Pathways to Family Wellness - Issue #22

Page 1

10 Books to Improve Family Health


COLIC Safe Solutions You Can Count On

Lyme Disease Prevention and Natural Treatment

Prenatal Ultrasound LINKS TO AUTISM


Control Healthcare Costs


Fluoride and Your Child’s Developing Brain

issue 22 / summer 09 / $7.95

please display through 9/21/09


editor-in-chief Jeanne Ohm, DC advisory board Sarah Buckley, MD Bruce Lipton, PhD Stephen Marini, PhD, DC Larry Palevsky, MD Claudia Anrig, DC contributing editors Tracey Beck-Campbell Alissa Pond Mentzer Lisa Reagan Robert Staeger creative director Tina Aitala Engblom advertising coordinator Crystal Gloistein circulation director Howard White

on the cover Colic . ........................................................... 6 Lyme Disease ............................................. 46 Prenatal Ultrasound.................................... 26 Controlling Healthcare Costs..................... 56 Pitocin for Labor?........................................ 32 Fluoride and Your Child’s Brain................... 54 10 Books to Improve Family Health............. 62

Pathways to Family Wellness is a quarterly publication offering parents articles and resources to make informed healthcare choices for their families. Pathways to Family Wellness provides thoughtprovoking information from the holistic health perspective and invites parents to explore options for family wellness. The individual articles and links to healthcare information in Pathways to Family Wellness are based on the opinions of their respective authors, who retain copyright as marked. The information provided is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified healthcare professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information. The publisher of Pathways to Family Wellness encourages you to make informed healthcare decisions based on your researched knowledge and in partnership with a qualified healthcare provider. Pathways to Family Wellness is provided to you by the International Chiropractic Pediatric Association in collaboration with the Alliance for Holistic Family Health and Wellness. Both organizations are 501-C3 non-profit status organizations and sales of Pathways to Family Wellness support their mission for public education. Images used are for illustrative purposes only. © 2009 Pathways to Family Wellness Issue 22, Summer 2009. Printed in the USA.

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on the cover Rowan, 5 months old © Erica Garza Keepsake Images Photography

contents Growing Healthy Kids: Calming the Cry of Colic The perplexing infant condition has afflicted babies and frayed the nerves of worried, sleepless parents. We explore the possible causes of colic, and show

6 feature 4 letter from the editor 12 Wellness Lifestyle

Eliminate the Fear, Not the Fever

By Susan Markel, MD

14 nutrition


By Donald Gerken, DC, DACCP, CST

18 family living

Fly Fishing Is a Family Affair

By Tracey L. Stroup

22 mind–body–spirit

We Are What We Think

By Patti Leviton, CHT, CGLT, MA

24 chiropractic for life

which changes might make a world of difference. By Jen Allbritton, CN 40 movement and learning

Maximizing Infant Development

By Charles L. Blum, DC

45 parenting

Reflections on Isolation

By Naomi Aldort, PhD

46 holistic healthcare

Lyme Disease: An Integrated Approach

By Andrea Candee, MH, MSC

48 gratitude

Gratitude and Appreciation as a Secret to Success

By Jack Canfield

50 parent perspective

Colic and Chiropractic

The New Wellness Care for Children

52 research review

By Scott A. Darragh, DC, MPH

Chiropractic Care of Children with Colic

By Joel Alcantara, DC

26 pregnancy

Questions About Prenatal Ultrasound and the Alarming Increase in Autism

54 informed choice

Fluoridation Flows and Flaws

By Caroline Rodgers

By Darrel Crain, DC

32 Birth

56 Current Concerns

The Truth About Pitocin

How to Slash National Healthcare Costs by 90%

By Elaine Stillerman, LMT

By Mike Adams

36 the outer womb

62 recommendations

Colic in the Breastfed Baby

By Jack Newman, MD, FRCPC

10 Books to Expand Family Wellness


letter from the editor, jeanne ohm, dc

Several weeks ago in our practice a father said to me, “ I am afraid not to vaccinate and I am just as afraid to vaccinate.� My response was not to address the list of pros and cons on either side of the vaccination issue. My response was to have him take two steps back, and first explain

The beautiful thing can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science. that most any choice made from fear iswe made from a skewed perspective and would be

pathways | issue 22

Albert Einstein

Several weeks ago, a father in our practice said to me, “I’m afraid not to vaccinate, and I’m just as afraid to vaccinate.” My response was not to address the list of pros and cons on either side of the vaccination issue. Apparently he had already done that. My response was instead to have him take two steps back, and understand that any choice made from fear is made from a skewed perspective and would be unproductive and unstable. Rather than building on this unstable foundation created by fear, it was more important that he define his core values in life—those essential values from which all of his decisions could be made. Once defined, he would be making a decision from a place of certainty and trust.

© / renee lee

Essentially, there are two perspectives about healing. One is mechanistic—it defines life as a random series of events, devoid of an organized and intelligent purpose. Sickness is to be treated, symptoms are to be eliminated, and the body needs expert opinions based on human knowledge to help it heal. The other is vitalistic. It recognizes, respects, and trusts in the intelligence of life and the interconnectedness of this wisdom among all life. Processes of the body are to be trusted, not feared, and an underlying confidence for healing and proper function is emphasized. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, summed up the heart of this perspective well: “Humans are created to be healthy as long as they are whole: body, mind, spirit. People are characterized by self-healing properties that come from within—an innate healing force. Perfect health and harmony is the normal state for all life.” It is imperative that we define our core values and consciously make our life and health choices from the perspective which resonates best with those values. It is also imperative that we choose practitioners who base their choices on the same foundation. In pathways, we offer the perspective of vitalism—the confidence of an inherent intelligence that sustains our very existence. Our articles introduce principles built on this foundation, in the hope that parents will recognize and resonate with it. Shifting to this paradigm is sometimes challenging, especially since the majority of the healthcare industry, news media, laws, and regulations do not support this perspective. It is hard to go against the grain, and we are often met with resistance, opposition, and outright criticism, laced with fear and even intimidation.

That powerful emotion—fear—then becomes the motivating factor in our decisions. But fear is too unstable an emotion from which to make any good choices. I am reminded of the quote from Bertrand Russell: “Collective fear stimulates herd instinct, and tends to produce ferocity toward those who are not regarded as members of the herd.” In 30 years of making life and health choices for our family, my husband and I have heard all of the arguments used to challenge our vitalistic core beliefs. When we started having our family, there was little to no peer reviewed evidence on natural birthing, co-sleeping, long-term breastfeeding, vaccination risks, and the refusal of drugs for symptomatic relief. We were labeled irresponsible at best. We were told our beliefs had no scientific validation. To us, credibility did not come from this perspective devoid of any recognition of vitalism. Our validation came along the lines of an emerging science—one less known, and only sparsely integrated into the healing arts. Max Planck, Nobel Prize–winning physicist and the father of quantum theory, acknowledged this new science well in a 1944 speech: “All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force…. We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. This mind is the matrix of all matter.” Since then, and now in the 21st century, the relationship between this emerging science and health is becoming more accepted. Although promoted over 100 years ago by the founder of chiropractic, D.D. Palmer, the recognition and practice of healthcare from an inherent trust of our amalgamation with a greater intelligence is finally being embraced. Deepak Chopra, M.D., sums up this principle well: “There is an inner intelligence in your body, and that inner intelligence is consciousness. It’s the ultimate in supreme genius, which mirrors the wisdom of the universe.” As for the father and what he chose for his child—I don’t know for sure. I do know, however, that he understood the importance in parenting of connecting with his wife, going within, and embracing what they know to be true. My appeal to all parents when making life and health choices for their families is to do the same. First, gather the information available in regard to the decision at hand. Then, put all of it aside and recognize the core of your own beliefs. Once you’ve identified these life principles, weigh your choices from this place of knowing. Choose from a state of trust and conviction consistent with these essential values. They are the connection to your strength. From this place of certainty, you will always choose correctly. Many Blessings, Jeanne Ohm, DC

issue 22 | pathways



Calming the Cry of

COLIC By Jen Allbritton, CN

The elusive infant condition called colic has perplexed parents and healthcare professionals alike for many years. The seemingly endless crying spells and sleep loss lead to stress and anxiety for all. Each baby is unique and is affected by a variety of factors, and each responds in his or her own way. Nevertheless, current research and the principles set forth by Weston A. Price give parents the best chance of maximizing their wee one’s happiness and preventing excessive hair-curling scream sessions.

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© / brian powell

Colic: What We Know Crying is baby communication and has many possible drivers; crying babies could be hungry, cold, wet, understimulated, overstimulated, bored, in pain, sick, moody, or anything else under the sun. It often takes some trial and error to figure out what will soothe a baby. When crying becomes loud and persistent, when soothing efforts are fruitless, and when potential physical conditions have been ruled out, the doctor will generally give a diagnosis of colic—which means, “We have no idea why your baby will not stop crying!” How frustrating! The average infant cries between two and three hours a day. The commonly accepted clinical definition of colic is the “Rule of Three.” An infant that is well-fed and otherwise healthy is colicky if it cries for more than three hours per day, more than three days per week, for more than three weeks. However, when a baby is in the throes of a high-pitched crying fit, five minutes can feel like three hours. Some people are just better able to tolerate the noise and feelings of helplessness than others. This is what makes the term colic, or even excessive crying, so subjective. A Brazilian study found that as many as 80 percent of mothers believed their infants had colic; however, using the definition above, only 16.3 percent actually had the condition. Thus, as with many things, “excessive crying” really is in the eye—or ear—of the beholder. There are enough gimmicky “colic cure” sales pitches to make your wallet burst into more tears than your child. But ultimately, science doesn’t know much about colic. Nevertheless, there are a number of contributing factors that, if remedied, may improve the situation. These issues may or may not be directly involved in the

cause of colic, but they are all things that should be evaluated by every parent. It all fits into the realm of learning about your unique bundle of joy and encouraging his or her best possible health. Neuro-Development: The Strongest Theory to Date Neuro-development is one of the most accepted ideas surrounding colic. The term “brain maturity” sounds sophisticated, but the concept is simple. It has been observed that babies with colic are more easily overstimulated than noncolicky babies. Once they are in a crying episode, it is challenging for them to return to a normal mental state. This is where the idea of immaturity comes into play. These babies essentially don’t have the brain maturity to adequately transition out of an uncomfortable state of crying once it has begun. Fortunately for these babies and their parents, an infant’s ability to come out of these uncomfortable states gets better with age. This is confirmed by the fact that colic or excessive crying usually subsides by four months of age. Another observation that supports this theory is the fact that many colicky babies are over-stimulated by “normal” soothing techniques, including rocking and singing. They tend to do better with white noise, darkness, and swaddling —but not always. Remember, each baby is different, and reading your baby’s signals is key to a solution. Weston A. Price Knew All Along Ultimately, support of brain development and growth are fundamental in preventing and calming the cries of colic. Weston A. Price’s Wise Traditions approach to nutrition provides the best issue 22 | pathways


Is There a Gut Connection? Most doctors believe that intestinal problems cause colic, although research does not support this contention. However, some babies do feel discomfort caused by spasms of the intestinal smooth muscle and/or gas, which can lead to more crying spells. Positive results when antispasmodic pharmaceuticals are administered confirm this. Similarly, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using a tea made from traditional antispasmodic herbs (chamomile, vervain, licorice, fennel and lemon balm) was found to be more effective at reducing crying time in colicky infants than a placebo. In this study, approximately half a cup of tea was given during each colic episode, up to three times per day. These herbs can be used alone or in combination, and can either be taken by a breastfeeding mother or given straight to a baby using an eyedropper (between 10 and 20 drops). Another study of colicky infants using just an emulsion of fennel seed oil showed a decrease in the intensity of colic in 65 percent of cases, compared to 24 percent who received a placebo. The amount used was 1 to 4 teaspoons of a water emulsion of 0.1 percent fennel seed oil, up to four times per day.


Susun Weed, a well-known herbalist, recommends slippery elm bark as a digestive soother for colicky infants. When prepared, it becomes a thick “gruel” instead of normal tea. You can make it by mixing a liquid sweetener (barley malt, sorghum, or maple syrup) with the bark powder until it is thoroughly wet. Slowly add warm milk or water until it creates a porridge. Weed says there is no known limit to the amount that can be consumed safely. For colic, she says to add one or more servings to the diet to help quiet the intestines. Reflux can also contribute to intestinal discomfort. In one study, babies with colic experienced more reflux episodes than those without the condition. Bear in mind, other symptoms often accompany reflux, such as severe spitting up, coughing, gagging and poor weight gain. Constipation is another possible cause of discomfort and has obvious signs that can be remedied. Intestinal dysbiosis, or poor microflora balance, may also cause howling screams. In a double-blind study of infants, supplementation of a standard milk-based formula with probiotic organisms (Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus) significantly reduced the frequency of colic, compared to the same formula minus the probiotics. Similarly, another study found that after a month of administering probiotic oil drops with Lactobacillus reuteri bacteria, parents reported significantly less screaming in their children. Support of intestinal microflora is a core concept in the Wise Traditions diet. A probiotic supplement is a base ingredient in the recommended homemade baby formulas, just as cultured and fermented foods are recommended for adults. Besides affecting overall development, nutrient deficiencies can impact digestion, increase gas and cramping, and disturb bacteria balance. All of the B vitamins, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and essential fatty acids play a role in intestinal health. These nutrients are all found in appropriate amounts in healthy breast milk, as well as in Wise Traditions homemade baby formulas. Foods: Friend or Foe? Is it a coincidence that the number of colic diagnoses has increased alongside autism and other disorders with our “advancements” in food processing and agricultural methods? Probably not. We are bombarded with toxins from our food, air, and water, and children are even more susceptible than adults to their dangers. Food allergies are an area of interest when it comes to colic. A number of clinical studies support the theory that discomfort may be caused by negative reactions from food allergies. For

All of the B vitamins, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and essential

fatty acids play a role in intestinal health. These nutrients are all found in appropriate amounts in healthy breast milk, as well as in Wise Traditions homemade baby formulas.

© / Igor Balasanov

basis to achieve these goals. The Wise Traditions dietary principles center on supplying the body with liberal amounts of the nutrients that support nervous system health, including cod liver oil, organ meats, and traditional fats. Parents all over the world can attest to the value of adhering to a Wise Traditions diet before conception, as well as throughout pregnancy and lactation. A traditional diet high in vitamins A and D (seafood, cod liver oil, organ meats, egg yolks, and butterfat from grass-fed animals), bone broths, and properly prepared whole foods allows children to reach their maximum genetic potential. Children born to parents who follow Wise Traditions practices tend to have freedom from allergies and illness, good immune systems, and happy, calm dispositions. It has been seen time and time again that these principles support neural function as well as encourage a happy demeanor in infants and children.

© / ciseren korkut

A mother’s emotions can affect an infant. It is known that general distress and high anxiety during pregnancy increases the risk of infantile colic. example, children have been known to be intolerant to milk proteins from a cow’s milk–based formula. If a baby is breastfed, certain foods in the mother’s diet may provoke an allergic reaction in the baby as well. For example, pasteurized cow’s milk consumed by a breastfeeding mother has been shown to trigger colic. Another double-blind study found that restricting certain allergy-triggering foods from the mother’s diet significantly reduced colic symptoms in infants. Although pasteurized cow’s milk is the most common allergic food, others to consider are soy, nuts, and gluten (found in wheat and other grains.) Traditional food preparation methods may play a role in how the mother and child are reacting. Bear in mind, if a food allergy or sensitivity is present, other symptoms will most likely appear, including gas, bloating, eczema, spitting up, diarrhea, or bloody or green stools. Milk: Commercial vs. Raw Pasteurization is a damaging process that alters the physical structure of the fragile proteins in milk, resulting in deformed and broken proteins the body is not equipped to handle. Additionally, pasteurization virtually eliminates milk’s good bacteria and radically reduces its nutrient content. On the other hand, raw milk from pastured cows is one of the most healing foods available. The allergy studies condemning cow’s milk evaluated the effects of pasteurized and homogenized commercial varieties. Although no studies have looked at the effects of raw milk versus pasteurized on colic, the superiority of raw milk has been demonstrated many times with babies and nursing moms on Wise Tradition diets. To ensure proper digestion of milk, the Wise Traditions raw milk baby formula goes a step further by adding gelatin. There is extensive research showing that gelatin can improve the digestion of milk and milk products. In fact, early 20th century textbooks recommended inclusion of gelatin in infant formulas to help bring cow’s milk closer to human milk. Studies indicate that gelatin inhibits curd coagulation, helps emulsify the fat, and stabilizes the casein to improve the digestibility and absorption of the fat. As a result, infants fed gelatin-enriched formulas have shown fewer allergic symptoms, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, constipation, and respiratory ailments than infants on straight cow’s milk. Formula Alternatives Soy is a dangerous alternative. Some pediatricians will tell mothers of colicky babies to switch to soy formula—beware!

