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Architectural Engineering Part A

Biesbosch Museum

Youssef Achlaouchi DaniĂŤl Kleine Schaars Patrick Limpens Joep Verharen


Colofon Title Comprehending the Biesbosch Museum Course Architectural Engineering: Part A 7QX3M0 Tutors Ir. J. Schevers

Authors Y. Achlaouchi D.P.R. Kleine Schaars P.J.E.M. Limpens J.A. Verharen

0974587 0948777 0970463 0971975

Date and place February 2017, Eindhoven University of Technology.

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Acknowledgements We would like to thank Studio Marco Vermeulen for delivering us drawings of the site plan, sections, elevations and the details of the tender-phase in JPEG format. Subsequently, we would like to thank the director of the Biesbosch Museum, Peter van Beek, with helping us in analysing the museum and sending us pictures of the construction process.

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Contents 1

Introduction

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Biesbosch Museum Project info Design-concept Building structure Construction system Material-use

8 8 24 28 30 52

3

Understanding the building/drawings

54

4

3D-Detail

146

5

The making of the building vs. The making of the model

156

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Group Evaluations/conclusions

212

Individual Evaluation Youssef Achlaouchi DaniĂŤl Kleine Schaars Patrick Limpens Joep Verharen

214 214 214 215 215

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Bibliography

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1 Introduction This report is structured by the information we were able to get and the persons we spoke. Peter van Beek, director of the Biesbosch Museum, was so happy to share images of the construction of the Biesbosch Museum with us. These were very valuable to us as the documents that were given by Studio Marco Vermeulen were not up to date. All drawings we received were in JPEG-format and the drawings were made for the tender-phase that were send to the contractors. Also, these drawings were, apart from the details, more representational rather than technical. This means that there is a gap to be bridged between the tender-drawings and how the building is finally constructed. How we investigated this research between theory and practice was an important factor on how our process developed. Therefore, we also want to illustrate this in that way. Furthermore, the report is ordered by constantly zooming in further and further on the building. Starting with the site plan, investigating the floor plans and elevations, developing floor plans and finally creating the details of how the building actually is constructed.

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Fig: 1.01:

The Biesbosch Museum Source: Own image

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2 Biesbosch Museum 2.1 Project info In the middle of the Biesbosch, in one of the two sweet-tidal areas of Europe, Studio Marco Vermeulen was asked by the Biesbosch Museum to come up with a new design for the museum. The main reason for the transformation of the museum was because of the national water safety plan ‘Ruimte voor de rivier’ where the entire Biesbosch area had to be turned into a water-retention area. The former museum used to stand on the mainland, but because of two outlets on either side of the area the museum became situated on a small island. Because of this drastic change in the landscape, it was expected that the former museum would not be suffice in capacity and eating facilities were non-existent.2.1 The renovation took 8 months and the museum was opened in the summer of 2015. The permanent museum exhibition illustrates the historical development the area has underwent in the past centuries. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum also facilitates a temporary exhibition and a restaurant. The research on this historical development was also done by Studio Marco Vermeulen.2.2 Besides architecture, Studio Marco Vermeulen is known for its research. The designs and plans they make for certain areas derive from questions that are often the subject of their own research. They always thrive for a certain sustainability in their designs by for example, using local elements or reusing local elements to their benefit in the terms of the reduction of energy use or less use of new materials. Apart from this location specific approach, they also do research in finding sustainable ways to use and store energy on a regional, national and global scale. In the next pages, the basic drawings will be shown. On the left side, images will be shown that we received from Studio Marco Vermeulen. These are drawings for the tender phase received in JPEG format. Obviously, there is a large gap between drawings of the tender phase and the final building. This will be explained later. Because representative drawings are essential in order tu understand the drawings, all drawings have been drawn again with proper line-weights and represented in a useful scale. On the left page, drawings by Marco Vermeulen are shown and on the right, own drawings are shown. The details will be explained in chapter 3.

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. Vermeulen, H (02-03-2016) Constructing Architecture course Size Matters. Auditorium 6, Technical University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2.1

Marcovermeulen.eu. (2016). BIESBOSCH MUSEUMEILAND. [online] Available at: http://marcovermeulen. eu/projecten/se/130/ biesboschmuseumeiland/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. 2.2


Fig: 2.01:

Image of Biesbosch Museum after construction. Source: Marcovermeulen.eu. (2016). BIESBOSCH MUSEUMEILAND. [online] Available at: http://marcovermeulen.eu/projecten/se/130/ biesboschmuseumeiland/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016].

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Site plan Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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Site plan 1:1000

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Ground floor plan Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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Ground floor plan 1:500

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Second floor plan Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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Second floor plan 1:500

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Roof plan Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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Roof plan 1:500

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East and west elevation Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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East and west elevation 1:200

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South and north elevation Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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South and north elevation 1:200

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Sections Source: van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email].

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Section A and B 1:200

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2.2 Design-concept It can be said that Studio Marco Vermeulen differs from conventional architectural bureaus. Research lays deep in the roots in the bureau of Marco Vermeulen. It is the starting point of their design process but it is also a separate department of the company where they do research by themselves or for the government. While the design project was merely focussed on the museum itself, Studio Marco Vermeulen took the liberty to do research on the entire Biesbosch area and proposed solutions to make the museum and its surrounding better.2.1 The former museum building was built in the 90’s but had an architecture that dated from the 70’s. It consisted out of multiple hexagons and its exterior walls were almost completely closed. Marco Vermeulen called it: “Blind architecture in a beautiful context”. 2.1 Because the architect thought it was a shame, he proposed a building that is extremely extrovert in stead of introvert. He believed that it was important for the visitors that when they finished the exhibition, they would immediately be exposed by the surroundings. In this way, visitors could see the landscape and connect it to the subject itself. The steel structure of the hexagons was still good enough to use and in order to not insult the former architect, the decision was made to maintain these hexagons and add a different geometry that also has a relationship with it. This newly added space of approximately 1000m2 opened up the museum towards the landscape. Subsequently, the entire building was wrapped up in a green roof. By doing this, the museum dissolves into the landscape but is still recognizable by the particular geometry and manifests itself in the landscape. As it is in their nature, Studio Marco Vermeulen proposed to do not only the museum but the entire island. Because the direct surroundings is protected land and prohibited to set foot on, they made it possible to create a viewpoint on the roof of the museum which helps the visitor to experience the area more clearly. On the other side of the road on the island, a parking space was designed and the rest of the island is used to make the visitor understand how this tidal area works. A freshwater tidal park was designed that is in essence a small scale tidal area. When the rivers exceed 2 meters above NAP, the tidal park becomes flooded. This controlled flooding is used as a children’s playground where the children can play with dams in order to control the water flow.2.2

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. Vermeulen, H (02-03-2016) Constructing Architecture course Size Matters. Auditorium 6, Technical University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2.1

Marcovermeulen.eu. (2016). BIESBOSCH MUSEUMEILAND. [online] Available at: http://marcovermeulen. eu/projecten/se/130/ biesboschmuseumeiland/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. 2.2


Fig: 2.2.1:

Design sketch one, former museum used to have a closed character standing on top of the ground. With the new museum, the building forms a unity with the surroundings as the landscape flows fluently over the building. The roof now becomes a viewpoint. Source: Own drawing

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Fig: 2.2.2:

Fig: 2.2.3:

Isometric view of the former building form. The strong hexagon roofs are clearly visible

Studio Marco Vermeulen believed that the most negative aspect of the former building was that the building is very introvert. There are barely any windows in the exterior walls and this was considered as a pity considering the surroundings are considered beautiful and because the exhibition is especially about the surrounding landscape

Source: Own drawing

Source: Own drawing

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Fig: 2.2.4:

Therefore, Studio Marco Vermeulen designed an extension next to the existing structure in order to preserve and improve the structuralist architecture. This extension would open up towards the landscape, making the visitors connect to it right after the exhibition is ended.

