietly.



Freshwater habitats, ranging from wetlands, rivers, lakes, marshes, swamps, mangroves, and lagoons to tidal mudflats.





Open areas, including mountains, plains, deserts, and savannas.

Sharp bill and talons. Handle as little as possible,

Tundra and a variety of wetland and coastal habitats, including tidal mudflats, beaches, and cliffs.

Sharp bill. Gulls and terns will aggressively

Arctic tundra, wetlands, rivers, and lakes. Ducks and swans usually feed on the water, while geese graze on the land.

Geese and swans can be very aggressive,





Sharp bill.

weighing 1.4kg (3lb). The nests are communal and contain up to 40 eggs.



Usually feed alone at the water’s edge, but often nest communally in trees.



Carrion eaters and scavengers, such as crows (Corvus spp.) and gulls (see below), can be lured into traps baited with meat.



Most birds in this group nest on the ground or on rock ledges, laying about four well-camouflaged eggs. Often nest in large colonies.



Many species migrate between their breeding grounds in the Arctic and their wintering grounds further south. They moult their feathers in the late summer, rendering them flightless for a couple of weeks and thus easier to catch.

as prone to parasites and infection. Boil meat for at least 30 minutes.

defend their nest sites.

particularly in the breeding season. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) can weigh up to 12kg (26lb).

Nearly all gamebirds feed and nest on the ground. At night, many gamebirds roost in trees.

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FROGS

NAME

TURTLES

IDENTIFICATION



Sub-Saharan Africa; introduced to North America, South America, and Europe.



Flattened, brown body, 6–13cm (2 1⁄3 –5in) long, with a line of white “stitch marks” along the sides. Clawed toes on the muscular legs.

AMERICAN BULLFROG Rana catesbeiana



North America; introduced to Europe and Asia.



Body is green with brown markings above and white below, 9–20cm (31⁄2 –8in) long. Large legs and large eardrums.



Central and northern South America.



Smooth yellow or pale brown body with some dark markings, 8–22cm (3–9in) long.



Sub-Saharan Africa.



Flattened, brown shell, 20–32cm (8–121⁄2in) long.

ASIAN LEAF TURTLE Cyclemus dentata



Southeast Asia.



Oval, light to dark brown shell, 15–24cm (6–9 1⁄2in) long, with serrated edge near tail. Reddish brown head and legs.

PAINTED TURTLE Chrysemys picta



Southern Canada, USA, and northern Mexico.



Flattened, smooth shell, 15–25cm (6–10in) long; brown above and yellow below, sometimes patterned. Yellow or red stripes on the neck.

CARPET PYTHON Morelia spilota



Indonesia, New Guinea, and Australia.



Several subspecies, all of which have a bold pattern of irregular markings, which can be reddish brown, brown, black or grey. Average length is 2m (6 1⁄2ft), but can reach 4m (13ft).

COMMON BOA Boa constrictor



Central America, South America, and some Caribbean islands.



Several subspecies but all have characteristic dark saddle markings along the back and a dark stripe behind each eye. Narrow head and pointed snout.



Sub-saharan Africa



Reddish-brown or grey body with dark, angular markings. A slender snake, 70–100cm (28–39in) long. Rounded snout.

COMMON RATSNAKE Elaphe obsoleta



Southern Canada, and central and eastern USA



Subspecies coloration varies from bright yellow-orange to pale grey with darker blotches. Length range is 1.2–1.8m (4–6ft). Long head with rounded snout.

COMMON/VIVIPAROUS LIZARD Zootoca vivipara



Europe, extending to the Arctic Circle, and central to eastern Asia, including Japan.



Body is usually brown olive, sometimes black, with males having bright yellow or orange bellies and females creamy white ones. Length range is 10–18cm (4–7in).

GREEN IGUANA Iguana iguana



Central America and northern South America.



Green or greyish body, 1–2m (31⁄4–61⁄2ft) long, including the long striped tail. Long, stout legs for climbing trees. Adults have a fleshy dewlap beneath the throat, which is large in males.

RAINBOW LIZARD Agama agama



West, Central, and East Africa.



Males turn brightly coloured in the sun, with an orange-red head and a blue or turquoise body; females and juvenile males remain grey. Length range is 30–40cm (12–16in).

WESTERN FENCE LIZARD Sceloporus occidentalis



Southwestern USA and northwestern Mexico.



Brown body with raised, pointed scales. Blue patches on the belly are most pronounced in males. Length range is 15–23cm (6–9in).

AFRICAN HELMETED TURTLE Pelomedusa subrufa

SNAKES

WHERE

AFRICAN CLAWED FROG Xenopus spp.

SOUTH AMERICAN BULLFROG Leptodactylus pentadactylus

LIZARDS

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COMMON EGG-EATING SNAKE Dasypeltis scabra


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Wetlands and waterholes in savannas and tropical and subtropical forests.



Wetlands.



Tropical forests and rainforests.



EXTRA INFORMATION

SIMILAR SPECIES 

Also known as the African clawed toad.



American bullfrog legs can be the size of chicken drumsticks. All temperate species of frog hibernate in the winter.



Active at night. If picked up, the South American bullfrog emits a loud scream to startle the predator into dropping it.

Watering holes and rain pools in open country.



In the rainy season, this turtle wanders from pool to pool to forage. In the dry season, it buries itself in mud.



Shallow streams in mountains or lowlands.



