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Veterinary College, Bengaluru Monthly e-Bullletin

Newsletter Date : 31st March 2014

Volume No: 3 Issue : 03

M.Naveen, D.Dilipkumaar, B.V.Shivaprakash and S. M. Usturge Department of Surgery and Radiology, Veterinary College, Bidar. Glaucoma is an increased intraocular pressure within the eye .Pressures are what increase within the eye when the drainage angles are abnormal. The increased pressure is the result of a build up of the intraocular fluid which is known as aqueous humor. In a healthy animal, aqueous humor primarily drains out through a circular filter at the junction of the clear cornea and white sclera, called the iridocorneal angle. Animals with glaucoma have an abnormality in the filter which obstructs outflow, resulting in a build up of fluid within the eye. An analogy would be a kitchen sink, if the drain is open and the water is running, the sink is operating normally. However, the drain becomes clogged for some reason and the water continues to flow, then the sink fills up with water and overflows. There are various causes of a defective filter. Dogs of some breeds are often born with abnormal filters and are therefore prone to getting inherited glaucoma in both eyes. Other breeds have a genetic predisposition to developing displaced lenses, which block the filters, obstructing the flow of fluid. In both dogs and cats, the filters can be clogged with inflammatory cells if inflammation inside the eye occurs. Intraocular tumors can also lead to glaucoma. The result of uncontrolled glaucoma is blindness. The increased pressure which occurs in glaucoma quickly destroys the retina and optic nerve, which are essential for vision. If the pressure is not relieved the eye may stretch and enlarge. In order to maintain vision, eyes with glaucoma must be treated early before damage to the retina and optic nerve occur and the eye enlarges. The first priority in treating animals with glaucoma is to preserve vision. If a pet has lost vision, the next goal is to keep the pet comfortabl Risk factors Glaucoma can develop in any age of animal. Primary lens luxations tend to occur in dogs between 3 and 7 years of age. Primary glaucoma usually affects middle-aged, adult dogs. Pigmentary glaucoma usually affects older dogs. Over 30 different breeds of dogs are predisposed to primary glaucoma. They include the alaskan malamute, american cocker spaniel, basset hound, beagle, boston terrier, bouvier de flanders, chow chow, dalmation, english cocker spaniel, english springer spaniel, giant schnauzer, great dane, mastiff, miniature poodle, miniature schnauzer, miniature pinscher and norvegian

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elkhound samoyed, shar-pei, shih tzu, siberian husky, smooth haired fox terrier, welsh springer spaniel, and wire haired fox terrier. Domestic short-haired cats and siamese cats may also develop primary glaucoma. Golden retrievers are predisposed to secondary glaucoma associated with pigmentary uveitis. Cairn, west highland white and scottish terriers are predisposed to pigmentary glaucoma. The jack russell, sealyham, fox, miniature bull terrier, as well as the tibetan terrier and border collie are predisposed to anterior lens luxations and secondary glaucoma. Primary glaucoma affects males and females equally. Middle aged male cats are more prone to chronic iritis, which predisposes them to secondary glaucoma. Other medical disorders are ocular inflammation, infection, neoplasia, and hyphema can predispose the eye to glaucoma. Systemic disorders of coagulation that may produce hyphema or inflammation can also lead to glaucoma. Classification and causes Based on gonioscopy glaucoma can be classified as open angle glaucoma, narrow angle glaucoma, combination of open and closed angle glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. In open angle glaucoma there will be local obstruction of aqueous humor between the anterior chamber and the canal and its usually chronic in nature. Causes are inflammation, trauma, tumors etc. In narrow to closed angle glaucoma there will be impaired passage of aqueous humor into the circular canal of schlemen due to closure of the angle between the cornea and the iris. It is usually acute in nature and requires surgery. Causes are miotic induced, cataract, annular posterior synechia and lens subluxation. Congenital glaucoma occurs because of the mesodermal goniodysgenesis. Based on etiology, glaucoma can be classified as primary glaucoma, secondary glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. Primary glaucoma is an inherited condition. Primary glaucoma occurs in many breeds of dogs. Primary glaucoma is rare in cats. Usually it occurs in one eye and later get transmitted to the other eye. Secondary glaucoma occurs due to other eye diseases. Its causes are uveitis, advanced cataracts, cancer in the eye, lens subluxation or luxation and chronic retinal detachment .Glaucoma in cats is almost always secondary to chronic uveitis. Congenital glaucoma occurs due to mesodermal goniodysgenesis and other anterior segment anomalies. It is commonly seen in basset hound and english cocker spaniel breeds of dogs.