In order to get a closer relation with the landscape, it was decided that the building should dissolve in it. This was done by making a smooth transition from ground level to the pyramid roof, completely covering it with grass Fig: 2.2.5:

Source: Own drawing Source: Own drawing

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2.3 Building structure The building structure is comprehensible and visible. The choice of using the existing hexagons of the former museum helped a lot in giving the building a dominant structure. Because of it, the roof looks like pyramids which have become an icon for the Biesbosch Museum. The new extension differs in does not follow the same shape but because of the green roof it seems like the building is placed under ground. The new extension are slabs that seem to be pushed upwards in order to open the building towards the landscape. Here it becomes clear that the existing structure, which had an introvert appeal, maintained and the extension shows the essence of the design: opening the museum towards and create an extrovert character. The permanent exhibition space houses itself under the pyramids because the exhibition space only required artificial light. The route through this exhibition is quite clear, moving through each hexagon and finally ends in the new extension. When the door is opened that ends the exhibition, the visitor is immediately confronted with the landscape.2.1

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. Vermeulen, H (02-03-2016) Constructing Architecture course Size Matters. Auditorium 6, Technical University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2.1


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1

Reception & entrance hall

2

Cinema room

3

Restrooms

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Exhibition space

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Temporary gallery space

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Meeting room

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Sitting area

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Restaurant

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Outside terrace

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Offices

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Stairs to rooftop and viewpoint

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Viewpoint

10

4 4 4

2

4 3

1

5

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8 7

9 Figure 2.3.1: Source: Own drawing

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2.4 Construction system The construction system is a continuation on the former construction. The existing steel structure has been maintained and the new parts of the building are also made with a steel construction. The construction system and its joints is not conventional and straight forward because the roof of the new part of the building contains many slabs with different angles. Some steel beams with long span widths and different angles coming together results in some interesting corners. The longest span width in the building is that of a beam that holds the roof of the extension. It is placed on an angle above the new restaurant area and ends in a corner of two curtain walls coming together. 2.1 In classifying the type of construction, a distinction can be made between the curtain wall facades and the facades/roofs that are cladded with earth and grass. Filigree constructions consists out of a structure of slender members, assembled to form a spatial matrix. The framework of this filigree construction contains voids and in order to protect the inside from the outside, the framework has to be ‘clothed’. Meaning that a filigree construction always contains, at least, a constructive and protective layer. The solid construction consists out of stereotomics and has a heavy and compact character. The earthwork-like material used in order to build a solid construction is loadbearing and also protects the interior at the same time. In contrast to a filigree construction, there is no structural hierarchy. At the Biesbosch Museum, the type of construction differs from the supposed expression it gives. Because the earth with grass covers the buildings, it seems like the museum is placed underground. This would mean that it contains a solid construction as everything is considered as loadbearing. However, the building is made with a steel structure. This points to the fact that the building is made with a filigree construction as it has different layers for construction, insulation and protection (figure 2.4.1).2.3 In order to understand the construction, a sketchup model has been made based on images of the construction. This model will be shown on the next pages, zooming in on multiple joints.

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. Vermeulen, H (02-03-2016) Constructing Architecture course Size Matters. Auditorium 6, Technical University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2.1

Deplazes, A. (2005). Constructing architecture. 3rd ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp.13, 14, 191, 192. 2.3


L/I = P Steel frame with window frame

L/I = P Steel frame with window frame

L/I = P Insulation mould, concrete floor

Load bearing layer (L) Insulating layer (I) Protective layer (P) Fig: 2.4.1:

Section of building according to diagrams of deplazes

Source: Deplazes, A. (2005). Constructing architecture. 3rd ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp.13, 14, 191, 192.

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L/I/P Steel frame, insulation, grass, earth, peat

L/I=P Steel frame with curtain wall


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2.5 Material-use Like previously stated, Studio Marco Vermeulen always tries to use local elements and materials from the direct environment in their buildings in some way or another. The Biesbosch Museum found many resources in the area: through a willow filter the sanitary wastewater can be reused as the willows absorb the substances and uses it as nutrients. This allows the willows to grow rapidly and the purified water is being released into the connecting river. When the willows have reached their maximum height, they are sawn and dried. The biomass stove that is operating during winter obtains its energy from burning the wood that is received from the willow filter. In summer, a low temperature system is used which exchanges coolness with the river.2.1 The main construction is made out of steel and the exterior walls and roofs are covered in large insulation blocks which is used as filling to create the hilly landscape. These blocks are then covered by peat, earth and grass. These come in small bags and are placed on the roof. The bags will dissolve in 5 to 10 years where subsequently the roots of the grass will connect itself to each other and the roof and come from the manufacturer Nittedal Torvinindustri AS in Norway. The entire cladding of the building is therefore a homogenised layer as the bond is inherent to the material.2 The curtain wall consists out of an aluminium frame and within it contains glass that has a heat resisting coating on it.2.2

52

. Vermeulen, H (02-03-2016) Constructing Architecture course Size Matters. Auditorium 6, Technical University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2.1

Marcovermeulen.eu. (2016). BIESBOSCH MUSEUMEILAND. [online] Available at: http:// marcovermeulen.eu/projecten/ se/130/biesboschmuseumeiland/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. 2.2

Deplazes, A. (2005). Constructing architecture. 3rd ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp.195-199 2.3


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1 2

1

Green roof with sand bags

2

Aluminum window frame

3

Gutters on roof between pyramids

4

Wooden beam floor with linoleum finishing

5

Metal-stud wall with gypsum fiber board

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Existing steel structure

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Hollow core slab with plastic seamless floor

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Interior pond

9

Glass with solar reflecting coating

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XPS blocks with grass finishing

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5 7 6 8 9 10

Figure 2.5.1: Source: Own image

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3 Understanding the building/Drawings This chapter attempts to fill in the gap between the tender phase drawings and the realised building. This is done by examining the building when it was visited and by closely examine all photographs made during the construction period. In total, 5 representative drawings of the museum are analysed and adjusted according to the findings found during the examination. The first detail per sub-chapter that is shown is a detail we received from Studio Marco Vermeulen and redrawn so that the detail is up to our standard concerning drawing principles. Therefore, all drawings that are shown are our own work.