Very active on land and in water.



Lakes, ponds, and slow-moving streams and rivers.



Active by day. You will often find several painted turtles piled up together on a log in the water, basking in the sun.



Wide range of habitats.



The carpet python is non-venomous, but it can inflict a nasty bite. It is one of Australia’s most widespread snakes.



Wide range of habitats, from tropical forest to dry savanna.



Kills its prey by coiling around it and suffocating it. Don’t tackle large common boas – they can be up to 4m (13ft) long.



Desert and open habitats.



This nocturnal African snake feeds on eggs during the bird-breeding season then fasts for the rest of the year. It has no teeth.



Rocky hillsides with open woodland.



Like the common boa (see above), all ratsnakes kill their prey by constriction.



Wide range of terrestrial habitats.



There’s no point trying to catch a common lizard by its tail as, like many lizards, it can shed the tail and regrow it.



Tropical forest and rainforest.



Defends itelf by lashing out with its tail and claws.



Open habitats.



Rainbow lizard can shed and regrow its tail.



On rocks and other prominent places in temperate and coniferous woodlands.



Fence lizard can shed and regrow its tail.









All frogs in the Rana genus are edible. The genus includes New World true frogs and the European common frog (R. temporaria).

There are several species in the boa family, which includes the world’s largest snake, the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus).

Ratsnakes (Elaphe spp.), which include the brightly coloured corn snake (E. guttata), are found in both the New and Old Worlds.

The eastern fence lizard (S. undulatus) is widely distributed across southeastern USA and northeastern Mexico.

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WHERE  Western and eastern Indian

IDENTIFICATION 

Up to 2m (61⁄2ft) long, with a rounded tail fin.Dark greenish-grey upper body fading to silver below.

Ocean, and northwestern and western Pacific Ocean.

COMMON/BRONZE BREAM Abramis brama



Europe to Central Asia.



Up to 82cm (2 3 ⁄4ft) long, with a deep, narrow, bronze-coloured body and a deeply forked tail.

COMMON/KING CARP Cyprinus carpio



Europe and Asia; introduced in North America and Australasia.



Up to 1.5m (5ft)long, with a dark gold upper body paling to silver below.

EUROPEAN TURBOT Psetta maxima



Northeast Atlantic Ocean up to the Arctic Circle and the Mediterranean.



Almost circular flatfish, up to 1m (31⁄3ft) in diameter. Sandy brown with brown or black speckles on top.

NILE PERCH Lates niloticus



Northern, central, and eastern Africa.



Up to 1.9m (61⁄4ft) long, with a rounded tail fin. Dark grey-blue upper body fading to silver below.

RUDD Scardinius erythrophthalmus



Europe and Asia.



Up to 45cm (173 ⁄4in) long, with a deeply forked tail. Dark greenish upper body paling to silver below. Red pelvic, pectoral, and anal fins.

ATLANTIC SALMON Salmo salar



North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and Baltic Sea and adjacent rivers; introduced to Argentina and Australasia.



Up to 1.5m (5ft) long, with a powerful, streamlined, silver blue-green body.

TARPON Megalops atlanticus



Eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean.



Up to 2.5m (8ft) long, with a deeply forked tail. Bright silver body, with large, hard scales.

TENCH Tinca tinca



Europe and Asia; introduced in North America.



Olive green upper body, golden below, with a square tail fin. Small barbel at corners of mouth. Average length is 70cm (271⁄2in).

BROWN TROUT AND SEA TROUT Salmo trutta



Temperate waters worldwide.



Streamlined body with an average length of 1m (3 1⁄3ft). The brown trout has a brownish body flecked with distinctive black and red spots. The sea-going form, the sea trout, is silver-blue with black spots.


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EXTRA INFORMATION

SIMILAR FISH



Tropical, slow-moving creeks and estuaries, hiding in mangrove roots and rocky outcrops.



Bottom of still and slow-moving waters, typically in lakes, rivers, and ponds. Swim in large shoals.



Silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and white-eye bream (Abramis sapa).



Still and slow-moving waters, often among vegetation near banks of lakes or ponds.



Wild carp, mirrored carp, and leather carp are all varieties of the common carp.



Sandy, rocky, or mixed sea beds in shallow coastal and brackish water.



Other flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) found in shallow water, such as sole, plaice, and flounder.



Lakes and large rivers.



Other perch (Perciformes).



Beware of the sharp dorsal fin.

Beware of the sharp dorsal fin and teeth

(the Nile perch is a voracious predator). This species can weigh up to 200kg (440lb).



Still and slow-moving waters, often near banks of ponds and marshlands.



Roach (Rutilus rutilus)



Cold, fast-flowing rivers and coastal waters.



Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.)



The salmon run (when the fish migrate from the sea to their birth rivers) is in the autumn, with spawning between November and January.



Estuaries, lagoons, tidal flats, and mangrove swamps. Feed in shoals.



Indo-Pacific tarpon (M. cyprinoides), which is smaller and rarer.



This species is hard to hook because of its bony mouth. It weighs up to 160kg (350lb).



Still and slow-moving waters, in ponds, lakes, and rivers. The best time of day to catch tench is at dawn, at the edges of dense vegetation.



Streams, rivers, lakes, and coastal waters.



Rainbow trout and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the cutthroat trout (O. clarki).