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Symptoms of glaucoma and Symptom causes Pain is one of the important clinical sign of glaucoma. Increased intraocular pressure is painful. Glaucoma in pets is usually much more painful than glaucoma in humans. The pain persists in the form of a constant headache or migraine. Animals show pain in different ways than humans do like squinting, rubbing the eye or face against the floor or against furniture. Buphthalmos, decreased appetite (due to pain), tearing, increased sensitivity to light, red or bloodshot eye and cloudy cornea. Episcleral injection develops as a result of elevated IOP, which results in impaired venous return. Corneal edema develops due to direct pressure on corneal endothelium. Other symptoms are dilated pupil (unresponsive to light), unequally sized pupils, head shyness (reluctance to have the face or head touched/approached, due to pain and reduced vision), vision loss. Pressure damage to the optic nerve and decreased blood flow to the retina results in loss of vision. Permanent blindness can occur within hours if the pressure is very high and the glaucoma develops rapidly. Diagnosis The diagnosis of glaucoma is based on history, clinical signs, tonometry and gonioscopy. We cannot use the signs of "pain" as a criteria as the dogs and cats cannot tell us of their pain directly. A variety of techniques can be used to estimate intraocular pressure, including Schiotz tonometry and Applanation tonometry. Most veterinary ophthalmologists use the highly accurate applanation tonometer. Gonioscopy is a technique used to evaluate the drainage angle. It involves placing a goniolens on the corneal surface after freezing the cornea with topically applied anesthetics. This lens allows us to directly visualize the drainage angle. Gonioscopy occasionally requires sedation but in most pets it can be performed with the use of topical anesthetics only. The technique is essential to evaluate the non glaucomatous eye for risk of a future attack of glaucoma. In general, glaucoma can be diagnosed by following techniques. • Based on clinical signs: Clinical signs of glaucoma are excessive tearing, a green or yellow eye discharge, a reddened eye, an eye that suddenly looks blue, an eye with a pupil that is large and will not move when light is shined into it, the pet sleeps for more time, the pet hides under the bed and the pet suddenly becomes frightened or irritable. In later stages of glaucoma, the eye becomes enlarged. • Tonometry: It is the estimation of intraocular pressure. Two basic types of tonometers that are used in canine ophthalmology are indentation type (Schiotz) and applanation instruments. • Gonioscopy: It is the diagnostic procedure to examine the angle of the anterior chamber. It is measured with goniolenses and gonioprisms. It provides valuable information for classification of glaucoma. Open angle glaucoma responds to medical therapy and narrow to closed angle glaucoma requires Santiglaucoma surgical procedures. •

Ophthalmoscopy: It evaluates occular fundus and in particular, the optic disc in glaucomatous eye. Two methods of ophthalmoscopy are direct and indirect methods. Direct method is usually preferred and can be used through small pupils. Cupping of optic disc in glaucomatous eye can be visualized through ophthalmoscope.

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Tonography: It is a non invasive diagnostic procedure to estimate the coefficient of aqueous humor outflow (C). It has a limited application in small animal practice.

Imaging the optic nerve: It determines extent of damage of the optic nerve. Three commonly used methods for imaging the optic nerve are scanning laser polarimetry, confocal laser ophthalmoscopy {also known as Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT)}, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All three of these techniques are used to map the optic nerve and related structures to identify changes due to glaucoma.

Ultrasound biomicroscopy A – Mode: Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is used to identify the structural causes of glaucoma, including pupillary block and pigmentary glaucoma.

Slit-lamp biomicroscopy: It is used for examination of the anterior chamber of the eye and this method helps to visualize deeper layers of the cornea. • Provocative tests: It is used to detect suspicious and borderline glaucomatous patients and to investigate the heridity of the open angle glaucoma. Water drinking and corticosteroid provocative tests are used to evaluate open angle glaucoma. Mydriatic and dark room tests are used to evaluate narrow angle glaucoma. •

Treatment Glaucoma is very difficult to treat in domestic animals. In some dogs and cats medication will not resolve the glaucoma and surgery is necessary. This is what we face in animals all the time. After the initial diagnosis of glaucoma is made, pet will be aggressively treated with medication if there is any hope of saving vision. This will require a period of hospitalization. During periods of hospitalization, medication may be given directly into the vein to help reduce the intraocular pressure. Additional drugs commonly used include those that are aimed at increasing the outflow of aqueous humor and suppressing its production. These drugs include pilocarpine, timolol, epinephrine, some newer synthetic epinephrine like drops and combinations of these drugs. Yet more medications, known as carbonic anhydrase Inhibitors, are aimed at reducing the production of aqueous humor. Once the pressure has been controlled, surgery is essential to maintain vision. It is impossible to control glaucoma with medication alone. A variety of surgical techniques have been developed which aid in the control of intraocular pressure. Medical Therapy 1. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: These drugs interferes with production of carbonic acid, which leads to decreased formation of aqueous humor and inturn it results in decreased intraocular pressure. These are used for long-term treatment of open-angle glaucoma and recommended only after pilocarpine, beta blockers, epinephrine and cholinesterase inhibitors are ineffective. •

Acetazolamide (Diamox, Lederle): 10 to 25 mg/kg b.wt. divided 2 to 3 times daily.