The minerals in soy formula are poorly absorbed, protease inhibitors disturb digestion, and phytoestrogens disrupt hormonal balance. Soy is not even hypoallergenic, often making colic, gas, and other symptoms worse. This is particularly serious in growing babies; however, it is best for everyone to avoid this overadvertised, toxic food. If a substitution must be made for raw cow’s milk, goat’s milk is a possibility. A baby might find goat’s milk easier to digest due to its smaller fat globules and softer protein curds. It has been said that goat’s milk may be less likely to contribute to colic. However, goat’s milk lacks certain nutrients readily found in cow’s milk—namely, folic acid and B12—thus brewer’s yeast and organic raw liver must be added to each batch of formula. Also, goat’s milk tends to be more constipating than cow’s milk. A third possibility is a meat-based formula, which has been a life-saver for several babies with severe milk allergies. Perfidious Fruit Juice Another food often given to infants that can cause trouble is fruit juice. Doctors at Miami Children’s Hospital evaluated the role of fruit juice in colic. They found that the colicky infant group was more likely to suffer from gas, sleep troubles, and increased crying time after drinking apple juice than they did after drinking grape juice. Apple juice contains sorbitol and a higher fructoseto-glucose ratio than grape juice. Ultimately, carbohydrate malabsorption may be the culprit. Both apple juice and grape juice are high in sugar, and an unnecessary addition to the diet, even as children grow older. Can Stress Contribute to Colic? A mother’s emotions can affect an infant. It is known that general distress and high anxiety during pregnancy increases the risk of infantile colic. The explanation may lie in the adrenal glands, both in the mother and baby, since excess stress wears them out. In Let’s Have Healthy Children, published in the early 1970s, the popular author Adelle Davis wrote, “The most important fact to know about colic is that it rarely occurs unless the mother has been on such an inadequate diet during pregnancy that her baby’s adrenal glands are exhausted. Unless the health of these glands is improved, you can expect years of problems associated with faulty adrenal functions, which include allergies, low blood sugar and almost every other abnormality known to man.” Stress can come from many places, including demands at work, environmental insults (pesticides and pollution), allergies, poor diet, and worries about the birth. If an infant’s adrenals are issue 22 | pathways


exhausted, they are unable to make adequate hormones necessary to prevent nutrient loss and help them deal with stress. It is also said that the nervous tension of a mother can upset an infant enough to interfere with digestion, which can then go on to disrupt intestinal bacteria balance. This can lead to malabsorption and pain, and thus more crying. The crying upsets mom even more, and the cycle continues. Finding ways to relax, maintaining a low-key atmosphere, and rolling with the ebbs and flows of an infant will help reverse the cycle and sooth the infant. What about stress experienced by the infant, and its effect on the nervous system? Consider factors like oxygen deprivation from prolonged labor, premature cutting of the umbilical cord, painkillers present in the mother’s bloodstream and excessive ultrasound procedures. The effects of these factors on the neurological development and adrenal health of an infant have not been clearly defined, but the possibility of adverse consequences is real. Often-Overlooked Contributors It is clear the nervous system plays a role in colic and excessive crying. Could common compounds ingested by the mother during gestation and lactation make a baby’s nervous system more sensitive or reactive, thus predisposing him to excess crying? It is likely. The debate over vaccinations is intense. There is evidence to back up what numerous practitioners believe: Vaccinations may have a connection with cognitive dysfunction. Connections have been made with autism and other attention disorders (see the article titled “Autism and Vaccinations” by Mary Megson, MD, at Colic has not been directly linked with autism or vaccinations. However, given the effects of vaccinations on the nervous system, it’s possible they could have a negative impact on mental stability, especially when infants are given their first shot on their first day of life. Another possible influence on brain function is excitotoxins. There is a growing number of clinicians and scientists who are convinced these brain toxins play a role in the development of several neurological disorders, including seizures, infections, abnormal neural development, and certain endocrine disorders. Could they affect colic as well? The connection has not been studied, but the possibility is there. Excitotoxins are readily found in the food supply: They appear in MSG, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, and the artificial sweetener aspartame. Pesticides are another brain enemy. There is substantial evidence that chronic, low-level exposure to organophosphates (the most common class of pesticide) may affect brain function and neurological development in humans. This evidence indicates a strong likelihood that chronic, low-level exposure adversely affects children’s nervous systems. For older children this could mean lower cognitive function, behavior disorders, and other subtle neurological problems. But what about an infant exposed to these substances during gestation or through breast milk? Traditional South African Remedy Rooibos, or redbush, tea is made from the leaves of a South


pathways | issue 22

African flowering shrub. This slightly citric-tasting tea has rosy overtones and a flavor close to that of black tea. It has a significant amount of polyphenol antioxidants and is caffeine-free, to boot! The people of South Africa have been drinking rooibos for more than 200 years, and it is traditionally used to aid nervousness, calm an upset digestive system, and induce sound sleep. It has also been used topically for skin allergies and minor skin problems, including diaper rash. This tea gained attention in the late 1960s when a South African woman, Annekie Theron, found that it eased her infant’s colic. As the story goes, she found no documentation on the benefits of rooibos, so she began her own experiments with local babies who had colic and allergies. She concluded that rooibos helped these babies, and she published a book in 1970 titled Allergies: An Amazing Discovery. Today, South African physicians regularly recommend this tea as an effective stomach soother for adults and infants alike. The gentle-acting tea is believed to also work as an adaptogen, helping the body adapt to stress. Although no formal studies have been carried out, Elizabeth Joubert, a rooibos researcher and author of many clinical studies using the tea, says it does seem to help infant colic. Consider Chiropractic Several studies support the idea that colicky symptoms may be linked to mild biomechanical disturbances of the spinal joints, affecting nerve system function which may be helped by chiropractic adjustments. A large, preliminary study reported significant improvement in colic, often after only a single chiropractic adjustment. Another study revealed that 91 percent of parents observed improvement in their babies’ symptoms after two to three adjustements. In a trial, infants were given either a placebo medication or a series of three to five adjustments using gentle “fingertip” pressure over two weeks. Infants receiving the spinal adjustments experienced a 67 percent reduction in daily hours of crying, compared with only a 38 percent reduction in infants on placebo medication.

Jen Allbritton is a certified nutritionist and has been researching and writing on all topics of nutrition for over 10 years. She lives in Colorado with her husband and son and spends lots of time in the kitchen cooking up Wise Traditions creations. She can be reached at For additional resources and references, visit:

Quick Colic Review Colic is a poorly–defined phenomenon about which science knows very little. The possible contributing factors can be equally detrimental to all infants, regardless of whether colic manifests or not. Thus, these issues should be of concern to all parents. The following is a review of what we do know about helping colic or excessive crying, which we hope will offer some comfort in a harried time:

Symptoms of colic frequently lessen significantly by 4 months of age. So keep your spirits up—it does get better! Also, rest assured: Science does not support the idea that colic is an early manifestation of a difficult temperament. Poor brain maturity is the most accepted theory on the underlying cause of colic, suggesting that the Wise Traditions dietary advice of Weston A. Price is a very promising approach to colic prevention. Problems elsewhere in the body can contribute to crying spells, including reflux, constipation, intestinal dysbiosis, and exhausted adrenal glands. Try different soothing approaches with your infant, and to help prevent overstimulation, try just one different approach at a time. The link between cow’s milk and colic involves the pasteurized, homogenized versions. Raw milk, especially when combined with gelatin, has been shown to reduce colic and support overall healthfulness. Soy milk is a dangerous substitution for milk or a formula base and should be strictly avoided. Avoid feeding juice to children at any age. Try to keep parental and infant stress to a minimum. This could mean slowing down at work, choosing to have a natural birth without painkillers, or making informed decisions at the hospital. These are all choices that should be considered carefully. Be an informed parent when it comes to vaccinations. Read the articles at, as well as the National Vaccine Information Center at Focus on a Wise Traditions diet, devoid of processed foods, which will automatically eliminate the consumption of brain toxins like MSG, hydrolyzed vegetable protein and the artificial sweetener aspartame. Choose properly grown organic or biodynamic foods for you and your child. Check out your local health food stores, farmers markets, or Community Supported Agriculture farms; see for a listing in your state. If your child is excessively cranky, consider trying antispasmodic herbs, rooibos tea, chiropractic adjustments, probiotics and homeopathics. To create your best chances for the happiest, calmest baby possible, contemplate and implement these lifestyle changes well before pregnancy. Once again, the principles of Weston A. Price provide the foundational pieces to optimize health and happiness for everyone!

wellness lifestyle

Eliminate the Fear,

Not the Fever As loving and caring parents, we naturally want to help our children feel better when the inevitable fevers, colds, and illnesses arise.

Many of us will reach for popular over-the-counter remedies to suppress fever and alleviate symptoms, in the belief that these products are reliable. Yet, it is important to recognize that by suppressing fever, we are suppressing a critical immune response—one that has a necessary function in fighting illness.


pathways | issue 22

Š / Kim Gunkel

By Susan Markel, MD


can attest to the enormous fear that fever provokes in parents. By far, the greatest number of after-hours telephone calls are questions regarding the “management” of fever with drugs. Undue attention to a child’s temperature and mishandling of fevers generate a great deal of unwarranted parental anxiety, avoidable medical complications, and countless calls and costly visits to doctors and emergency rooms. As long as we remain captive to the medical myth that nature made a mistake in causing a fever during illness, our children will be put at risk. Yes, fever can be uncomfortable. A child with a high fever will often seem irritable, lethargic, glassy eyed, and listless. This alerts you that the body is mobilizing defense against disease and you, in turn, must care for your child in the most appropriate way: encouraging rest and fluids. On the other hand, there may be no reason to treat even a high fever if your child seems happy, active and alert. The pervasive belief that fever is dangerous and must be suppressed disregards the scientific evidence demonstrating its beneficial role in inflammatory diseases. The immune system depends on the fever to accomplish myriad tasks when gearing up to fight infections. “Fever phobia” is made worse by hearing myths about children being severely harmed by having a high fever. Many people know of children or adults who had a high fever and ended up with some sort of injury…brain damage or hearing loss. These problems are never caused by fever. The likely explanation is that they had a serious illness that gave them a fever, but it was the illness that caused the brain damage or other result. The fever was only the body’s attempt to fight the infection. “Doctors do a great disservice to you and your child when they prescribe drugs to reduce fever,” writes Dr. Robert Mendelsohn, pediatrician and author of How to Raise a Healthy Child In Spite of Your Doctor. “Fever phobia is a disease of pediatricians, not parents, and to the extent that parents are victimized by it, doctors are at fault.” Parents are left to fear that their child’s temperature will keep rising unless measures are taken to control it. Yet, reducing the child’s temperature will do nothing to make the child well, and our bodies have a built-in mechanism that will prevent an infection-induced temperature from reaching dangerous levels. Mendelsohn emphasizes that “only in the case of heatstroke, poisoning, or other externally caused fevers is this body mechanism overwhelmed and inoperative.” “Fever: Your Body’s Defense Against Disease” is the title of Chapter 7 in Dr. Mendelsohn’s book, an excellent resource for parents seeking a balanced and accurate perspective of the beneficial role of fevers in childhood. Dr. Mendelsohn condemns the useless and dangerous practice of fever suppression through drugs, and counters the myth that high fever causes seizures. “Many parents are fearful of fevers because they have witnessed a convulsive seizure and believe their child may experience one if the body temperature is allowed to rise too high. High fevers do not cause convulsions. They result when the temperature rises at an extremely rapid rate and are relatively uncommon.” Only a small percentage of children with high fever experience convulsions, and those who do suffer them do not have any aftereffects. Simple febrile seizures are self-limited and harmless, although they are

Numerous studies have shown that fever enhances the immune response by disabling bacteria and viruses. one of the most frightening things that a parent can witness. Dr. Mendelsohn continues, “Fevers produced by viral or bacterial infections will not cause brain damage or permanent physical harm. Fevers are a common symptom in children and are not an indication of serious illness unless associated with major changes in appearance and behavior or other additional symptoms such as respiratory difficulty, extreme listlessness, or loss of consciousness. The height of fever is not a measure of the severity of the illness.” A child who appears very ill with a fever of 101°F would be much more of a concern to me than a child who feels fine, is drinking and playing, but has a fever of 105°F. Numerous studies have shown that fever enhances the immune response by disabling bacteria and viruses. Also, with a rise in temperature, iron is removed from the blood and stored in the liver, further disabling the rate at which bacteria can multiply. As a note of caution, when a fever arises in a newborn in the first few weeks after birth, there is a heightened level of concern. “Newborn babies may suffer infections related to obstetrical interventions during delivery, ...aspiration pneumonia from amniotic fluid forced into the lungs because of overmedication of the mother during delivery...and exposure to the legion of germs that abound in the hospital itself,” writes Dr. Mendelsohn. Parents are advised to seek medical help if a baby runs a fever in the first two months after birth. As breastfeeding plays a critical role in preventing infections in infants, breastfed babies are superbly protected against a vast range of pathogens and have a lesser risk of developing fevers in the newborn phase. Mistrust of natural processes and reliance on drug-oriented medicine has obscured parents’ understanding of the importance of childhood illnesses and the necessity of fever as a vital aspect of the immune system. When a child has a fever, it is not necessary to artificially lower the temperature. It is, however, important for the child to take in plenty of fluids, because in this time of elevated body temperature, it is easy to become dehydrated. Broth, liquid electrolytes, and fruit juices are great choices because they replace electrolytes that are used up in the fever process. Rest during times of fever will allow the body to use its energy to fight off infection. Make a commitment to spend time with your sick child. Any time that you feel concerned about the way your child is acting, or if your instinct is that something is wrong, do not hesitate to call your doctor. Susan Markel, MD, is a board certified pediatrician and a board certified lactation consultant. On her website www.Attachment, she discusses topics related to pediatrics, relationships and lifestyle issues. While there is no such thing as perfect parenting, peace of mind is not as elusive as it often seems. Dr. Markel welcomes each opportunity to help families move forward with confidence. For additional resources and references, visit:

issue 22 | pathways





ver the past year, we have seen an increase in the number of products that contain beneficial microorganisms, or probiotics. The supermarket shelves are now inundated with yogurts, drinks, smoothies, baby foods, and even breakfast cereal, all costing more than the regular products and claiming to be more beneficial than the traditional brands. While these products may be more appealing to those interested in a “natural” approach to eating well, is this extra expense justified for the health benefits these products claim? First we must look at what probiotics are and how they can be helpful.

While these products may be more appealing to those interested in a “natural” approach to eating well, is this extra expense justified for the health benefits these products claim? In the early 1960s, the term probiotic was first applied to microbes used for medical purposes. A more recent and widely accepted definition of probiotics is, “live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts, which confer a beneficial physiological effect on the host.” A Russian scientist named Elie Metchnikoff (1845–1916) is credited with calling attention to the health benefits of yogurt. Metchnikoff associated the longevity of the Bulgarians with regular yogurt consumption and hypothesized that the lactic acid bacteria in the yogurt counteracted harmful bacteria in the intestines. The use of probiotics has long remained popular in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, but until recent years has been uncommon in the United States. Probiotics are living microorganisms that, when ingested,


pathways | issue 22

provide health benefits by helping to digest food, produce vitamins, stimulate the immune system, and fight infection. Our bodies actually contain trillions of bacteria, most of which are beneficial and help us to maintain normal function. They are found in our mouth, stomach, intestines, reproductive tract, urinary tract, and on and even within our skin. Normally, these bacteria keep the body in balance by protecting us from invasion by pathogenic, or disease-causing, bacteria, including E. coli, Campylobacter, Shigella species, and Salmonella species. The good bacteria create a layer between the body and the harmful bacteria, inhibiting colonization; this is called colonization resistance. Many things can disrupt this protective mechanism, including poor diet, stress, and medications. Most probiotics are taken for traveler’s diarrhea, acute diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, digestive problems, and vaginal and urinary tract infections. The two most frequent reasons to take probiotics are antibiotic-related diarrhea and traveler’s diarrhea. Antibiotic use is the primary cause of the loss of most people’s natural flora, allowing other nonbeneficial floras to proliferate. The antibiotic taken for an infection destroys the bacteria causing the illness, but it may also kill many of the beneficial microflora at the same time. This makes the body susceptible to yeast overgrowth and increased bad flora growth where the beneficial microflora used to be—which puts a person at risk of invasion by other pathogenic bacteria once the antibiotics have stopped. Because of this, repeated use of antibiotics will greatly weaken our immune system, leaving us more susceptible to repeated infections, pathogenic colonization, and yeast overgrowth. When you travel to places your immune system is not familiar with, or to a place where there may be unhygienic conditions,

© / Noam Armonn

Repeated use of antibiotics will greatly weaken our immune system, leaving us more susceptible to repeated infections, pathogenic colonization, and yeast overgrowth. including developing countries and tropical or semitropical regions, the risk of exposure to diarrhea-producing bacteria increases considerably. The food and water that you may consume often contain different bacteria than your bodies are accustomed to. Your health and immune system can be compromised when these organisms are introduced, or when the balance of these organisms changes. People who travel regularly find that having a large amount of probiotic bacteria in reserve in the gastrointestinal tract is greatly beneficial in the event of a new foreign bacterium trying to take over. A placebo-controlled, double-blinded study in Finnish travelers found that the probiotic Lactobacillus GG decreases the incidence of traveler’s diarrhea. Ingesting probiotics can help to replenish the body’s microflora and improve the immune system. Breastfeeding mothers and children can benefit from probiotics for a number of reasons. Newborn infants can benefit from probiotics as well, especially in cases of caesarian birth. When a baby passes through the mother’s birth canal, it experiences its first exposure to, and chance to acquire, beneficial microflora. A child born via caesarian will miss out on that first opportunity to pick up microflora, and may have a compromised immunity and decreased ability to digest the mother’s milk. Breastfeeding will help to expose the infant to microflora through contact with the mammary areola, breast skin, and the milk itself. Many parents note that caesarian born infants have an increase in colic, constipation, and gastroesophageal reflux disorder or GERD. It is believed that because of this missed opportunity to pick up natural microflora, it is more difficult for the infant to

digest and break down the breast milk. Thrush and cradle cap are additional signs that an infant could benefit from probiotics. The use of probiotics is often the second recommendation after spinal alignment in all of these cases. It is important to note that in the first few months after birth, the Bifidobacterium species is the first to appear in the infant, followed by the Lactobacillus species. So, when giving probiotics to infants younger than 4 months of age, it is best to follow nature and only give the Bifidobacterium species (bifidum, longum, infantis, breve), then follow up with both the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species (rhamnosus, casi, salivarius, paracasei). Healthy people see the most benefits by taking 15–25 billion colony-forming units (CFUs) daily. During bouts of diarrhea or detoxification, it is not uncommon to need 200–300 billion CFUs daily for 7–10 days to help replenish the gastrointestinal tract. Infants, children, and pregnant mothers can also benefit from probiotics. Any time that the mother or infant is given antibiotics at the hospital, whether during labor and delivery or just prior to birth, probiotics should be given to both the mother and infant. Children can easily take 50–100 billion CFUs daily for several days when fighting a cold, or 10–15 billion CFUs daily for preventative measures. Infants have safely been given up to 140 billion CFUs per kilogram body weight. These numbers may seem vary large, but when you consider that normally we have trillions of these bacteria in our system and that even the best entericcoated capsules do not deliver all their bacteria to the intestines, these doses are very safe. The only problems that have been reported with probiotic use were identified with elderly or very issue 22 | pathways


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young patients who had severely compromised immune systems, and hospitalized individuals who had open wounds which became infected due to external contamination. There are rare opportunistic infections described for virtually every probiotic species, but the emphasis is on rare. Currently probiotics come in a variety of styles, such as powders, capsules, and liquids. The amount of colony-forming units can be as little as several million to as many as some single-dose sachets of 850 billion CFUs. With such variety, it is easy to become confused about probiotics. There are five important things you need to consider when purchasing a probiotic. First, the name of the type of bacteria should be listed with the Latin genus and species—for example, Bifidobacterium bifidum (or B. bifidum for short), or Lactobacillus casei (or L. casei). There are a great number of species and all of them have different strengths and weaknesses. Some colonize quickly, but do not last long; others are good for fighting unfriendly bacteria but when they ferment they make for a poortasting end product so they cannot be used in making things like yogurt. For this reason the most beneficial products contain a probiotic blend—for example, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, S. thermophilus, and L. bulgaricus.