Sea-going forms migrate from the sea to rivers to spawn in the autumn. Beware of small bones when eating.

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APPENDIXVN@C;=FF;

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COMMON/BLUE MUSSEL Mytilus edulis

 Intertidal zones of estuaries and coasts of North

GIANT AFRICAN LAND SNAILS Achatina spp.

 Sub-tropical and tropical parts of Africa;

GRASSHOPPERS Acrididae

IDENTIFICATION 

Dark-shelled bivalve, reaching 10–15cm (4–6in) in length.



Large terrestrial snails, reaching up to 30cm (12in) in length when body is extended, and 10cm (4in) in diameter. Whorled, conical, brownish shell with darker bands.

 Worldwide, on vegetation and the ground.



Winged insects with powerful hindlegs, 1–8cm (2⁄5–31⁄4in) long, usually with camouflage colouring and patterning.

HONEYPOT/HONEY ANTS Myrmecocystus spp.

 Semi-arid and arid regions of southwest USA,



Segmented bodies with six legs and a pair of antennae, and a constricted waist. Range in colour and size, from 2–12mm (1⁄10 –1⁄2in). Special members of the colony, called repletes, have abdomens that can swell to the size of a grape.

WITCHETTY GRUB Endoxyla leucomochla

 Underground, in the roots of the witchetty



The larva of this species of cossid moth reaches about 7cm (2 3 ⁄4in) in length. It is white with a brown head.

CRAYFISH/CRAWFISH/ YABBIES/KOURAS Astaclidea

 Worldwide, in freshwater streams.



Segmented bodies, which can be sandy yellow, green, dark brown, or blue-grey in colour. Ten legs, the front two of which are large claws. Average length is 8cm (3in), but some species grow much larger.

WOODLICE Oniscidea and Armadillidiidae

 Worldwide, in damp terrestrial microhabitats,



Flattened, segmented bodies up to 2cm (3 ⁄4in) in length. Grey or light brown or black in colour. Pill millipedes will roll up into a ball when threatened.

COMMON EARTHWORM Lumbricus terrestris

 Temperate regions of Europe; introduced to



Reddish worm, reaching 35cm (14in) in length when extended.

and southeastern Atlantic and northeastern and southwestern Pacific.

introduced to the Asia-Pacific region.

Mexico, Africa, and Australia.

CRUSTACEANS

ARTHROPODS

MOLLUSCS

MOLLUSCS

NAME

WORMS

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bush (Acacia kempeana), central Australia.

such as in rotting wood and leaf litter.

most parts of the world.


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EXTRA INFORMATION

BEWARE OF



Most species of marine and freshwater bivalves and univalves are edible if alive and healthy when gathered.



Don’t collect marine shellfish that aren’t covered at high tide. The black mussel (Musculus niger), found in Arctic waters, can be poisonous year-round. Mussels in tropical zones are poisonous during the summer.



Healthy bivalves should close their shells when tapped and the shells should open when cooked. Healthy univalves, such as limpets, should be difficult to prise off the rocks on which they live.



Many terrestrial and freshwater snails are edible. The winkle or common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) is an edible sea snail.



Avoid any terrestrial snails with brightly coloured shells and all sea snails unless you can positively identify them as an edible species, as they may be poisonous.



Snails should be starved for 24 hours or fed a diet of edible green leaves to purge their guts before cooking. Boil for at least 10 minutes.



Most species of cricket (Gryllidae) and katydid ( Tettigoniidae) are edible.



Avoid any brightly coloured grasshoppers as they may be toxic.



Remove the antennae, wings, and leg spurs, and roast to kill any parasites.



Most species of ant are edible if gathered carefully. The larvae of wood ants (Formica spp.) in northern temperate regions make a nutritious meal in summer months. The abdomen of the green or weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) found in Southeast Asia and Australia tastes like citrus sherbert. Termites ( Isoptera) are also edible. See p. 219 for catching methods.



Most species of ant are aggressive in defence of their nest and have a stinging bite. Some will then squirt formic acid at the site of the bite.



The swollen abdomens of the repletes contain a nutritious fluid. The repletes live deep underground in the ants’ nest so you would have to dig them out.



The term “witchetty grub” is also applied to the edible larvae of other cossid moths, ghost moths (Hepialidae), and longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae). Palm grubs are the edible larvae of the palm weevil (Rhynchophorus spp.). They live in the trunks of sago palms (see pp. 284–85) in Southeast Asia.



Do not eat any insect larvae that are already dead when you find them, or that look sick, smell bad, or that irritate the skin if handled.



Should be eaten raw or roasted quickly in hot embers.



Marine decapods such as crabs, lobsters, and prawns are also edible.



May contain harmful parasites so cook well.



Keep alive until ready to eat. See p. 225 for preparation and cooking methods.



Boil or fry gently. Will turn slightly pink, like prawns, when cooked.



The common eathworm is unusual in that it feeds at the surface, making it easier to find and gather than other worms.



All earthworms are edible.