Dichlorphenamide: 10 to 15 mg/kg b.wt. divided 2 to 3 times daily.

Methazolamide (Neptazane, Lederle): 5 mg/kg b.wt. divided 2 to 3 times daily.

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2. Parasympathomimetics: These increases blood flow to the retina and decreases retinal damage and loss of vision. Miotics cause a contraction of the ciliary muscle and widening of trabecular meshwork and hence increases outflow of the aqueous humor.1 to 2% pilocarpine for every 6 hours topically. 0.125 to 0.25% demecarium bromide, 1 to 2 times per day topically. 3. Beta-adrenergic antagonists: These will block the adrenergic receptors present on the iridocorneal angle and drainage pathway. They decrease c AMP production and hence reduces aqueous humor production. • 0.5% timolol maleate (Timoptic, Merck): 2 to 3 times per day topically. • Timolol may precipitate or aggravate feline asthma due to systemic absorption and bronchoconstriction) • betaxolol (0.5%) (Betoptic, Alcon, Ft Worth, TX): 3 times per day topically. 4. Hyperosmotics: These drugs will increase the osmotic concentration of blood perfusing the eye when administered systemically or applied topically. Osmotic gradient created causes withdrawal of water from the eye to the vascular system or tears. 20% mannitol: 1 to 2 mg/kg IV; repeat in 6 hours if necessary 50 % glycerol: 1 to 2 mg/kg PO; repeat in 8 hours if necessary 5. Topical Prostaglandins: These are used for emergency treatment of glaucoma. These are effective only for dogs. But not for cats and horses. • Latanaprost 0.005%, Pharmacia, 1 drop BID. • Travaprost (Travatan;Alcon) 0.004 BID. • Bimatoprost (Lumigan; Allergan) 0.03% BID 6. Emergency theraphy for closed angle glaucoma: Apply Latanoprost 0.005% 1 to 2 drops topically and recheck intraocular pressure in 1 to 2 hours. If latanoprost is unavailable or ineffective, pilocarpine or mannitol can be used. Water should be withheld for several hours after administration of mannitol. • Dexmethasone can be given through systemic (0.1 mg/kg IV) or topical (1% - every 6-8hrs) route and it reduces intraocular inflammation. If other eye is normotensive, then prophylactic therapy of dimecarium or betaxolol should be used for every 12hrs. Surgical Interventions: It can be classified as surgical therapy for potentially visual eyes and surgical therapy for blind eyes. Treatment for an eye with glaucoma where vision is still present. Iridencleisis: This is a procedure in which radical section of iris is permanently positioned through a limbal incision into the subconjunctival spaces beneath the bulbar conjunctiva. It has been successfully used for narrow and closed angle glaucoma. It is usually performed at twelve o’ clock position. Cyclodialysis: This is a procedure in which an artificial fistula is created between the anterior chamber interiorly through the suprairidociliary space, through an opening in the sclera into the subconjunctival spaces. This method is used for narrow angle glaucoma, congenital glaucoma and glaucoma associated with iris atrophy. Iridectomy: In this procedure radial or basal section of iris is removed and it is recommended in narrow angle glaucoma. This method has proven highly successful in treatment of narrow angle glaucoma. Combined iridencleisis and cyclodialysis: This technique is used in frequently advanced canine