Š / Wojciech Gajda


Second, the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) should be listed in the billions, not millions. Third, the container should not make any claims that the probiotics heal or cure diseases or ailments, such as promising to beat bloat or tighten the tummy. Products that make these claims are usually not evidence-based and are not third-party tested for quality or potency. It is acceptable, however, for labels to say things like “restores intestinal balance” or “enhances the body’s natural defenses.” Fourth, the best probiotics are generally in the refrigerated section. This prolongs the life of the bacteria by limiting exposure to high temperatures and moisture, which keeps the organisms in a dormant state. A study showed that an unrefrigerated sample of probiotics after three months lost half of the number of CFUs compared to an identical sample stored in a refrigerator. Finally, the manufacturer should be reputable and known especially for their probiotics, and not just a wide range of products. When we take a look at some of the new products that are on the market, they don’t even come close to meeting these criteria. Many of the yogurts, smoothies, and baby foods include the genus and species of the type of probiotics that they contain, but do not list the number of colony-forming units. In many cases, the companies do not know how many live colony-forming units will be present in their product by the time that it arrives on the shelf. The makers of food products rarely do any third-party testing. So, although the label says that live cultures were added, whether those cultures still exist or exist in the same numbers by the time the product gets to the consumer is unknown. Many probiotic companies guarantee the number of colony-forming units at the time of manufacture; the best companies, however, will state that their products will meet the claim on the label at expiration date when stored as directed. Even when products do have adequate amounts of probiotics, many of these products contain sweeteners, including corn syrup, artificial flavors, and dyes. These ingredients greatly inhibit normal immune system function and the benefits from the live bacteria are lost due to the harmful effects of the additives. If you are truly interested in adding probiotics to your diet on a daily basis, you will get more for your money by purchasing a product from a healthcare professional or health food store. However, if you are going to purchase products such as yogurt that normally contain live cultures, it’s much better to purchase the yogurt that contains active (live!) cultures instead of added probiotics. Donald Gerken, DC, DACCP, CST, is a family chiropractor who specializes in pregnancy and pediatrics. He uses a bionutritional approach along with chiropractic and craniosacral therapy to help children recover from autism and PDD/NOS. Dr. Gerken can be reached at 619-422-3088. View article references and author information here:

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family living

Building a stronger, healthier family unit

Fly Fishing is a Family Affair

…one cast at a time.

By Tracey L. Stroup 18

pathways | issue 22


© / Clint Miller / Jacom Stephens / Michael Svoboda / Marek Tihelka

ellness is the big buzzword in the healthcare industry. We all want to be well in our physical, mental, and spiritual health. And as parents, we want the same level of wellness for our children. In order to lay the groundwork for our children’s’ health and wellness, we must teach them healthy habits and relationships, and the balance to make it all work. If this is the goal, then why do we struggle to relay this vital information? In February 2007, CBS News reported on a study conducted about ‘family time.’ The study by Martin Turcotte, titled “Time spent with family during a typical workday, 1986 to 2005,” reported that families today spend 45 minutes less per day together than they did 20 years earlier. On average, a modern family spends about 3.5 hours a day together. Considering a significant amount of that time is taken up by homework, dinner preparations, phone calls, text messaging, and numerous other distractions, how many of those 210 minutes is quality time? How much of it enhances the health and wellness of our families? Our society is plagued with the ‘no time’ epidemic. Our schedules and our children’s schedules are packed full of obligations deemed “more important” than spending time with each other. Time investment in the family itself has taken a back seat over the last few decades. As a result, our children are receiving more influence from TV and video games than from their parents and families. As parents, it is a challenge to provide balance between family and work in such a tough economy. We all want the best for our children. But what is the definition of the “best”? In order to teach the true meaning of health and wellness, we need to clearly define our perspectives and priorities when we are establishing the best life for our children. In the long run, healthy minds, bodies, and spirits are the best gifts you can give. Time spent together and the memories you create are what will stand the test of time and define the next generation’s health and wellness. Solving the Problem Economic pressure is a big contributor to decreasing family time. Our society is in a state of financial crisis, and the future can look a bit dismal these days. It’s an understandable impulse to want to work more and ensure the future. Unfortunately, we can’t predict the future, nor can we ensure it. We can’t even guarantee that all our hard work will solidify any financial stability. But we do have control on how we conduct ourselves as parents. We can instill healthy habits and relationships in our children. And we can create memories that, if nothing else, will make us smile through the tough times. In short, my point is simply this: Go fishing. Yes, fishing. Fly fishing, to be exact. So many memories of my youth are with my dad and brother, fishing at the Little J near my hometown. Actually, a more accurate account of the memory would be me falling into the water more often than I ever caught a fish. Even through my family’s bankruptcy, my father, brother, and I still went fishing.

My brother always managed to maim himself in some way, requiring stitches…and I, of course, could be counted on to fall in. Ah, the memories. All kidding aside, the memories and relationships that were made in the process have carried into my adult life. They are a part of the complete health and wellness package—mind, body, and spirit. So much so that I actually married a professional fly-fishing guide! Okay, my meeting and marriage to Eric really had nothing to do with my ‘fishing memories’ and relationshipbuilding with my father, but it was a nice tie-in. My background is in the health and wellness industry. It has been my way of life and career for the past 25 years. My idea of wellness is a planned workout, good nutrition, healthy thoughts, healthy relationships, and being thankful and dedicated to God: mind, body and spirit in balance. Upon meeting my husband, it was a great surprise to me that the job he did every day had such wonderful wellness concepts and benefits. I soon discovered that fly fishing was not only fun, but it was a wellness activity we could do together! Health is a balance of mind, body, and spirit. Fly fishing provides the avenue to wellness for all three. Calming the Mind The environment and pace of fly fishing can have tremendous effects on elevated stress levels. The serenity and solitude allow more introspection. Thoughts, burdens, and problems, which might seem overwhelming when intermixed in our everyday lifestyle, can be better processed and solved when attention is not distracted by the outside world. And, although the world’s problems aren’t going to diminish cast by cast, fly fishing is a wonderful way to escape and connect with the world around us and with each other. Meditation through fly fishing is yet another component unique to this sport. The practice slows the heart rate, reduces blood pressure, slows the adrenal glands’ production of the stress hormone cortisol, and improves the function of the immune system. On the stream, your focus is solely dedicated to the anticipation of the big one gliding just beneath the surface, and you visualize the cast and the catch. You are truly in the moment, and very much meditating! How wonderful it is that all the required props for the practice of meditation are present every time you walk out to that stream. The beauty of the atmosphere provides the place of serenity, the water is the issue 22 | pathways


family living

symbol of rejuvenation, and the gentle flow of the stream is the focused sound. It all adds up to a great family moment.

photo courtesy of the author

Health is a balance of mind, body, and spirit. Fly fishing provides the avenue to wellness for all three.

Strengthening the Body As a nation, our physical health is not much to brag about. Obesity is the second largest cause of preventable death in the United States. More than 120 million people are overweight in our country; more than 60 million are clinically obese. Why is this epidemic so prevalent? Obviously, nutrition, or lack thereof, is a contributing factor. Low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods have become a common (and overeaten) food source, but mostly our obesity problem is caused by the lives we live. Yes, our sedentary, too-busy-to-exercise, highly stressed lifestyles are making us fatter and more prone to obesity-related diseases. We’re spoiled with computers, elevators, escalators, televisions, intercoms, and remote controls. Who doesn’t search for the remote for 20 minutes instead of adjusting the volume or turning the TV on by hand? Most of the problem lies in the computer-based jobs or activities we do daily. The average American is at his or her job from 10 to 12 hours per day, and most of us are sitting while we work. The only times we move are to use the restroom, refill our coffee, purchase something from the vending machine, go to lunch, or go home. At which time, we hop in the car and drive home to either chauffeur the children from activity to activity or sit in front of the idiot box for hours on end. We have become a culture of “indoor” people, and it has had an awful trickle-down effect on our children. The popularity of television, computers, and video games has translated into a sedentary lifestyle. Plus, these isolated activities contribute to the breakdown of the family unit. We all have to get moving again. Some people do not find exercise an enjoyable activity. Finding alternative activities, especially those that can be enjoyed together, is something to get excited about. Fly fishing can burn between 300 and 400 calories an hour, depending on wading conditions and gear (waders). It requires balance and core stability. You are actually engaging muscles at all times to maintain the vertical position in the water. It is a wonderful way to get fit as a family while enjoying time together. Feeding the Spirit Spirituality is the way you find meaning, hope, comfort, and inner peace in your life. We are not sure exactly how spirituality is related to health, but the three (mind, body, and spirit) seem to be connected. It is believed that faith in a higher power gives hope. Hope breeds positive thoughts and a feeling of well-being. When you are on the stream, there is a sense that something greater created the beauty around you. (I’ve heard many a “Holy


pathways | issue 22

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• An annual complimentary subscription to Pathways— you’re holding it! • Monthly FCL e-newsletter • Monthly Family Wellness First e-newsletter, for headline news • Monthly teleconferences with authors and activists • Monthly Community Group Facilitator Teleconference Orientations and Training • Discounts to FCL and other nonprofit partners events • Community Groups have their own webpage for contact and event information posting

© / Jacom Stephens / Michael Svoboda / Marek Tihelka

cow!” and “Thank God” when anglers have reeled in a big trout, so there has to be something to this Higher Power stuff, no matter what your faith.) I’m thankful every day to God for the gifts he has given me—especially the gifts of awareness and appreciation. Eric and I are expecting our first baby at the end of June. I want the best life for my children and family. As small business owners, Eric and I know the struggles, hard work, and endless hours it takes to make it in our economy. Yet through it all, he still brings me coffee every morning and we take the time to chat over our cup of joe. Even if it means waking up a bit earlier than we have to, we make the time to be together. We laugh when we talk about our unborn child. Our child will ultimately have a dumbbell in one hand and a fly rod in the other. This poor child will experience overkill of the wellness concept. But, hopefully one day when our child is bouncing his or her own child on a knee…the memories, relationships, and quality times we shared as a family will be remembered as the best life we could have provided. Be well…

Tracey L. Stroup, president and owner of Trained By Tracey Inc., has a BS in exercise and sports science from Pennsylvania State University and is a holistic nutritional consultant. Tracey’s success has inspired her to expand the concepts of wellness beyond a studio; now the principles that she lives and teaches can be introduced to a broader base of people. You can find her online at View article references and author information here:

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We Are

What We Think By Patti Leviton, CHT, CGLT, MA

© Jennifer Trenchard /

As a board member of the American Holistic Health Association, as well as a holistic practitioner, I am both intrigued and pleased with the current increase in scientific studies on the body/mind connection. The research of biochemists such as Dr. Candace Pert is proving that there is a connection between our thoughts and emotions—even the words we speak— and our physiology. Her fascinating work is substantiating that our feelings can stimulate certain hormones and chemicals in our body that can enhance or suppress our immune system; that a negative attitude, for example, can literally lower our metabolism. It is not surprising that dieting does not work when we’re depressed! The first step to a more holistic lifestyle begins with being aware. Just by being aware of our thoughts, our state of mind, and our attitudes, we can make a subtle but conscious shift. The body, an obedient and faithful servant, is listening. When I was a child growing up in Chicago, my family started stocking the medicine cabinets, during the fall season, with cold pills and aspirin. The flu season would soon be upon us. Alas, our bodies obeyed (self-filling prophecy), and sure enough, we would spar with a round or two of the flu. The body was indeed reacting as we expected.

Similarly, as we indulge in a marvelous hot fudge sundae, we often say, “I’m going to gain ten pounds!” And maybe we do. The body is always listening. Think about all the negative and often erroneous information we “feed” our bodies on a daily basis. Review your belief systems to determine if what you tell your body is true. Think about the dialogue, the positive as well as the negative things you convey to yourself. What is your belief about your health? What do you tell yourself about the foods you eat, the liquids you consume, the exercise you do or don’t do, your sleep patterns, and any aches or pains you experience? We have the power to control our thoughts, adjust our attitudes and outlook. And slowly, I believe, the body is “given the permission to heal.” We can gradually give the body the freedom to mend, and function, as it was meant to, in a healthy manner. This, indeed, can be the result of our own self talk. Slowly, the body will respond to our verbal or mental affirmations. The second step in this journey of health is belief. Modern science is continually baffled by the phenomenon of the placebo effect. When we believe that a certain procedure or medication will be effective, it usually will. Increasing the efficacy by 50 to 60 percent, I believe our positive self talk to the body is working. Decades ago, during the Vietnam War, ill prepared for the enormity of the conflict, medics found themselves too often tending to the severely wounded with no morphine. Time after time, they would administer an IV saline solution, the only thing they had, telling the soldiers that it was morphine and that their pain would soon subside. Within a short time, the pain was alleviated. How? Sugar water is hardly an analgesic. Did their belief that it was morphine literally trick the body into producing the endorphins necessary to block pain? Lab tests taken on these soldiers who had been given only saline,

but who had been told it was morphine, revealed morphine in the blood. Where did it come from? The body was listening indeed. Wherever your healing journey takes you, be aware of your self talk. Do you believe in the treatment? What is your belief system about each particular modality? If you believe and have confidence, the body hears this and will respond in a positive way. If you are fearful and apprehensive, the body likewise will react in a negative way.

We have the power to control our thoughts, adjust our attitudes and outlook. And slowly, I believe, the body is “given the permission to heal.” The third step in the process is remembered wellness. According to research conducted by Dr. Herbert Benson, Harvard University Medical School, when we visualize or think about our bodies functioning healthfully (remembering a time when we felt our bodies were the strongest and healthiest) certain hormones and chemicals are literally secreted to replicate that good health. Time and again, in my private practice, I use this technique with my clients to promote healing. As they imagine and remember themselves in perfect health, their bodies literally obey. Right now, think about a time when you felt your best, when you felt your healthiest. It could have been last week, last year, or twenty years ago. Close your eyes and literally see yourself as that strong, perfect you. Feel the balance, the strength. Now, throughout your day,

continue to think about that healthy you. The body is listening. Research has proven that just by focusing and thinking about yourself as healthy enhances the immune system. By doing a simple saliva test, scientists are proving that the immunoglobulin A increases, proving a powerful body/mind connection. Your journey to a more holistic lifestyle begins with being aware. Your very thoughts and attitudes can greatly effect your health, positively or negatively: It’s your choice. Then add belief, the strong commitment that what you are doing is in the best interest of your health and wellbeing. And, lastly, focus on the healthy you, the remembered wellness of when you felt the strongest and healthiest. Your body is a faithful obedient servant that will respond. Simple tools to begin your journey.

Patti Leviton, CHT, CGIT, MA, has over 25 years experience with guided imagery. A former stockbroker and trader, Patti had a miraculous healing from cancer over 15 years ago. She is a popular and entertaining speaker, has produced a series of guided imagery tapes and CD’s, and has authored a book, The Miracle of Words: The Power of Words to Heal Body, Mind and Spirit. She and her husband, Charles, have co-authored The Conflict Between Us Is the Conflict Within Me and have a program registered with the State of California for certifying guided imagery therapists. For more information call toll free (888) 7916329 or visit View article references and author information here: references.html.

issue 22 | pathways


chiropractic for life

The New Wellness Care for Children By Scott A. Darragh, DC, MPH

Chiropractic care for children? Many people think that a bad back is the only reason to visit a chiropractor. Often erroneously perceived as natural relief for back pain, the benefits of chiropractic care go far beyond the treatment of bad backs.

The expertise of the chiropractor is in checking the child’s spine for misalignments that impair nerve system function, thereby affecting overall body function. These subluxations interfere with the nerves’ ability to transmit vital information from the brain to the rest of the body.

in good hands chiropractic


hiropractic is a healthcare profession that is very multifaceted, encompasses all ages by taking care of people from the cradle to the grave, and can help regain, restore, and maintain optimal health throughout a lifetime. This applies to the neonate, infant, child, adolescent, adult, and geriatric patient. Chiropractic care is unlimited in its approach to wellness, given the many aspects of health the nerve system affects. What is becoming more evident in society today is the notion that we need to start taking better care of our bodies. We need to start eating better, exercising more, and keeping our bodies more balanced for enhanced health. Chiropractic for adults is very important, but chiropractic for kids is vital. Children today have many more obstacles to face than they may have had 20 to 25 years ago. A doctor of chiropractic’s main focus and objective is to reduce neurological insult caused by what is known as a vertebral subluxation in the child’s spine. Locating, analyzing, and correcting subluxations in the spine can have a dramatic effect on the overall state of a child’s health and behavioral well-being. Why Should Children Have Chiropractic Care? More and more parents are seeking chiropractic care for their children because many spinal problems seen in adults begin as early as birth. Even natural birthing methods can stress an infant’s spine and developing nerve system. The resulting irritation to the nerve system caused by spinal and cranial misalignment can cause many newborn health complaints. Colic, breathing problems, developmental delay, nursing difficulties, sleep disturbances, allergic reactions, and chronic infections can often be traced to nerve system stress (vertebral subluxation). Since significant spinal trauma can occur at birth, many parents have their newborns checked for it. As the infant grows, learning to hold up his or her head, sit, crawl and walk are all activities that affect spinal alignment. These milestones are important times to have a child evaluated by a chiropractor. As the child begins to participate in regular childhood activities, such as skating or riding a bike, small yet significant spinal misalignments (subluxations) may occur. Childhood injury is one of the most common reasons a parent seeks care for their child. If neglected, spinal traumas during this period of rapid growth may lead to more serious problems later in life. These misalignments may or may not result in immediate pain or symptoms. Subtle trauma throughout childhood will affect the future development of the spine, leading to impaired nerve system function. Any interference to the vital nerve system will adversely affect the body’s ability to function and grow at its best. Regular chiropractic checkups throughout childhood can identify potential spinal injury from these traumas, allowing

corrections to be made early in life, to help avoid many of the health complaints seen later in adults. Another reason for seeking out care is the resolution of a particular symptom or condition. Parents often seek care for common childhood conditions—colic, ear infections, asthma, allergies, learning disorders, and headaches (to name a few) —because they have heard from other parents that chiropractic care may help. It is important to understand that the doctor of chiropractic does not diagnose or treat these conditions or diseases. The expertise of the chiropractor is in checking the child’s spine for misalignments that impair nerve system function, thereby affecting overall body function. These subluxations interfere with the nerves’ ability to transmit vital information from the brain to the rest of the body. The nervous system controls and coordinates the function of all the systems in the body: the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, hormonal, eliminative, and immune systems. This is why nerve interference can impair any aspect of health. The chiropractic adjustment restores nerve system function, allowing the body the ability to express a greater state of health and well-being. Your chiropractor will take a case history and perform an exam to determine if spinal subluxations are present. Chiropractic adjusting procedures are modified to fit a child’s size, weight, and unique spinal developmental stage. Given that some chiropractors do not work with children, it is always best to call the office first. Some practitioners tailor their practice around children and focus on preventative health, while others focus on other specialties. All chiropractors on the ICPA website ( focus their practices towards the care of children. Adjustments can be performed with hands, instruments, or pillowlike blocks. They are both gentle and specific to the child’s developing spinal structures. Most parents report that their children enjoy their chiropractic adjustments and look forward to subsequent visits. They also report that their children experience a greater level of health while under regular chiropractic care. Dr. Darragh completed his Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Sherman College of Chiropractic. He promotes conservative chiropractic healthcare for all ages and educates on living a healthier lifestyle. Dedicated to his profession, he is an active member of the American Chiropractors Association, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, and American Public Health Association, and serves on the board of the Massachusetts Chiropractic Society. View article references and author information here: Photo courtesy of Dr. Louis Fernandez & Dr. Tiffany Fernandez of In Good Hands Chiropractic. issue 22 | pathways




