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Veterinary College, Bengaluru Monthly e-Bullletin

Newsletter Date : 31st January 2014

Volume No: 3 Issue : 01

Sudha. G and Lakshmikanth .T .R Department Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore – 560 024 (dineshtumkur@gmail.com)

There are several indicators that a possible nutritional problem exits. Consider the following when evaluating a herd. 1. Abnormally high incidence of metabolic disorders. Usually an incidence greater than 10 to 15% in a herd is considered a problem. 2. Increased incidence of infectious disease and poor response of animals to vaccinations. 3. Higher than normal occurrence of weak or silent heats and low conception rate. 4. Milk fat content that deviates more or less than 0.3% from breed average for the season of year. 5. Milk protein content that deviates more or less than 0.2% from breed average for the season of year. 6. High incidence of off-flavors in milk, especially rancidity, oxidized or cardboardy milk, and malty or unclean tastes. 7. Excessive decline in milk production, failure to achieve high milk yields during peak lactation, and generally lower production than what nutrition or genetics would warrant. 8. Greater than 10% of the herd is classified in the extreme categories of body condition. This would be based on the five point scale of 1= very thin and 5= obese. Depressed dry matter intakes for the whole herd or within certain milking groups. Ketosis Supportive clinical tests 1. Ketone levels can be checked on individual animals. It is recommended to check milk ketone levels rather than urine ketone levels. 2.

All ensiled feed and water should be tested for pH. Water should also be tested for total bacteria and total coliform counts.

3.

Mycotoxin screens should be conducted on individual feeds or on the total mixed ration, especially when cows are experiencing hemmorragic diarrheas, irregular estrus cycles, and low conception rates.

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


4. If it is a herd problem, a metabolic profile may be warranted. A representative group of early and closeup dry cows and cows fresh greater than three weeks is suggested. Tests to include would be a differential white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, serum minerals, fibrinogen, and in chronic cases, arginase (possible indication of liver damage). High white blood cell counts are often associated with chronic infections or leukosis. Abnormally low white blood cell counts are sometimes found in animals with an acute infection and viral diseases. Fibrinogen generally is elevated in animals with an inflammation from abscesses, neoplasia, peritonitis, salmonellosis, or fractures. 5. Herds with a high incidence of ketosis may also be complicated by infectious involvement. There is also evidence of either too low or high protein intakes with these particular herd problems. Supportive treatment 1. There are several feed additives that can be administered. They include B-complex bouses, or two to four ounces daily of dried brewer’s yeast, or four ounces of live cell yeast for 5 to 10 days, or three to six grams daily of aspergillus oryzae for 5 to 10 days, or feeding sodium bicarbonate. 2. Encourage intake by feeding unusual feedstuffs to those animals that are severely off-feed for several days. Items could include different forages like grass hay or straw, calf starter, or cereal grains. If at all possible, encourage forage intake over concentrates. 3. Try sources of rumen bypassable or protected amino acids. 4. Look for complicating infections or inflammations. Consider additional supportive treatments for ketosis (see next section). . There are some additional treatments that can be administered. These include: • Provide 8 to 12 ounces of propylene glycol orally per day for several days. • Administer orally 12 grams of niacin daily for one to two weeks. • Administer parentally one to six milligrams of vitamin B12. Prevention 1. Balance rations with an emphasis on crude protein, soluble intake protein, undegradable intake protein, forage and total neutral detergent fiber, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride intakes for both dry and lactating cows. Maintain the proper mineral balance during the dry period. 2. Avoid overfeeding concentrates to dry cows and recently fresh cows. Close-up dry cows should not receive over 30% of the total dry matter intake as concentrate. In conventionally fed herds, gradually increase grain from 1.0% of body weight after calving. In herds feeding a total mixed ration, recently fresh cows should not receive greater than 50 to 55% concentrate dry matter. 3. Keep sodium bicarbonate in the lactating cow ration, especially for just recently fresh animals. 4. Full feed good quality forage for the first one to two weeks after calving. Avoid or feed reduced amounts of abnormally fermented feeds for two weeks prior to and six to eight weeks after freshening. Upgrade forage quality two to four weeks prior to calving if a low digestible forage(s) is being fed during the early dry period. Check and monitor forage intake and particle size of the diet. 5. Administer high-calcium boluses (75g calcium carbonate total) as soon as possible after freshening a within eight hours of parturition. 6. Sample and analyze total mixed rations for the dry cows and post fresh groups and compare to the programmed specifications. Check feeding rates on a routine basis.