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3.4 3.5.1

3.5.2

3.3

3.2

3.1

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3.1 Detail 1, foundation The first drawing that will be explained is the joint of the ground floor with the curtain wall. The detail on the right is the detail we received from the architect. This tender-phase drawing is made of the connection between the glass door in the curtain wall and the ground floor. The detail we thought is more interesting is the detail of the curtain wall connected with the ground floor, without a glass door. This section is more representative for the building as it is applied in multiple areas of the extension. By using images and this detail, the process will be shown on how we came up with the new detail.

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Fig: 3.01:

In the tender-drawings, the foundation did not have an insulation mold around them. When looking at images of the foundation during construction, we see that they were cast in an insulation mold On this image, it is clearly shown that this is the foundation of the new extension. The mold used is the IsoBouw PowerKist. It is made out of EPS and is at the same time insulating. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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PowerKist funderingsbekisting | IsoBouw: isolatie. (2017). Isobouw.nl. Retrieved 25 January 2017, from http://www.isobouw. nl/nl/producten/fundering/powerkist-funderingsbekisting/

Fig: 3.02:

Judging from the width of the foundation in relation to the size of the bucket (standard diameter of around 300 mm) and the tool box, it was estimated that the width of the foundation increased during construction. To illustrate this the foundation in the new details has a width of 450 mm (was 350 mm). Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Emmer 12,7 liter diameter 293mm (8126) kopen - Weststrate. (2017). Weststrate.nl. Retrieved 31 January 2017, from https:// weststrate.nl/emmer-12-7-liter-diameter-293mm-8126


Fig:3.03:

Fig:3.04:

Contrary to the tender-phase details, foundation piles were used during construction of the foundation. These piles are square, and an estimated 350 mm in width.

On the positions where the steel columns will be placed, steel reinforcement is situated on top of the foundation. This concrete base is poured in a later stadium.

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig: 3.05:

Fig: 3.06:

Subsequently, the hollow core slabs are being placed. Along the edge, holes are made where the concrete base for the steel columns will be placed.

Straight after the placing of the hollow core slab, a pressure floor with reinforcement is poured. The openings that are made for the concrete base are also poured in concrete.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.07:

The concrete bases are clearly visible here. The dimensions of the steel column are consistent between the drawings and realization. However, the thickness of the steel is unclear as it is now expressed in the drawings and not possible to measure it afterwards. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig: 3.08:

Fig: 3.09:

Afterwards, the glass is being placed. How the frame of the curtain wall was connected with the floor was a puzzle. There were no drawings of this detail. The only thing we could gain information from was this image. Between the frame and concrete floor, a wooden slat is seen that is connected to the floor with an angle iron.

This is the entire image of the previous image. At this moment they are working on the placing of the glass.

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Image: van Beek, P. (2016).


Fig:3.10:

The glass in the curtain wall (COOL-LITE XTREME 60/28) is in total 60mm thick and blocks heats from the outside. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335 SGG COOL-LITEÂŽ XTREME 60/28 | Saint-Gobain Glass Netherlands. (2017). Nl.saint-gobain-glass.com. Retrieved 25 January 2017, from http:// nl.saint-gobain-glass.com/product/2323/sgg-cool-lite%C2%AE-xtreme6028#tabs-1

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Fig: 3.11:

Fig: 3.12:

In this detail there is still a protective covering and rigid insulation plate present, however because the current detail is taken at a different, the way this is detailed is also different. The reason why we believe that this element is still present and why an aluminium profile covers the top of it, is due to 2 images. The first image shows the aluminium cover profile that comes from underneath the curtain wall frame which is then placed over something.

The second image shows the surface underneath the curtain wall. First this surface was bare concrete, after the glass was installed, a new surface was put against it. It would be logical to add a surface that is both protective from the ground but also contains an insulating factor as the surface behind it is poured concrete. Therefore, protective covering and rigid insulation would seem the logical choice.

Image: own image.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig: 3.13:

Because the concrete floor on the outside barely has any edges, it could be that it is poured in one go. This could also explain the piece of plastic between the concrete floor and the curtain wall. Image: own image.

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Fig: 3.14:

Fig: 3.15:

The floor is finished with a screed floor, on top of the screed, a plastic seamless floor is placed. The top of the final layer has the same height as that of the curtain wall frame. Also, convectors are placed in front of the curtain wall.

Obviously, these convectors also need to be cleaned. On our arrival we experienced the cleaning of these convectors (and how difficult it was to reach the difficult spots). Image: own image.

Image: own image.

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Fig:3.16:

The smoothness of the plastic seamless floor is clearly visible on this image. The bottom frame of the curtain wall completely flush with it. Image: own image.

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3.2 Detail 2, foundation - green slope Continuing to the riverside of the building the effect of the green slope on the curtain wall will be examined. The drawing on the right is the detail we received form Studio Marco Vermeulen. The following pages will again illustrate the process of how this tenderphase detail was translated on site.

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Fig:3.17:

Fig:3.18:

The images on these two pages give a quick recap of the build-up of the foundation and first floor. As can be seen, the connection between floor and foundation is the same as in the previous detail (with the exception of the section of the floor, which now doesn’t show the tubular voids).

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.19:

New on this side of the curtain wall, is the small L-profile running the length of the facade, contouring the shape of the green slope. This probably has two functions, the first is contouring the shape, the second is to bear some of the weight of the curtain wall. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.20:

The above image shows the plywood covering the exterior of the building, although this image shows the other side of the building, it can be reasonably assumed that this method was used on a sides. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.21:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.22:

Fig:3.23:

The above image shows a part of the wooden frame viewed from the interior. Further to the right the frame is already closed; the vapor barrier can be seen protruding above the plywood.

This image shows a fragment of the battening covering the side of the hollow-core floor. Presumably, this battening was filled with insulation to avoid a thermal bridge.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.24:

Fig:3.25:

This image clearly shows the ridge of the battening, elaborated on the previous pages, running the entire length of the facade.

The images on this page show the covering used to make the wooden frame water proof, and the curtain wall without the covering caps used to close off the mullions. Interestingly, there appears to be a ledge, used to attach some sort of root barrier (not roof covering, because it looks different). this leads to an interesting connection between wooden frame and curtain wall. The separate sheet overlapping the roof covering was probably used to be able to replace the covering in the future, since you can simply fold over the sheet and reach the top of the covering. Although the process of replacing the roof covering would still be rather elaborate, since it’s covered with (a lot of) soil.

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.26:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.27:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.28:

These images show the wooden frame covered with gypsum board. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.29:

The above image shows the window sill as seen in the finished building today. Presumably, the windows sill is attached with counter-sunk screws, finished with a filler and painted white. Image: own image.

