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Veterinary College, Bengaluru Monthly e-Bullletin

Newsletter Date : 30th september 2013

Volume No : 2 Issue :09

Dr. Sudheesh S Nair ,Dr. N Nagaraju and Dr. L Suresh Department of Surgery and Radiology Veterinary College -Hassan. (majssnair@gmail.com ) Introduction: • Hoof affections are second largest cause for economic loss in livestock farming .In India, the incidence of foot disorders is 8-10% in Dairy cattle . The over grown hooves is the most common predisposing condition of the hooves that accounts for more than half of the total foot lesions. This when unattended , this can lead to many other diseases and disorders of hoof which can lead to lameness of varying intensity. • Inter-digital fibroma also termed as Inter-digital hyperplasia or corns are firm fibrous masses consisting of hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic skin found in the inter digital space of cattle (Fig-1,2,3) • The lesions appear as secondary to chronic skin irritation due to environmental, conformational and hereditary factors. Where lesions become large and/or infected, surgical removal is the preferred treatment. Improved hygiene and appropriate hoof trimming are the keys to prevention of this condition. (Fig-2)

( Fig-1)

Etiology: • This condition originates from the skin in the inter digital space and proliferates in response to trauma by some penetrating objects/foreign bodies/ sharp stones and sharp glass objects etc and abnormal foot and hoof conformation, such as splay toes .Protrusions of the inter digital foot pad and smooth proliferations of skin often originating from tissues located near the coronary band. ( Fig-3)

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Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


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When the fibroma has grown to the extent that it protrudes approximately one-half the length of the hoof wall, spontaneous regression is rare. Dairy cows tend to have a higher prevalance of inter-digital fibromas in the rear feet, probably owing to the rear feet contacting more moisture from manure and urine than the front feet. Bulls, particularly beef bulls, appear to have a higher prevalence of inter-digital fibromas in their front feet, probably because of the higher weight and greater stress placed on this area, and because heavy bulls tend to walk with more movement on their front feet than do cows.

Clinical signs: • Initially there will be slight lameness in the affected limb. After formation of the growth there will be bleeding from the ground surface of the hoof and there will be marked lameness in the affected limb. • Lameness is caused precisely when the interdigital fibroma has protruded approximately half way down the hoof wall. Once it reaches this size, the 2 claws will put lateral pressure in the fibroma as the animal walks. • Examination of the hoof reveals degenerative changes around the hoof. In some cases, oozing of the purulent discharge from the degenerative area can be observed. • Eventually, the fibroma will reach a size where it contacts the ground continuously. At this point, painful ulcerations may develop on the surface, and organisms may be introduced to the deeper tissues. Factors affecting the progression of the disease: • Gradually, the lesions may put mechanical stresses on the digits, causing mild to moderate lameness. Severe lameness is usually associated with large ulcerated and/or infected hyperplasias. The infection is usually superficial, but can spread to deeper inter-digital tissues if left untreated. • An infectious process located beneath the surface of a fibroma may become localized with abscess formation, or it may invade through the connective tissues of the inter digital space. Such infections may also cause infectious arthritis of the coffin or other joints. An infectious process will contribute to the production of pain and lameness which eventually results in a marked drop in the productive efficiency of the animals. Treatment: • Fibromas may sometimes regress if they are not excessively large. Cows with such fibromas should be placed in a clean environment. The foot should be thoroughly washed and bandged after application of an antibacterial ointment. • The clinical importance of the lesion is determined by assessing pain in response to pressure on the lesion. Painful lesions are more likely to causesevere lameness and thus are more likely to benefit from surgical removal. Surgical management of interdigitalfibroma: • For surgery, animals are best positioned in lateral recumbency with physical and/or chemical restraint. • A tourniquet should be placed above the fetlock to provide hemostasis

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Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