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


7. Test drinking water for heavy bacterial contamination, pH, and nitrates. Check that cows do not have access to excessive amounts of acorns, apples, green-chopped corn silage, toxic weeds, and heating forages. Preventative steps or precautions in addition to what is listed under the section others include: • Avoid obesity or body condition scores greater than 4 (1 to 5 scale) in dry cows and springing heifers. • Provide six grams of niacin orally per cow daily starting two to four weeks prior to expected calving and continuing for 90 to 120 days postpartum. • Avoid sudden changes in the physical nature of the feeds within the ration. Milk Fever Supportive clinical tests 1. It is recommended to sample blood from four to seven dry cows and any clinical cases prior to treatment. Important parameters to include in the profile are serum minerals, packed cell volume, white blood cell count (plus differential) and blood urea nitrogen. In a herd wide problem, consider selenium and vitamin E. It is important to determine if milk fever is being complicated by a low magnesium status. In typical milk fevers, magnesium is elevated. 2. If a cow does not respond to milk fever therapy culture milk samples from all four quarters. 3. If a downer cow is necropsied, look for white muscle disease and cardiac calcification, multiple leg fractures in bred heifers, and spinal cord compression or injury. Supportive treatment (use one of the following) 1. Use plain calcium borogluconate for the first treatment to minimize incidence of refractory cases. 2. Administer high calcium boluses (about 75 grams of calcium carbonate) as soon as possible after calving and within eight hours of freshening; or administer calcium paste paying close attention to the manufacturers recommendations and directions. 3. For downer cows not responding to treatment, give a drench of two pounds of Epsom salts in one gallon of water. This will sometimes remove toxins in the lower gastrointestinal tract and enable cows to stand within two to four hours. 4. Inject intramuscularly 10 million units of vitamin D3 in a water-soluble, highly crystalline form within 24 to 48 hours of expected freshening. Do not repeat dose for at least 10 days if cow doesn’t freshen. Use three million units in a repeat dose. 5. Feed 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of ammonium chloride per head daily beginning not less than two days before and continuing at least two days after freshening. The ammonium chloride should be mixed with the grain or other quickly eaten feed. This therapy is particularly appropriate if high rumen pH is suspected. Check urine pH promptly.

Prevention- Retained Placenta: Supportive clinical tests 1. When retained placenta is a herd problem (greater than 8 to 10%), a blood profile should include serum minerals, selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene. In individual cases, blood urea nitrogen and packed cell volume should be included.

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Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


2. If abortions and/or weak calves are also associated with retention of the placenta, serology should include BVD, IBR, PI3, Hemophilus, and Leptospirosis. Supportive treatment 1. Dry cows can be injected with 20 milligrams of selenium and 680 units of vitamin E. Vitamin A and E injections can be given at a level of one to three million units of vitamin A and 1,000 units of vitamin E. 2. If accompanied by off-feed conditions, administer calcium boluses (75 grams of calcium carbonate). Prevention 1. Balance rations for dry cows and springing heifers, especially during the last two to four weeks prior to expected calving. Pay particular attention to the levels in the diet of calcium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamins A, D and E, and beta-carotene. Avoid deficiencies of and excesses of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. For dry cows, vitamin A should be formulated between 135,000 to 150,000 IU/cow daily, vitamin D at 15,000 to 25,000 IU/cow daily, and vitamin E at 2000 IU/cow daily. 2. Avoid extremes in body condition before and after calving, 3. Keep cows on feed during the pre- and post-partum period. Cows should not have access to corn silage free choice. Intake of concentrates should be controlled. 4.. Minimize stressful conditions, including dirty calving areas, during the dry period and at parturition.