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Fig:3.30:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

Fig:3.31:

The above images show the build-up of the green slope. As can be seen, the majority of the slope is made with EPS-blocks. Two different thicknesses are used, presumably 200 mm and 100 mm. The thickest blocks are used close to the exterior wall, to build the slope. The thinner ones are used to better shape the roof, and supposedly to anchor the peat bags used to make the green roof. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.32:

This image shows the peat bags stacked on the roof. Note that the bags are stacked horizontally rather then vertically. Once the bags are positioned on the slope, a thin layer of soil is spread over them. Image: Nittedal Torvindustri A.S (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/nittedaltorvindustri/ photos/?ref=page_internal

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3.3 Detail 3, Curtain wall - green roof With the two bottom details of the curtain wall clear, we’ll now proceed to the top part of the curtain wall, the connection between roof and facade. Interesting about the detail to the right is the way the vertical part of the green roof is supported, with an L-profile, apparently suggesting that the soil doesn’t need any anchoring to prevent it from fall off. The following pages will again illustrate the process of how this tender-phase detail was translated on site.

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Fig:3.33:

Fig:3.34:

The above image shows the building order of the steel structure. Interestingly the two girders are not connected directly to the corner column, they are separately attached to the diagonal girder resting on the column.

This image shows the square tube steel spanning between the IPEbeam and the HE140A. Interestingly the tube is bolted to the IPEbeam, and welded to the HE140A. It is unclear why this was done in this fashion, or whether the tube was welded to the HE140A on site or off. Also visible in this image is the UNP-beam spanning along the exterior of the columns. This was changed from an L-profile, probably to better anchor the green roof and to function as a gutter.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.35:

This image shows the way the girder (HE500A, presumably) is attached to the column. The girder is bolted to the column, which consequently has a protruding head plate. The girder in turn has two vertical steel plate running the height of the beam, presumably to make the beam more stable. Supposedly the HE500A beam shown on the image is smaller than the one shown on the tender-phase detail (HE550A), this was discovered while drawing the angle of the beam.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.36:

Fig:3.37:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: Vermeulen, M. (2016). Size matters. Lecture, Eindhoven University of Technology.

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Fig:3.38:

The images on these two pages show the prefab sandwhich-panels used to close of the majority of the roof, only the very steep parts are not covered. Notice the vapor barrier protruding from under the panels. This is later used to make a proper transition between the vapor sheet of the parts covering the steep roof. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.39:

Fig:3.40:

This image shows the panels covering the steep parts of the roof. Note the thin sheet of plywood covering parts of the UNP-beam.

Here the interior of the panels is visible. These panels are fabricated on site, this is evident by the gaps between the panels, and by the still uncovered part of the roof shown on the image on the next page.

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.41:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.42:

Fig:3.43:

Above the construction of the dropped-ceiling is shown, interestingly the supporting structure, from which they are hung from the ceiling is slanted. This is also visible on the next image.

The circular openings in the ceiling, for the lights, are reinforced by a sheet of plywood. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.44:

The above image shows the rockwool insulation used in the dropped ceiling. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.45:

The follow images show the positioning of the peat bags on the roof. Note that they are again positioned horizontally, rather then vertically. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.46:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.47:

The above image shows the method with which the bags are anchored to the roof. Presumably some sort of geotextile is used to fasten the bags to the roof. The textile is probably attached to the thin sheet of plywood positioned over the UNP. On top of the roof the geotextile is probably folded under a row of bags, thereby anchored by their own weight. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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3.4 Detail 4, river flat roof Another characteristic part of the Biesbosch Museum is the small river on the flat roof, between the pyramids; illustrated on the next page. The following pages will illustrate the how this tender-phase detail was translated to practise.

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Fig:3.48:

Fig:3.49:

The above image shows the structure of the existing structure of the building (as specified on the tender drawing). This structure was used a base for the refurbishment.

Oddly enough, the small columns positioned on the IPE-beam come in two types, square tubes and HEA (or HEB?) beams. It is unclear what the reason for this might be.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.50:

This image shows the existing X-bracing between the pyramids of the building. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.51:

Interestingly the green sandwhich-panels shown on this series of images appears to be leftover from the previous building. In the above image the green colour of the panels is clearly visible. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.52:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.53:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.54:

Fig:3.55:

This image illustrates the build-up of the flat roof between the pyramids. The new wooden beams used for the roof are bolted, via a wooden beam to, an existing L-profile. It is unclear why this was fabricated on site, instead of off site. This probably has something to do with the amount of tolerance required for prefab panels, or perhaps it was the preference of the contractor

Flax insulation was used to fill the cavities between the wooden beams of the flat roof, this was also specified in the tender-phase drawings.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.56:

The top of the beams is closed off with a sheet of plywood. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.57:

Fig:3.58:

These images show the process of applying roof covering to the roof. It is unclear whether the roof membrane is torched (as specified in the tender drawings) or glued, in the new detailed the assumption is made that the attachment method remained the same.

This image shows the wooden beams and insulation used to create the shape for the roof river.

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Image: van Beek, P. (2016).


Fig:3.59:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.60:

Fig:3.61:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.62:

Some parts of the roof have battens and counter-battens to better anchor the peat bags to the roof. According to the manufacturer: “Nittedal Torvindustri A.S� the bags need to be anchored with a light frame if the angle of the roof is greater than 30o. Interestingly these bags are positioned vertically rather than horizontally, as seen on the rest of the roof.

Leggeanvisning. (2017). Nittedal-torvindustri.no. Retrieved 25 January 2017, from http://www.nittedal-torvindustri.no/torvtak-med-tilbehor/ leggeanvisning

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.63:

Fig:3.64:

These images clearly show the build-up of the partition walls of the museum: metal stud walls.

The tender drawings specified that the metal stud walls would be reinforced with plywood. The presence of plywood in the above image indicates that it was indeed used in the construction fo the walls. This is probably to be flexible in the positioning of exposition props.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.65:

The above images show the build-up of the interior structure of the pyramids. Derived from the silver finish of the ceiling, the interior of the existing roof panels was probably insulated with blankets of glass wool. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/ Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Fig:3.66:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/ Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.67:

The following two images show un-rendered images of the offices on the second floor of the museum. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.68:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.69:

Sadly, there wasn’t an option to view the interior of the offices of the museum. However, the above image gives an indication of what they might look like. Image: own image.

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Fig:3.70:

Fig:3.71:

Image: own image.

Image: own image.

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Fig:3.72:

These images give an impression of what the roof looks like covered with grass. The above image shows the river on the roof. Contrary to the tenderphase detail, the finished detail shows no sign of an aluminium gutter. Image: own image.

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3.5 Detail 5, top pyramid window The last detail examined will be the top part of the pyramid window. This paragraph consists of two detail, the first one illustrates a perpendicular section of the ridge of the roof. The second detail show the translation of the detail shown on the next page. This sequence was chosen to more easily understand the build-up of the roof; how all parts come together. The final look of the detail is quite different form the one that is shown here, made during the tender-phase.

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Fig:3.73:

Fig:3.74:

The above images show the new steel structure of the windows. The connection between the side beams and the ridge beam is quite interesting, a sketch on the next page illustrates this connection.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.75:

This sketch shows the connection between the three new beams of the pyramid roofs. The two diagonal beams are bolted to the ridge beams via head plates. The ridge beam consequently also has two steel plats attached on either side. These plates are longer than the HEA beam itself, the plates are supported by a steel plate perpendicular to the direction of the beam. Image: own sketch.