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Corneoscleral trephination: It forms a fistula at limbus for drainage. Usually this method is combine with peripheral iridectomy to prevent occlusion of fistula. It permits drainage of the aqueous humor directly from anterior chamber to the sub conjunctival spaces. Gonioimplants: Silicon implants have been tried. Limitation of this method is implant get obstructed due to inflammatory debris from postoperative iridocyclitis. This procedure will be same as iridencleisis. But here instead of iris, a gonio implant will be used as a wick for drainage. Some veterinary ophthalmologists recommend a surgical procedure where a small valve like device is implanted just under the surface of the sclera. This device has a small tube which enters the eye through a tiny incision and this tube provides an alternate drainage pathway for the aqueous fluid to leave the eye. While some ophthalmologists report frustration with this technique since the little tube may become blocked with fibrin, or the functioning of the valve may be compromised by scarring, other ophthalmologists report considerable success with the procedure. In certain situations, a laser procedure and the implantation of a glaucoma valve is indicated. Laser cyclophotocoagulation: Laser surgery is the treatment of choice in pets with primary glaucoma which can still see. Animal should be anesthetized for proper restraint. The laser burns completely through the sclera of the eye (without damaging it except for some redness and swelling) and selectively kills small areas of the ciliary body in an effort to reduce the production of aqueous fluid to create a balance with the poor drainage. Occasionally the ciliary body will not be damaged enough and a second procedure is needed to restore normal intraocular pressure. This procedure may also be recommended as a preventative in the second eye of dogs and cats which have glaucoma and are blind in one eye and remain visual in the second eye. Cyclocryothermy: Cyclocryothermy is a freezing procedure that was developed a number of years ago to decrease the production of intraocular fluid in the eyes of pets which can still see. The technique involves freezing the ciliary body with a small probe placed on the outside of the eye. No cutting is required. Here also animal should be anaesthetised for proper restraint. The freezing kills the cells that produce the aqueous humor. A number of sites are frozen depending on how elevated the pressure is. After surgery, there is considerable swelling and redness to the sclera of the eye which is to be expected. Complications of this technique include retinal detachments, severe intraocular inflammation, higher intraocular pressure immediately following the freezing that may lead to permanent blindness, shrinkage of the eye or cataract formation. Finally, the glaucoma may develop later requiring a second surgery. Anterior chamber shunts: Some veterinary ophthalmologists recommend a surgical procedure where a small valve like device is implanted just under the surface of the sclera. This device has a small tube which enters the eye through a tiny incision and this tube provides an alternate drainage pathway for the aqueous fluid to leave the eye. While some ophthalmologists report frustration with this technique since the little tube may become blocked with fibrin, or the functioning of the valve may be compromised by scarring,

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Treatment for an eye with glaucoma where vision is lost Evisceration and implantation of an intrascleral silicon prosthesis One technique employed to result in a cosmetic, pain-free eye is the implantation of a silicone implant within the eye. This is called an intraocular prosthesis. The technique involves surgically removing the contents of the eye, leaving the outer shell or sclera, and implanting a silicone implant within the walls of the eye. The shape of the eye is maintained and the eye moves normally. Following surgery, minimal care is needed and the eye is maintained in a relatively normal cosmetic appearance while being free of pain. Complications of this technique are that corneal ulceration may occasionally occur following surgery. In some cases scarring of the cornea results in a gray appearance. Ciliary body ablation by intravitreal injection of gentamycin Another technique used to control glaucoma is the injection of gentamycin (an antibiotic) into the inside of the eye. This drug in high concentrations result in a killing effect on the ciliary body resulting in the reduction or cessation of the aqueous humor production. If the eye was visual the antibiotic injection would also kill the retina resulting in permanent blindness. Therefore, this technique can be used only on eyes that are definitely blind due to chronic pressure elevations. A local anesthetic is required and the antibiotic is injected into the eye through sclera. Complications of this technique are generalized shrinking of the eye, return of the glaucoma at a later time and occasionally chronic pain. This technique is generally only recommended in quite elderly pets where the other choices are not acceptable to the client. Enucleation Finally, the blind, painful eye may be surgically removed or enucleated. After enucleation, the skin is stitched and the hair will soon regrow over the surgery site. This surgery requires general anesthesia. Rarely there are any complications to this technique except possible infection. One main advantage of enucleation is that it gives the opportunity for the veterinary pathologist to examine the eye to determine the cause of the glaucoma if there was any uncertainty over this point. This knowledge may help in assessing the risk of the development of glaucoma in the opposite eye. Prognosis Glaucoma is seldom diagnosed early enough to restore vision in the first eye affected. Therefore, during the initial examination time will be spent to evaluate the "good" eye. Eventual outcome depends upon early accurate diagnosis, possible laser preventative surgery, appropriate medical therapy, and regular and consistent re evaluations to save the vision of the remaining eye. Conclusion Glaucoma remains a leading cause of blindness in veterinary patients. Because of the nature of the disease, many pets are presented at a time when it is not possible to restore vision to the first eye affected. Glaucoma is very difficult to treat in dogs and cats. Unlike humans where medication resolves over 80% of the cases of glaucoma, surgery is usually required in veterinary patients. The goal of treating a pet with glaucoma is to restore vision when possible and if vision is not possible then pain can be reduced with suitable treatment strategies.

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Dr. Madhukar* and Prof. H. A. Upendra# * Assistant Professor, #The Director, Institute of Wildlife Veterinary Research, KVAFSU, Doddaluvara, Kodagu – 571232. Conflict between humans and wild animals is on the rise. These conflict situations are damaging for both the parties. While humans loose property or life, animals get injured or killed. However, wild animals are precious for the conservation of fine ecological balance. Here comes the need for veterinarian to involve in mitigating conflict situations. One of the important weapons for the mitigation is capture and translocation of the conflict animal. Unlike domestic animals, it is a different story altogether to capture wild animals. The most commonly used method, that is humane as well as globally accepted is capture through immobilisation using sedatives, tranquilizers or anaesthetic agents. A specialized set of equipment called dart gun is required for the remote delivery of the drugs to the freely moving wild animals. Here, we have outlined the important aspects of a dart gun, a projectile syringe and the specialized dart needles. Dart Gun A dart gun, also called tranquillizer gun (also spelled tranquilizer gun or tranquilliser gun), or capture gun is a non-lethal gun that is used to shoot the drug carrying syringe. Tranquillizer guns have a long history of use for capturing wildlife without injury. The modern tranquillizer gun was invented in the 1950s by New Zealander Colin Murdoch, who eventually went on to develop a range of rifles, darts, and pistols that have had an enormous impact on the treatment and study of animals around the world. Figure 1. A typical dart gun loaded with a dart.