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APPENDIX _ E8KLI8C;8E><IJ

E8KLI8C;8E><IJ =FI@E=FID8K@FEFEC8I><I[Xe^\ifljXe`dXcj#jlZ_XjY\Xij#Y`^ZXkj#Xe[j_Xibj# Xe[m\efdfljXe`dXcj#jlZ_XjjeXb\j#j\\gg%)+)Æ+*%N_\egcXee`e^pfliki`g#`k`j X[m`jXYc\kf]Xd`c`Xi`q\pflij\c]n`k_k_\gfk\ek`Xccp_Xid]lcn`c[c`]\`ek_\i\^`fepflXi\ m`j`k`e^#k_\eXkli\f]k_\k_i\Xk#Xe[_fnkfXmf`[`k`]gfjj`Yc\%@ek_\ZXj\f]jljg\Zk\[

FISH

SNAKES

MAMMALS

NAME

OTHER ANIMALS

8GG<E;@O

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WHERE

IDENTIFICATION

VAMPIRE BATS Desmodontinae



In rainforests, deserts, and grasslands, from Mexico to northern and central South America.



Small bats, with a body length of 7–9cm (2 3⁄4–31⁄2in) and a wingspan of 35–40cm (14–16in). Dark brownish grey fur, paler on the belly. Razor-like upper incisors.

RATS Rattus spp.



Worldwide, except for the polar regions.



Medium-sized rodents, with a minimum body length of 12cm (5in), and long, naked tails. Coarse brown, grey-brown, or black fur, paler on belly. Pink feet.

SPITTING COBRAS AND RINKHALS Naja spp. and Hemachatus haemachatus



Warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of Asia and Africa.



Pale brown to black snakes up to 2m (6 1⁄2ft) long. When threatened, will rear up and spread their hoods, revealing striped patterns on their necks.

ELECTRIC EEL Electrophorus electricus



Amazon and Orinoco river systems, South America, often in shallow water.



Not a true eel, but an eel-like fish up to 2.5m (81⁄4ft) long and can be as thick as a human thigh. Continuous fin along lower body.

STONEFISH Synanceia verrucosa



In tropical coastal waters of northern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific Ocean.



Up to 40cm (16in) long, this lumpy fish can match its colour to the rock or sediment on which it lies while waiting for passing prey. Venomous spines in the dorsal fin.

BOX JELLYFISH/ SEA WASPS Cubomedusae



At the surface of tropical waters of southwestern Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean.



Box-shaped, transparent jellyfish, up to 25cm (10in) in diameter. Up to 15 long tentacles, which bear stinging cells, at each corner.

CENTIPEDES Chilopoda



In soil, leaf litter, cracks, and crevices in temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions worldwide.



Elongated, flattened bodies divided into at least 16 segments, most of which have one pair of legs. Tropical species are typically brightly coloured – yellow, red, orange, or green – with dark stripes. The world’s largest centipede, Scolpendra gigantea, reaches 30cm (12in) in length.

CONE SHELLS/ CONE SNAILS Conidae



In inter-tidal zones and on coral reefs in warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical seas and oceans worldwide.



Brightly coloured and patterned, cone-shaped shells, up to 23cm (9in) long. These predatory snails have venomous, harpoon-like mouthparts.


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TREATMENT

HOW TO AVOID



Many mammal species are infected with rabies, but because vampire bats feed by biting their victims, then lapping blood from the wound, the virus can be transmitted via their saliva. Symptoms include fever, headache, fear (especially of water), and seizures.



If bitten by a vampire bat, or other potentially rabid mammal, clean the wound thoroughly and seek immediate medical help. Symptoms usually appear 2–8 weeks after infection, by which time the disease is almost always fatal.



Vampire bats roost in hollow trees and caves, emerging at night to feed. Don’t shelter in bat caves (bat dung can cause a respiratory disease). Keep covered at night, and sleep under a mosquito net. Get vaccinated before travelling to a high-risk area.



Can be infested with parasites and can also carry infectious diseases. Leptospirosis is a water-borne bacterial disease spread by infected rats’ urine; the acute form in humans is called Weil’s disease.



If you’ve been in contact with potentially contaminated water and develop flu-like symptoms (fever, headache, muscle pain) you must get your blood tested as soon as possible. Antibiotics are effective in the early stages of the disease.



If handling a rat, beware of its teeth and claws, and wash thoroughly afterwards. Cook the meat thoroughly. In rat-infested areas avoid getting water into any cuts; if you do, wash with soap and boiled water.



Will eject a fine spray of venom from their fangs towards the eyes of an aggressor. Causes intense pain, tearing, and discharge from the eyes, spasm and swelling of the eyelids. Ulceration of the cornea can lead to infection resulting in blindness.



Call the emergency services. Rinse the eyes with cool water for 10 minutes. Apply an antibiotic eye ointment.



If you come across a spitting cobra, try to remain completely still and allow the snake to move away, if possible (see p. 243).



Can generate shocks of up to 600 volts, used to stun or kill prey when hunting, or in self-defence. Such a shock can be discharged up to 8 hours after its death, and is potentially lethal to humans.



Call the emergency services. If the casualty becomes unconscious, open the airway and check breathing (see p. 276). Be ready to begin CPR (see p. 277).

Keep your boots on if crossing a tributary



The world’s most venomous fish. If trodden on, the spines inject poison into the puncture wound. This is extremely painful and can be fatal. The injured body part will swell and muscular paralysis may set in.



Call the emergency services – antivenin is available. Immerse the injured part in water as hot as the casualty can stand for at least 30 minutes (see p. 267). Don’t immobilize the injured limb. Be ready to begin CPR if the casualty loses consciousness (see pp. 276–77).





Sting is extremely painful – it will damage the skin and can cause permanent scarring. In severe cases, box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri ) stings can lead to cardiac arrest and death within minutes.