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Fig:3.76:

The images on this page show the attachment method of the rafters of the roof. Thin steel plates are welded to the ridge beam. Subsequently short wooden joists are bolted to them, after which the rafters are screwed to the joists. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.77:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.78:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.79:

Fig:3.80:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.81:

This series of images illustrates the rafter construction of the new roof sections of the pyramids. It should be noted that these roofs are also constructed on site, rather than off site. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.82:

Fig:3.83:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.84:

These images show that the roof covering is attached to the roof before the interior of the wooden frame is closed off. Again, It is unclear whether the roof membrane is torched (as specified in the tender drawings) or glued, in the new detailed the assumption is made that the attachment method remained the same. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.85:

Fig:3.86:

This series of images show the build-up of the green roof and the expression of the windows. Here again, the bags are positioned horizontally.

Image: own image.

Image: Nittedal Torvindustri A.S (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/ pg/nittedaltorvindustri/photos/?ref=page_internal

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Fig:3.87:

Image: Boswachtersblog.nl,. (2017). Biesbosch Museum roof. Retrieved from https://www.boswachtersblog.nl/buitenplaatsen/wp-content/uploads/ sites/16/2015/11/shire.jpg

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Fig:3.88:

Fig:3.89:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.90:

These images give a recap of the interior of the offices. The lowered part in the ridge of the ceiling seems to be way broader in the image then just the width of the HEA-beam used in the structure of the roof. Therefore, supposedly a metal stud structure is used, probably to incorporate electrical wiring. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.91:

These images give a recap of the method used for attaching the rafters to the steel structure; small wooden joist are bolted to thin steel plates, which are welded to the ridge beam. Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.92:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.93:

Image: van Beek, P. (2016).

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Fig:3.94:

Fig:3.95:

A series of square tubes is attached to the diagonal steel beams. These tubes are used to support the aluminium window frame and the peat bags on top of roof.

This image, and the sketch on the next page, show the different parts of the tube battening. The tubes are bolted to the diagonal roof beams (through the large plate). The two sets of smaller steel plates are used to attach plywood, or some other material to close off the battening. The tubes are welded to the square tube running the length of the battening.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335


Fig:3.96:

Image: own sketch.

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Fig:3.97:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.98:

This image shows that the steel battening and the short side of the roof panels are closed off with plywood, fastened by a steel corner. Image: van Beek, P. (2016).


Fig:3.99:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.100:

Fig:3.101:

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.102:

The above image shows the construction order of the windows: first the window frames are attached to the structure, after which a aluminium corner is attached to cover the top of the window frame, finally the roof covering is folded over the aluminium corner. By doing it this way, water running down from the roof doesn’t seep through the connection between window frame and building. Image: Biesbosch Museum without green roof. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.zndnedicom.nl/project/biesbosch-museumeiland-werkendam/

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Fig:3.103:

Fig:3.104:

This series of images show the finished expression of the green roof. Not that the peat bags are again positioned horizontally.

Image: own image.

Image: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig:3.105:

Image: own image.

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4 3D-detail In this chapter the 3D detail is explained through a built order comic. This comic distincts all separate construction components and through short explanations each element is clearly understandable. The 3D detail concerns two separate 2D details which together appear in the museum. This 3D detail formed the bases for the making of the 1 to 1 model. Although the phasing is derived from images retrieved from actual construction pictures, the phasing can differ from reality. This is caused by the fact that components are installed simultaneously instead of different phases. In order to determine the detail to make we visited the Museum. On site we were able to make close-up pictures from every detail of the building. The people working at the museum were very helpful in providing information and some interesting details about the building. The most striking feature of the museum was the pathway located on the roof. Since we already prepared some detail locations to look at, our short list consisted of two details. The first characteristic detail of the museum is the upper corner joint of the new wing on the west side of the museum. An interesting connection where several structural beams and different angled curtain walls forms a complex knot with the green roof. At the hand of some sketches we determined on site if we were able to make this detail. Although these sketches did not make it evident we were not capable of making this detail we kept looking for another detail. While walking down the pathway on the roof we saw the small streams leading towards the waterfall. There we found another interesting joint. This connection consisted out of a triangular window frame, the stream providing drainage and the green roof. On this location the green roof flows over from the flat roof into the slanted hexagonal volumes. Again some sketches provided the necessary evidence that this detail was suitable for the one-to-one detail. Back at the workshop both details were drawn by hand and eventually when pictures of the actual construction reached us, the details were drawn digitally. While engineering the making of the detail it became clear that the upper corner of the new wing was not that documented compared to the triangular window frame connection. Here is why we chose to make the triangular frame with the ongoing green roof. One of the most important aspects of this detail is the contrast between the natural outside and the sterile interior atmosphere. This is something we wanted to incorporate with the making and show in the final model of this 1 to 1 detail.

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Phase 1 After stripping down the former facade and roofing of the museum, the renovation could start. The structure of the museum is nearly untouched. The hexagonal structural grid was conserved and an additional wing on the right side of the museum was introduced. This 3D detail starts therefore, with a visible structure and the ceiling timber frame of the flat sections of the museum. Phase 2 After mounting the fibre glass insulation materials,

the timber

frame on the bottom of the steel I-beam is fixated onto the steel structure. This timber-frame is eventually providing the necessary points of fixation of the plaster boards and composite boarding. Furthermore this frames provides stability to frames which will follow in the following phases.

Fig: 4.01: Phase 1; original structure Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

Fig: 4.02: Phase 2; insulating original structure and fixation of timber frame. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

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Phase 3 A new insulated timber frame is installed on the front of the structural steel tube. A plywood board on top of the ceiling timber frame ensures that the parapet can be installed. This frame of rigid wooden beams is fixated onto the underlying wooden frame. Another wooden beam forms the water reservoir leading towards the waterfall. Phase 4 After mounting the insulation materials in the timber frames around the steel structure and both the parapet the next phase is finalized.

Fig: 4.03: Phase 3; installation of parapet and water bassin Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

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Fig: 4.04: Phase 4; insulating new framing Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.


Phase 5 In this phase several components arrive on the construction site. The metal stud wall is installed. This element is insulated and contains a water-repellent foil which starts at the bottom of the metal stud wall and ends approximately on the half on the inside of the parapet. Furthermore, a composite boarding is installed around the timber frame onto the steel structure. On top of this composite board a plaster board is fixated. Phase 6 The next step in the construction process is the roof timber frame. This timber frame is installed on top of the structural frame and is constructed out of wooden beams.

Fig: 4.05: Phase 5; placing rigid insulation, interior walling, frame insulation and finishing. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

Fig: 4.06: Phase 6; roof timber frame Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

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Phase 7 The roof timber frame is then insulated. This fibre glass insulation also provides insulation to the structural frame. Phase 8 Plywood sheets are placed on top of the roof timber frame and the buildings is finalized in order to install the water repellent roofing seen in phase 9. The window sill is installed onto the metal stud wall and the parapet wooden frame.