Questions About Prenatal Ultrasound and the Alarming Increase in Autism By Caroline Rodgers

In May 2006, figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed what too many parents and educators already knew: The incidence of autism is high, making it an “urgent public health issue,” according to Dr. Jose Cordero, director of the CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. In 1994, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was so rare that it occurred in just 1 in 10,000 births. By 2006, ASD, which is characterized by a range of learning and social impairments, occurred in 1 in 166 children—with no sign of leveling off. 26

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istockphoto / christopher futcher

he steep increase in autism goes beyond the United States: It is a global phenomenon, occurring in industrialized nations around the world. In the United Kingdom, teachers report that 1 in 86 primary school children has special needs related to the autism spectrum. The cause of autism has been pinned on everything from “emotionally remote” mothers (since discredited) to vaccines, genetics, immunological disorders, environmental toxins, and maternal infections. Today, most researchers theorize that autism is caused by a complex interplay of genetics and environmental triggers. A far simpler possibility worthy of investigation is the pervasive use of prenatal ultrasound, which can cause potentially dangerous thermal effects. Healthcare practitioners involved in prenatal care have reason to be concerned about the use of ultrasound. Although proponents point out that ultrasound has been used in obstetrics for 50 years and early studies indicated it was safe for both mother and child, enough research has implicated it in neurodevelopmental disorders to warrant serious attention. At a 1982 World Health Organization (WHO) meeting sponsored by the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and other organizations, an international group of experts reported, “There are several frequently quoted studies that claim to show that exposure to ultrasound in utero does not cause any significant abnormalities in the offspring…. However, these studies can be criticized on several grounds, including the lack of a control population and/or inadequate sample size, and exposure after the period of major organogenesis; this invalidates their conclusions….” Early studies showed that subtle effects of neurological damage linked to ultrasound were indicated by an increased incidence in left-handedness in boys (a marker for brain problems when not hereditary) and speech delays. Then in August 2006, Pasko Rakic, chair of Yale School of Medicine’s Department of Neurobiology, announced the results of a study in which pregnant mice underwent various durations of ultrasound. The brains of the offspring showed damage consistent with that found in the brains of people with autism. The research, funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, also implicated ultrasound in neurodevelopmental problems in children, including dyslexia, epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia, and showed that damage to brain cells increased with longer exposures. Dr. Rakic’s study, which expanded on prior research with similar results in 2004, is just one of many animal experiments and human studies conducted over the years indicating that prenatal ultrasound can be harmful to babies. While some questions remain unanswered, based on available information, health practitioners must seriously consider the possible consequences of both routine and diagnostic use of ultrasound, as well as electronic fetal heart monitors, which might not be safe, either. If pregnant women knew all the facts, would they choose to expose their unborn children to a technology that—despite its increasingly entrenched position in modern obstetrics—has little or no proven benefit?

If pregnant women knew all the facts, would they choose to expose their unborn children to a technology that—despite its increasingly entrenched position in modern obstetrics— has little or no proven benefit? Problems With Sound and Heat Ultrasound operators often find it challenging to keep the transducer positioned over the part of the fetus the operator is trying to visualize. When fetuses move away from the stream of high-frequency sound waves, they might be feeling vibrations, heat or both. As the FDA warned in 2004, “ultrasound is a form of energy, and even at low levels, laboratory studies have shown it can produce physical effect in tissue, such as jarring vibrations and a rise in temperature.” This is consistent with research conducted in 2001, in which an ultrasound transducer was aimed directly at a miniature hydrophone placed in a woman’s uterus. The hydrophone recorded sound “as loud as a subway train coming into the station.” A rise in temperature of fetal tissue—especially one that the expectant mother cannot even feel—might not seem alarming, but temperature increases can cause significant damage to a developing fetus’s central nervous system, according to research. Across mammalian species, elevated maternal or fetal body temperatures have been shown to result in birth defects in offspring. An extensive review of literature on maternal hyperthermia in a range of mammals found that “central nervous system [CNS] defects appear to be the most common consequence of hyperthermia in all species, and cell death or delay in proliferation of neuroblasts [embryonic cells that develop into nerve cells] is believed to be one major explanation for these effects.” Why should neurodevelopmental defects in rats or other mammals be of concern to expecting women? Because, as Cornell University researchers proved in 2001, brain development proceeds in the same manner “across many mammalian species, including human infants.” The team found 95 “neural developmental milestones” that helped them pinpoint the sequence of brain growth events in different species. Therefore, if repeated experiments show that elevated heat caused by ultrasound damages fetal brains in rats and other mammals, a logical assumption is that it can harm human brains, too. In fact, the FDA and professional medical associations know that prenatal ultrasound can be dangerous to humans, which is why they have consistently warned against the nonmedical or “keepsake” ultrasound portrait studios that have cropped up in malls throughout the country. The risks to the baby are potentially higher in commercial enterprises due to the higher acoustic output required for highdefinition images, a potentially long session—as technicians issue 22 | pathways



“…animal studies suggest that neurological, behavioral, developmental, immunological, haematological changes and reduced fetal weight can result from exposure to ultrasound.” – 1982 WHO Report

Elevated Maternal Temperatures Cause Birth Defects Understanding what happens when the fetus’s temperature increases, whether caused by an elevation in maternal core temperature or by the more local effect of ultrasound, is the key to appreciating prenatal ultrasound risks. An individual’s body temperature varies throughout the day due to various factors such as circadian rhythms, hormone fluctuations, and physical exertion. While people can differ up to 1.5°F in each direction of what is considered a “normal” core temperature, the overall average among people is 98.6°F. An increase of only 1.4°F to 100°F can cause headaches, body aches, and fatigue—enough to get the individual excused from work. A temperature of 107°F can cause brain damage or death. A core temperature of about 98.6°F is important because that is the point at which many essential enzyme reactions occur. Temperature affects the actual shape of the proteins that create enzymes, and improperly shaped proteins are unable to do their jobs correctly. As the amount of heat or duration of exposure increases, enzyme reactions become less efficient until they are permanently inactivated, unable to function correctly even if the temperature returns to normal. Because temperature is critical to proper enzyme reactions, the body has built-in methods to regulate its core temperature. For instance, when the body is too cold, shivering warms it up; when it’s too warm, sweating wicks off the heat. For obvious reasons, fetuses cannot cool off by sweating. However, they have another defense against temperature increases: Each cell contains something called heat shock (HS) proteins that temporarily


pathways | issue 22

stop the formation of enzymes when temperatures reach dangerously high levels. Complicating the issue is the fact that ultrasound heats bone at a different rate than muscle, soft tissue or amniotic fluid. Furthermore, as bones calcify, they absorb and retain more heat. During the third trimester, a baby’s skull can heat up 50 times faster than the surrounding tissue, subjecting parts of the brain close to the skull to secondary heat that can continue after the ultrasound exam has concluded. Elevated temperatures that might only temporarily affect the mother can have devastating effects on a developing embryo. A 1998 article in the medical journal Cell Stress & Chaperones reported that “the HS response is inducible in early embryonic life but it fails to protect embryos against damage at certain stages of development.” The authors noted, “With activation of the HS response, normal protein synthesis is suspended… but survival is achieved at the expense of normal development.” Autism, Genetics, and Twin Studies Geneticists are trying to crack the DNA mysteries behind ASD. Recently researchers linked two mutations of the same X chromosome gene to autism in two unrelated families, although they do not yet understand at what stage these genes were damaged. Because sibling and twin studies show a higher prevalence of autism among children in families with one autistic child, geneticists expected to find inherited factors, but despite millions of dollars invested in the search, they found no clear indication that ASD is inherited. Perhaps scientists need look no further than at the thermal effects of ultrasound for answers. If prenatal ultrasound is responsible for some cases of autism, it stands to reason that if a twin were autistic, the other twin would have a high probability of being affected, since both would have been exposed to ultrasound at the same time. In both identical and fraternal twins, one twin could be more severely affected than the other if he or she happened to take the brunt of the heat or sound waves. In the case of fraternal twins, since autism strikes males between three to five times more often than females, the sex of the twins also could make a difference in outcome. / Zsolt Nyulaszi

hunt for suitable images—and the employment of ultrasound operators who may have no medical background or appropriate training. These variables, along with factors including cavitation (a bubbling effect caused by ultrasound that can damage cells) and on-screen safety indicators that may be inaccurate by a factor ranging from 2 to 6, make the impact of ultrasound uncertain even in expert hands. Quite simply, if ultrasound can injure babies, it can cause the same damage whether done for routine diagnostic or “entertainment” purposes.

A 2002 study showed that simply being a twin substantially increased the likelihood of autism, making twinning a risk factor. Could this increased twin risk factor have to do with the practice of giving mothers with multiple gestations more ultrasounds than those expecting single births? While not discounting the role genetics may play in autism, the possible impact of prenatal ultrasound deserves serious consideration. Ultrasound Warnings Unheeded The idea that a prenatal ultrasound can be hazardous is not new. The summary of the previously mentioned 1982 WHO report, “Effects of Ultrasound on Biological Systems,” stated that, “…animal studies suggest that neurological, behavioral, developmental, immunological, haematological changes and reduced fetal weight can result from exposure to ultrasound.” Two years later, when the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a conference assessing ultrasound risks, it reported that when birth defects occurred, the acoustic output was usually high enough to cause considerable heat. Although the NIH has since stated that the report “is no longer viewed…as guidance for current medical practice,” the facts remain unchanged. Despite the findings of these two major scientific gatherings, in 1993 the FDA approved an eightfold increase in the potential acoustical output of ultrasound equipment, greatly increasing the possibility of disastrous pregnancy outcomes caused by overheating. This increase in potential thermal effects happened during the same period of time the incidence of autism increased nearly sixtyfold. Hot Tubs, Steam Rooms, Saunas, and Maternal Fevers This begs the question: If the culprit is heat, then what about other situations in which heat impacts pregnancy? A 2003 study titled, “A Report of Heat on Embryos and Fetuses” in the International Journal of Hyperthermia states, “hyperthermia during pregnancy can cause embryonic death, abortion, growth retardation and developmental defects.” It continues, “An elevation of maternal body temperature by 2 degrees Centigrade [3.6 degrees Fahrenheit] for at least 24 hours during fever can cause a range of developmental defects.” The report noted that necessary data to draw conclusions on exposure times less than 24 hours were lacking, leaving open the possibility that elevated maternal temperatures for shorter periods may adversely affect fetuses. A study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that “women who used hot tubs or saunas during early pregnancy face up to triple the risk of bearing babies with spina bifida or brain defects.” Hot tubs and baths present greater dangers than other heat therapies such as saunas and steam rooms because the immersion in water foils the body’s attempt to cool off via perspiration, in much the same way fetuses cannot escape elevated temperatures in the womb. All of this taken together establishes the fact that heat, whether caused by elevated maternal temperature or by an ultrasound transducer remaining over an area for too long,

an set into motion damaging changes in a developing baby. It’s common sense: Why would anyone think that intruding upon the continuous, seamless development of the fetus, which has for millions of years completed its work without assistance, be without consequences? Vaccine and Thimerosal Controversy Despite long-standing evidence that ultrasound induces thermal effects and that thermal effects can harm fetal brain development, the cause of autism has remained so elusive to researchers that many autism societies use a puzzle piece as part of their logos. Particularly confounding is the fact that ASD plagues the children of high-income, well-educated families who have the best obstetrical care money can buy. These are largely women who take their prenatal vitamins, observe healthy diets, refrain from smoking and drinking and attend regularly scheduled prenatal visits. How is it that even taking all these measures, they still bear children with profound neurologically based problems? Some believe that childhood vaccines, at first available only to people who could afford them, cause autism. Many vaccines contained thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative. Thimerosal was thought to have a cumulative neurotoxic effect on children, especially as the number of childhood vaccines increased during the same period of years that the prevalence of autism increased. However, after an exhaustive review in 1999, the FDA found no evidence of harm in the use of thimerosal in childhood vaccines. Despite those findings, in that same year the FDA, NIH, CDC, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) together urged vaccine manufacturers to reduce or eliminate thimerosal in childhood vaccines. Pharmaceutical companies complied, and ultimately reduced the infant thimerosal exposure by 98 percent. Interestingly, not only did autism rates fail to decrease, they continued to increase. ASD increases are between 10 and 17 percent every year, according to the Autism Society of America, indicating that thimerosal is not to blame. Thimerosal was not the only area of concern in the vaccineautism controversy. Many people believed that a correlation existed between the triple vaccine MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) and ASD. However, a large, retrospective epidemiological study of more than 30,000 children in Japan between 1988 and 1996 found that the autism rate continued to climb after the MMR vaccine was withdrawn. Those results were no different than the outcome of a 1999 study published in The Lancet that showed no corresponding jump in autism in the United Kingdom after the introduction of the MMR vaccine. A 2001 study published in JAMA examining California autism and MMR vaccination rates said the results did “not suggest an association between MMR immunization among young people and an increase in autism occurrence.” While concerns about vaccines and mercury exposure should not be dismissed, evidence to date does not implicate either as a major factor in the explosion of ASD cases. issue 22 | pathways



Global Autism Epidemic Statistics on the increase of autism worldwide among industrialized nations show that it has emerged in just the last few decades across vastly different environments and cultures. The United States, Japan, Scandinavia, Australia, India, and the United Kingdom all show increases in ASD, but differ greatly in climate, diet and exposure to known toxins. No common factor in the water, air, local pesticides, diet, or even building materials and clothing can explain the emergence and relentless increase in this serious, life-long neurodevelopmental disorder. Yet what all industrial countries do have in common is the quiet yet pervasive change in obstetrical care: All of them use routine prenatal ultrasound on pregnant women. In countries with nationalized healthcare, where virtually all pregnant women are exposed to ultrasound, the autism rates are even higher than in the United States, where, due to disparities in income and health insurance, some 30 percent of pregnant women do not yet undergo ultrasound scanning. The Changes in Ultrasound In considering initial studies indicating that prenatal ultrasound is safe, the ways in which the technology and its applications have continually changed and how that has altered the potential exposure of unborn children must be taken into account. In addition to the huge increase in allowable acoustic output in the early 1990s, the following changes have made the field of prenatal ultrasound riskier than ever: • The number of ultrasound scans conducted during each pregnancy has increased, with women often receiving two or more scans, even in low-risk situations. Women in “high-risk” situations may receive many more scans—which, ironically, might raise their risk. • The range of time within an embryo or fetus’s development when ultrasound is performed has extended to very early in the first trimester and continues into the third trimester, right up to delivery. Fetal heart monitors that are used prior to delivery—sometimes for hours—have not been shown to reduce neurological problems and might actually increase them.

to the duration and volume of the human fetal brain exposed by ultrasound which will typically not linger on a given tissue volume for greater than one minute.” This is an excellent point, which is worth pursuing. One of the most popular nonmedical uses of ultrasound, which can extend a medically indicated session, is to determine the sex of the baby. Could this have a connection to the increase in birth defects involving the genitals and urinary tract? The March of Dimes says that these types of birth defects affect “as many as 1 in 10 babies,” adding that “specific causes of most of these conditions is unknown.” Following this line of thought, consider which other parts of the body are scrutinized by ultrasound technicians, including the heart, where serious defects have soared nearly 250 percent between 1989 and 1996. The list of unexplained birth defects is not a short list, and in light of what is emerging about prenatal ultrasound, scientists should take another look at all recent trends. They include the baffling 30 percent increase in premature births since 1981, now affecting one in every eight children, with many showing subsequent neurological damage. Although many claim that ultrasound benefits outweigh the risks, that statement has no basis and much evidence is to the contrary. A large randomized trial of 15,151 pregnant women, conducted by the RADIUS Study Group, found that in low-risk cases, high-risk subgroups, and even in cases of multiple gestations or major anomalies, the use of ultrasound did not result in improved outcome in the pregnancies. The argument that ultrasound is either reassuring to the parents or provides an early opportunity for bonding pales in the face of the possible risks that are emerging as new data become available. Parents and healthcare practitioners might find it hard to turn away from this window on the womb and resume more traditional practices in obstetrics and midwifery. However, with the disturbing trend in autism and other equally troubling, unexplained birth-related trends, it does not make sense to blindly employ a technology that is not reliably safe for unborn babies.

• The development of the vaginal probe, which positions the beam of sound much closer to the embryo or fetus, may put the fetus at higher risk. • Use of Doppler ultrasound to study blood flow and monitor the baby’s heartbeat has increased. According to the 2006 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, “routine Doppler ultrasound in pregnancy does not have health benefits for women or babies and may do some harm.” Increasingly Common Birth Defects Dr. Rakic’s research team, cited earlier in this article for its recent study on mouse brains and ultrasound, pointed out that “the probe was held stationary for up to 35 minutes, meaning that essentially the entire fetal mouse brain would have been continually exposed to the ultrasound for 35 minutes…in sharp contrast


pathways | issue 22

Caroline Rodgers is a writer/researcher who is currently working on a book about the role that variations in body heat play in human biology. She is particularly concerned about ways in which overlooked scientific principles impact public health. Readers can contact her at View article references and author information here: © 2006 Midwifery Today, Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from Midwifery Today, Issue 80, Winter 2006.