*

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Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


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Pashubandha 2014

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Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


Dr. M.A.Kshama and Dr. A.Muralidhar Dept of TVCC, Veterinary College, Bangalore, KVAFSU (kshamabopanna@rediffmail.com) There are several breeds of dogs found in India .This article is a part of a series in which an attempt is made to showcase some of the more popular breeds and familiarise the clinicians as well as the pet owners with their unique characteristics Labrador Retriever This is one of the most popular breeds being used as pets around the world because of their affectionate, playful and gentle nature.It is a retriever as the name suggests, which is a type of gundog This breed has an interesting history and is said to have originated in the island of Newfoundland a part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada. It is one of the retrievers ( as the name suggests) which is a type of gun dog and was used for waterfowl hunting.The St johns area of Newfoundland was mainly dominated by English and Irish settlers and it is through them that these dogs came to be popular in England. The first and second Earls of Malmesbury, who bred these dogs for duck shooting on his estate, and the 5th and 6th Dukes of Buccleuch, and youngest son Lord George William Montagu-Douglas-Scott, were instrumental in developing and establishing the modern Labrador breed in 19th century England. The dogs Avon and Ned given by Malmesbury to assist the Duke of Buccleuch's breeding program in the 1880s are considered the ancestors of modern Labradors. Description The male usually weighs around kgs and the females weigh about kgs. It comes in three main colours, black, chocolate and yellow ( the yellow colour ranges from pale yellow to fox red). The average life span of these dogs is about 12-13 years and the litter size is 5-10 puppies. There is a great deal of variety among Labradors. Labradors are a relatively large breed. They are as long from the withers to the base of the tail as they are from the floor to the withers. The coat is slightly dry, oily coat described as 'water-resistant' or 'water-repellent' so that the dog does not get cold when taking to water in the winter. The head is broad with a pronounced stoop and slightly pronounced brow. The eyes are kind and expressive. Eye colours are brown and hazel. The lining around the eyes are black. The ears hang close to the head and are set slightly above the eyes.The jaws are strong and powerful. The muzzle is of medium length, and should not be too tapered. The jaws hang slightly and curve gracefully back.: The body is usually strong and muscular with a level top line.The tail and coat are the"distinctive features" dor and the tail is described as the 'otter' tail."

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


Temperament: The Labrador's are kind, pleasant, outgoing and have tractable nature. Labradors' sense of smell allows them to trace almost any scent and follow the path of its origin. They generally stay on the scent until they find it. Labradors instinctively enjoy holding objects and they can do it with great gentleness. In fact, a labrador is said to be capable of carrying an egg in its mouth without breaking it. They are known to have a very soft feel to the mouth, and hence used as retrievers. The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, and hence they are used extensively in waterfowl hunting.They are very even-tempered and hence excellent family dogs. They are very playful and affectionate with children of all ages and other animals. They are also very fast and athlectic and hence good working dogs. Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand an uncontrolled adult can be quite problematic. Females are slightly more independent than males. [12] Labradors mature at around three years of age; Because of their energy, playfulness and enthusiasm, leash-training early on is suggested to prevent pulling when full-grown. Labradors often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly (often obsessively) and other forms of activity . Labradors are usually not noisy or territorial. They are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers and therefore are not usually suitable as guard dogs. The steady temperament of Labradors and their ability to learn make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. They are a very intelligent breed Labradors are very popular as assistance dogs and are frequently trained to aid blind and autistic people as guide dogs, act as therapy dogs and owing to their remarkable sniffing and retrieving abilities are used for detection work by law enforcement (police) and other official agencies. Navies, military forces and police forces use them as detection dogs to track down smugglers, thieves, terrorists and black marketers. Issues regarding health: One should be aware of the health issues that one might face before one decides to bring home a labrador pup. They are genetically prone to hip and elbow dysplasia. Hip scores are recommended before breeding and often joint supplements are recommended. A knowledge of the parentage might also help. They are also prone for knee problems, patellar luxation and osteochondrosis desicans (OCD) another condition affecting the joints. Eye problems are also possible in some Labradors, particularly progressive retinal atrophy, cataracts, corneal dystrophy and retinal dysplasia. Dogs which are intended to be bred should be examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist for an eye score. Hereditary myopathy, is another rare inherited disorder that these dogs are prone to and is characterized by short stilted gait or "bunny hopping," and in rare cases ventroflexion of the neck accompanied by a kyphotic posture.