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Intravenous regional perfusion or local inter-digital injection of a local anesthetic agent should provide adequate surgical anesthesia of the area. Sharp dissection should be accomplished, being certain to remove all proliferated tissue, including tissue immediately adjacent to the coronary band. Care should be taken to avoid damage to the coronary band. The dissection is continued approximately 3 or 4 cm above the level of the coronary band on the anterior surface. A full thickness of proliferated skin should be excised so that the inter-digital fat pad is exposed and excised. Following complete excision, the inter-digital space should be packed with an antibacterial ointment or antibacterial powder should be applied to the inter-digital area. With large postsurgical defects, the inter-digital space can be packed with sterile gauze . The toes can be wired together to decrease movement of the claws, but this may not be necessary in housed animals. The entire foot, including the solar surface should be incorporated in a tape bandage with or without gauze. Systemic antibiotics may be indicated if the fibroma is infected. In some cases even cauterization of the growth can be done followed by antiseptic dressing with povidone iodine or bismuth iodoform paraffin paste. The antiseptic dressing should be continued for a minimum period of 3 to 4 weeks. The animal should be kept on dry floor. Following surgery, the animal should be kept in a dry area for approximately 2 weeks. At that time, the bandage should be removed. A bed of granulation will have filled the defect and the risk of infection is minimal even without further bandaging. Cryosurgery is also found to be very effective in management of proliferating inter-digital masses.

Preventive management: • Timely hoof trimming that prevents the widened inter-digital space resulting from over grown hoof and exercise is the best preventive management practices for this condition. • The incidence of foot disorders is higher in old animals, during rainy season and in those animals which are fed on low fiber, high carbohydrate diet and kept on hard floor. Stall rearing and management practices makes them more vulnerable for the hoof affections . • Ensure that cattle stall is made of firm dry floorings. Proper drainage is a must to avoid water logging resulting in the hoof affections in the cattle. • Weekly checking the hoof of the animal and cleaning the hoof with 1% potassium permanganate solution can check the spreading of hoof infections. • Inter-digital hyperplasia caused by poor conformation is very likely to recur, since the predisposing conformation problems will usually remain after removal of the growth. • Animals suspected of having inter-digital hyperplasia due to hereditary factors should not be used for breeding.

Pashubandha 2013

Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


Dr. Madhukar* and Prof. H. A. Upendra# * Assistant Professor, #The Director, Institute of Wildlife Veterinary Research, KVAFSU, Doddaluvara, Kodagu – 571232 (madhukar262@gmail.com) Snake bites demand immediate and precise treatment approach by a veterinarian. It is possible to treat a snake bite if attended timely with an aggressive line of treatment. Snake venom is a complex mixture of amino acids, polypeptides, glycopeptides, biogenic amines, some of which are enzymes that produce a neurotoxic effect. Alternatively, snake bites also have cardiotoxic or haemotoxic effects also. About 200 types of snakes are found in India, of which four snakes are most important (called THE BIG FOUR). Figure 1: The big four important poisonous snakes of India. Clockwise from top left; Saw scaled viper, Russell’s viper, Common krait, and spectacled cobra. A) Snake bite toxicity is determined by • Quantity of the venom injected • Proportion between the quantity of venom injected and body size of the animal • Species of snake • Location of the bite B) Venoms of snakes contain necrotising, anticoagulant, coagulant, neurotoxic, cardiotoxic and haemolytic fractions. Cobra and krait venom is neurotoxic while viper and rattle

Fig1

Common clinical features: Salivation, hyper excitability, mydriasis, asphyxia, gasping, recumbency, convulsions and death in 2-4 hours. Additionally, ruminants show regurgitation of ruminal contents, paralysis of the tongue, oesophagus and larynx. Diagnosis: Sudden death, fang marks, local swelling and oozing of blood from the bite wound should be considered as a possible case of snake bite. Pit viper bites can be identified by severe local tissue damage that spreads from the bite site, with tissue becoming markedly discoloured within a few minutes and dark, bloody fluid oozing from the fang wounds if not prevented by swelling. In many cases, the epidermis sloughs when the overlying hair is clipped or merely parted. Hair may hide the typical fang marks. Sometimes, only one fang mark or multiple punctures are present. In elapine snakebites, pain and swelling are minimal; systemic neurologic signs predominate. Figure 2: Some general anatomical features that can be used to roughly differentiate a poisonous snake from the non-poisonous snake.