Have a pair of large, venomous claws on their heads, which in some species can be dangerous to humans. The sting is painful and leads to swelling. May result in anaphylactic shock.



Will fire its harpoon in self-defence if touched. Sting of most species is painful; that of the larger tropical species can be fatal. Symptoms include swelling and numbness, and may be followed by severe breathing difficulties.







and take care when washing. These waters are also home to piranhas (Serrasalminae), which have razor-sharp teeth. Wear something on your feet when walking in shallow water. Weaverfish ( Trachinidae) and scorpionfish (Scorpaenidae) also have venomous stings; the treatment is the same.

Call the emergency services – antivenin is available. Flood the stung area with vinegar or sea water for at least 30 seconds to neutralize the stinging cells (see p. 267). Be ready to begin CPR if the casualty loses consciousness (see pp. 276–77).

Never touch a jellyfish, even if it’s dead.

Call the emergency services. Apply a cold compress for at least 10 minutes to reduce pain and swelling. Monitor the casualty for anaphylactic shock (see p. 274) and be ready to begin CPR (see p. 277).

As a general rule, avoid all multiple-legged

Call the emergency services and treat as for snake bite (see p. 266). Monitor the casualty for shock (see p. 274) and be ready to begin CPR (see p. 277).

Don’t pick up any cone shells in rock pools

All jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, and the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) release venomous cells when touched. Some are more toxic than others.

arthropods. If you discover one on your body, gently brush it off in the direction in which it is walking.

or when snorkelling or diving. (There is no antivenin: treatment entails providing life support until the venom is metabolized by the casualty’s body.)

*'(

8GG<E;@O

N@C;8E@D8CJ


APPENDIX _ E8KLI8C;8E><IJ

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INSECTS

NAME

ARACHNIDS

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WHERE

IDENTIFICATION

BEES, WASPS, AND HORNETS Hymenoptera



In a variety of terrestrial habitats worldwide.



Narrow-waisted bodies, often striped black and yellow. Bees are hairy, while wasps and hornets have hairless bodies. Up to 3.5cm (1 1⁄3in) long. Bees have barbed stingers, wasps and hornet stingers are smooth.

MOSQUITOES Culicidae



In a variety of terrestrial habitats near water worldwide, especially in warmer regions.



Narrow bodies and long, slender legs. Up to 2cm ( 3⁄4in) long. Females have syringe-like mouthparts for piercing skin.

BROWN RECLUSE/ FIDDLEBACK SPIDER Loxosceles reclusa



Southern midwestern states of USA, south to the Gulf of Mexico.



Small brown spider, about 1.25cm (1⁄2in) long) with a distinctive dark, violin-shaped mark on the back of its cephalothorax (head).

FUNNEL-WEB SPIDERS Atrax robustus and Hadronyche spp.



Moist, cool, sheltered habitats in eastern and southern Australia.



Large spiders, up to 4.5cm (1 1⁄2in) long, with glossy dark brown or black bodies and short legs.

TARANTULAS Theraphosidae

 Deserts and forests in subtropical



Very large spiders with bodies up to 12cm (5in) long and a legspan of up to 28cm (11in). Bodies and legs are covered in bristly hairs. Pale brown to black in colour, with pink, red, brown, or black markings.

WIDOW SPIDERS Latrodectus spp.



Warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions worldwide.



Small spiders, with dark, glossy bodies and distinctive red, yellow, or white markings on the abdomen, which are shaped like an hourglass in some species.

SCORPIONS Scorpiones



Deserts, grasslands, woodland, and forests in warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions worldwide.



Segmented bodies, with large, claw-like pedipalps and sting-bearing tails. Yellow, brown, or black bodies, 8–20cm (3–8in) long, depending on the species.

TICKS Ixodidae



Grassland and woodland habitats worldwide.



Rounded bodies with no distinct divisions. Yellow to red– or black– brown in colour. Up to 1cm (2 ⁄5in) long, but larger after feeding. They have spiked mouthparts, which they use to attach themselves to the skin of warm-blooded animals to feed on their blood.

and tropical regions worldwide.


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TREATMENT

HOW TO AVOID



When a bee stings you, the stinger is ripped out of its body with the venom sac. Wasps and hornets can sting repeatedly. The stings are painful, followed by redness and swelling. A single sting may result in anaphylactic shock (see p. 274)



Scrape the sting off sideways at the base of the sting if it is visible, using a fingernail or a credit card. Raise the affected part and place a cold compress against it for at least 10 minutes (see p. 267). Monitor for signs of allergic reaction.





Female mosquitoes feed on blood and their bites can irritate the skin. They are carriers of infectious diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever.



Apply an anti-histamine cream to the bites if they itch, and do not scratch them, as there is a risk of infection. If casualty develops a headache and fever, get medical help. Get casualty to rest, drink plenty of water, and take anti-malarials, if directed.

 Cover your arms and legs after sunset,



Bite can cause fever, chills, vomiting, and, pain in the joints. In most cases the bite is minor, but in some cases the tissue around the wound will die, leaving a deep scar. Rarely fatal.



Sit casualty down, treat as for snake bite (see p. 266), and call the emergency services. Apply a cold compress to the site of the sting. Monitor for signs of allergic reaction, such as wheezing, and anaphylactic shock (see p. 274).





