EBB & FLOW SCENARIOS FOR UP-CYCLING RECIPROCAL LANDSCAPES IN ÅRDAL NORWAY VOLUME II: DIPLOMA + NARRATIVE PATRYCJA PERKIEWICZ
Table of Contents
VOLUME II: DIPLOMA + NARRATIVE The Narrative 04-05 Vulnerable Årdal 06-07 Unfinished Canal 08-09 The Årdalstangen (Hi)Story 10-13 At the end of Årdalsvatn 14-19 Origins of Årdal’s Aluminium 20-21 The Flip-Side of Green and Clean in Norway 22-23 Aluminium Landscapes transformations 24-35 The Closure of the Industry 36-37 Energy that transformed Årdal 38-39 Flip sides of the coin, Årdal with a population og 10.000 or 0 40-41 New Grids, New Programs, New Identities 42-43 Transforming Øvre Årdal 44-51 The Re-Introduction of Old Industries through the use 52-59 of New Technologies in order to create New Economies Årdal Reclaimed by the Nature 60-67 BIBLIOGRAPHY
The project examines a possible evolution of the territories in Årdal, by creating scenarios for the potentials and possible consequences of a growing and declining settlement. In both cases, a primary question is put forth: how would the scenario effect the local animal habitats, flora and fauna, the city and its inhabitants and the overall ecology of the area. The project is developed as two parallel scenarios, one as a “ghost town” and another as an up-cycled version of Årdal. The crux of the project is how local industry and mono-industrial towns create vulnerable habitats both for humans, animals and local ecologies and how this will effect the future stability of these settlements. A series of scenarios and events has been envisioned in order to best illustrate the fate of the settlements in Årdal. As the tide ebbs and flows, events, scenarios and consequences are examined and visualized as an “imagined chain of events,” a timeline that explores a potential future for Årdal.
Årdal lies at the base of the Utladalen and Jotunheimen National Park. It’s location is characterized by its very dramatic and powerful landscape. At the same time, the rise of industrial production replaced farming, fishing and forestry as its main sources of income. This constitutes a trend in several smaller communities as “production-based” industries are being phased out. Both industry and farming has had a significant impact and transformative effects on Årdal’s character and its surrounding landscape. In particular, Årdal’s aluminium smelter has a specific relation with the local towns and also plays an important role in defining the identity of the area. Surrounded by tall mountains and waterfalls, the man-made structures are well hidden between the monumental and powerful mountains. The two main industrial villages, Øvre Årdal and Årdalstangen, are separated by Årdal Lake. The industrialization of Årdal municipality brought massive changes into the local environment; it can be seen as a distortion within the natural systems as well as a mutation of the settlements themselves. In addition, the greater part of Årdal’s water system has been modified in order to support local hydro-power production. Renewable energy is dedicated first and foremost in order to supply the local industry with required amount of energy. Årdal municipality has its origins in hydro-power, the transformation into a “hydro-powered landscape” resulted in the creation of dams, tunnels, power lines, using existing lake systems as water storage basins. Årdal’s industrial activities has resulted in air, water (including groundwater) and ground pollution, , gas emissions, wastewater production which in turn effects the local ecology and the health of its inhabitants.
Sources: Årdal Kommune, “Årdal – hva?” L.Gabrielsen, J.Havran R.Mosken
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Ă…rdal Kommune, Offerdal Kraftverk AS, www.nve.no
Sources: kanaler.arnholm.nu, nrk.no, Ă…rdal Kommune, www.sogelaget.no, Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane
he need for a channel between both villages has its roots back in 17th century when local Cooper mining started. In 1868 the clearing of the river started. Due to the costs, building of a road was suggested. In 1914 the need for a canal appeared again this time in form of a petition. This procedure was repeated in 1919.During the WWII the German Army had a particular interest in creating a boat passage across Årdalstangen. To Øvre Årdal’s aluminium plant. This would increase of exporting goods. With time the increasing focus on car and railway transport and the infrastructural investments made in the country, increased to the point where transport by boat was discontinued.
rdal Lake separates Årdalstange and Øvre Årdal. Is located 3m above the sea level. Historically it was used for floating timber. Nevertheless due to the close vicinity and split in the Årdal community it became increasingly important in the “ ages “ to improve the connection between the two settlements.