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Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


Figure 3: Bite of the poisonous snake can be differentiated from non-poisonous snake by close observation Treatment: Snake bite is an emergency. In some cases, it is lethal; in many it can cause prolonged and disfiguring injury. The animal should receive veterinary care as soon as possible, without exciting the animal

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Dead or killed snake should also be handled carefully as envenomation is possible even after a poisonous snake has been decapitated. Objectives of therapy should be to neutralize the venom, prevent shock, and prevent secondary infections; and sometimes to prevent the further spread of toxins, and removal of the venom. Administration of the specific anti-venom if the species of snake is known, or administration of polyvalent anti-venom if the species of snake is not known is absolutely essential to save the animal. Broad-spectrum antibiotics should be given to prevent wound infection and other secondary infections. Respiratory assistance (ventilator) may be needed for 48 - 72 hours for animals with coral snake poisoning. The maintenance of a patent airway is critical. Large diameter tubing or opened syringe cases are commonly placed in the nostrils of horses bitten on the face to keep the airways open. Emergency tracheostomy may be required. Fluid therapy: Generally indicated in small animals. Hypotension is a common presenting sign. Corticosteroids must be used with caution and only to overcome the shock. Transfusions is commonly indicated in dogs, if necessary, to treat anemia and haemorrhage. Tranquilization and tetanus antitoxin should always be given, especially in horse.

Contra-indications: these are as important as proper treatment and must be taken into account • Tourniquet - The use of tourniquets is controversial and usually they are avoided. When used they are most effective in first 30 minutes. Tourniquets increase local tissue damage due to hypoxia. The general location of snake bites (e.g., face) may prevent use. Recommended only for animals in which the tissues below the tourniquet will be sacrificed to save the animal's life. • Incision and suction - Also controversial. Requires restraint of animal to be effective. Minimal benefit with regards to the local removal of venom. Not recommended unless pocket of venom will clearly be removable. • Cryotherapy - Commonly associated with increased tissue damage. Not recommended. • Surgical debridement - Use has not been substantiated. May result in serious scarring and loss of function. May not prevent systemic signs. Not recommended early in course of treatment for envenomation. • The use of alcohol to clean the wound is contraindicated because of its vasodilatory effect, which would promote uptake and spread of venom.

Pashubandha 2013

Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


1

V Girish Kumar1, Mohamed Farman1 and S. Nandi2 College of Veterinary Sciences, KVAFSU, Bangalore campus, Hebbal, Bangalore 2 National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), Bangalore (kumargir@rediffmail.com)

Heat stress or hyperthermia occurs in dairy cows when the metabolic heat produced by the cow in combination with heat from the environment exceeds the cow’s ability to lose heat to environment. All the mammals can experience heat stress, but the temperature threshold at which a lactating dairy cow experiences heat stress is much lower due to the production of internal heat as a byproduct of metabolism associated with milk production. Determining heat stress in dairy cows: •

Heat stress can be monitored by observing the animal. While monitoring, one should take notice of several things:

Check whether the feed intake is normal. In the heat stress many cows decrease their dry matter intake (DMI). • Check cow’s respiratory rate. It is a good indication of heat stress, respiratory rate will be very high with some sought of open mouth breathing (panting). 0 • Check the rectal temperature. If her rectal temperature is significantly greater than 102.5 F, she is likely overheated or heat stressed. Heat stress and production: • Temperature and humidity combine to decrease dry matter intake in dairy cows. A decrease in dry matter intake reduces the nutrients available for milk synthesis; as a result milk production decreases and also other lactation parameters are affected. • High environmental temperatures also increase the respiratory rate and the water intake, which consequently reduces dry matter intake. • Because of many dairy cows in hot weather are unable to consume enough feed to meet the energy demands during early lactation, they typically mobilize body reserves to maintain their milk production until the intake of feed can match or exceed nutritional requirements thus entering a state of negative energy balance. This has a direct effect on reproductive performances of dairy cattle.