Bite is very painful and causes profuse sweating, nausea, vomiting, tingling around the mouth and tongue, salivation, and weakness. Rarely fatal.



Sit casualty down, treat as for snake bite (see p. 266), and call the emergency services – antivenin is available. Monitor for signs of allergic reaction and anaphylactic shock (see p. 274).

Take care when moving rocks and logs.



Bite can be painful but is only mildly venomous. If provoked, tarantulas will flick irritating hairs from their abdomen which will cause itching and swelling of the skin and nasal passages, and watering of the eyes.



Give pain relief and apply a cold compress to the site of the bite. Monitor for signs of allergic reaction, such as wheezing, and anaphylactic shock (see p. 274). Wash any hairs away with cool water.

 Tarantulas are nocturnal and hunt prey

Bite is painful and results in localized redness and swelling. More severe reactions include profuse sweating, abdominal and chest pains, nausea, and vomiting. Rarely fatal.



Apply a cold compress (ice if available) and give pain relief. If symptoms worsen, call the emergency services – antivenin is available. Monitor for signs of allergic reaction, such as wheezing and anaphylactic shock (see p. 274).

Widow spiders, which include Australia’s



Scorpion stings can be very painful and may cause severe illness. A few species have neurotoxins in their venom, resulting in temporary paralysis for 1–2 days. Rarely fatal and only then in young children, the elderly, or the ill or infirm.



If swelling occurs, sit casualty down, treat as for snake bite (see p. 266). Apply an ice pack or cold compress to the site of the sting. Call the emergency services, monitor for anaphylactic shock (see p. 274) and allergic reaction. Try to identify the scorpion.



Scorpions are mostly nocturnal and take shelter during the day. Check your boots and clothing before putting them on and check your bedding at night. Take care when gathering firewood or turning over rocks.



Ticks are carriers of infectious diseases such as Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Sufferers of Lyme disease may develop a red, ringed “bull’s-eye” skin lesion at the bite site.



Carefully remove an attached tick with tweezers or a specialist tool (see p. 267). Clean and monitor the wound for symptoms. Get medical help if casualty develops a severe headache, stiff neck, or a fever.



Wear light-shaded, tightly woven clothing and apply tick repellent. Check your skin and clothing for ticks at regular intervals.



Watch out for flowers where bees may be feeding. Be careful when gathering fruit, or cleaning fish or game, as wasps or hornets will be attracted to the smell. Don’t disturb their nests.

use mosquito repellent, and sleep under a mosquito net. Take anti-malarial medication as directed. Get a yellow fever vaccination before travelling, where advised. This spider likes to hide in dark places, so be careful where you put your hands and bare feet, and always check your bedding.

in trees and on the ground. Move away if you disturb one; don’t touch it.

redback spider (L. hasselti ), build their webs in dry, sheltered spots, such as in shrubs or among rocks or logs, so take care when moving among them.

*'*

8GG<E;@O

@EJ<:KJ8E;8I8:?E@;J


APPENDIX _ E8KLI8C;8E><IJ

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CONTACT POISONING

NAME

INGESTION POISONING

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WHERE

IDENTIFICATION

Scrub and light woodland in the the tropics and USA.





Wooded areas in North America; widely introduced elsewhere.

WHITE/GREY MANGROVE Avicennia marina



BANEBERRY Actaea spp.

POISONOUS PART

Vine-like plant with green, oval leaflets growing in threes. Spikes of hairy, dull purplish flowers. Hairy brown seedpods.

 

Flowers Pods



See p. 268 for illustration.



All

Mangrove swamps from tropical Africa to Indonesia and Australasia.



Slender tree with pale bark and long aerial roots. Green, oblong, leathery leaves. Yellow flowers and fleshy, pale orange seed capsules.



Sap



Temperate woodland in the northern hemisphere.



Low shrub with, toothed green leaves. Small white flowers. White, black, or red berries grow in clusters.



All, but the berries are the most poisonous.

CASTOR OIL PLANT/ CASTOR BEAN Ricinus communis



Throughout the tropics in scrub and wasteland; introduced to temperate regions.



Tall shrub with glossy dark green or dark purple, star-like leaves. Spikes of yellow flowers. Spiky red pods.



All, but the seeds contain particularly high levels of the poison ricin.

DEATH CAMAS/ DEATH LILY Zigadenus spp.



Grassy, wooded, and rocky areas in temperate regions of North America.



Long grass-like leaves arise from a bulb. Flowers have six white petals with a green heart at base.



All

PANGI Pangium edule



Tropical forests in Southeast Asia.



Tall tree with green, heart-shaped leaves. Green flower spikes. Large brownish pear-shaped fruits grow in clusters.



All, but especially the seeds, which contain prussic acid (cyanide).

PHYSIC NUT Jatropha curcas



Woodland throughout the tropics and southern USA.

 Large shrub with large, green,



All, but particularly the seeds.

POISON HEMLOCK Conium maculatum



Wet or moist ground in temperate parts of Eurasia; introduced to North America and Australia.



Tall herb with branching purple-spotted stem; toothed leaves; small clusters of white flowers grown in flat umbrellas.



All, but the root has the highest level of toxins.

STRYCHNINE TREE Strychnos nux-vomica



Tropical and subtropical forests in India, Southeast Asia, and Australia.



Evergreen tree with paired oval leaves. Small clusters of greenish flowers grow at end of branches. Large orange-red berries.