The dart, usually .50 calibres (12.95 mm), is essentially a ballistic syringe loaded with an immobilizing drug and hypodermic needle, is propelled from the gun by means of compressed gas or a charge.

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Dart/projectile syringe The dart syringe is a two chambered structure that carries the drug in the anterior chamber and air in the posterior chamber. It carries a tailpiece that stabilizes its flight in the air. Dart syringe is available in the volume of 1.5, 3, 5 and 10 ml Figure 2. Parts of a dart syringe

Figure 3. Dart syringes of 1.5, 3, 5 and 10 ml volume.

Figure 4. A complete dart syringe set with accessories.

Air pressure for each different syringe is specific. If air pressure is less, the drug will not be injected completely and if it is more, the drug will be spilled during handling.

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Figure 5. Air pressure specifications for different darts

Dart needles Darting needles are modified to obtain rapid and reliable delivery. To increase the speed of delivery, the dart needles have additional openings around the tip. Three types of dart needles are available; plain, collared and barbed. Plain needle are used for routine delivery of drugs and vaccine as it falls of automatically. Collared and barbed needles are used in case of wild animal capture as it will keep the needle in position even if the animal makes rapid movements. Barbed needles need to be removed with a small surgery by making an incision. Figure 6. Different types of needles used with darting syringe. From left to right are plain, collared and barbed needle.

Figure 7. Needle sizing for wild animals

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Following principals are followed for selection of different types of the needles by Species: • 15G x 3/4” (1.5 mm x 20 mm) Needle 1520 – plain: Small Antelopes, Black Buck, Deer, small Dogs, Mule Deer, small Primates • 15G x 1” (1.5 mm x 25mm) Needle 1525 – plain, collared and barbed: Deer, Fallow Deer, Red Hinds, large Dogs, Lynx, Ostrich, large Primates, Whitetail Deer, Bucks, Wolves • 15G x 1 1/4” (1.5 mm x 30 mm) Needle 1530 – plain: Medium sized Antelope, Fallow Deer Stags, Red Deer Stags, Horses, Jaguars, Leopards, Lions, Tigers, Wart Hog, Zebras, Zoo Animals, other animals without minimal fat layer • 15G x 1 1/2” (1.5 mm x 38 mm) Needle 1538 – plain, collared: Large zoo animals with fat layer • 12G x 1 1/4” (2.0 mm x 30 mm) Needle 2030 – plain, collared or barbed: Antelope, small Bears, Cattle, fallow and red Deer, Lions, Tigers, Horses, Buffalo • 12G x 1 1/2” (2.0 mm x 40 mm) Needle 2040 – plain, collared or barbed: Large Antelopes, small Bears, Bison, Buffalo, Cattle, young Giraffe • 12G x 2 1/2” (2.0 mm x 60 mm) Needle 2060 – plain or collared: Large Bears, Elephants, Giraffe, Rhino • 11G x 4” (2.2 mm x 100 mm) Needle 2210 – plain: Elephants, Hippopotamus, Walrus • 11G x 2 1/2” (2.2 mm x 60 mm) Needle 2260 – plain: Elephants, Hippopotamus, Rhino, Giraffe ****** (Next article will cover the details on loading and unloading of the dart syringe. The authors have used images and illustrations for educational purpose only and neither claim their ownership nor endorse these brands)

M.A.Kshama and A.Muralidhar Dept of TVCC, Veterinary College, Bangalore, KVAFSU The Golden Retriever, is one of the most popular family dogs world over was originally bred as a hunting companion for retrieving waterfowl. Affectionate, obedient, and loyal to a fault, the fun loving Retriever makes an ideal pet for the whole family to love. The Golden Retriever was originally bred in Scotland in the mid-19th century. At that time, wildfowl hunting was a popular sport for the wealthy Scottish elite, but the existing retriever breeds were inadequate for retrieving downed game from both water and land. The Golden Retriever was first developed in Scotland, at "Guisachan", the highland estate of Baron Tweedmouth. For many years, what breeds were originally crossed was disputed, but in 1952, the publication of Marjoribanks' breeding records from 1835 to 1890 details a careful line-breeding program. The original cross was believed to be of a yellow-coloured Retriever, 'Nous', with a Tweed Water Spaniel female dog, 'Belle'.