Fig: 4.07: Phase 7; insulating roof and providing vapor foil. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

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Fig: 4.08: Phase 8; roof boarding. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.


Phase 9 In this stage of construction the roof is provided with a thin layer of insulation foil. This layer contains 2 layers of APP root resistant bituminous roof membrane and is fully torched. Phase 10 In Phase 10 the aluminium window frame is installed. This prefabricated frame is fixated onto the timber frame connected to the steel tube frame. On the bottom the aluminium frame is fixated onto the timber frame beneath the window sill.

Fig: 4.09: Phase 9; installation of roof membrane. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

Fig: 4.10: Phase 10; installing aluminium window frame. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

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Phase 11 The battening is mounted on top of the roof frame. This battening prevents the peat bags from slipping of the slanted roofs. Special attention is required to the direction of the battening. The peat bags with sown grass is not able to fully accommodate all water fallen on top of the roof which causes water to penetrate this peat mass. In order to transport the rainwater the direction of the lower battening should be placed parallel to the angled roof. Phase 12 The construction of the museum is nearly finished. The roofing peat bags are placed onto the battening. These bags are made of biodegradable material which causes it to slowly fade away.

Fig: 4.11: Phase 11; battening roof and slanted facade. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

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Fig: 4.12: Phase 12; fixating peat bags and leveling with potting soil Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.


Phase 13 After the installation of the roofing peat bags, the grasses are sown. Spaces between the different peat bags are filled with fertile soil and then heavily sprinkled. After some rains the drainage system will eventually fill up. These small streams will lead towards the waterfall on the east side of the museum. On the right picture, the detail reproduced on scale one to one is shown.

Fig: 4.13: Phase 13; seeding grasses. Software used: Google Sketchup Pro 2016 and Visualizer render plug-in.

Fig: 4.14: Actual detail of 3d model Photo by: Own image

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5 Making of the model In this chapter, the making of the model will be explained. During this period, we gained knowledge from using real materials and how they should be applied. But not only what it can be used for, we also had to cope with the choice in different types of materials that can be used for the same purpose. Also, understanding how much a certain material costs can also be important knowledge in the design process. The making of the model has been shown chronologically, whereby now and then references are made to images the Biesbosch Museum when the making of the same element or part can be compared.

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Fig 5.01: The red area illustrated our base plate of our design. This plate of underlayment is supported by wooden beams. This plate with the wooden beams form the base plate of our model. Source: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Fig 5.02: To express a realistic part of the building, it is important that a minimum amount of materials are used that might interfere with the realistic look. Therefore, the base-plate of the model is made in plywood as it is the bottom layer that goes underneath the wooden beams of the roof to support the ceiling. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.03: Before the wooden beams were fastened, the vapor barrier also had to be assembled and showed. This was done by taping it along the edge whereby the insulation would later cover the other side of it.

Fig 5.04: Subsequently, the wooden beams were fastened by using angle irons on both sides. Next, insulation had to be placed. For this we used rockwool plates of 70mm thick. They are sliced in parts in order to fit properly on the position where it is shown.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.05: Just like what should happen in reality, gaps between two rockwool plates are not positioned on the same place to avoid a thermal bridge through two layers.

Fig 5.06: After some itching and scratching, the insulation layer was placed properly and positioned correctly. Here, the plywood base plate, vapor barrier, rockwool layer and wooden beams are clearly shown.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.07: To place the upper layer of plywood, a line has been drawn on top of the wooden beam to make sure that the screws would go in the correct position.

Fig 5.08: Here, it is visible that the insulation layer is less thick than the height of the wooden beam which creates a gap. This is intended because it is clearly exemplified in the drawings that were received from the architect.

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.09: The gap that is created due to the difference in height of the wooden beam and insulation Source: Own image


Fig 5.10: On top of the top layer, a wooden frame structure is placed that is placed to support the aluminum window frame.

Fig 5.11: This wooden frame is covered on both sides by plywood and has a total height of 322mm.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.12: Like the drawings, longer screws were applied that assembled the wooden frame to one element.

Fig 5.13: Between the wooden element and the inner plywood layer, a vapor barrier is applied. To illustrate this, a plastic bag has been placed around all edges of the plywood plate.

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Fig 5.14: The wooden element was screwed on the right position first. Screws connected the element to the large wooden beams under the top horizontal plywood layer on this image.

Fig 5.15: Then, the thin plywood layer was assembled against the wooden element.

Fig 5.16: Like the roof element, the wooden frame element also contained insulation.

Fig 5.17: Finally, the top beam was placed on top, completing the wooden element and its infill.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.18: Even though this image of the construction period is not on the right location as the where the model is made of, it does show the wooden beam that is placed between the rigid insulation, which holds the sandbags, and the gutter (beam above right line). This beam is also shown in our model.

Fig 5.19: A wooden beam is placed in between a rigid insulation plate and the gutter of the roof. This is illustrated in our model. Source: Own image

Source: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig 5.20: Because we had no screws that were long enough to go through the entire beam and we had no angle irons, the screws were placed on an angle from both sides. Even though this is not the correct way, the screws would not be in sight.

Fig 5.21: The support of the sandbags is rigid insulation that has the same height of the wooden beam between the insulation and the gutter: 92mm. One plate is bought and sliced into pieces to make sure that the visible sides are neatly cut.

Fig 5.22: Finally, the empty areas were filled up with foam plates of the proper height. These areas had to be filled up because the sandbags on top of it would otherwise bend inside these holes. Source: Own image

Source: Own image Source: Own image

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Fig 5.23: A metal-stud frame is positioned on top of the floor and stops underneath the windowsill. Because the floor is not located on this model as it is situated lower, the bottom plywood plate had been extended in order to support the metal-stud frame. This part of the plate has been painted grey to illustrate that this is not there in reality.

Fig 5.24: Subsequently, plasterboard was placed against the metal-stud frame. Source: Own image

Fig 5.25: Metal-stud frame with plasterboard. The wooden block that supports the metal-stud frame is clearly visible here. Normally, another horizontal metal stud beam should be placed on the bottom but this model does not show the real bottom.

Source: Own image Source: Own image

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Fig 5.26: Finally, rockwool was pushed inside of the frame. Because we only had rockwool of 70mm and the frame had a width of 50mm, 20mm of the thickness of the wool had to be sliced of.


Fig 5.27: Underneath the sand bags a bitumen layer had to be placed. For this we used a waterproof plastic layer that was stapled against the plywood and rigid insulation. Source: Own image

Fig 5.28: The reason why it had to be waterproof in the model is because we wanted to illustrate the gutter by adding gravel and a small layer of water. Source: Own image

Fig 5.29: To place a translucent layer on the edges of the model where the water would be seen, additional supportive elements had to be placed. This was done with MDF of 9mm thick. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.30: The MDF supportive elements would be in sight, therefore it has been painted black to make sure the color is coherent with the black waterproof layer.