The Truth About

PITOCIN By Elaine Stillerman, LMT

There is a little-known law in New York— Public Health Law, Section 2503, passed in 1978—that requires all physicians and midwives to fully disclose and require informed consent from laboring women regarding the use of all drugs during labor and delivery. Unfortunately, many healthcare providers fail to tell their patients about the potential side effects and possible risks involved in adminis-

used during labor: Pitocin.


pathways | issue 22

© / Jon Schulte

tering one of the most common drugs

Pitocin, a registered trademark of JHP Pharmaceuticals, is a synthetic form of oxytocin, the natural hormone that stimulates the onset of labor, promotes a sense of well-being, and enhances maternal bonding. Pitocin is given to women to induce or augment labor. It is manufactured from the pituitary extract of various animals, combined with acetic acid for pH adjustment and less than 1 percent chloretone as a preservative. The routine use of Pitocin is not backed by any scientific data, and the side effects of its use during labor (and sometimes during the third stage of labor to assist the expulsion of the placenta) rarely are discussed with the laboring woman. Regardless of how many labors are induced with Pitocin, most of them are not medically necessary. During the 1980s, Dr. Roberto Caldreyo-Barcia, former president of the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a renowned researcher into the effects of obstetrical interventions, declared that “Pitocin is the most abused drug in the world today.” He claimed its use was medically necessary in only about 3 percent of labors, yet estimates of its use range from 12 to 60 percent. Often, the drug is administered without the woman’s knowledge and she never is told of its potential harmful risk factors. The Physician’s Desk Reference supports the use of Pitocin only when medically necessary, and advises to begin with a minimum dosage to see how the laboring mother tolerates it. The mother should receive oxygen and continuous electronic fetal monitoring, since fetal distress is more common with Pitocin use and needs to be carefully watched. The natural rhythm of labor is supported by the release of oxytocin in bursts, as needed. Pitocin, in contrast, is administered as a constant IV drip that confines most women to bed. This decreases their ability to control the escalating pain caused by drug-induced uterine activity, and laboring women on Pitocin are more likely to require pain medication that slows labor. Think of the dichotomy: Pitocin is administered to speed up labor, but the increased level of pain requires medication that slows it down. In addition, Pitocin often has no effect on cervical dilation, even though the contractions it induces are much stronger. Dangerous Consequences Pitocin can cause a tumultuous, difficult labor and tetanic contractions, rupture of the uterus and dehiscence of a uterine scar, lacerations of the cervix, retained placenta, or postpartum hemorrhage. Postpartum perineal and pelvic floor pain is increased as a result of augmented uterine contractions. Fetal complications might include fetal asphyxia and neonatal hypoxia, physical injury, and neonatal jaundice. The use of Pitocin also might be a factor in cerebral palsy, due to oxygen deprivation, and autism in the child. At the 1996 annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Dr. Eric Hollander of Mount Sinai Medical Center

in New York presented a theory that linked autism with Pitocininduced labors. He put forward the idea that Pitocin interferes with the newborn’s oxytocin system that results in the social disabilities of autism. When he gave autistic children oxytocin, it made some of them four times more talkative and twice as happy, although some patients did not respond. Consider how the heightened, augmented uterine contractions associated with Pitocin might impact the soft fetal cranium, and the possible injurious effect on the cranio-sacral system that could result. Pitocin was first synthesized in 1953, and became available for use two years later. By 1974, it was an established medical fact that its failure rate was 40 to 50 percent. In 1978, an FDA advisory committee removed its approval of Pitocin for the elective induction of labor. Interestingly, the drug never was approved by the FDA for use in augmenting labor. Safe Alternatives for Labor While not all women and their babies are harmed by the use of Pitocin, there are effective, natural ways to coax labor without risk. Sex always has been a recognized method of starting labor. Orgasms cause the release of oxytocin that might initiate the onset of labor in late pregnancy. Sperm contains prostaglandins that encourage the cervix to ripen. There are numerous other ways to induce labor, as well. Spicy foods, long walks, nipple stimulation, the use of certain herbs (including blue cohosh*), castor oil, acupuncture, massage, and general relaxation techniques might all be effective in initiating labor without the harmful side-effects of Pitocin. Labor is a complex physiological function that begins with the harmonious synchronicity of the fetus, mother, and placenta. Any intervention of these essential participants offsets the balance and rhythm of labor. Babies, like fruit, ripen in their own time. The best way to promote a healthy pregnancy, labor, and birth is to let the forces of nature work at their own pace. * Excessive amounts of blue cohosh can raise maternal blood pressure to dangerous levels and might have an overdosing effect on the baby. A naturopath or herbalist should be consulted before recommending this or any herb to pregnant clients.

Elaine Stillerman received her New York State massage license in 1978 and began her pioneering prenatal massage work in 1980. She is the developer and instructor of the professional certification workshop MotherMassage and the author of four books: Mother Massage (Dell, 1992), The Encyclopedia of Bodywork (Facts On File, 1996), Prenatal Massage: A Textbook of Pregnancy, Labor, and Postpartum Bodywork (Mosby, 2008), and Modalities for Massage and Bodywork (Mosby, 2009). View article references and author information here:

issue 22 | pathways



safe sleeping

“Co-sleeping infants nurse more often, sleep more lightly, and have practice responding to maternal arousals,” McKenna reports. “Arousal deficiencies are suspected in some SIDS deaths, and long periods in deep sleep may exacerbate this problem.” Further, co-sleeping makes it easier for a mother to know and respond when her child is in trouble, he says. McKenna’s research shows that co-sleeping is not just a question of convenience for breastfeeding mothers.To safely co-sleep with your baby, consider the following guidelines. Follow the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendation to put all babies to sleep on their backs. It is the safest sleeping position for young babies, regardless of where they sleep. Never drink, take drugs or use prescription medications that cause drowsiness if you are co-sleeping with your infant. One of the major benefits of co-sleeping is the parents’ ability to rouse and respond to the baby. Alcohol, drugs and some medications will impair your ability to wake up if needed. Always leave your baby’s head uncovered while sleeping. Consider putting him in a “sleep sack” rather than using a conventional blanket that may work its way over the baby’s head during the night. Make sure you use the proper bedding and that your mattress fits snugly to the bed frame and headboard. There should be no gaps into which a baby might slide. Eliminate pillows, comforters, quilts, or other soft or plush items. Never place a baby to sleep in an adult bed alone. Consider using a Co-Sleeper® Bassinet, a small, separate bed with one open side that fits up against your bed. Arm’s Reach produces a number of co-sleeping products that give mothers easy access to their babies, while keeping the infant in his or her own space. They provide the convenience of co-sleeping without the risk of a sleeping adult rolling over on the baby.

The vast majority of scientific studies on infant behavior and development conducted in diverse fields during the last 100 years suggest that the question should not be “is it safe to sleep with my baby?” but, rather, “is it safe not to do so?” James McKenna, Ph.D.

Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratories University of Notre Dame

Tips for Safely Sharing Your Bedroom with Baby Of the many philosophical debates in the world of infant care, few are as combustible as whether or not parents should share a bed ( bed sharing ) with their babies. Critics warn of dire consequences, from an increased risk of SIDS to difficulty in learning to sleep independently later in life. But an increasing body of research supports what many Eastern cultures have always believed. Having baby sleep nearby can be safe and beneficial for both parents and child. Despite institutional and social pressure to put babies to sleep by themselves, studies show that at least 50 percent of all American parents co-sleep with their infants at some point. Research by Dr. James J. McKenna and his team at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame indicates that not only can co-sleeping be done safely; it can help reduce the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related problems.

Taking note that there are many lifestyle demands, Arm’s Reach provides a rich assortment of basic units, a variety of conversion options and a large selection of color and decorative choices. To learn more about Arm's Reach Co-Sleeper® Bassinets, visit or call 800-954-9353

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Dr. James J. McKenna, Ph.D.

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issue 22 | pathways


the outer womb

Colic in the Breastfed Baby By Jack Newman, MD, FRCPC

baby starts to have crying periods about two to three weeks after birth. These occur mainly in the evening, and finally stop when the baby is about three months of age (occasionally older). When crying, the baby is often inconsolable, though walking, rocking, or taking the baby for a drive might settle her temporarily. To be called colicky, it is necessary that the baby is gaining weight well and is otherwise healthy. The notion of colic has been extended to include almost any fussiness or crying in the baby, and this might be valid, since we do not really know what colic is. There is no treatment for colic, although many medications and behavior strategies have been tried, without any proven benefit. Everyone knows someone whose baby was cured of colic by a particular treatment. Almost every treatment seems to work— for a short time. In breastfed babies, there are three known situations that may result in fussiness or colic. (Again, it is assumed that the baby is gaining weight adequately and that the baby is healthy.)


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Š / Robert Bocian

Colic is one of the mysteries of nature. Nobody knows what it really is, but everyone has an opinion. In a typical colic situation, the


Feeding Both Breasts at Each Feeding Human milk changes during a feeding. One of the ways in which it changes is that the amount of fat increases as the baby nurses longer at the breast. If the mother automatically switches the baby from one breast to the other during the feed before the baby has “finished” the first side, the baby may get a relatively low amount of fat during the feeding. This can result in the baby getting fewer calories, and thus needing to feed more frequently. If the baby takes in a lot of milk (to make up for the reduced concentration of calories), he may spit up. Because of the relatively low fat content of the milk, the stomach empties quickly, and a large load of milk sugar (lactose) arrives in the intestine all at once. The protein that digests the sugar (lactase) may not be able to handle such a large amount of milk sugar at one time and the baby will have the symptoms of lactose intolerance— crying, gas, and explosive, watery, greenish bowel movements. This may occur even during the feeding. These babies are not lactose intolerant. They have problems with lactose because of the sort of information women get about breastfeeding. This is not a reason to switch to lactose-free formula.

© / Semen Barkovsky / Dean Mitchell

What can be done? a) Do not time feedings. Mothers all over the world have breastfed babies successfully without being able to tell time. Breastfeeding problems are most prevalent in societies where everyone wears a watch.


b) The mother should feed the baby on one breast, as long as the baby breastfeeds, until the baby comes off himself, or the baby is asleep at the breast. If the baby feeds for only a short time only, the mother can compress the breast to keep the baby nursing. Please note that a baby may be on the breast for two hours, but may actually feed for only a few minutes. In that case, the milk taken by the baby may still be relatively low in fat. (This is the rationale for compressing the breast.) If, after “finishing” on the first side, the baby still wants to feed, offer the other side. c) At the next feeding, the mother should start the baby on the other breast in the same way. d) The mother’s body will adjust quickly to the new method, and she will not become engorged or lopsided. e) Just as there should be no “rule” for feeding both breasts at each feeding, there should be no rule for one breast per feeding. Let the baby finish on one breast (compress milk into his mouth if necessary to keep him swallowing longer), but if he wants more, then offer the other side. f ) In some cases, it might be helpful to feed the baby two or more feedings on one side before switching over to the other side for two or more feedings. g) This problem is made worse if the baby is not well latched onto the breast. A proper latch is the key to easy breastfeeding.

Overactive Letdown Reflex A baby who gets too much milk too quickly may become very fussy and very irritable at the breast, and could be considered colicky. Typically, the baby is gaining very well. A baby with this issue typically starts nursing and, after a few seconds or minutes, starts to cough, choke, or struggle at the breast. The baby may come off the breast, and often the mother’s milk will spray. After this, the baby will frequently return to the breast, but might still be fussy and repeat the performance. The baby may be unhappy with the rapid flow, and impatient when the flow slows. This can be a very trying time for everyone. On rare occasions, a baby might even start refusing to take the breast after several weeks, typically around 3 months of age. What can be done? a) If you have not already done so, try feeding the baby one breast per feed. In some situations, feeding even two or three feedings on one breast before changing to the other breast can be helpful. If you experience engorgement on the unused breast, express just enough to feel comfortable. b) Offer feeding before the baby is ravenous. Do not postpone the feeding by giving water (a breastfeeding baby does not need water even in very hot weather) or a pacifier. A ravenous baby will “attack” the breast and cause a very active letdown issue 22 | pathways


the outer womb

Lying down to nurse sometimes works very well. If lying sideways to feed does not help, try lying flat on your back with the baby lying on top of you to nurse. Gravity helps decrease the flow rate.


c) Feed the baby in a calm, relaxed atmosphere, if possible. Loud music, bright lights, and lots of action are not conducive to a successful feeding. d) Lying down to nurse sometimes works very well. If lying sideways to feed does not help, try lying flat on your back with the baby lying on top of you to nurse. Gravity helps decrease the flow rate. e) If you have time, express some milk (an ounce or so) before you feed the baby. f ) The baby may dislike the rapid flow, but also become fussy when the flow slows too much. If you think the baby is fussy because the flow is too slow, it will help to compress the breast to keep up the flow. h) This problem is made worse if the baby is not latched on well to the breast. A good latch is the key to easy breastfeeding. i) Giving the baby two to four drops of commercial lactase (the enzyme that metabolizes lactose), before each feeding will sometimes relieve the symptoms. It is available without prescription, but it is fairly expensive and works only occasionally. j) A nipple shield may help, but use this only if nothing else has helped and only if you have gotten good help without any relief. k) As a last resort, rather than switching to formula, give the baby your expressed milk by bottle.


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Foreign Proteins in the Mother’s Milk Some proteins present in the mother’s diet can be excreted into her milk and could affect the baby. The most common of these is cow’s milk protein. Other proteins have also been shown to be excreted into some mothers’ milk. The fact that these proteins and other substances appear in the mother’s milk is not necessarily a bad thing. Indeed, it should be considered a good thing. Ask your healthcare provider or lactation consultant if you have any questions. Nonetheless, one treatment is for the mother of a colicky breastfed baby to stop eating or drinking dairy products. These include milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and anything else that contains milk. Please note: Intolerance to milk protein has nothing to do with lactose intolerance. A mother who is herself lactose intolerant should also still breastfeed her baby. What Can Be Done? a) The mother should eliminate all milk products for 7–10 days. b) If there has been no change, the mother can reintroduce milk products. c) If there has been a change for the better, the mother should then slowly reintroduce milk products into her diet, if these are normally part of her diet. (There is no need to drink milk in order to make milk.) Some babies tolerate absolutely no milk products in the mother’s diet. Most tolerate some. The mother

© / Nikolay Suslov / stockphoto4u

reflex. Feed the baby as soon as the baby shows any sign of hunger. If the baby is still half asleep, all the better.


will learn what amount of dairy products she can take without the baby reacting. One week off milk products will not cause any problems. Actually, evidence suggests that breastfeeding may protect a mother against the development of osteoporosis, even if she does not take extra calcium. The baby will get all he needs. d) The mother should be careful about eliminating too many things from her diet. Everyone will know someone whose baby got better when the mother stopped broccoli, beef, bananas, bread, etc. A mother who takes all this advice at once might find that she is eating nothing but white rice. Our diets are too complex to be sure exactly what, if anything, is affecting the baby.

Final Note Be patient. The problem usually gets better no matter what. Formula is not the answer. Because of the more regular flow, some babies do improve on formula, but formula is not breast milk. In fact, the baby would also improve on breast milk from the bottle because of the regularity of the flow. Even if nothing works, time usually helps. The days and nights might seem eternal, but the weeks will fly by.




Dr. Jack Newman graduated from the University of Toronto medical school in 1970, and become a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada and was board certified by the AAP in 1981. He has worked as a physician internationally and founded the first hospital-based breastfeeding clinic in Canada in 1984. He has been a consultant for UNICEF for the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, evaluating the first Baby Friendly Hospitals in Gabon, the Ivory Coast, and Canada. Dr. Newman has written several publications on breastfeeding. In 2000 he published a help guide for professionals and mothers called Dr. Jack Newman’s Guide to Breastfeeding in Canada (revised edition, January 2003), and The Ultimate Breastfeeding Book of Answers in the U.S. View article references and author information here:

issue 22 | pathways


movement and learning

Maximizing Infant Development By Charles L. Blum, DC


pathways | issue 22

“An infant always learns. The less we interfere with the natural process of learning, the more we can observe how much infants learn all the time.” —Magda Gerber

© / Danish Khan

The nervous system has aspects of plasticity. As the nervous system develops a balance between gross motor activities, neural patterning occurs. Each movement and transitional phase (body posturing between movements such as crawling or sitting) helps mold the nervous system in its development. The patterning that occurs is specific to each child’s own development, and the transitional phases between each movement are often more important than the final outcome (for example, sitting or standing). Education psychologist Carl Delacato’s early developmental hypothesis suggested that “normal” children go through five stages of development, beginning with the lower spinal cord and medulla oblongata reflexes, which are present at birth to approximately 16 weeks. Next, homolateral function of the visual and auditory mechanisms develops during the pons level at 16 weeks to six months. Then, from six months to one year, the mid-brain develops, providing the cross-pattern mechanism and using both sides of the body together. This is an important area of development, which prepares the child to function in an upright position. Early cortical function develops in the age range of 1 to 5 years. During this stage, there is continued bilateral development, and walking begins. Finally, from the ages of 3 to 8, cortical hemispheric dominance develops, giving right- or left-handedness and continued neurologic organization. Dr. David Walther, a chiropractic writer and researcher who practiced applied kinesiology, maintained, “There is a tendency for adults to force a child to develop too rapidly. The speed of development through these early years is already a marvelous accomplishment. The reason for the parents’ effort to speed the process even more is probably the desire to have a ‘smart, accomplished’ child. Ironically, forcing new activities for which the child is not neurologically prepared disturbs organization, and in many instances may actually cause the child to eventually be inefficiently integrated.” Magda Gerber, of Resources for Infant Educarers (RIE) in Los Angeles, conducted research along the same lines as the work of Delacato and Walther. Gerber began her studies with Dr. Emmi Pikler, pediatrician and professor at the National Methodological Institute for Infant Care and Education in Budapest, Hungary.