All, but the seeds contain lethal levels of strychnine.

COWHAGE/COWAGE/ COWITCH Mucana pruriens



POISON IVY Toxicodendron radicans

ivy-like leaves. Small greenish-yellow flowers. Apple-sized yellow fruit has large seeds.


GF@JFEFLJGC8EKJ gifk\Zkpflij\c]]ifdXepgf`jfefek_\ZXjlXckpËjdflk_%N_\egcXee`e^pfliki`g#`k`j X[m`jXYc\kf]Xd`c`Xi`q\pflij\c]n`k_k_\gf`jfefljgcXekj`ek_\i\^`fepflXi\m`j`k`e^% =fi]lik_\i`e]fidXk`fei\^Xi[`e^gcXekZfekXZkgf`jfe`e^Xe[`e^\jk`fegf`jfe`e^#Xe[ k_\`iki\Xkd\ek`eXjlim`mXcj`klXk`fe#j\\gg%)-/Æ-0% EFFECT

ADDITIONAL INFO

TREATMENT



Skin irritation. Contact with the eyes can cause blindness.



Call the emergency services. Rinse the skin with cold water for 20 minutes, the eye(s) for 10 minutes. Don’t let the water collect under the casualty or you.



Reddening, itching, swelling, and blistering of skin within 4–24 hours of contact with the plant. Some people may suffer an allergic reaction called anaphylactic shock (see p. 274).



Wash the affected area with soap and cold water. Apply anti-poison ivy cream. Monitor and treat for shock (see p. 274) if necessary. For natural remedies, see p. 268.



Western poison oak ( T. diversilobum), Atlantic poison oak (T. pubescens), and poison sumac ( T. vernix ) also cause contact poisoning (see p. 268).



The sap blisters the skin and will cause temporary blindness if it gets in the eyes.



Call the emergency services. Rinse the skin with cold water for 20 minutes, the eye(s) for 10 minutes. Monitor casualty and treat for shock (see p. 274).



Blinding or milky mangrove (Exoecaria agallocha) also has poisonous sap.



Can be fatal – ingestion of berries can lead to cardiac arrest and death. Other symptoms include dizziness, vomiting, and severe internal irritation.



Call the emergency services. Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison by getting him or her to drink large quantities of water or milk, or tea mixed with charcoal.



Can be fatal – ingestion of raw seeds causes severe diarrhoea.



Call the emergency services. Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison by getting him or her to drink large quantities of water or milk, or tea mixed with charcoal.



The seedpods explode when ripe, scattering the large, oval, glossy, brown-mottled seeds, which can be mistaken for beans.



Deadly poisonous. Symptoms include profuse salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion, slow, irregular heart-beat, low temperature, difficulty breathing, and unconsciousness, leading to death.



Call the emergency services. Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison by getting him or her to drink large quantities of water or milk, or tea mixed with charcoal.



This plant looks similar to wild onions, which are edible, but the death camas does not have the onion smell.



Deadly poisonous. Causes unconsciousness and severe breathing difficulties, which, if untreated, may lead to death.



Call the emergency services (antidotes are available). Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison (see Death Camas, above). Keep casualty warm and at rest.



If the casualty is unconscious and stops breathing, give rescue breaths, using a face shield. Alternatively, use an oxygen bag and a mask, if possible.



Severe diarrhoea and vomiting.



Call the emergency services. Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison by getting him or her to drink large quantities of water or milk, or tea mixed with charcoal.



The seeds look like betel nuts and taste sweet. Several species in the Jatropha genus are poisonous, for example, the aptly named bellyache bush (J. gossypifolia).



Deadly poisonous. A small amount can result in death by respiratory failure from muscular paralysis. Early symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and rapid heart-beat.



Call the emergency services. Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison (see Physic Nut, above). If the casualty is unconscious and stops breathing, begin CPR, using a face shield.



Water hemlock or spotted cowbane (Cicuta spp.), which looks similar, is also deadly poisonous. Don’t mistake these plants for wild carrots or wild parsnips.



Deadly poisonous. Muscle spasms occur 10–20 minutes after exposure, leading to seizures followed by death from severe breathing difficulties or exhaustion within 2–3 hours.



Call the emergency services. Induce vomiting if casualty is still conscious. Dilute the poison by getting him or her to drink large quantities of water or milk, or tea mixed with charcoal.



Warning: strychnine can also enter the system through contact with the eyes.

*',

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RESOURCES

306

RESOURCES

RESOURCES TRAVEL ADVICE Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) www.fco.gov.uk/en/ travelling-and-living-overseas This government website offers advice and tips for British people on how best to stay safe when they are travelling or living abroad, and what help and advice the FCO can provide if something goes wrong. The FCO runs a “Know Before You Go” campaign with around 250 travel industry partners to help British people stay safe and healthy abroad.

WEATHER SERVICES The Meteorological Office (and National Meteorological Library) Fitzroy Road, Exeter, Devon EX1 3PB Tel: 0870 900 0100 Fax: 0870 900 5050 Email: enquiries@metoffice.gov.uk www.metoffice.gov.uk Provides environmental and weather-related services for all kinds of communities – from the general public, government and schools, through broadcasters and online media, to civil aviation and other industry sectors within the UK and around the world.