Sources: Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane,
Canal running through Årdalstangen
The Årdalstangen (Hi)Story
he German invasion of Norway in 1940 brought faster growth of Årdal. The Germans were in need of aluminium for the production of war planes. This came together with increasing capacity of hydroelectric power plant in the area. They decided to expand the aluminium industry. Works had been stopped due to the end of the WWII. This village is well known for its collective efforts and the work of its inhabitants. Industrial society Årdal became the symbol of the modern Norway after the war and was called Social Democracy exhibition windows”. Municipalities and unions worked together to build the successful industrial town, where the famous collective spirit has created both roads and country renowned cultural event.
Sources: P.Perkiewicz , Norge Digitalt.no, Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane, www.sogelaget.com
Årdal’s Carbon Industry
carbon plant Årdalstangen 1976
ack in 1970 70% of Årdal’s population was employed by Årdal Metalverk( 2200 inhabitants).In 2006 Hydro Sodeberg (1/3 of Hydro Aluminium in Øvre Årdal) was closed. With this decision the company reduced 1100 positions, radically changing the population from 7 000 inhabitant to 5 700. Årdal is an industrial municipality, with a strong connection with the industry even today. This relationship makes villages vulnerable and very depended on the industrial market. Many youth leave Årdal to look for opportunities and an employment in the bigger cities.
Sources: norgedigitalt.no, Hydro Aluminium SA, Årdal Kommune, NORSK HYDRO rapport 1998, Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane www.sogelaget.com, Årdal : verket og bygda 1947-1997 www.sogelaget.com, 320
Industry in Årdalstangen
Carbon plant Årdalstangen 1972
Carbon plant Årdalstangen 1960
Aluminium load 1960
Carbon plant Årdalstangen 1958
Sources: P.Perkiewicz: Norge Digitalt.no Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane
At the end of Ă…rdalsvatn
Årdal Aluminium Industry
Aluminium Plant 1952
rdal history is strongly connected with a heavy industry and what comes with it a greater need for electricity. In 2006 Hydro Sodeberg was closed due environmental issues. As a result of energy demand dropped 825GWh from its previous needs of 3750 GWh. Hydro Aluminium decided to give back 825GWh to the municipality. Production of aluminium changed as a part of the plant was closed down due to a Carbon leakage. Previously the plant produced 45 tons of aluminium. After the closure production increased by 50 tons. Nevertheless in the larger picture it is important to strengthen the national grid.
Sources: norgedigitalt.no, Hydro Aluminium SA, Årdal Kommune, NORSK HYDRO rapport 1998
The Aluminium Landscape
Øvre Årdal 1900
Øvre Årdal 1942
Øvre Årdal Infrastructure development 1941
ydro Aluminium provides energy free of charge from waste disposal, to Health clinic’s, community house, outdoor swimming pool and artificial grass. Although most of the energy produced in Årdal is used by Hydro Aluminium.
Dooria which was opened between 2007 and 2008 needed 1,5 GWh. In order to provide the necessary amount of energy company resorted to burning wood in order to satisfy their energy demands. NorSun produce solar cells. The company with 100 employees started in the 2008 required 25-30GWh. In 2010 their production and employees increased and with it the need for power, its consumption now needing in excess of 50GWh.
Sources: Fylkesarkivet i Sogn og Fjordane, www.sogelaget.com, ” Årdal kommune i dag 1860 - 1960” Årdal : verket og bygda 1947-1997
Ă…rdalâ€™s Aluminium Past
Aluminium Plant, Hall A 1948
Aluminium Plant, 1983
Tyin Tunnel construction
Ă…rdal Aluminium Today
Aluminium Plant,2012 Sources: P.Perkiewicz
Origins of Årdal’s Aluminium
Sources: Hydro.com P.Perkiewicz Oddgeir Steinheim from hydro.com Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com
The Flip-Side of Green and Clean in Norway In Norway, the energy needed in order to process and produce an ingot of aluminium is taken from local hydro-power production a seemingly “green” process. However, the Norwegian production is only made possible due to the cheap labour and less-refined technologies, coupled with a fossil fuel based production and energy from Brazilian mining sites. It is only due to globalization that aluminium products leave Årdal in order to circulate through European market. One can ask if such methods/ processes are in fact ecologically “sustainable’ – or even ethical?