In The RIE Manual, Gerber wrote that, “Dr. Pikler is well-known in Europe for her original ideas on infant rearing. After receiving her medical degree in Vienna, she developed what was to become her life-long interest in the physiology in gross motor development. Her research focused on the differences in gross motor development of normal children under two different conditions: 1) when motor development is influenced by adult intervention (positioning, exercising, restricting) and 2) when motor development naturally occurs without adult intervention. Due to findings of her research Dr. Pikler became an advocate of ‘non-interference’ —letting the infant develop at his own rate. She suggested that by allowing the child freedom of movement, parents would develop respect for their baby’s individual tempo and style in other areas of development as well.” Pikler emphasizes, “The Institute withholds ‘teaching’ in any form. Under ‘teaching’ we understand systematic practice of certain motor skills by holding or keeping the child in a certain position, whether by adult or by equipment, or in any way helping him to make movements that he is not yet able to execute by himself in his daily life. Spontaneous, self-initiated activities by the infant have an essential value for his physical and mental development in that the pleasure evolving from exploration and mastery is self-reinforcing. Subsequently, the infant becomes intrinsically motivated to learn.” At RIE in Los Angeles, Magda Gerber stressed the importance of allowing the child to develop without interference. She believed that intervention creates a child less motivated to be inner directed, and can directly or indirectly affect the child’s self esteem negatively. In an account of 722 children raised at the National Methodological Institute for Infant Care and Education, investigators described the children’s movements as well-coordinated, economical, and cautious. “The children, without exception, attained

issue 22 | pathways


movement and learning

the age-appropriate motor skills. They [maintain] a stable, high activity level during the whole period of learning new motor skills, and change their postures on average of at least once per minute.” Gerber also found that a child restricted from moving freely is deprived of the long hours of exercising in transitional postures necessary before mastering the next developmental skill. Parents often want their child to “progress” as quickly as possible with their neuromuscular and intellectual development. Family practitioners need to inform parents of the research that supports allowing children to move within the transitional stages between each posture. These transitional stages are of great importance to the child’s neuromuscular development, as well as their psychological development. Each child has her own individual developmental timetable, and each step she takes along the way is the body’s way of integrating itself into the world. Bypassing some of these steps may initially seem beneficial because it accelerates a child’s development. However, this practice might need to be reconsidered.

Each child has her own individual developmental timetable, and each step she takes along the way is the body’s way of integrating itself into the world.


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While “tummy time” is considered important for child development, what needs to be understood is whether quicker development of specific behaviors is in the child’s best interest. RIE’s philosophy is that each child has an individual developmental pattern. Transitional phases between each developmental milestone are as important as the milestone itself (such as rolling over, sitting, standing, or walking) and developing a child’s innerdependence reduces the need for external dependence that can occur as the child grows up. Consider the following guide for parental intervention for child development: 1. Give a child the greatest control over her body and environment. This involves placing the child in the prone or face-up position, since in this position children have the greatest access to their hands and legs as well as a full view of the world around them. From this position they develop good hand eye coordination and as well as the transitions needed to turn from back to stomach to begin the process of crawling. Refrain from placing children in positions they cannot maintain on their own, including on their stomach before they can roll from their back by themselves, or sitting or standing until they can achieve these positions on their own. This would also suggest that parents refrain from placing their child in car seats for long intervals, in “jolly jumpers,” or in seated walkers. The process of development involves both muscular and neurological development of proper transitions. Getting your child to sit up or walk quickly is not necessarily in his best interest. Children develop at their own personal pace and parents shouldn’t impose preconceived notions or compare one child to another.

Getting your child to sit up or walk quickly is not necessarily in his best interest.

© / Danish Khan

2. Help nurture a child’s inner-dependence and internal strengths. Another important childhood skill, in addition to transitional developmental skills, is learning how to self-soothe. A child crying is an indication of many things. Sometimes it is a child expressing himself or relieving tension; in some instances it may even offer a therapeutic value. Parents need to discern when their child’s crying is more upsetting to them than it is to the child. Aside from the questionable nature of pacifier use, due to its adverse affect on dental development, parents commonly place a pacifier in the child’s mouth to control crying. What RIE has found over many decades is that a child will place their hands in their mouth when they want something to suck. By not using a pacifier, children learn good hand-to-mouth development and can soothe themselves when needed. This also pertains to placing a child in a swing or imposing the parent’s wish that the child would stop crying over the child’s need to learn how to soothe himself. Resources for Infant Educarers (RIE) offers publications and classes that new parents may find of great interest. New parents will find authorities everywhere telling them what to do for their children, yet often the best advice is to use common sense— allowing children to express their individual developmental patterns, and giving them the greatest control over their personal environment while they learn coping skills for self-soothing. These concepts are not about parental neglect, but instead involve being attentive to children in a manner that supports their individual growth and coping skills.

Charles L. Blum, DC, CSCP has been in private practice Santa Monica, California, since 1981. He is an adjunct research faculty at Cleveland Chiropractic College - Los Angeles and associate faculty at Southern California University of Health Sciences. He is also a certified Sacro Occipital Technique cranial practitioner, and on the peer review board of the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research and Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. He has lectured internationally, has written SOT-related texts, compiled SOT and cranial research, and extensively publishes in several peer-reviewed journals and at research conferences. View article references and author information here: Illustrations courtesy of Resources for Infant Educarers, 6720 Melrose Avenue, #1, Los Angeles, CA 90038. issue 22 | pathways




pathways | issue 22

© / digitalskillet


Reflections on


By Naomi

We are not alone in our parenting ways. We are all here together, connected as part of the whole. And the parents who do it all differently are connected with us, too. We just may not recognize it yet. The illusion of separation hurts. If I look at a mother who yells at her child in the park and see her as ignorant and careless, I create my own isolation and pain. If, instead, I notice how she is at her wits’ end, feeling helpless and out of control, I am with her. She is part of me. She is a mother in my own movie, my own life. I have a mother here with me who is having a hard time, and a child who is hurting. How can I help? For my sake, I help because I want a kinder view for me and my children. If I see garbage on the ground in the park, I pick it up because I want the park to be clean. If I see a yelling parent, I want a kind parent and child; so I help. I bring kindness into the world of that moment. I may validate or offer physical help if I can and if it is needed and welcomed. If I can’t help, I hold loving and validating thoughts toward the mother and child. Sometimes a loving and understanding eye contact will make the whole difference. In that split second, the mother connects with me, knowing she is not alone, not judged; she and I are a community. She Aldort, PhD may calm down and kindness may flow through her. I often receive calls from mothers who feel isolated; no one else sleeps with their children, lets them be their own way, etc. Let me tell

you what I see: They want to, they just don’t know, and all human minds are designed to defend their position. If you see them as separate, wrong, or stupid, you isolate yourself and exclude them from the possibility of love. It is the same when we brag about our children: The joy is not personal. Each child is part of the whole. We can rejoice with the successes and happiness of all children and parents. Any child’s happiness is mine and yours, and any pain is also mine and yours. Each parent is part of creating the whole. Our children are not mine or yours as individual parents, but ours to celebrate and nurture together. To create peace, all of us have to get to this loving place of connection. We must take care of every mother and child. Taking care does not mean intervention or judgment, only inclusion and responsibility. This mother is part of me. I have in my community a hurting child and parent. I help, or I hold my loving thoughts. It is like having pain in my arm. My arm is part of the body—I see it as me and I care for it. The upset mother is also part of my universe, to be taken care of—with love.

Naomi Aldort, PhD, is a parenting/family counselor who works with parents and educators internationally by phone, in family intensive retreats, and in parenting workshops. She is an inspiring public speaker and an internationally published writer. Visit her online at View article references and author information here: issue 22 | pathways


holistic healthcare

Lyme Disease AN INTEGRATED APPROACH By Andrea Candee, MH, MSC

Named for the town of East Lyme, CT, where the disease was first identified, Lyme disease is transmitted when an infected tick passes a bacteria known as a spirochete into the bloodstream as it feeds off its human host.

Researchers Still Puzzled In many cases of chronic Lyme, medical researchers cannot understand why symptoms persist when intensive testing fails to reveal signs of the Lyme bacteria in blood or spinal fluid. According to a 2001 article by Philip J. Hilts in The New York


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Times, researchers account for these symptoms by assuming that Lyme has led to autoimmune dysfunction without considering that the tick may have passed more than just bacteria into the human host. In my own client population, I have found the majority of long-term Lyme cases complicated by viral co-infections. Common Scenario of Infection In recent months, doctors are discovering Bartonella bacteria piggybacking the spirochete. Bartonella infection is also called cat scratch fever—likely picked up by the tick feeding on a cat. If the tick can pick up a bacteria from a cat, why not viruses from dogs and mice? A common scenario is for a tick to feed on a dog, picking up a strain of parvovirus; feed on a mouse, picking up a strain of hantavirus; feed on a deer, picking up the spirochete; and then feeding on the human and passing along the spirochete piggybacked by viruses. It’s also possible for a tick to pick up neuroviruses from other wildlife and pass them into the central nervous system of the human host.

© / Aldo Murillo

The conventional medical approach is to treat Lyme disease with antibiotics. When a child or adult is quickly treated with an appropriate antibiotic, the result is usually a swift and positive healing. However, if the person does not recover with the first round of antibiotics, additional rounds are routinely prescribed, often leading to “antibiotic cocktails.” Long-term antibiotic therapy can result in an imbalance of microorganisms in the intestinal tract and deplete the functioning of the immune system, making the body more susceptible to other illnesses. Consider taking the best of both conventional and holistic medical practices by integrating natural remedies with antibiotic therapy. The natural remedies can help keep the body strong while the antibiotic does its job.

The Integrated Approach When my son had Lyme disease, blood tests confirmed that it was accompanied by the virulent bacteria, Ehrlichia, and his doctor immediately put him on an antibiotic. Of course, I gave him probiotics and echinacea as described below. However, since antibiotics do not treat viruses, rather than waiting to see if one round of antibiotics would bring him to total recovery, I tested him for viruses, using kinesiology. I gave him natural remedies that specifically addressed the particular strains of virus that commonly piggyback the spirochete for which he tested positively. When children and adults do not fully and quickly recover with a round of antibiotics, it may be because viruses are also involved. They do, however, respond to natural remedies designed to address the specific viruses, remedies which can be given along with antibiotics without the treatments interfering with each other. If your Lyme disease is not responding well to the antibiotics alone, or if you have been suffering with chronic Lyme disease in spite of long-term antibiotic therapy, you may wish to consult a health practitioner who is familiar with the viruses that are known to be present in the ticks that transfer this disease. Increasing Good Bacteria Friendly bacteria and yeast microorganisms live harmoniously in the intestinal tract. An antibiotic does not differentiate between beneficial and harmful bacteria and, in its quest to go after the “bad guys,” may deplete the “good guys” located in the intestinal tract. When the level of good bacteria is depleted, the yeast that is regularly kept in check by the “good guys” has an opportunity to grow out of control. Yeast overgrowth can cause a variety of symptoms, including bloating, gas, itching, sugar cravings, brain fog, mouth sores, headaches, weight gain, mood swings, depression, and extreme fatigue. Acidophilus and other probiotic, active bacterial cultures in yogurt (plain yogurt without added sugar, as sugar feeds yeast) help to bring balance to the intestinal flora by repopulating the good bacteria. Probiotics are available in capsule, liquid, and tablet form, and are best taken three times a day, an hour before or after the dose of antibiotic, and continuing for at least three weeks following the antibiotic therapy. Making the last daily dose right before bedtime gives the good bacteria a chance to grow unimpeded overnight. Immune Support Echinacea, known to gardeners as the purple coneflower, is a popular, nontoxic herb easily found in health food stores. Echinacea helps to support immune systems in danger of becoming depleted by antibiotic use. Although it is available in tea and capsule form, the liquid alcohol extract of echinacea is the most potent and effective form of the herb, and is safe for adults and children alike (except for individuals with autoimmune disease). One teaspoon, diluted in a small amount of water or juice, taken three times a day, can accompany the antibiotic therapy (see my book, Gentle Healing for Baby and Child [Simon & Schuster] for dosing instructions for children). To further strengthen the immune system, take the echinacea for a few weeks after the antibiotic is finished. Cycling it for 10 days on and 4 days off will keep your body from becoming resistant to its benefits and give you

an additional immune-stimulating boost each time you go back on it. People often feel weakened after an extended therapy of antibiotics. Supporting the body’s immune system during treatment will help them feel stronger when the therapy is finished. Reducing Sugar Intake Bacteria and viruses feed on sugar, so it’s a good idea to reduce sugar intake. Desserts should be limited to low-sugar fruits (e.g., strawberries, raspberries and blueberries). Keep in mind that many fresh and dried fruits, and fruit juice, have a high sugar content (e.g., bananas, raisins, and apple juice). This would be a good time to eliminate junk foods and eat healthpromoting foods like pesticide-free vegetables, antibiotic-free chicken, fish, grains, organic eggs, and nuts, so as not to pose any additional challenges to the body. Check with your local health food stores and organic produce departments in supermarkets for the best choices. Protecting Against Tick Bites The safe, natural way to prevent tick bites is with the essential oil of eucalyptus, found at health food stores. The strong but pleasant smell seems to effectively repel the ticks. There are three ways to use this aromatic oil. 1. In a spray bottle, mix 16 ounces of water with 1 ounce eucalyptus oil. Spray the mixture on the skin before an outdoor activity. The bottled mixture remains potent for many months. 2. For longer protection, such as a hike in the woods, mix 10 drops eucalyptus into 1/2 ounce almond oil or sunflower seed oil, and apply to skin and clothing. A larger amount can be premixed for a camping trip or for sending with a child to summer camp. 3. Protect your dogs and cats from ticks and you will also be protecting yourself! Some people never touch a blade of grass yet get Lyme disease anyway, and wonder why. Your pet may be transporting the ticks into the house. Dip a thin rope into the eucalyptus oil and wrap in a bandana. Tie the bandana around your pet’s neck, refreshing the rope twice a week. Your pet will look fashionable and be protected at the same time! It is best not to tie the eucalyptus rope directly onto your pet’s skin, as it may cause irritation. The spray bottle of eucalyptus and water may also be used to spray your pet’s coat before an outdoor romp in the grass or the woods. Choosing the pleasures of country life over city life means we must learn to cohabit with nature harmoniously. The fewer chemicals we use internally and externally will mean safer groundwater and air, healthier bodies, and a reverence for life around us.

Andrea Candee, MH, MSC, is a holistic health practitioner and author of the award-winning book, Gentle Healing for Baby and Child. She lectures for the New York Botanical Garden, garden clubs, schools, and corporate wellness centers about natural approaches to health and well-being. Andrea is known nationally for her unique approach to reversing chronic Lyme disease. For more information visit: View article references and author information here:

issue 22 | pathways



Gratitude & Appreciation AS A SECRET TO SUCCESS By Jack Canfield

The best attitude you can possibly aspire to express year-round is one of gratitude and appreciation. Being truly grateful for what is already present in your life will automatically and effortlessly attract more good into your life. 48

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© / webphotographer

Make a conscious decision to appreciate and acknowledge all that you have already been blessed with. These emotions are of the highest vibrational frequency, and through the Law of Attraction they will attract even more to be thankful for. Try to be grateful for even the difficult and challenging situations that arise in your life. It is often through these situations that we experience the most profound spiritual and emotional growth. You can learn to view each apparent obstacle as an opportunity to develop a new quality, strength, skill, insight, or wisdom, and be grateful for the lessons. Each challenge is an opportunity for growth and expansion. Rise to these occasions, and appreciate all that you are learning in the process. Keeping your attitude positive and appreciative through these times will not only help to avoid attracting more of these difficult situations into your life, it will also create a field of positive energy that will attract more of what you do want.

Of all the attitudes we can acquire, surely the attitude of gratitude is the most important, and by far the most life-changing. – Zig Ziglar Carry a Reminder Try carrying a small token—a stone, crystal, or some other meaningful object—with you each day in your pocket. Throughout the day, each time you reach into your pocket for your money or keys it will serve as a tangible reminder to stop and think of something you have to be grateful for. This is a great way to increase your awareness of all that you have to be appreciative of. Take a moment to breathe, and really feel the emotion of gratitude. This simple mindfulness technique helps to raise your vibrational frequency and keep you in a state of constant gratitude. Keep a Journal Start keeping a daily “Gratitude and Acknowledgement” journal. This is a necessary and valuable tool in the development of your growth and awareness. This book is not intended to be a long, drawn out “diary” sort of thing, just a short, simple list of things you are grateful for on that particular day. This is a place to honor and appreciate the good in your life. Gratitude Each evening, before going to bed, take a few minutes to review your day. Think about the day’s events. Become aware of how many good things actually happened on that day, and remember to appreciate even the challenges that you encountered. Select five things, people, or events that you are most grateful for. There is no right or wrong here, just whatever or whomever you are sincerely grateful for on that particular day. It may be the warm sun on your face, a cool breeze, a kind word, a friend, or just feeling good about what you got accomplished that day. It


Select five things, people, or events that you are most grateful for. There is no right or wrong here, just whatever or whomever you are sincerely grateful for on that particular day.

may be the way you handled a particular situation that would have thrown you into a tailspin in the past. Anything you are grateful for. As you write them in your journal, feel the gratitude and appreciation. Give thanks. Acknowledgement Take a moment to acknowledge the changes that are occurring for you personally. Write them down. Acknowledge just how the Law of Attraction is working in your life. Write down any specific event where the Law of Attraction was at work—the parking space you envisioned, the meeting you wanted to schedule, the bonus check you received, the grade you wanted, or the person who said “yes” when you asked them out. Miracles can—and do—occur on a daily basis. They are happening all around you. Honor them, and notice them. Through acknowledgement, you will become more and more aware of the amazing synchronicity that is already at work in your life. Make the time you spend in contemplation and writing in your Gratitude and Acknowledgement Journal a sacred part of your daily routine.

Your continued expressions of joy and gratitude will draw even greater joy, love, and abundance into your life. You will begin to notice a change in your perception of each day’s events. You will become more aware of the positive things that happen all around you every single day. Your focus will shift, your energy will shift, and you will begin to appreciate how blessed you already are. And...the Law of Attraction will respond to the higher vibration you are creating. Enjoy the journey. Live each day in joy and gratitude. © 2008 Jack Canfield

Jack Canfield, America’s #1 Success Coach, is founder of the billiondollar book brand Chicken Soup for the Soul and a leading authority on Peak Performance and Life Success. If you’re ready to jump-start your life, make more money, and have more fun and joy in all that you do, get your free success tips from Jack Canfield now at View article references and author information here:

issue 22 | pathways


parent perspective

Colic and Chiropractic We had an overwhelming response from pathways readers and friends writing about their experiences with colic. Many parents expressed frustration with the numerous ineffective approaches to colic, drug side effects, and the advice to stop nursing. The following is just a sampling of the comments we received from parents expressing their enthusiasm for the benefits of their children’s chiropractic care. 50

pathways | issue 22

Every Parent Should Know This!