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


Other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and deafness, either congenital or accquired may occur in some dogs. Labradors often also suffer from exercise induced collapse, a syndrome that causes hyperthermia, weakness, collapse, and disorientation after short bouts of exercise. Dermatological disorders are also quite common in labradors and they are predisposed to atopy an allergic skin condition characterised by pruritus along with other associated signs like pyoderma, otitis (their love for water and drooping ears also contribute to it) and hot spots later on. Labradors like to eat, and without proper exercise can become obese. Laziness also contributes to this. Labradors have a well-known reputation for appetite, and some individuals may be highly indiscriminate, eating digestible and non-food objects alike. They are persistent and persuasive in requesting food. For this reason, the Labrador owner must carefully control their dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems .

Dr. Sunil Kumar M.A., Dr. Shrikant Dodamani, Dr. Naveen Kumar, G.S., Dr. Basavraj Inamdar, Dr. Chandre Gowda C.T, Dr. Adarsha, D.B Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Veterinary College, Hassan (sunilvetagb@gmail.com, shri537@gmail.com)

Introduction Congenital defects are abnormalities of structure or function present at birth. They may be caused by genetic or environmental factors, or a combination of both. The causes of many defects remain unknown. There are many undesirable traits that are increasingly recorded in cattle breeding. These range from poor performance and structural unsoundness to semi-lethal and lethal diseases. Congenital defects are present in all breeds of cattle. In most herds, they go unnoticed. However, occasionally the frequency within a herd will be high enough to be of considerable economic importance. With the increasing use of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle, defects are no longer rare occurrences and are important collectively to the cattle industry. Congenital defects may account for a high percentage of calf losses from just before to just after calving. The frequency of congenital defects ranges from less than 1 to over 3 percent within herds. As the congenital defects cause economic losses by increasing perinatal calf mortality, decreasing maternal productivity, and decreasing the value of defective calves and their relatives. Cattle breeders should be conscious of potential defects and investigate animals exhibiting unusual characteristics. It is essential that all the persons involved in cattle breeding should have knowledge of these defects so as to record and take measure to eliminate the conditions in the herd. Causes The cause of many congenital defects is still unknown, but many are inherited. The most common inheritance pattern is as a simple recessive trait. The defective calf receives a recessive gene from its sire and one from its dam. A few congenital defects are known to be caused by genes with incomplete dominance and a few are caused by two or more sets of genes.

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


Genetically caused congenital defects usually run in families. The parents of a genetically defective calf will generally have at least one ancestor in common. Many congenital defects are caused by environmental factors. These include the level of nutrition, excess or shortages of certain nutrients, toxic plants or other toxic substances, infectious diseases, and extremes in temperature during pregnancy. Most environmentally caused congenital defects will occur during a short period of the calving season, from cows that were managed as a group. After proper diagnosis, a change in management is necessary to correct these conditions. Classification of hereditary congenital defects Congenital defects are classified based on the body system affected. Approximately two-thirds of genetic defects in calves affect the skeletal system, central nervous system, and eye. These conditions are the most visible to the producer. The muscular system, large body cavities, digestive system, reproductive system, skin, and circulatory system comprise the remaining one-third of the recorded defects. Skeletal System Condrodysplasia (fig. 1 & 2) Chondrodysplasia is commonly called as Dwarfism. It is an inherited defect reported in many breeds of cattle. The severity of presentation is highly variable, but in general calves are born with a shortened stature, and deformity of the head, spine, and limbs. Dwarfism occurs in all breeds of cattle. It is a defect of the interstitial growth of the epithelial, articular, and basal cranial cartilages. It is generally considered a recessive gene effect with varying degrees of expression. For example, Dexter cattle, which have become famous for the incidence of “bulldog” calves, have been identified to carry a single mutation in the ACAN gene. This gene is recessive, with incomplete penetrance, meaning that depending on how many copies of the gene a calf inherits, a the defect may vary in severity. A calf that inherits two copies of the mutation will develop the severe lethal phenotype, but a calf that inherits only one copy of the mutation may show a range of severity, and is actually the desired “miniature cattle” phenotype.