MAPS Ordnance Survey Romsey Road, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 4GU Tel: 08456 05 05 05 Fax: 023 8079 2615 Email: customerservices@ordnancesurvey. co.uk www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/ The UK's national mapping agency provides the most accurate and up-to-date geographic data for government, business, industry, and individuals.

HEALTH Health and Safety Executive Tel: 0845 345 0055 www.hse.gov.uk A government website providing information and advice about training, regulations, and codes of practice, aimed at helping to protect people's health and safety.

Department of Health Richmond House, 79 Whitehall, London SW1A 2NS Tel: 0207 210 4850 Email: dhmail@dh.gsi.gov.uk www.dh.gov.uk Provides up-to-date information and advice about staying well and receiving health care while travelling or living abroad, especially within the European Economic Area (EEA).

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT Tel: 020 7636 8636 www.lshtm.ac.uk/ Offers research, postgraduate teaching and advanced training in national and international public health and tropical medicine.

RESCUE SERVICES Royal National Lifeboat Institute (RNLI) West Quay Road, Poole, Dorset BH15 1HZ Tel: 0845 122 6999 www.rnli.org.uk Provides a 24-hour lifesaving service around the UK and Republic of Ireland.

Maritime and Coastguard Agency Spring Place, 105 Commercial Road, Southampton, Hampshire SO15 1EG www.mcga.gov.uk A government agency committed to preventing loss of life, continuously improving maritime safety, and protecting the marine environment.

Mountain Rescue Email: secretary@mountain.rescue.org.uk www.mountain.rescue.org.uk Assists people who are lost or injured in the mountains, fells, or moorland. This 24/7 service operates in all weathers.

MOUNTAINEERING AND WALKING British Mountaineering Council (BMC) The Old Church, 177–179 Burton Road, West Didsbury, Manchester M20 2BB Tel: 0161 445 6111 Email: office@thebmc.co.uk www.thebmc.co.uk

Promotes the interests and freedoms of climbers, hill walkers, and mountaineers, including ski-mountaineers.

Mountaineering Council of Scotland The Mountaineering Council of Scotland, The Old Granary, West Mill Street, Perth, PH1 5QP Tel: 01738-493942 Fax: 01738-442095 Email: info@mountaineering-scotland. org.uk www.mcofs.org.uk Provides services, advice and information on a range of issues, such as rights to responsible access and activities relating to the safety of mountaineers in Scotland.

Ramblers Association 2nd Floor Camelford House, 87–90 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TW Tel: 0207 339 8500 Fax: 0207 339 8501 Email: ramblers@ramblers.org.uk www.ramblers.org.uk Promotes walking and improves conditions for walkers in England, Scotland, and Wales.

ENVIRONMENTS Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) Customer Contact Unit, Eastbury House, 30–34 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TL Tel: 08459 33 55 77 Email: helpline@defra.gsi.gov.uk www.defra.gov.uk/ The government department responsible for securing a healthy, resilient, productive, and diverse natural environment.

Environment Agency National Customer Contact Centre PO Box 544, Rotherham, South Yorkshire S60 1BY Tel: 08708 506 506 Email: enquiries@environment-agency. gov.uk www.environment-agency.gov.uk


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@E;<O

*()

INDEX APPENDIX

@E;<O 8

automatic fires 124

first aid 263–64

camping stoves 58–59

A-frames

avalanches 32, 246–47

mammals, for food 222

camps

forest 164–65

blended fuel stoves 58

front opening 165

blisters 262, 268

jungle 168

9

poncho shelters 159, 167, 175

boats see ships and boats

organization and administration 112–13, 114–15

see also specific areas (e.g. latrines)

bacillary dysentery 187

body fat 56

canoeing and kayaking 42, 104–05

abrasions (grazes) 263

backpacks 41, 42, 44–45, 108

boiling

capacity, packs and bags 41, 42, 44

abandoning ship 250, 252–55

bacterial infections 185, 187, 212, 220, 262, 267, 301, 303

ABC (airway/breathing/circulation), first

food 204, 212

capsizing 104, 105

water 118, 185, 200

carbohydrates 56

bags see specific types (e.g. backpacks)

bolas 226

carbon dioxide 157

aerobic exercise 19

baits and lures 208–09, 223, 229

bone, joint, and muscle injuries 233,

carbon monoxide poisoning 181

agaves 193, 282–83

baking food 204, 205

air quality, caves 157

bamboo 284–85

aid 260, 276–77

270–71

cardinal points 68, 76, 77

boot skiing 94

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 277

aiming off 73

fire saw 133

boots 46, 49, 114

cats, big 32, 242

air masses 79

lean-tos 169

bothy bags 161

caves 157, 181

air mats 53

rafts 107

bottle filters 200

chainsaws 60, 150

allergies and anaphylactic shock 266,

steamer 204

bottle traps, fishing 211

char cloths 122–23

water sources and collection 192, 199

bough fence traps 227

char test, softwoods and hardwoods 131

bow drills 130–33

charts

267, 274 altitude sickness 33, 273

bark cordage 138

boxing an object (detouring) 73

altostratus 80, 81

tea 269

branches

amoebic dysentery 187

tinder and kindling 120, 121, 238

altocumulus 80, 81

amphibians and reptiles catching and eating 203, 218, 224, 294–95 dangers from 243, 266, 300–01

bats 157, 290–91, 300–01

as snowshoes 95 vehicle recovery 102

maps and map reading 43, 64–5, 66–71 weather