Our third child was the first child with whom we experienced colic. We were caught off-guard. It was a low point in parenting. We all felt helpless and tired. Our sweet 3week-old baby girl transformed one evening into a crying, miserable, and inconsolable child. It happened every night at the same time for the same length of time. We had resigned to walk the halls of our house with a screaming baby at night until she stopped. On her fourth-week pediatric visit, I mentioned the symptoms to her pediatrician, and she was easily diagnosed with colic, which I knew nothing about. The doctor matter-offactly predicted it would last three to four months. Yikes! The initial solutions online only made us more nervous, more frantic, and self-doubting. They included: a hundred-and-one ways to burp, upright bottle feeding, swaddle tighter, don’t swaddle, massage techniques, food do’s and don’ts for the breastfeeding mom, white noise, how to hold your baby, pacifiers, Mozart music, long baths, gas drops, and as a last resort just put them down and deal with tough love. It was so overwhelming! And to make matters worse, nothing helped. If anything, we were worse off than before because we thought something might work. Every day we tried something different. It was all false hope. We are college-educated, rational parents, and felt that this shouldn’t be so difficult to “fix.” We wanted to help her. We wanted her to be calm, happy, and rested. We needed sleep. We were desperate for a cure. The great news is there is a solution. We found it and it is one of the worst best-kept secrets. Every parent should know this! Have your baby adjusted. It’s that simple. Two weeks later at my chiropractic appointment, my chiropractor overheard me at her office groaning about our situation and immediately adjusted our baby, who was with me. That first adjustment meant a good night’s sleep for all of us for the first time in a long time. I quickly discovered how long the adjustment would last before the colic would return. I went back every three days for a couple of weeks. As she grew bigger, the effect of the

photo courtesy of Drs. Donna and Dominique Scott of Life Chiropractic of the South Bay

adjustment would last longer, so we could go every four or five days until she outgrew the colic. What I would have given to have found out sooner. I had never considered adjusting my other children so young. Our baby responded so well to her adjustments. She was free from this horrible colic condition. My husband and I went on to have twins when she was 18 months old. I brought the two of them in to the chiropractor’s office as soon as I could drive after the delivery. I wasn’t taking any chance with two! Adjustments are the best preventative healthcare I can give my children. Mother: G.W.; State: Texas Chiropractor: Sandra Carrell Tremblay, DC Completely Stopped All Medications I have a 10-month-old baby girl. Starting at three months, she became very colicky. She spit up constantly. We took her for tests at our local hospital and they told us that she did not have reflux. At six months, with the problems only getting worse, the pediatrician decided to start her on a histamine-2 blocker, Zantac. When she continued to spit up every hour, they tried to change her medication to Prevacid. Initially we saw a small decrease in her reflux although it was still occurring every couple of hours. The next step was to double her dose of Prevacid. It was a dose not even recommended in babies her age! At no point in her short little life had she ever slept through the night. At this point, my husband and I decided to try another approach. I spoke with one of my colleagues at the hospital and she recommended chiropractic. I was very hesitant to take my infant, now eight months old, to a chiropractor. Neither my husband nor myself had ever had chiropractic care. After her very first adjustment, she slept thru the night!!! It was like we had a different baby. Right from the start her signs and symptoms of reflux diminished. We took her three times a week for almost three weeks. By the end of the second visit, I completely stopped all of her meds. By the end of three weeks, she rarely spit up and she slept through the night consistently. Brooke is now 10 months old. She almost never spits up and is a very happy baby. Chiropractic care has made a huge difference in her. Mother: L.W.; State: Michigan Chiropractor: Andy Boesky, DC She Sighed Out Loud in Relief

In May of 2006, we became first-time parents. Although my grandmother talked about this “colic” thing, I hadn’t paid much attention until we experienced the screaming pain and sleepless nights of our newborn for one month. We tried everything: warm baths, walking, swaddling, singing, bouncing, pacing and praying. We took her to the pediatrician, who confirmed she had colic. When he started to write the prescription for our 7 pound 2 ounce baby, I asked, “Does this cure the colic?” “I wouldn’t say cure,” he responded, “but it might help a bit.” I left the office and tossed the scrip. Three weeks more of colic and we were becoming delirious. Something told me to go to my chiropractor for help. I walked into her office, holding out my baby and sobbing. When my chiropractor gave my baby her first adjustment, I remember hearing my little one-month-old baby sigh out loud in relief. That night, for the first time ever, she slept for 12 hours straight. The inconsolable screaming stopped as well. I have the before-and-after pictures of a discontented baby transformed

into a contented baby. When people ask me about chiropractic care for newborns and toddlers, I cannot express enough how it truly saved us from a complete physical and mental breakdown. Colic is a very exhausting and stressful experience for the entire family. Everyone can benefit from healing the body from the inside out. What a gift our chiropractor has given us! Mother: H.W.; State: Michigan Chiropractor: Dr. Laura McMahon Her First Adjustment Changed Their Lives I have been seeing a chiropractor for many years. I made numerous visits to the chiropractor when I was pregnant to help alleviate discomforts of back pain and leg swelling. My chiropractor explained how the adjustments in pregnancy could make birthing easier. She was right! I delivered naturally, without an epidural. After my daughter Ashley’s birth, I continued to get adjusted, but did not grasp how chiropractic could help my newborn. For weeks my baby was crying, and spitting up constantly. She would only sleep when she became so exhausted from crying that she had to sleep. Most of the time we could not cradle her; we had to hold her upright because of the reflux. I was afraid I would have to stop nursing her and put her on formula and medication. After her first adjustment, she stopped crying, nursed really well, and fell asleep. It brings me to tears to think about that first adjustment and how it changed our lives. After that, I brought in Ashley to maintain her alignment. I highly recommend getting your child checked by a chiropractor, no matter how young they are! Mother: G.A.; State: Michigan Chiropractor: Sarah Tietsort, DC No Longer Skeptical

Our daughter had been experiencing a lot of fussiness and crying all day, and at night it would get even worse. We tried over the counter meds recommended for colic, nursing in different positions (recommended by lactation professionals), and even massage therapy. Nothing seemed to work for any length of time, and she looked like she was always in pain. People suggested chiropractic. I was a bit skeptical, but I decided to bring her in for an adjustment. Incredible changes happened—it was like night and day. Finally, she slept. There was such an improvement in her mood and personality. After five adjustments, she is like a new baby—all smiles and giggles. Mother: L.G.; Province: Manitoba Chiropractor: Dr. Chris Kramp Chiropractic Care Brings Peace Four weeks after Layla was born, I wasn’t sleeping more than an hour at a time, a few times a night. I was crying every day, because I felt completely helpless. I had this beautiful baby who never stopped crying. I brought her to the chiropractor at 4 weeks old, and after four weeks of care, she cried considerably less. Now she only cries when she needs something…and I never cry, except for tears of joy. When Layla got her two-month shots at the pediatrician’s office, she had a reaction. She was crying hysterically and she refused to eat. We rushed over to our chiropractor’s office. Layla stopped screaming and became peaceful after the adjustment. Mother: K.F.; State: Nevada Chiropractor: Dr. Shadia Koury issue 22 | pathways


research review

Chiropractic Care of Children with Colic By Joel Alcantara, DC


n December 2008, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the National Health Statistics Report on the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by adults and children in the United States for 2007. The authors—Patricia Barnes and colleagues—found that when it comes to children, the most common CAM therapies are natural products and chiropractic spinal manipulations. These findings are not surprising to most chiropractors and their patients. Chiropractors attend to the care of children for a variety of conditions, including asthma, ear infections, ADHD, autism, and the focus of this article: colic. Commonly defined as “unexplainable and uncontrollable crying in babies from 0 to 3 months old, more than three hours a day, more than three days a week for three weeks or more, usually in the afternoon and evening hours”, colic is such a common condition of childhood that it is said to affect some 16 to 26 percent of children in their first year of life. Mistakenly identified as a benign condition of childhood, the condition is stressful to both parents and healthcare providers alike. Parent-child interactions have been found to be less than optimal when a child has colic. Afflicted families experience more problems in their daily functioning than families without colicky infants. Further, colicky infants may be at greater risk of child abuse and Shaken Baby Syndrome. Given the lack of effectiveness of various pharmaceutical interventions in the treatment of infantile colic and concerns about adverse effects of these drugs, parents are turning to chiropractic for an


pathways | issue 22

alternative approach to care. Pharmaceuticals like simethicone, dicyclomine, and methylscopolamine have been found in randomized controlled clinical trials to be either ineffective or unsafe for use in infants with colic. Adverse effects associated with these medications include drowsiness, constipation, and diarrhea, as well as more serious effects such as apnea, seizures, and coma. A number of case reports have been published in the biomedical literature describing the successful chiropractic care of infants with colic as well as a large number of children undergoing chiropractic care. Nilsson, in a retrospective uncontrolled questionnaire study of 132 infants with colic, found that 91 percent of the parents reported an improvement following an average of two to three patient visits and one week after initiating care. Klougart and colleagues described 316 infants suffering from colic receiving chiropractic care. Based on an analysis of diaries kept by their mothers and parent interviews, 94 percent of the patients benefited from chiropractic care. In 1999, Wiberg and colleagues published a study examining the short-term effect of chiropractic treatments of children with colic. In a controlled clinical trial taking place in a private chiropractic practice, children were randomized into two groups. One group received chiropractic care for two weeks while the other was treated with the drug dimethicone for two weeks. Changes in daily hours of crying were monitored and registered in a colic diary. By the end of the first week of care, the number of hours of crying were reduced by 1 hour in the dimethicone group compared with 2.4 hours in the chiropractic

Š / Catherine Yeulet

group. In the second week of care, crying remained reduced by 1 hour in the dimethicone group, whereas crying in the chiropractic group was reduced by 2.7 hours. This study demonstrated that chiropractic was superior to dimethicone in the care of children with infantile colic. In 2001, however, Olafsdottir and colleagues investigated the efficacy of chiropractic care in the management of infantile colic. Eighty-six infants with colic were recruited to a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Forty-six infants received chiropractic care, while 40 were placed in a control group that received no care. The investigators found that there was no significant effect of chiropractic, since 32 of 46 infants in the chiropractic/treatment group (i.e., 69.9 percent) and 24 of 40 in the control group (i.e., 60.0 percent) showed some degree of improvement. How can we explain such differing results? A closer examination of the study by Olafsdottir and colleagues reveals what might help to explain the differences in finding of the two studies. First, the Olafsdottir study followed a specific method of chiropractic treatment—described as manipulation and mobilization using “light fingertip pressure�—that was agreed upon by a reference group of 14 chiropractors. None of these 14 chiropractors have ever been identified and insofar as one can determine, this light fingertip pressure was nothing more than light massage over the lumbosacral region. The Wiberg study, on the other hand, utilized a single chiropractor to provide chiropractic treatment (also described as “light fingertip pressure�), but rather than following a set protocol (i.e., fingertip massage over the lumbosacral region only), the Wiberg chiropractor performed spinal adjustments (i.e., modified force appropriate for a baby) on the colicky patients based on his examination findings augmented by his clinical expertise (i.e., full-spine care). In addition to the chiropractic spinal adjustments, a chiropractor can utilize other conservative care approaches for the colicky baby. Dietary interventions, herbal remedies, and behavioral interventions for the child have been shown to be effective, as have parental counseling and general support and reassurance. For example, a low-allergen diet for the breastfeeding mother and low-allergen formula for the baby, or the intake of sucrose solution, have been shown to decrease the symptoms of colic. In short, chiropractic care is at its most effective when individualized to the specific patient. The one-size-fits-all approach used in the Olafsdottir study likely hamstrung the effectiveness of the treatment. But when patients are treated as individuals, as in the Wiberg study, chiropractic has undeniable benefits. Dr. Joel Alcantara, research director of the International Chiropractic Pediatric Association (ICPA), has published numerous papers and has brought his enthusiasm and passion for research to the ICPA. On behalf of the ICPA he is spearheading the profession’s largest and most successful practice-based research network (PBRN) and continuously oversees numerous projects relevant to evidence-based family chiropractic care. View article references and author information here:

The HPA: Alliance for Holistic Family Health and Wellness offers resources and timely information helping parents make informed health care choices for pregnancy, birth, and childhood. We are committed to supporting parents who seek a holistic


model of health care and empowering parents to build healthy bodies and spirits in their families. Visit our web site to find a holistic practitioner.




informed c h o i c e

Fluoridation flows and

flaws Fluoride recently began flowing through the tap water into millions of Southern California households. But the pipeline of information to warn the public about fluoride exposure is apparently clogged up with something.

By Darrel Crain, DC


any people need to avoid fluoride altogether to preserve their health. We know this because scientists in government agencies have documented it thoroughly. Babies up to 1 year of age; pregnant women; elderly individuals; and anyone with kidney problems, thyroid problems, liver problems, diabetes mellitus, or cardiovascular problems all need to be as fluoride free as possible. The level of fluoride added to the water, we are repeatedly told, is “optimal” and “safe.” Unfortunately, the level of fluoride in the water is meaningless until we know the actual daily dose an individual receives. People who drink lots of fluoridated water are getting far more fluoride into their bodies than those who drink little. And water is just the first item on the list, because exposure to fluoride and fluoridated water comes from many sources. Watch for fluoride toothpaste, mouthwash, dental treatments, soft drinks, juice, commercially raised fruits and vegetables (grown with fluorine-containing pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer), processed and canned


pathways | issue 22

© / Deniz Unlusur

food, wine, beer, coffee, and tea, to name a few sources—not to mention increasing fluorine pollution in the environment. The U.S. Public Health Service reported in 1991 that people living in cities with “optimal” water fluoridation can easily receive a total daily fluoride exposure exceeding 6.5 milligrams per person —more than 600 percent higher than the “optimal” amount. Perhaps our regional health leaders are reluctant or even embarrassed to post warnings about known safety problems with the public water supply caused by the intentional addition of fluoride, or maybe they are just too busy. The government research quoted below is probably in their files. One of them might even be planning to write a press release sooner or later, but who knows? In the meantime, the following notes of caution may help fill the information gap. In October of 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated that fluoridated water marketed for use in infants cannot claim to reduce the risk of dental cavities. One month later, in November of 2006, the American Dental Association (ADA) announced that babies up to 1 year of age should avoid fluoridated water because they are at high risk of developing dental fluorosis. This defect of tooth development can result in staining, pitting, and corrosion of the enamel. “In Canada, we are now spending more money treating dental fluorosis than we do treating cavities. That includes my own practice,” says Hardy Limeback, PhD, DDS, and former President of the Canadian Association of Dental Research. (Canada is among the tiny number of countries that add fluoride to some of the public water supplies.) But dental fluorosis is more than a cosmetic problem: It’s the first visible sign of fluoride overdose. The same week the ADA warned about shielding babies from ingesting fluoride, the British medical journal, The Lancet (November, 2006), reported that fluoride may damage a child’s developing brain. The article described fluoride as an “emerging neurotoxic substance” because of evidence linking fluoride exposure to lower IQs in children and brain damage in animals. Babies and pregnant women are not the only ones who need to avoid fluoride. In 1993, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) listed several groups of people at high risk for fluoride toxicity. Following are excerpts from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, April 1993.

“Existing data indicate that subsets of the population may be unusually susceptible to the toxic effects of fluoride and its compounds. These populations include the elderly, people with deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, and/or vitamin C, and people with cardiovascular and kidney problems. Because fluoride is excreted through the kidney, people with renal insufficiency would have impaired renal clearance of fluoride. [Renal clearance means how well the kidneys are able to do their job and filter the body’s blood.] “Impaired renal clearance of fluoride has also been found in people with diabetes mellitus and cardiac insufficiency….People over the age of 50 often have decreased renal fluoride clearance.…Postmenopausal women and elderly men in fluoridated communities may also be at increased risk of fractures.”

The biological effect of fluoride on living tissue is the disruption of enzyme activity, including the enzymes that maintain life in the cells of the human body. Fluoride is an endocrine disruptor that was used for decades in Europe as a drug to treat overactive thyroid by depressing thyroid function. Alarmingly, the dosage once prescribed to reduce thyroid activity is about the same amount ingested by people in many communities today. Fluoride is more toxic than lead and nearly as toxic as arsenic. The toxicity rating of lead is between 3 and 4 (3 is moderately toxic, 4 is very toxic). Fluoride is rated at 4, while arsenic is slightly above 4 (Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, 5th Edition, 1984). Healthy kidneys are able to clear less than 50 percent of the fluoride taken into the body, and kidneys are prone to damage in the fluoride-filtering process. Fluoride is bone-seeking, and fluoride that is not excreted by the kidneys accumulates primarily in the bones, never to leave. Does it make any sense to surround the bone marrow, the blood cell factories of the body, with a toxic element more deadly than lead? As the saying goes, “When all is said and done, more has been said than done.” The measurable benefit of drinking fluoridated water to fight cavities appears to hover around zero. All over the world the rate of dental cavities has fallen dramatically in developed countries, even though most have never added fluoride compounds to their water. The common factor for improved outcomes seems to be better nutrition and higher health standards. If you are one of the millions of people for whom any amount of fluoride exposure is a bad idea, you need fluoride-free water. Removing fluoride from tap water at home is not simple, requiring the purchase of equipment to either distill the water, or filter it using reverse osmosis. It may be more feasible to buy water at the supermarket or have it delivered to your home. Eating organic foods and juices is another way to reduce fluoride exposure. The fluoride being added to our water is actually toxic sludge scraped from the smokestack filters of American industry. Fluoride is a byproduct of the aluminum, steel, and fertilizer industries, among others. Because of this, we not only get a dose of corrosive fluorosilicic acid in our daily coffee, we also get an extra shot of arsenic and lead in each cup. Government databases are overflowing with impartial scientific observations confirming that water fluoridation is a seriously bad idea. Our children, especially, already exhibit signs of fluoride overdose. More and more health leaders who take the time to study the published evidence are reversing their position on water fluoridation, switching from fluoride promotion to fluoride prevention. I look forward to a day in the not-too-distant future when the fictional science of politics and economics that currently clogs the pipelines of information will be purged and washed away. On that day, rational, evidence-based science will flow through a fluoride-free public water supply. Dr. Darrel Crain is a family chiropractor and natural health writer practicing in San Diego, California. He is the president of the CCA San Diego County District. View article references and author information here: issue 22 | pathways


current concerns

How to Slash National Healthcare Costs by

% Through Education, Nutrition, And A Ban On Junk Food Marketing By Mike Adams


pathways | issue 22

Want a real solution to skyrocketing healthcare costs? Forget about all the “cost-saving” schemes dreamed up by politicians, drug companies, and HMOs. All they do is create new levels of bureaucracy that don’t address the real problems of why healthcare costs are so high in the first place. In this article, we’ll look at how to fundamentally cut healthcare costs by 90 percent nationwide— while simultaneously enhancing the quality of life for all Americans—through a program of education and disease prevention that starts with changing the way doctors are educated.© Iakov Kalinin