In the form of clean and renewable source of power it helps to minimize the pollution Norsk Hydro is also one of the biggest electricity consumer in Norway. The technological advances and improvements to the industrial aspects within the Årdal industry allows for further and greater production. The industry-imported aluminium ore “ferrying mineral compounds across the sea “ follows a transformation processes to a final product and is then transferred to European markets. One can follow the aluminium back to the mines located in Brazil, which brings an understanding of the multilayered system that ’feeds’ the local landscape. Different “agents” are involved in the manipulation of Årdal’s environment. Parallels can be drawn with other emissaries transforming the natural world in order to meet market requirements. The process begins in Brazil, in the bauxite mines of Trombetas and Paragominas, run by Norsk Hydro. Land is excavated, cleared, polluted by acid mine drainage through the streams and via. For each ton of bauxite removed from the ground, there is estimated 5 tones of mine ’tailings’ produced. Additionally there is a significant amount of fossil fuel energy needed during mining activity, as well as for the transportation of the ore. In Paragominas, ore is pump through the 244km long pipeline. When refining the alumina is completed, the material is transported via ship across the Atlantic Ocean to the Årdal smelter in order to produce refined aluminium products. During the transportation of the alumina further pollution follows.
Sources: Hydro.com P.Perkiewicz Brugrand, Odd Helge: “Årdal sett ovanfrå” Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com bauxite.world-aluminium.org
Landscape transformation due to industrial activities in Ă…rdal region
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com bauxite.world-aluminium.org
Sources: P.Perkiewicz bauxite.world-aluminium.org
Transformation of the Brazilian Landscape as a result of the Bauxite mining activities of Norsk Hydro
Sources: P.Perkiewicz bauxite.world-aluminium.org
Concequences of Human’s Hunger Recent contributions within the field have proposed the expansion of sites and scales that landscape architects might practice in, as well as the consideration of ecological processes, material flows and the principles of industrial ecology as generative for design. Conceptualizing the sites of material production as integral—rather than external—to design would shift theoretical concerns of the landscape project without necessarily shifting its site boundary. This has the potential to both examine the ways in which non-adjacent spaces are designed continuously, but also to speculate about how these reciprocal relationships might be designed themselves. Jane Hutton “Reciprocal landscapes: material portraits in New York City and elsewhere”
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Oddgeir Steinheim from hydro.com Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com bauxite.world-aluminium.org www.mining-atlas.com
MORE POWER = MORE INDUSTRY = MORE INFRASTRUCTURE = MORE POLLUTION = MORE VULNERABLE LANDSCAPE = MORE JOBS = AN INCREASED POPULATION = IS IT BETTER ?
The Closure of the Industry As the industry is an active source of pollution the local landscapes have the ability to minimize the effects of the aluminium and carbon production. Lands along the rivers could be potentially designed as water purification treatment areas. This will allow for the future industries such as fishery and urban farming. The restoration of old industries with the use of new technologies is another avenue that can be explored in the process of re-energizing Årdal. Årdals location and terrain characteristics provide mild climatic conditions. Villages around the Sognefjord belong to one of the driest and most stable areas in Norway. As the history of the municipality includes the agricultural use it has the
remains of an advanced irrigation system. Additionally hydro-power production and lake reservoirs could provide needed infrastructure on top of the bones of the existing one. The quality of the local forest is mostly productive; therefore forestry could become one important industry. Back in the day’s timber from Årdal region was regarded as one of the best in the country. The quality of soil and climate would allow for the reinsertion of agriculture. With the decline of the industry, agricultural products would have the potential to become an essential component of a new form of settlement.
To achieve this lands that previously were used as agriculture could be redesigned and brought back to life and start becoming productive again. With the withdrawal of the industry, other already established activities could intensify their production. This will create an opportunity to rediscover their heritage. New landscapes will be created. The remediation of the post industrial territories is a key priority in order to reintroduce the ecological diversity to the site.