Fig 5.31: The waterproof layer is glued on the plywood and the edges with mounting glue to create a smooth surface.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.32: For every step, different glue was needed to make it completely waterproof. By precisely cutting the waterproof layer, perspex glass could be placed on the edges of the model.

Fig 5.33: With another kind of glue, perspex was placed into place.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Fig 5.34: To connect both perspex surfaces, Acrfix glue was used to make the connections as strong as possible. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.35: Connection of perspex with wooden beam

Fig 5.36: Connection of perspex plates in corner

Fig 5.37: When the perspex plates were placed, all edges eventually had to be covered with translucent kit

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Source: Own image


Fig 5.38: A lot of steel elements were used for the roof. To lower the weight and costs of the model, MDF was used to resemble steel which would be painted later.

Fig 5.39: Rectangular steel tubes were made out of MDF

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.35: When first glued, it does not look like a steel shape yet due to the rough edges.

Fig 5.36: By using the sanding machine, the sharp edges are sanded into curved edges.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Fig 5.37: The rectangular steel tubes form a steel framework which support the window frame and the sand bags that are placed on top of it. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.38: Angle irons were also made in MDF. Source: Own image

Fig 5.39: This angle iron covers the top of the window frame and the bitumen layer of the roof above it. Source: Own image

Fig 5.40: Steel plates are ‘welded’ against the tubes. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.41: The largest steel element visible of our model is a HEA120 beam. This beam is assembled with 3 MDF plates of +- 750mm long.

Fig 5.42: It was important to create the right proportions of the flange and web thickness.

Fig 5.43: For this, a MDF plate of 9mm has been used for the flanges and a thickness of 6mm has been used for the web.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.44: After assembling all elements separately, the elements were positioned as it would be in reality to make sure that no element was forgotten.

Fig 5.45: A part of the elements of figure 6.44 are seen in this photo. The I-beam and the steel tubes that form a supportive framework are visiblie on this photo.

Source: Own image

Source: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig 5.46: The edges of the I-beam are covered with kit to make the edges more curved. This is done in order to make the beam look more realistic.

Fig 5.47: When the kit was dried up, the entire element was colored in gray paint that is mixed with clear varnish

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.48: This is the end result of the steel I-beam and tubes.

Fig 5.49: Real bolts were used to connect the separate elements together and to create a realistic look.

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Fig 5.50: The small wooden frame above the window frame that is attached to the steel tubes is assembled by using angle irons of 40x40mm.

Fig 5.51: When the wooden frame was assembled. Long bolts of 120mm wide were used to screw the steel tubes to the wooden window frame. As shown in the 2D-detail, this is like it has been done in reality.

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Fig 5.52: The wooden window frame, steel tubes and I beam are assembled together.

Fig 5.53: Bolts are also used for the assembly of the I-beam and the steel tubes. Source: Own image

Fig 5.54: Finally, the roof part is assembled in total. The only difference with the final result is that the wooden laths and the multiplex place is placed on an angle and the entire roof element had to be cut correctly for the model. This is the reason why it first had to be assembled to make sure which element had to be cut on which angle. When this is known, the element will be dissembled and each object will to be cut separately.

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Fig 5.55: Another problem that we had to overcome was that the wheels could not carry the weight. Which was weird because each wheel should be able to carry 50kg. But there was no possibility that the model was weighing more than 200 kg. The reason why it could not carry the weight is probably because the wheels only have one attachment point. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.56: Therefore, new wheels were bought, not 4 but 6 in order to make sure it would not happen again.

Fig 5.57: To do this, the insulation layer had to be removed so the bolts can be screwed on the bottom plate.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image


Fig 5.58: Brown semi see-through curtains were bought that would resemble the sandbags.

Fig 5.59: The curtain wall was cut in the right dimensions of the sandbags and eventually attached to each other by using the sewing machine.

Fig 5.60: The industrial sewing machine available in the Vertigo workshop was used for this. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.61: Using the sewing machine.

Fig 5.62: When the fabric bags were finished they had to be filled with sandbags.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Fig 5.63: Before the sandbags were filled with potting soil. The potting soil bags were first placed in the fabric bags to see if this would work as it would avoid making a mess and the potting soil could be returned to the construction market. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.64: However, as seen on this image of the placing of the bags on the roof, the bags are also covered with dirt to even out the gaps that occur between the bags.

Fig 5.65: This image shows the bags between the slanted roof and the gutter. Although it is not the exact same position as that of our model because there is no window frame visible, it does show how they placed the bags next to the gutter.

Source: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

Source: Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/BiesboschMuseumEiland-459660584147151/photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335

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Fig 5.66: The sewed bags are filled with potting soil

Fig 5.67: The texture of the sewed bags have a similar texture as that of the sang bags in reality.

Source: Own image Source: Own image

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Fig 5.68: 3 bags are placed in their length to fill the area between the window frame and the gutter. Source: Own image


Fig 5.68: The bags are spread out evenly and curve slightly upwards underneath the window frame

Fig 5.69: Extra potting soil is placed over the entire area to make the look more realistic.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.70: The dimensions of the bags are used to cut out the artificial grass.

Fig 5.71: The artificial grass is bought from a specialized company that had some left-overs. It consists out of different layers with different colors of grass

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Fig 5.72: At the end, no grass is placed. This is done intentionally to show the bags underneath it. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.73: The grass is placed slightly over the edge of the gutter. This is also the case in reality

Fig 5.74: On the other side, the grass is placed with a curve until the bottom of the window frame.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.75: In the meantime, progress has been made with the roof. Rules and battens are now placed. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.76: Because the roof above the window frame is on an angle, small pieces of wood were sanded to create the same angle. Source: Own image


Fig 5.77: With this pieces of wood, the top part of the roof could be placed on an angle.

Fig 5.78: Just like in the detail, the batten in the corner of the two roof parts follows the same angle as that of the top part of the roof.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.79: Insulation is filled along the edges of the detail

Fig 5.80: To keep the top layer upright, short battens are placed in between the two layers of the roof to support the weight.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.81: Then, insulation covers this supportive construction.

Fig 5.82: Even though it might not be the case in reality, the gap next to the batten is also filled with insulation as the detail drawing suggests this.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.83: The window frame manufacturer Rollercate provided us with a gray aluminum window frame

Fig 5.84: The window frame was cut on the right angle Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.85: For the diagonal window frame, the bottom part was also cut on an angle.

Fig: 5.86: The wooden window frame, steel tubes and I beam are assembled together.

Source: Own image

Fig 5.87: Bolts are also used for the assembly of the I-beam and the steel tubes. Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.88: Using multiple hands, the window frames were kept in place as they were screwed together.

Fig 5.89: The finishing layer is now in progress, and the 1 to 1 model starts to resemble the looks that it has in reality.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.90: As for the inside, the plywood windowsill is painted white, and a small piece of wood keeps the diagonal window frame on the correct height.

Fig 5.91: A temporary construction is placed to keep the window frame in place. Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig: 5.92: To create an impressive section of the window frame, the window frame has been cut from two angles. One goes vertical, the other is aligned with the section of the roof

Fig 5.93: 2 perspex plates resemble glass plates.