I find it absolutely appalling, if not downright ridiculous, that people in our country who are responsible for health don’t understand the fundamentals of nutrition. I think that the fact that med schools don’t teach nutrition is one of the strongest statements yet about the sad state of conventional medicine. Our healthcare professionals need to be taught nutrition fundamentals. Hippocrates himself said, “Let thy food be thy medicine.” The history of medicine is steeped in the use of plants for health and healing. The very word pharmaceutical means “medicine from plants.” However, conventional medicine today has not only ignored plants and nutrition, it has actively sought to discredit it. In my mind, this is one reason why physicians have little or no credibility when talking about health and disease prevention. They are, technically, ignorant. Dr. Andrew Weil, author of Spontaneous Healing and many other books on health and healing, even calls conventional doctors “nutritionally illiterate.” Medical schools have no credibility either, because they are basically conduits for teaching the use of drugs, pharmaceuticals, chemotherapy, and surgical procedures to an army of doctors who are often little more than glorified drug dealers. If we are going to adopt nutritional strategies and actually prevent disease in the United States, we’re going to have to start teaching our doctors about foods. This crucial knowledge has been ignored, thanks to the dominance of this highly corrupt industry we now call “conventional medicine.” The next step in slashing the skyrocketing costs of healthcare is to outlaw foods and food ingredients that promote disease. It makes no sense that food companies should be able to sell products that directly promote obesity and chronic disease. One of the first things we can do in this area is ban the advertising of such foods. There shouldn’t be soft drink ads on television or in magazines. It should be illegal. We should also ban vending machines, especially from public schools and workplaces, when those vending machines offer junk foods that contain ingredients known to promote disease. We can also tax foods by levying a junk food tax. Although I’m not a big fan of increasing taxes or using taxes for social reform, it is true that taxing junk food would make them less affordable to most citizens and might cause some people to choose alternative sources of food, including healthy snack foods. In other words, if we made unhealthy snack foods the same price as healthy snack foods by taxing junk food, people would have a more balanced choice of what they want to eat. Another proposal is to require warning labels on foods, similar to the warning labels posted on cigarette packaging. If you buy a pack of cigarettes in the United States, the label warns you that the product causes cancer and other chronic diseases. The same sort of warning labels should be required on foods, soft drinks, and other products that contain ingredients known to promote disease. This will make the average consumer aware of the correlation between these foods and their long-term health effects. If someone picks up a six-pack of soft drinks, they should notice a warning label that says, “Warning: This product promotes obesity and diabetes.” That is the plain truth about soft drinks. No scientist or doctor in his right mind would argue against such a statement. Of course, the soft drink industry would, and so would practically everyone under its influence. This won’t be an easy task.

issue 22 | pathways


current concerns


pathways | issue 22© Iakov Kalinin

Another excellent strategy for slashing national healthcare costs is to allow nutritional supplement manufacturers to tell the truth about what their supplements do for your health. This is something the FDA has prevented for decades. They have never allowed manufacturers of nutritional supplements to make true statements about what those supplements can do for your health. In fact, the FDA battled vigorously against 1994’s DSHEA Act (the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), which finally allowed nutritional supplement manufacturers to make qualified statements on their products, as long as such statements were followed with the quote, “This statement has not been endorsed by the FDA.” We should allow supplement manufacturers to tell the truth about what their products do, based on available clinical evidence. It shouldn’t be illegal to speak the truth about the relationship between nutrition and chronic disease. We should also halt the persecution of nutritional supplement companies by conventional medicine and the FDA. The FDA continues to attack and even persecute companies that manufacture and promote nutritional supplements. There are countless examples of this, but one of the most recent concerns a company called Lane Labs that was selling a product called MGN-3, which contained medicinal mushrooms well known to boost immune system function and treat cancer in humans. The FDA attacked the company, effectively putting it out of business through lawsuits. This is, of course, part of the FDA’s strategy for protecting the profits of the pharmaceutical industry, to which the Fraud and Drug Administration answers. This sort of activity by the FDA should be halted and investigated by the FBI so that nutritional supplement manufacturers can operate in a free environment, without having to watch their backs and wonder if the next federally approved “inquisition” is on its way. We should also overhaul our school lunch programs. Currently, school lunches offer terrible nutrition to students. We feed our students refined white flour, added sugars, dead foods, processed foods, and hydrogenated oils—and then we send them back to class and wonder why they can’t learn or pay attention. Instead of giving them good nutrition, we as a nation just dose them with Ritalin, a powerful narcotic that masks the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. What we need to do is feed our children foods and nutritional supplements that support stable blood sugar, optimum brain function, and a positive learning environment. These foods are readily available, and our school lunch programs should be serving them. We should also remove cow’s milk from school lunch programs. Cow’s milk is a terrible source of nutrition for anyone who isn’t a cow. While it is outstanding nutrition for baby cows, it is nutritionally freakish when it comes to human nutrition. For some reason, everyone in the country continues to look at cow’s milk as good nutrition. In fact, in children, it promotes chronic sinus problems, stagnation, constipation, hardening of the arteries, and heart disease. It even contributes to infant deaths. This is something that we should stop serving our children as quickly as possible. (The dairy industry would disagree, of course.) We should also ban junk foods and fast foods at schools and hospitals. It’s crazy that some schools have fast-food chains right in the cafeteria where children can buy disease-promoting foods for lunch. It is just as crazy that our hospitals, which are supposed to be institutions of health and healing, serve the same junk foods. There are actually hospitals with McDonald’s restaurants inside the building! Were people out of their minds when they allowed these restaurant chains into our schools and hospitals? Were they willing to give up any sense of ethics in exchange for royalties on the sales of these products? Clearly somebody lost their minds when they allowed these junk food chains to enter our public schools and hospitals. These restaurants should be immediately outlawed and yanked out of institutions of learning and health. Another thing we should do as a nation is fund public education advertising campaigns that teach parents and the public about good nutrition. We need television ads, radio ads, and magazine ads that counter the billions of dollars in advertising promoting soft drinks, snack foods, fast foods, and other junk foods that cause obesity and chronic disease. One way to battle that is to run public service announcements that counter the hype with the

If a person can get less than


body fat,

or get their cholesterol less than


or maintain a healthy body weight, they should have rebates on their insurance compared with people who choose not to follow healthy lifestyles.

truth about health and nutrition. Of course, doing so will cost taxpayer dollars, but it will also serve as an investment and ultimately will save billions of dollars in long-term healthcare costs. Remember, investing in prevention is money well spent at both the personal level and national level. Another fantastic idea for improving the nutrition and health of our nation is to end the subsidies on corn and sugar. There’s no reason why corn and sugar need to be subsidized in this country. By subsidizing them, we are only making these food ingredients cheaper. And since ingredients derived from these products (including high-fructose corn syrup) are precisely the ones that promote obesity and chronic disease, we are actually making the consumption of foods that promote disease more affordable to the average citizen. This is economic insanity. If anything, we should be making unhealthy foods more expensive to create a disincentive to their purchase. We should immediately end the subsidies (corporate welfare) to Big Sugar. We should stop subsidizing the growing of corn. By doing so, we will make healthy foods more attractive to consumers while reducing the consumption of foods made from corn syrup and added sugars. Another idea for enhancing the nutrition of the nation is to create incentives that reward good nutritional strategies among the public. One idea would be to have insurance rebates for people who attain and maintain certain health milestones. For example, if a person can get less than 15 percent body fat, or get their cholesterol less than 130, or maintain a healthy body weight, they should have rebates on their insurance compared with people who choose not to follow healthy lifestyles. This would create a financial incentive for people to pursue healthful dietary and exercise strategies. The long-term result is that everyone’s insurance rates would go down, because healthy people cost a lot less in terms of medical expenses. They don’t need as much surgery, they don’t need medical care, and they don’t need vast quantities of the expensive prescription drugs that are largely responsible for driving up health insurance costs today. There are many other fantastic ideas out there. Presented here are just a few of the really good ideas that, if implemented, could save us billions of dollars as a nation. We would have far greater productivity. We would all live longer, and have a higher

quality of life. We would even have lower crime rates, due to better balance of mental function—especially among young males who are highly susceptible to behavioral disorders associated with the consumption of refined carbohydrates. As a nation, we could invest a few pennies in prevention and save hundreds of dollars in medical costs. We could significantly cut the cost of treating our nation’s health disorders. We could slash the number of people who are diagnosed with chronic disease. We could end our dependence on the drugs hyped by the pharmaceutical industry and the FDA. All that is required is for us to have the courage to do what is right. And that is to outlaw the sale and marketing of foods that promote disease, to invest in teaching the public the fundamentals of nutrition, to overhaul our medical schools so that doctors are taught the basics of nutrition, and to reform the nutritional strategies pursued by public schools and hospitals. If we are going to be a healthy, vibrant nation, this is what we’re going to have to do. Should we follow the current path being pursued—the path of chronic disease, obesity, and skyrocketing medical costs associated with the treatment of disease symptoms—we will end up sick and bankrupt. We will be a nation of poverty and disease rather than the nation of health and wealth we could create if we had the courage to make the right decisions today.

Mike Adams is a natural health researcher and author with a mission to teach personal and planetary health to the public. Adams is an independent journalist with strong ethics who does not get paid to write articles about any product or company, and has authored more than 1,500 articles and dozens of reports, guides and interviews on natural health topics. Adams is currently the executive director of the Consumer Wellness Center, and is author of numerous health books published by Truth Publishing. He is the creator of several consumeroriented websites, including the free downloadable Honest Food Guide (, and the free reference sites and Known as the ‘Health Ranger,’ Adams’ personal health statistics and mission statements are located at View article references and author information here: references.html. issue 22 | pathways


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pathways | issue 22

complete your pathways collection #1: Spring 2004 The Biology of Belief Dr. Bruce Lipton Ultrasound The Deadly Influence of Formula Women’s Health Risks I

#2: Summer 2004 Antibiotics Healthcare Philosophy Child Playgrounds Movement and Infants Sun Exposure Women’s Health Risks II

#3: Fall 2004 Stress in Infancy Chiropractic in Pregnancy & Postpartum The Family Bed The Backpack Dilemma Women’s Health Risks III

#4: Winter 2004 ADD/ADHD: Pulling the Plug on TV Finding a Pediatrician Child’s Immune System Maximum Brain Potential Mercury Rising

#5: Spring 2005 Why Wear Your Baby? Breastfeeding Basics Our Children’s Needs Chiropractic & Infertility Spinal Stress in Children Cesarean Section

#6: Summer 2005 The Outside-In Child Engineered Food Threat Childbirth Affirmations Involving Dad Time for Play Everyday Road Trip With Your Baby

#7: Fall 2005 Autism and Vaccines Fevers: Source of Strength The Real Dangers of Soda Homebirth Dad’s Role in Play Being Child-Centered

#8: Winter 2005 Listening Oversanitization Watch Your Language Women’s Innate Knowledge Breastfeed a Toddler Have a Happy Marriage

#9: Spring 2006 Breastfeeding/Bedsharing Co-Sleeping & SIDS Your Independent Toddler Cesarean Section Stop Saying “Good Job” The Well-Balanced Child

#10: Summer 2006 How Do Vaccines Work? Baby Wearing Midwives Pain in Labor Breastfeeding in Public Handling Advice

#11: Fall 2006 The Myth of ADD Herbal Antibiotics Don’t Eat It! Breastfeeding / Chiropractic A Look at Stress Joyful Positive Parenting

#12: Winter 2006 Digestion Toothpaste Toxins Choose Grassfed Better Choices for Colic Breastfeeding Twins Crying for Comfort

#13: Spring 2007 How Do Vaccines Work? Smart, Healthy Kids Growing Pains & Chiropractic Care Vertical Birth Mindful Parenting

#14: Summer 2007 New Approaches to Healthcare Mom’s Weekend Pass Webster Technique Re-Valuing Free Play Babies Safe in Motion Sun Exposure

#15: Fall 2007 What Every Mother Knows Well Beyond Medicine From Stress to Bliss Of Love and Milk Respect Dr. Joe Dispenza Eating Right for Sleep

#16: Winter 2007 Healing a Life Beyond Organic Ease into Wellness Pelvic Pain Cluster Feedings and Fussy Evenings Vaccines and Your Rights

#17: Spring 2008 Gift from the Future Benefits of Laughter How to Choose a Holistic Practitioner Cradles of Life Fluoride Informed Consent

#18: Summer 2008 Raising Generation PAX Yoga for Kids Playing Pediatric Drug Testing The Law of Prayer

Complete Your PATHWAYS Collection! Back Issues Available. #19: Fall 2008 Green Our Vaccines Paradigm Shift in Medicine & Science Inconvenient Cancer Truth ADHD: Holistic Approach Sensory Processing Disorder What Babies Really Need

#20: Winter 2009 Expectant Parent’s Guide to Chiropractic Serious Problems in Maternity Care Pharmaceuticals are Gateway Drugs Relieving Child’s Stress Getting Over Cold Medicines

#21: Spring 2009 5th Anniversary Issue Autism 10 Best Books on Autism & Vaccinations Aluminium Measles Misunderstanding Your Right to Choose

Issues in Print: $4.95 USD per copy (Issues 19, 20, 21) Digital Back Issues: $3.95 USD each (Issues 1–18) Save when you buy more! $2.95 USD each for 4 or more digital issues.




Editor Picks

Books to Expand Family Wellness

Well Adjusted Babies By Dr. Jennifer Barham-Floreani The most unique collection of cuttingedge, referenced information and knowledge on holistic parenting... all in one book. Well Adjusted Babies covers such subjects as healthy lifestyle, environmental, and nutritional choices during your pregnancy; risk awareness while preparing for labor and birth; meeting the mental and emotional needs of expectant couples and new parents; and support for families to reconnect with the inner wisdom of holistic parenting.

Prenatal Massage By Elaine Stillerman, LMT This complete guide to all aspects of prenatal, labor, and postpartum massage provides details on the intricate anatomy and physiology of pregnancy, as well as appropriate massage techniques to focus on the special needs of the mother-to-be as her body goes through the dramatic changes of the childbirth experience. It includes massage fundamentals, techniques, and preparation, as well as information to prevent and treat common problems. The wide variety of bodywork techniques, including Swedish massage, acupuncture points, myofascial release, triggerpoint therapy, lymphatic drainage, and reflexology, will help you provide expectant and new mothers supportive and nurturing care. Includes a foreword by Penny Simkin.

Natural Baby and Childcare By Lauren Feder, MD This comprehensive, reassuring guide includes practical natural solutions to feeding, healing, clothing, and washing, and covers holistic options like homeopathy, herbs and other natural home remedies. As a physician and a mom, Dr. Lauren Feder skillfully bridges the divide between medicine and motherhood, empowering parents to personalize traditional child-rearing practices to their own child.


pathways | issue 22

Gentle Birth, Gentle Mothering By Sarah J. Buckly, MD Internationally acclaimed birth expert Sarah J. Buckley, MD, lends a compelling voice to the argument for a more natural approach to childbirth and the many benefits of gentle parenting choices. A general practitioner and family physician, Buckley home-birthed her own four children and has written the authoritative guide to natural childbirth from the unique perspective of both a doctor and a mother. With a foreword by Ina May Gaskin, this book guides a new generation of parents through the most current, science-based information about a much healthier, safer, and more fulfilling birth experience that extends to a gentle parenting relationship.

Gentle Healing for Baby and Child By Andrea Candee Offering new and friendly advice for a parent’s collection of healing techniques, Gentle Healing for Baby and Child is an excellent addition to the family first aid kit and a fantastic way to avoid overreliance on prescription antibiotics. From minor issues like splinters and skinned knees to a nighttime cough that the prescribed medicine just isn’t relieving, master herbalist Andrea Candee offers simple, safe remedies made from ingredients you can probably find in your kitchen.

Raising Our Children, Raising Ourselves Naomi Aldort, PhD Every parent would happily give up ever scolding, punishing or threatening if she only knew how to ensure that her toddler, child, or teen would thrive and act responsibly without such painful measures Raising Our Children, Raising Ourselves is the answer to this universal wish. It is not about gentle ways to control a child, but about a way of understanding a child so she can be the best of herself—not because she fears you, but because she wants to of her own free will.

Count Your Blessings By John Demartini, DC This best-selling book draws on the philosophy and wisdom of the ages, mixing these with cutting-edge science and Dr. Demartini’s own personal and professional experiences. It reveals the connection between your health and your state of mind, giving practical directions to implement change. It is truly a reliable source of inspiration for healing and wholeness on all levels.

The Miracle of Words By Patti Leviton, CHT, CGIT, MA Here’s a book about words and their healing power. Leviton presents a dynamic theory about the incredible impact words have on our lives, weaving in her poems, stories and imagery throughout. Whether we are battling a catastrophic disease such as cancer, dealing with a trauma from the past, or just coping with the stress and pressures of everyday life, this book will heal the spirit.

The Vital Truth By Dr. Sarah Farrant, DC The Vital Truth contains the essential teachings of vitalistic and mechanistic philosophies combined with the modern science of quantum physics and the teachings of today. The Vital Truth highlights the secret to health, sharing with you what the master system of the body is. Dr. Sarah Farrant, one of the most influential thinkers on vitalistic philosophy, provides incredible breakthroughs in this timehonored but fresh look at human health and vitality.

The Success Principles By Jack Canfield The Success Principles will teach you how to increase your confidence, tackle daily challenges, live with passion and purpose, and realize all your ambitions. Not merely a collection of good ideas, this book spells out the 64 timeless principles used by successful men and women throughout history. The fundamentals are the same no matter your profession or circumstances—even if you’re a student, stay-at-home mom, or currently unemployed. After learning the basics of success, you’ll move on to tackling the important inner work needed to transform yourself. Then, you’ll build a “success team” and expand all your most important relationships. Finally, you’ll learn to develop a positive money consciousness along with habits that can ensure you’ll be able to live the lifestyle you want—while keeping the importance of tithing and service central to your financial life. Filled with memorable and inspiring stories of CEOs, world-class athletes, celebrities, and everyday people. Taken together and practiced every day, these principles will help transform your life.

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issue 22 | pathways


Twenty years from now, you will be more disappointed

by the things that you didn’t do

than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails.


– Attributed to Mark Twain

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