Sites with previously active industry would become brown-field sites with possible soil contamination. The reconstruction of damaged ecologies will be crucial for the future uses of the areas in question. By scarifying the surface in order to catch the water, the affected soil will be ameliorated with natural processes. Introducing plants with nitrogen fixation ability or phyto remedial properties could improve the process. Wetlands could be introduced in the area of river mostly affected by industrial activity. The existing solar panel industry could provide products allowing on energy efficient vegetation growth. Additional advantage will be the production of hydro-power energy from the local streams.
Post industrial sites would slowly become a part of new Årdals landscapes. To improve the transformation of the place a restructuring of the existing infrastructure will be an important factor. The same elements can be give a new meaning and role. Through new uses and configurations it can become a corner stone for the development of the future projects. New infrastructure that will contribute to the whole by being more than just circulation, it will manage and encourage new ecologies.
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Oddgeir Steinheim from hydro.com Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com bauxite.world-aluminium.org www.mining-atlas.com Årdal Kommune, Offerdal Kraftverk AS, www.nve.no NGU rapport 2008-2011, Statnett:‘Strømnettet på Vestlan det mot 2025’ ‘Bygdebok for Årdal.’ landscapeurbanism.com
The energy that transforms Ă…rdal
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Oddgeir Steinheim from hydro.com Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com bauxite.world-aluminium.org www.mining-atlas.com Årdal Kommune, Offerdal Kraftverk AS, www.nve.no NGU rapport 2008-2011, Statnett:‘Strømnettet på Vestlan det mot 2025’ ‘Bygdebok for Årdal.’
Flip sides of the coin, Ă…rdal with a population og 10.000 or 0
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Oddgeir Steinheim from hydro.com Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com Årdal Kommune, Offerdal Kraftverk AS, www.nve.no switchboard.nrdc.org Statnett:‘Strømnettet på Vestlan det mot 2025’ ‘Bygdebok for Årdal.’ environmentalgraffiti.com paisajesproductivos.blogspot.no
The remediation of the post-industrial territories is a key priority in order to reintroduce ecological diversity to the sites.
Establishing water strategies is crucial in order to heal the damaged landscape.
New Grids, New Programs, New Identities
To improve quality of the place a restructuring of the existing green infrastructure will be an important factor. The existing elements can be given a new meaning and function
Through new configurations and uses the newly introduced elements can become a corner stone for the development of future projects. It will manage and encourage new ecologies as well as bring economic to Årdalstangen and Øvre Årdal
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Oddgeir Steinheim from hydro.com Odd Steinar Natvik from hydro.com Årdal Kommune, Offerdal Kraftverk AS, www.nve.no ngu.no, www.regjeringen.no, rapp.niva.no, www.algaeart.biz ‘Bygdebok for Årdal.’ www.greenprospectsasia.com
Transforming Øvre Årdal This scenario proposes seeks to reveal the potential of the local landscape qualities. By re-introducing old industries with the use of modern technologies and renewable energy production withing Årdal’s border Øvre Årdal has the opportunity to rediscover its own identity as well as creating economies.
Ă˜vre Ă…rdal while the industry is still active
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Brugrand, Odd Helge: “Årdal sett ovanfrå”
Field : Wetland :
Poplar (Populus), Creeping Bentgrass(Agrostis palustris) Rock Mountain Iris(Iris missouriensis), Green Bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens), Perennial Wildflower (Pedicularis Sylvatica) Duckweed (Lemna Minor),
The reintroduction of agriculture and forestry in Øvre Årdal
Vast lands have been recovered after the closure of the industrial estates and could become potential areas for establishment of old/new industries. Additional transformation of abandoned areas into productive wetlands is done in order to clean polluted water systems and Eco systems.