Fig: 5.94: To keep the glass plates at a distance from each other and from the edges, small wooden slats are made and painted black.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.95: Window frame


Fig 5.96: When the window frame is finished, the roof was able to be placed on top of it with supportive column.

Fig: 5.97: Section of the roof together with the window frame sliced from two angles.

Fig 5.98: Front side of window frame with roof

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.99: A black painted piece of wood is placed underneath the slanted window frame. This is necessary to keep the frame on the proper eight. As for the inside aluminum lath, the top one is continuing until the windowsill in order to fill in the gap.

Fig 5.100: Putty is put into the wholes of the screws on the windowsill. Afterwards it is painted white once more. Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig: 5.101: Stucco is greased onto the plasterboard. depron foam plates of 5mm thick are placed which are painted afterwards to resemble stucco.

Fig 5.102: The plates are carefully placed next to each other to make sure that the gaps are as narrow as possible.

Source: Own image

Source: Own image

Fig 5.103: White paint is mixed with small grains in order to resemble stucco. Source: Own image

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Fig 5.104: The roof is also covered with sand bags. First we had to check if the roof element would be able to support sandbags with heavy potting ground in it.

Fig: 5.105: We also found out that the model was too wide for the elevator when the roof was attached. Therefore, we had to finish the model on the 5th floor.

Source: Own image Source: Own image

Fig: 5.106: Ultimately, the bags were placed 90 degrees than the position that they have in reality. This is because our model is a section of it. In reality, it could be possible because each bag is supported by the bag underneath it. This is not the case in the model. This is the reason why the bags had to be placed differently Source: Own image

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Fig: 5.107: The placing of the bags

Fig 5.108: To make sure the bags would not fall, a small rope connects the bags to the roof element

Source: Own image

Fig 5.109: Finally, the bags are in place Source: Own image

Source: Own image

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Fig 5.110: Grass is placed on the roof, the finishing touch

Fig: 5.111: Section of roof together with supportive element and windowsill

Fig: 5.112: Final model, cleaning up and gravel is added

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Source: Own image

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Fig: 5.113: Finishing the final model

Fig 5.114: Section of window sill

Fig 5.115: Cleaning up the final things.

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Source: Own image

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Images of final model

Fig 5.116:

Fig 5.117:

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Fig 5.118:

Fig 5.119:

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Fig 5.120:

Fig 5.121:

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Fig 5.1.22:

Fig 5.123:

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Fig 5.124:

Fig 5.125:

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Fig 5.126:

Fig 5.127:

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Fig 5.128: Source: Own image

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Fig 5.129: Source: Own image

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6 Group Evaluation / Conclusions When reflecting on the entire course. We believe that we investigated every aspect the Biesbosch Museum has to offer. Apart from it being an unique building, it is also a complex one. Something we underestimated at the start. Because the drawings we received from Studio Marco Vermeulen were in JPEG file, we were obliged to draw everything by ourselves. We soon discovered that these drawings, including details, were made in the tender phase which meant that a large gap existed between these drawings and reality. This gave us the opportunity to fill in the gap between these drawings and reality by visiting the building and photographs made during the construction phase. We are quite satisfied with the end result of the report. By drawing the construction and examining all representative details we were able to investigate the building in depth. Furthermore, after analysing the entire building from many different perspectives, it can be concluded that the design is very clear and fits well in their surroundings. However, it seems like that the shape of the building is not the most logical one, structurally speaking. While examining the construction, it seems like almost every joint of the construction is unique and that there is no structural logic applied in making the building. It could even be said that the contractor received the same drawings as we did for this assignment, and had to make the interior and exterior look exactly like it was drawn whereby there was no room to suggest the architect of alternatives in order to make the (steel) construction more simplified. For the model however, we encountered more difficulties. The first obstacle was that we were to ambitious. This lead to making a model with dimensions that barely fitted into the elevator in Vertigo. Apart from being ambitious, the large dimensions of the roof automatically lead to large dimensions necessary in the model in order to show a representative detail. This is also the reason why the bottom part is much larger than the roof part. While making the model, we found out that it would be to ambitious and way to expensive to make our initial idea for the model. After we discussed our issue with Jan, we continued on working on the roof, using half the surface than the bottom part. Another thing that is worth noticing, is the financial aspect of the model. In order to make a good, realistic model, real materials are often needed. This ultimately leads to spending a lot of money for it. Obviously this is also due to the fact that we were to ambitious with the size of it. Luckily we could spare some money by not doing the entire roof.

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Bibliography Literature

Vermeulen, H (02-03-2016) Constructing Architecture course Size Matters. Auditorium 6, Technical University of Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands Marcovermeulen.eu. (2016). BIESBOSCH MUSEUMEILAND. [online] Available at: http://marcovermeulen.eu/projecten/se/130/ biesboschmuseumeiland/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. Deplazes, A. (2005). Constructing architecture. 3rd ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp.13, 14, 191, 192. Deplazes, A. (2005). Constructing architecture. 3rd ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, pp.195-199

Figures

Marcovermeulen.eu. (2016). BIESBOSCH MUSEUMEILAND. [online] Available at: http://marcovermeulen.eu/projecten/se/130/ biesboschmuseumeiland/ [Accessed 5 Dec. 2016]. van der Waal, J. (21-11-2016). [email]. van Beek, P. (28-11-2016). [email]. PowerKist funderingsbekisting | IsoBouw: isolatie. (2017). Isobouw. nl. Retrieved 25 January 2017, from http://www.isobouw.nl/nl/ producten/fundering/powerkist-funderingsbekisting/ Biesbosch MuseumEiland (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook. com/pg/Biesbosch-MuseumEiland-459660584147151/ photos/?tab=album&album_id=467455410034335 Emmer 12,7 liter diameter 293mm (8126) kopen - Weststrate. (2017). Weststrate.nl. Retrieved 31 January 2017, from https:// weststrate.nl/emmer-12-7-liter-diameter-293mm-8126 SGG COOL-LITE® XTREME 60/28 | Saint-Gobain Glass Netherlands. (2017). Nl.saint-gobain-glass.com. Retrieved 25 January 2017, from http://nl.saint-gobain-glass.com/ product/2323/sgg-cool-lite%C2%AE-xtreme-6028#tabs-1 Nittedal Torvindustri A.S (2015) in facebook [company page] accessed 25 January 2017 on https://www.facebook.com/pg/ nittedaltorvindustri/photos/?ref=page_internal Image: Vermeulen, M. (2016). Size matters. Lecture, Eindhoven University of Technology. Leggeanvisning. (2017). Nittedal-torvindustri.no. Retrieved 25 January 2017, from http://www.nittedal-torvindustri.no/torvtakmed-tilbehor/leggeanvisning Boswachtersblog.nl,. (2017). Biesbosch Museum roof. Retrieved from https://www.boswachtersblog.nl/buitenplaatsen/wp-content/ uploads/sites/16/2015/11/shire.jpg 216


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