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In 1868, this cross produced a litter that included four pups; these four became the basis of a breeding program which included the Irish Setter, the sandy-coloured Bloodhound, the St. John's water dog of Newfoundland, and two more wavy-coated black Retrievers. The bloodline was also inbred and selected for trueness to Marjoribanks' idea of the ultimate hunting dog. Thus the ancestry of the Golden Retriever is all sporting dogs, in line with Marjoribanks’ goals. The Golden Retriever was active and powerful and had a gentle mouth for retrieving games while on hunts. Description The Golden Retriever is a large, strongly-built breed with a dense water-repellant wavy coat. They also are very smart dogs who are loyal and friendly to their caregivers. The Golden Retriever is a bit longer than it is tall. Its strong, athletic build is accentuated by its well-developed hindquarters and forequarters. This gives the Golden Retriever a powerful, smooth gait. The Retriever is also characterized by its strong neck and a broad head. Its coat, generally found in various shades of gold, is dense and waterproof, and may be straight or wavy. There are three sub-types of the Golden Retriever, the British, the American & the Canadian, that reflect the typical variations in dimensions and coat. However, all Golden Retrievers are blonde, yellow, or gold in colour. Kennel clubs do not usually allow very light (white) or very dark color coats. British type Golden Retrievers are prevalent throughout Europe and Australia and are distinguished from the North American lines by the official breed standards. The muzzle of the British dog is wider and shorter, and its forehead is blockier. Its legs are shorter, its chest is deeper, and its tail is slightly shorter. Due to these features, a British type usually weighs more than an American or Canadian. Males will be between 56 and 61 cm at the withers and females will be slightly shorter at 51 to 56 cm. American Golden Retrievers, on the other hand are taller than the British type, but retain its thick coat. They are also lankier and less stocky than British types. Males will stand between 58 and 61 cm in height at the withers and females will be 55–57 cm. The Canadian Golden Retriever has a thinner coat and stands taller than other varieties of Golden Retriever.

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Temperament This breed is highly regarded for its love of human companionship. Faithful and obedient, the Retriever is also amongst the easiest to train. Its enthusiasm for learning new things and ability to quickly pick up on new commands makes the Golden Retriever a pleasure to train. Golden Retrievers make good family pets, particularly as they are patient with children. They are not "one-man dogs" and are generally equally amiable with both strangers and those familiar to them. Their trusting, gentle disposition makes them poor guard dogs. Any form of unprovoked aggression or hostility towards either people, dogs or other animals, is considered unacceptable in a Golden Retriever and is not in keeping with the character of the breed. The typical Golden Retriever is calm, naturally intelligent and biddable, and with an exceptional eagerness to please. Golden Retrievers are also noted for their intelligence. Typical Golden Retrievers are active and fun-loving animals with the exceptionally patient demeanour befitting a dog bred to sit quietly for hours in a hunting blind. They love to work, and have a keen ability to focus on a given task. They will work until they collapse, so care should be taken to avoid overworking them. They are suited for scrambling in and out of boats and have an inordinate love for water. They are also very competitive in agility and other performance events. Golden Retrievers are compatible with other dogs, cats and most livestock. They are particularly valued for their high level of sociability towards people, calmness, and willingness to learn. Because of this, they are commonly used as guide dogs, mobility assistance dogs, and search and rescue dogs. Some of the less attractive traits one should keep in mind while going in for a golden retriever puppy include • Golden Retrievers shed their coats frequently and copiously. So it is not for you if you are house-proud, have pale coloured carpets or a dodgy vacuum cleaner. • They are large dogs with an uncanny knack of finding all the muddiest puddles. Some are great wallowers - yours is likely to be one of them. • They do not make good kennel dogs, most are real couch potatoes, who unerringly find the most comfortable sofas. Although usually tractable and obedient, given an inch, most will take the whole nine yards. Of course if you are willing to overlook these minor points they are the most adorable pets you can have. Issues regarding health The Golden Retriever has a lifespan of between 10 and 13 years. A large number of golden retrievers are predisposed to eye disorders such as cataracts, entropion, trichiasis and distichiasis, glaucoma, retinal dysplasia and central progressive retinal atrophy . They are also genetically predisposed to certain joint problems. Hip dysplasia is of main concern. Golden retrievers also are prone to another similar condition called elbow dysplasia. They are also susceptible to osteochondritis, patellar luxation, cruciate ligament rupture and panosteitis. Golden retrievers also have a relatively high susceptibility towards tumors usually of the malignant kind. Their genes leave them at increased risk of developing mast cell tumors, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma and lymphosarcoma.