Heat stress and Reproduction: • Heat stress has a great negative impact on the cow’s expression of estrous. Heat stress causes a decrease in the cow’s production of estrus hormones. Therefore a cow may be in estrus, but will not express it. • High environmental temperatures may have an adverse effect directly upon the survival of a cow’s egg, a bull’s sperm or the developing embryo while in the cow’s reproductive tract. Early embryonic death is the most unrecognizing consequence of heat stress. This results in decrease conception rate during summer months. • Heat stress compromises uterine environment with decrease blood flow to the uterus causing reduced nutrient exchange, alterations in the volume and contents of oviductal and uterine secretions. Increase uterine temperature can also lead to implantation failure and embryonic mortality.

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Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


Strategies for managing heat stress: With the help of managemental tools, it is possible to modify the microenvironment to enhance heat dissipation mechanism to relieve heat stress. • Sheds if constructed scientifically, provide comfortable environment to animals. Providing enough shade and cooling is a vital for proper cow comfort. There should be at least 38 to 45 sq ft of shade per mature dairy cow to reduce solar radiations. • Alignment of the long-axis in an east-west direction achieves the maximum amount of shade under the structure and is the preferred orientation for confined animals. • Where cows are free to move with the shadow of the structure a north-south orientation is better. The advantage of this orientation is that it allows sunlight to dry out as much as 35-50% of the area beneath the shade during both the morning and evening hours. This is • particularly important for shade structures with earthen floors. • Trees are an excellent source of shade and if given the choice cows will generally seek the protection of trees rather than man-made structures. • If trees are an important source of shade for cows, then it is particularly important that feed and water be located within close proximity. Cows will not venture far away from shade structures during the intense heat of the day. • Sprinkling cows with water and subsequently blowing air over the cow with a fan causes evaporative cooling. • We should improve estrous detection during summer by increasing the time and number of visual observations for estrus. • If estrous detection is a problem in heat stressed dairy cows then it may be possible to improve reproduction by using timed AI. Conclusions: Heat stress decreases fertility in dairy cows. The decrease in fertility is caused by elevated body temperature that influences ovarian function, estrous expression, oocyte health, and embryonic development. In response to these limitations, dairymen should increase environmental and reproductive management of cows during heat stress. For example cooling dairy cows and increasing the frequency of estrous detection will improve pregnancy rates. Timed AI may also be used as an alternative to estrous detection.

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Pashubandha 2013

Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


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Pashubandha 2013

Volume No : 2 Issue : 09


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Anand S. Devarnavadagi1, Y. B. Rajeshwari2, Balaji K H3, Basavaraj4 and Chandranaik5 Department of Livestock production and Management, Veterinary college, Hebbal, Banglore (dranandsd@gmail.com) Foot health and lameness are major issues facing dairy producers because of their common occurrence and the tremendous economic losses incurred. Hoof and leg problems in dairy herds have increased over the past decades and are now the third most important and costly disease complex facing today’s dairy farms. In India, foot disease causes major economic loss to the dairy industry, at the same time it is one of the most neglected conditions affecting bovine species. Not only is the pain caused by bad hoof health a major welfare problem, but several studies have also pointed out the economic impact of hoof problems in dairy farms. Lameness has been shown to negatively affect milk yield and quality, probably as a consequence of reduced feed intake and less frequent visits to the milking unit. Lameness is also the dairy industry’s most visible animal welfare problem. Management strategies based on requirements and combined consistent efforts of the owners, employed labour and veterinarian are indicated for effective control of this menace to ensure sustainable productivity and fertility in dairy bovines. Hoof disorders are possible to prevent by a correct management practices and early detection of affected animals. Investment in prevention of hoof disorders is therefore profitable for the farmer.

Types of hoof disorders: Hard and soft feet Foot infections, abscesses or sole ulcers may stem from cracks that result when feet are too soft or hard. Excessively soft feet are more apt to occur in free stall systems from standing in manure and urine. This may result in heel and sole cracks allowing ulcers, abscesses or infections to occur. Excessively hard feet usually occur in stall-barns, especially when kilndried shavings or sawdust are used for bedding. This may result in cracks at the top of the foot, which may extend down from the hairline and allow infections relatively high in the foot.

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Foot rot: A smelly infection of the foot, which generally occurs high between the claws or toes, is referred to as foot rot. This results mainly from an infection caused by the bacterium, Fusiformis necrophorus.