The Re-Introduction of Old Industries through the use New Technologies in order to create New Economies Årdal’s location and its characteristic terrain provides mild climatic conditions. These villages around the Sognefjord belong to one of the driest and most stable climatic areas in Norway. As the history of the municipality includes agricultural use it has the remnants of an advanced irrigation system. This could be expanded and restructured in order to reintroduce agricultural areas in Årdal. Additionally hydro-power production and lake reservoirs could provide needed infrastructure on top of the bones of the existing. The quality of the local forest is mostly productive; therefore forestry could become another key industry. Years ago timber from the Årdal region was regarded as one of the best in the country due to its high quality forest. The quality of soil and climate would allow for the reinstate of agricultural enterprises. With the decline of the industry, agricultural products would have the potential to become an essential component of a new form of settlement. The existing solar panel industry could provide products for greenhouse industries, creating new farming potentials as well as clean power. Additional advantages would be the production of hydroelectric power from the local streams. Sites with a previous industrial heritage would become brown-field sites with soil contamination. The reconstruction of damaged ecologies will be crucial for future uses of the areas in question. By scarifying the surface in order to catch the water, the affected soil will be ameliorated with natural processes. Introducing plants with nitrogen fixation ability or phyto remedial properties could improve the process. Wetlands could be introduced in the river areas mostly affected by the industrial activity. 47
Park near housing : Park close to wetland :
Willow (Salix), Poplar (Populus), Common Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior) Rapeseed (Brassica Napus), Creeping Bentgrass(Agrostis palustris) Poplar (Populus), Grey Alder (Alnus Incana) , Common Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior), Green Bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens), Duckweed (Lemna Minor), Highland Bent Grass (Agrostis Castellana) , Hydrilla (Hydrilla) ,
Transforming unused territories into public parks The phytoremediation introduced in Øvre Årdal in order to get rid of the pollution coming form Årdal’s smelter is slowly becoming an urban park. This allows the community to experience new connections and to reveal the qualities of the area.
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Brugrand, Odd Helge: “Årdal sett ovanfrå”
Introducing Aquaculture in Øvre Årdal Up-cycling materials from the industrial areas have been transformed into artificial reefs, a shipping container forms the function as a fish habitat, fish farms float above and cleaning mussels are hanged from pods in order purify the pollutions in Årdals Lake. By eating the heavy metals they allow the fish to stay pollution free.
Floating Aqua farm facility in Ă˜vre Ă…rdal Ă…rdal Lake- has an economic, social and an ecological potential. It can offer new industries, habitats and leisure aspects in the area. New ecologies can also be employed in order to purify the waters and repair the damages from industrial pollutants.
The Re-Introduction of Old Industries through the use of New Technologies in order to create New Economies
This scenario proposal reveals the potential of the local landscapes as well as technological advances. Newly established industries are based on the potentials within the landscape as well as traces of past activities in the field of agriculture and forestry. By using the heritage with a combination of new technologies, it creates solutions that will allow Årdalstangen to step out from under its Mono-industrial town identity at the end of Sognefjorden. Årdal Lake- has an economic, social and an ecological potential. It can offer new industries, habitats and leisure aspects in the area. New ecologies can also be employed in order to purify the waters and repair the damages from industrial pollutants. A series of floating structures could be used as new industrial ventures such as fish farming (sea-bass) which could potentially bring new employment and opportunities within the Settlements. Other structures could be used for the creation of new habitats e.g. algae, purification plants, that could accelerate the regeneration processes, or social and leisure activities such as fishing, kayaking etc. A similar strategy could be adapted for Årdalsfjorden which currently is a home for salmon, trout and blue mussel amongst others. Therefore offshore installations could be introduced. These installations will support the growth of plants and supply food for the fish. It will create new resting places for many types of water birds. The role of this new “landscape” could become important for the future of the settlement by doing something “unique” to Årdal.
E the Current situation in Årdalstangen
Dwony Birch (Betula Pubescens), Common Bent (Agrostis Capillars) Wetland : Hydrilla (Hydrilla), Rock Mountain Iris(Iris missouriensis), Green Bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens), Duckweed (Lemna Minor)
The healing properties of wetlands in post-industrial landscapes. After cutting out the heavily polluted ground, wetlands have been established. This generates a cleaning effect, the pollution from times of the industrial activity. In order to reintroduce new types of industry. Phytoremediation would be possible thanks to the use of typical strategies for wetlands vegetation. Additional transformation of abandoned parking lots into urban parks are also achieved.
Utilizing the space under the power lines. The introduction of agriculture under power-lines is a way to create productive landscapes and new economies. Due to the limited amount of flat ground within Årdal municipality, these territories are highly valued in order to established new industries.
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Brugrand, Odd Helge: “Årdal sett ovanfrå”
Regenerating Årdalstangen with the use of natural and hard-scaping solutions A proposed blue green corridor not only connects the lost links in the urban armature, but it activates the areas affected most by the industry.