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Its not known for sure how big a role genes play in these cancers, but a hereditary factor is ssuspected due to their disproportionately high rates in golden retrievers. Other conditions they are susceptible to include allergies and allergic skin conditions, seborrhoea, lick granulomas, hot spots (pyotraumatic dermatitis), obsessive-compulsive disorders,epilepsy, hypothyroidism, gastric torsion and subaortic stenosis. To identify these conditions routine heart, hip, thyroid, eye, and elbow tests during checkups are indicated.

Anand S. D*., Nanjesh B.S., Dharanesh N. K., Varalakhshmi A., Kishore T.K. and Pradeepkumar P.G *Ph.D Scholar, Department of Livestock Production and Management Veterinary college, Bangalore Sheep with its multifaceted utility (meat, milk, manure and skin/wool) plays an important role in rural economy. Sheep is the most suitable small ruminant to utilize the sparse vegetation available in dry land areas through rangeland management and pastures. They eat various kinds of plants and are economical converters of grass into meat. They have excellent ability to survive over prolonged period of drought and semi-starvation. Sheep in Karnataka are mostly maintained on natural vegetation on common grazing lands, waste lands and uncultivated lands, stubbles of cultivated crops and top feeds. Sheep can produce a good amount of quality manure, which can be used as a source of fuel by generating bio-gas. Most of the sheep breeds in Karnataka are meat type with low milk production. Some of the important sheep breeds are, Deccani, Sl.





Home tract


Population (million)


Adult body weight – male






Bannur, Bandur

Tenguri Raichur district

Bidar, Bijapur, Gulbarga, and Raichur districts of Karnataka, adjacent parts of Maharashtra, AP (north of Tungabhadra river) 5.106

Bellary district (south of Tungabhadra river)

Hassan district

Mandya district




38.48 ± 1.06 28.58 ± 0.11

35.39 ± 0.99 27.42 ± 0.24

25.78 ± 0.69 22.68 ± 0.18

34.80 ± 1.55 23.50 ± 0.27

32.33 ± 2.57 26.69 ± 0.37

– female

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Sl. 5

Particulars Body length (cm) – male – female


Height at withers (cm) – male –

Deccani 67.88 ± 0.69

Bellary 70.83 ± 0.45

Hassan 61.61 ± 0.73

Mandya 63.68 ± 1.28

Kenguri 64.75 ± 1.39

65.21 ± 0.10

64.97 ± 0.24

59.00 ± 0.20

59.92 ± 0.22

64.11 ± 0.32

67.44 ± 0.71

71.78 ± 0.73

61.83 ± 0.99

62.00 ± 0.65

69.42 ± 1.22

63.79 ± 0.09

67.01 ± 0.30

57.18 ± 0.27

56.71 ± 0.27

68.59 ± 0.38


female Chest girth (cm) – male

77.96 ± 0.87

77.78 ± 1.04

69.56 ± 0.82

78.57 ± 1.75

74.92 ± 2.07

– female Body weight (kg) – birth

70.75 ± 0.10 2.82 ± 0.00

71.76 ± 0.27 2.60 ± 0.02

65.38 ± 0.27

65.25 ± 0.31 2.09 ± 0.03

73.51 ± 0.37


– 3 months

13.56 ± 0.09

11.09 ± 0.15

9.84 ± 0.12

– 6 months

20.86 ± 0.33

16.28 ± 0.02

12.76 ± 0.29

18.68 ± 0.41

21.02 ± 1.52

– 9


months Mortality (%) – 0-3 mths – 3-12 mths - in rams, ewes, lambs





28.3, 23.9, 28.1

15.0 (adults), 20-

10-15 (adults),


25 (young)

10-20 (young)

20.07 (adults)

10 (adult), 10-20 (young)

14.2, 8.0, 25.9 10

Physical conformation

- Size




- Colour

Predominantly black with white markings. White and brown/fawn animals are also seen

Ranging from white through various combinations of white and black

White body with light brown or black spots

- Ears

Medium in length, flat and drooping Rams are horned Ewes polled

Medium in length, flat and drooping 1/3 rd of males are horned Females generally polled Short and thin Extremely coarse, hairy and open Belly and legs devoid of wool

Medium in length and drooping 39% of males are horned Females usually polled

- Horns

- Tail - Fleece

Short and thin Extremely coarse, hairy and open Belly and legs devoid of wool

- Misc

Pashubandha 2014

Extremely coarse and open. Belly and legs generally devoid of wool.