Heel erosions: Heel erosions or under run heels begin at the bulb of the heel. They start out as pits on the surface that can develop into parallel grooves that get filled in with black material and bacteria. Overgrown hooves shift the weight toward the heels, exposing the heels to erosion, mostly in the hind claws.

Laminitis: Laminitis is an aseptic inflammation of the dermal layers inside the foot. There is usually some inflammation and sensitivity above the hoof and around the coronary band. There is no specific cause and laminitis may be associated with several, largely interdependent factors. Nutritional management is normally considered a key component in the development of laminitis, especially the feeding of increased fermentable carbohydrates, which leads to rumen acidosis.

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Digital dermatitis: Foot wart lesions look like raised, red and yellow patches and are usually located at the back of the foot above the heel. This disease is probably caused by a spirochete bacterium and it appears to be very contagious.

Prevention strategies: There are several areas on the farm that can lead to bovine lameness. They include nutrition, feeding management, animal behavior, stress, cow comfort, and infrequent hoof trimming. Lameness is usually a multi-factorial problem. Even though nutrition receives attention as being the main cause, other areas should be evaluated. Foot wart lesions Dairy

Digital dermatitis Pashubandha 2013

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Nutrition and feeding management: There are several areas in nutrition that can help reduce the risk of foot problems. They include carbohydrates, protein, trace minerals, and vitamins. Formulating the ideal ration to maintain good hoof health is not always enough. Nutrition should be weighed along with other factors in preventing bovine lameness from being a herd problem. Carbohydrates: A major challenge regarding nutrition is a lack of information to specify threshold levels of carbohydrate that initiate nutritional insults such as acidosis. Carbohydrates constitute about 70 to 80 percent of the dairy ration. The level and availability in various rations can have a substantial impact on ruminal metabolism. The amount of carbohydrates necessary to induce ruminal acidosis depends on the type of feed processing, the adaptation period, the nutritional status of the cow, and the volume and frequency with which the carbohydrate is fed. Lactating cows need a minimum amount of forage in the ration. The minimum forage NDF intake as a percent of body weight should be 0.85. The minimum total NDF intake as a percent of bodyweight should be 1.1 to 1.2. The non-fiber carbohydrate fraction is highly digestible and can be quickly digested compared to NDF. Excessive non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) can depress fiber digestibility, reduce acetic acid production, and lead to rumen acidosis. Consideration should be given to the grain’s particle size, moisture and processing method in addition to the level of NFC in the ration. Depending on the digestibility of the NDF present, a NFC between 30 to 40 percent of the total ration dry matter is recommended. In most instances, a NFC between 32 to 38 percent is considered ideal. Protein: The amount of protein in the ration has been suggested to influence the incidence of laminitis. Several studies have shown that high percentages of ruminal degraded protein have been identified in association with lameness and laminitis. However, the role of protein is still unclear. Little information is available to identify what role protein might play in the development of lameness. Several postulations involve allergic histaminic reactions to certain types of proteins or a link between high protein supplementation and protein degradation end products. Trace minerals: Copper is essential for the production of healthy claw horn. A copper deficiency can interfere with the synthesis of keratin, inhibiting development of the horn tissue. Zinc is essential for horn production and

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plays an important role in immunity. The effect of zinc on bovine lameness is normally related to wound healing, epithelial tissue repair, hoof hardness and maintenance of cellular integrity Feeding management: The incidence of lameness and laminitis can be controlled through good nutrition and use of proper feeding management practices. The areas that impact the feet the most are feeding frequency, particle size of forages and grains, transitioning animals on to different diets, and first calf heifers moving into the milking herd. Dairy herds fed conventionally should feed grain at least twice daily. For cows milking over 30 liters, feeding grain three to four times per day would be ideal. Hay or some forage should be fed before grain is offered. Dietary buffers should be included in the diet. A buffer can be included in the ration at 0.80 percent of the total ration dry matter. However, do not rely solely on offering a buffer free choice to cows to correct a rumen acidosis problem. Particle size is an important factor for both the forages and grains being fed. Forages and/or total mixed rations that are too fine in particle size, coupled with inadequate forage or fiber levels can aggravate lameness problems. Cows need effective fiber in the diet to maintain normal rumen function. The main objective in analyzing the particle size of the total mixed ration (TMR) is to measure the distribution of feed and forage particles that the cows actually consume. Particle size, processing method and moisture content can affect the ruminal availability of structural and non-fiber carbohydrates. These factors need to be considered, in addition to levels used, when formulating rations. Gradual transitions should be made when switching animals from one type of diet to another. At least two weeks prior to calving, animals should be lead fed concentrates up to 0.5 to 0.75 percent of body weight. Ideally, first calf heifers should have their own separate group and ration developed that takes into account their smaller body weights and their specific requirements.