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Brugrand, Odd Helge: “Årdal sett ovanfrå”
Årdalstangen Aquatic Center and Produce Market A reuse of an ex-industrial warehouse and adapting it for a new usage with the waterfront proposal as a part of Årdal’s Regeneration Project A landscape activation strategy emphasizes that the landscape should become an active part of social change within the region. This includes traditional elements as well as new innovations. Such as utilizing existing potential as illustrated a new function for the previous industrial estate at Årdalstangen. This will allow for the newly established landscape to be more diverse and multifaceted.
Regeneration of the polluted landscapes in Ă…rdal Adaptive reuse and a new productive wetland landscape with up-cycling of abandoned industry buildings as a generator for renewal. By merging the existing industrial elements with the new it creates a new waterfront. By up-cycling post-industrial building and not only reusing the existing structures, allows local towns to keep their identity and the pride of being a part of a local community. A series of floating structures could be used as new industrial ventures such as fish farming (sea-bass) which could potentially bring new employment and opportunities within the settlements. Other structures could be used for the creation of new habitats e.g. algae, purification plants, that could accelerate the regeneration processes, or social and leisure activities such as fishing, kayaking etc.
Årdal Reclaimed by the Nature
Without radical transformation the municipality did not have ability to handle the consequences, of a declining industry in Øvre Årdal and Årdalstangen. Due to a rise of unemployment the population started to dwindle. The trend was not able to turn and eventually it resulted in the total abandonment of the settlements in Årdal. As the time goes nature eventually start to break through, first timidly then without hesitation what was once a town has now become a forest of trees, infrastructure industrial buildings and lamp posts. Animals walk freely between the houses and structures without any hesitation. The Årdal that was has now been forgotten by people, yet it is still full of life. Life that slowly starts to transform into a new kind of landscape.
Sources: P.Perkiewicz Brugrand, Odd Helge: “Årdal sett ovanfrå”
What would happen if we would allow nature to run unchecked? Waterways, tunnels and abandoned spaces will slowly turn into mix of weeds moss, algae and birds, salmons and wolverines that feed into these networks. Greenery will escape from the park, slowly spreading along different parts of the urban settlements. An abandoned Ă…rdalstange will provide an interesting site and testing ground for a future landscape. HĂŚreidselv could turn the abandoned spaces along the river into a series of wetlands. Sewage tunnels would become covered with moss and algaeâ€™s. Pavements will erode and break apart pierced by flowers and plants forcing its way through the tarmac.
Post human Årdalstangen
Increasing abandonment of the settlement in Årdalstangen after the closure of the Aluminium Industry
Nature reclaiming Årdalstangen
After the last people moved out from Årdalstangen nature slowly takes over the man-made structures allowing greenery to spread and new habitats to move form. The post- industrial and post human landscape gives a glimpse of a future reclaimed by nature, an adventure into a “lost city”
Post human Øvre Årdal
Increasing abandonment of the settlement in Øvre Årdal after the closure of the Aluminium Industry
Nature reclaiming Øvre Årdal
Øvre Årdal after humans Sources: P.Perkiewicz
The entrance to Ă…rdalâ€™s Smelter. Now reclaimed by nature and has changed itâ€™s role from industrial to a host for new ecologies.
If nature would reclaim Årdal how would the new landscape look like? Weeds covered the pavements, roads, parking spaces. Shrubs covered the towns. Old roads will become hiking trails; empty lots will slowly become meadows. Trees root system managed to perforate infrastructure. Trees will tower over fences; utility lines will compete with tree branches. Houses have been covered with moss and fungus. Plaster walls will fade into dust. With no windows they became a habitat for species that has reclaimed the areas after the humans disappeared. Nature slowly but surely creep in to claim Årdal. The municipality within decades has become a relic of human activities. Areas which previously were adapted by humans can now be found populated by new habitants, animals, birds, vegetation. Post- industrial and post human landscape gives a glimpse of a future reclaimed by nature, an adventure into a “lost city”.
Nature has crept back into the remnants of Ă˜vre Ă…rdal, grass and greenery spreads along the infrastructure, transforming the places that once were homes, workplaces and a city into new Habitats fit for the woodland-creatures
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