Small, compact body with typical reversed U-shape conformation from the rear White, but in some cases, face is light brown and this colour may extend to the neck


Mostly dark brown, but colours ranging from white to black with different shades also observed

Long, leafy and drooping Both sexes polled

Males horned Females generally polled

Short and thin Extremely coarse and hairy

Many animals carry wattles Slightly Roman nose High incidence of cryporchidism

Volume No : 3 Issue : 03

Sl. 11

Particulars Fibre Greasy



0.36 ± 0.05


fleece wt.(kg) -

0.74 ± 0.02





6 mthly

- annual - Medullation % - Staple length (cm) - Avg. fibre diameter (µ) 12

73.75 ± 2.54

43.43 ± 1.42

8.58 ± 0.32 52.42 ± 1.86

59.03 ± 1.06

Reproduction - Litter size -


percentage Dressing per-






49.6 ± 1.8



centage (at 6 mths) Average flock



72.46 (range

72 (range 24-



25 (range 7-57)


59 (range 20150)





Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 03

ºÉÊ£ÀÄgÁ¸ÀÄUÀ½UÉ ¤ÃqÀĪÀ CºÁgÀªÀ£ÀÄß ªÀÄÄRåªÁV PɼÀV£ÀAvÉ ªÀVÃðPÀj¸À§ºÀÄzÀÄ • ªÉÄêÀÅ • ¸ÀªÀÄvÉÆî£À CºÁgÀ ªÉÄêÀÅ : C. ºÀ¹gÀÄ ªÉÄêÀÅ D. Mt ªÉÄêÀÅ: ¨sÀvz ÀÛ À ºÀÄ®Äè, gÁV ºÀÄ®Äè EvÁå¢ ºÀ¹gÀÄ ªÉÄêÀÅ ¨É¼ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ C. KPÀzÀ¼À • KPÀzÀ¼À ªÁ¶ðPÀ ¨É¼ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ: ªÀÄĸÀÄQ£À eÉÆüÀ (D¦üP æ À£ï mÁ¯ï), eÉÆüÀ, ¸ÀeÉ,Ó EvÁå¢ • KPÀzÀ¼À §ºÀĪÁ¶ðPÀ ¨É¼ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ: ºÉÊ©æqï £ÉæAiÀÄgï (J£ï © 21, PÉÆÃ-3), V¤ UÁæ¸ï, ¥ÁågÁ UÁæ¸ï, gÉÆqïì UÁæ¸ï EvÁå¢. D. ¢ézÀ¼À: ¢ézÀ¼À ªÁ¶ðPÀ ¨É¼ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ •

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Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 03

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Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 03


1-4 ¢£À 5-14 ¢£À

¥Àæw¤vÀå PÀgÀÄUÀ¼À ¥ÁægAÀ ©üPÀ MtVzÀ UÀjPÉ/ PÀÄr¸À¨ÉÃPÁzÀ ºÁ®Ä ¸ÀªÀÄvÉÆî£À gÉÆÃqïì ºÀÄ®Äè (PÉ.f) DºÁgÀ (UÁæA) ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¢ézÀ¼À zsÁ£ÀåzÀ ¸ÉÆ¥ÀÄà VtÄÚ ºÁ®Ä 2-5 -


3 4 5 6

5 5 4 3

100 500 500 1000


1 2 3

7 £Éà ªÁgÀ 8 £Éà ªÁgÀ 9 £Éà ªÁgÀ 10 £Éà ªÁgÀ

2 2 2 1

1500 1500 2000 2000



11 £Éà ªÁgÀ 12 £Éà ªÁgÀ 13 £Éà ªÁgÀ

1 1 0.5

2000 2500 2500



14 £Éà ªÁgÀ





£Éà £Éà £Éà £ÉÃ

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Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 03

PÀgÀÄUÀ¼À ¥ÁægÀA©üPÀ ¸ÀªÀÄvÉÆî£À DºÁgÀ «Ä±Àæt vÀAiÀiÁjPÉ (PÉÆõÀÖPÀ-2) DºÁgÀ ¸ÁªÀÄVæUÀ¼ÀÄ ZÉ£ÁßV ¥ÀÄr ªÀiÁrzÀ ªÀÄĸÀÄQ£À eÉÆüÀ PÀqÀ¯ÉPÁ¬Ä »Ar gÀªÉ §Æ¸À «Ää£À ¥ÀÄr/ºÁ°£À ¥ÀÄr R¤d «Ä±Àæt

±ÉÃPÀqÀ % (¥Àæw 100 PÉ.f UÉ) 40 40 10 7 2

CqÀÄUÉ G¥ÀÄà fêÀ¸ÀvÀé, J,©2,r3,EvÁå¢

1 20 UÁæA

monthly e-Bulletin Published and circulated by Veterinary College, Hebbal Bengaluru Editor:

Associate Editior:

Dean, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bengaluru Dr.S.Yathiraj (Ex-Officio)

Head,Dept of Vety & Animal Husbandry Extension Education Dr.K.Satyanarayana (Ex-Officio)

Contact : Dept of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education Veterinary College, Hebbal Bangalore email:

Pashubandha 2014


Volume No : 3 Issue : 03 01


Monthly eBulletin

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