Behaviour and stress: Dairy cows should be allowed to lie down 10 to 14 hours per day. Their lying time can be reduced because of poorly designed housing or stalls that are uncomfortable or too few in number. Prolonged standing causes sore feet that can become susceptible to disease. Exercise is important for stimulating blood flow through the feet and keeping the tissues healthy. Too little exercise can cause sluggish blood flow, edema, and swelling. Too much exercise and concussion on concrete floors, especially for heifers that have been on pasture, can cause trauma and mechanical damage and a greater incidence of sole ulceration.

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First calf heifers may need to be managed differently from older animals to minimize laminitis in this group. Predisposing factors are a sudden introduction of heifers into a mature cow group, development of a pecking order, and overcrowding heifers. Mechanical development of hemorrhaging and/or ulceration can also occur in heifers simply as a result of trauma incurred from being transposed from earthen lots to concrete floors. Preventing laminitis in heifers may consist of a separate heifer group where animals are acclimated to their new environment allowing for increased resting time and minimized aggression. Any management practice that imposes stress on animals can deplete the body’s nutrient reserves. Stress can reduce the animal’s resistance to disease and can be a factor in lameness. Management practices such as vaccination, transportation, and reduced exercise can impose stress. Nutrition problems such as sudden changes in the ration, low or poor quality fiber, high energy feeding, and mineral and vitamin imbalances can cause stress, especially in early lactation. Disease, pain, and animal aggression can also be factors. Stall comfort: Adequate stall space should be provided to allow reclining and ruminating for about 10 to 14 hours per day. The dimensions of the stall must be proper for the size of the animal that is being housed. Large cows need a stall length of seven to eight feet. The width can range from 42 to 50 inches depending on the animal size (heifer versus cow). The lower the curb height (not less than six inches), the less chance a cow has of standing in the passageway. Soft bedding is essential. Sand is optimal stall bedding, providing cows comfort and traction. In addition, sand must be free of small stones, which can penetrate the sole horn. An earthen base with shredded tires covered with polyethylene sheets also works in providing a cushioned base. However, material must not be of an abrasive nature and must not scrape hocks or knees as cows rise and lie down. The use of sawdust with wood chips on th:ese polyethylene surfaces can be abrasive and cause hock lesions. Hoof trimming: Regular hoof trimming may increase the functional life of a dairy cow by one lactation. Correctly trimming cow’s feet can give the claw stability and enable the cow to distribute weight equally between the claws. Routine trimming, which removes even small amounts of the horn from the sole, can stimulate horn producing tissues. This can accelerate production of a new healthy horn. It is recommended to trim feet at least once or twice a year. The ideal times would be once at dry-off and again around 100 days in milk. A professional hoof trimmer who uses correct equipment and procedures should be employed. Good record keeping is key in monitoring a cow’s condition.

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monthly e-Bulletin Published and circulated by Veterinary College, Hebbal Bengaluru Editor: Dean, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bengaluru Dr.S.Yathiraj (Ex-Officio)

Associate Editior: Head,Dept of Vety & Animal Husbandry Extension Education Dr.K.Satyanarayana (Ex-Officio)

Contact : Dept of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education Veterinary College, Hebbal Bangalore email: pashubandhavch@gmail.com

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Pashubandha 2013 2012

PELVIC

Volume No : 2 1 Issue : 09 07

Sep2013  

Pashubandha Monthly eBulletin

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