1. Dwarfism

2. Bull dog calf (Dwarfism)

Osteopetrosis Osteopetrosis is commonly known as Marble Bone disease. It has been reported in calves of Black and Red Angus, Holstein-Freisian, Simmental, and Herefords, and is characterized by small body size and an undershot jaw with impacted molar teeth.

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


The most common finding is the lack of bone marrow cavities. Calves affected with osteopetrosis are born prematurely at 251 to 272 days gestation and may be mistaken for an abortion problem. This is caused by a simple autosomal recessive gene. A genetic defect results in a failure of osteoclast cellular activity, which is responsible for bone remodeling during development. These calves display a defect in bone anatomy that results in shortened malformation of the long bones and a failure of the bone marrow cavity to properly develop. 3. Marble bone disease (Osteopetrosis) Syndactyly Syndactyly is also called as mule foot. It is defined as a fusion or non-division of functional digits. It is common in Holstein, Chianina, Angus, and Simmental cattle, and is due to a simple autosomal recessive gene. The genetic form expresses the defect in the right front foot first, then the left front foot, followed by the right and left hind feet. Calves born with this condition may have fusion of the digits in anywhere from one to all four limbs affected. The right front leg is the most commonly affected, with the left front being second most common. Syndactyly calves may show varying degrees of lameness, have a high-step gait, and may walk slowly. Many of these calves will succumb to hyperthermia. 4. Mule foot (Syndactyly ) Polydactylism Polydactylism (three-toes) is a duplication of the number of toes. It is common in Simmental and Holstein cattle. It is a polygenic trait (many genes at different loci) with various forms of expression. Incomplete penetrance of the condition can occur; the foot appears normal and an X-ray is needed to reveal the extra digits. In addition to the genetic cause, environmental causes (viral infection) have also been reported. Arthrogryposis -Ankylosis of the limbs Arthrogryposis is also called as Curly Calf Syndrome. It is the most common skeletal defect observed. It is defined as permanent abnormal joint fixation and is present at birth. It has been reported in conjunction with cleft palate and is caused by autosomal recessive gene with complete penetrance in the homozygous state. It is reported in all major breeds.

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


The hereditary form needs to be differentiated from the similar condition caused by viral infection (Blue tongue and Bovine viral diarrhoea) and pregnant animal grazing on sorghum pasture in cattle, horse and sheep. Congenital arthrogryposis can be a cause of dystocia in the mother. The primary presentation of calves born with arthrogryposis is the permanent contracture of the joints of the front and/or hind limbs, often with abnormal curvature of the spine. Calves are very small and lack muscle development. Many calves suffer from additional defects such as cleft palate, abnormal curvature of the spine. Calves are generally stillborn, or die shortly after birth. Double muscling: Double muscling is the result of a defect in the myostatin gene, which is responsible for regulating the growth of muscle fibers during development. Without a functioning mysostatin gene, muscles will develop hypertrophy (increase in muscle fiber size) and hyperplasia (increase in number of muscle fibers), resulting in the appearance of a “double muscled� animal. A number of complications arise from this condition, in particular reduced fertility and the risk of dystocia due to the increased fetal weight and girth. The vast majority of double-muscled cattle must be delivered by cesarean section. Other complications include under-developed external genitalia, enlarged tongues, low calf viability, and increased susceptibility to stress.

Double muscled cattle

Double muscled calf on pasture

Double muscling is caused by a pair of incompletely recessive genes that result in the inhibition of myostatin activity in various degrees of the condition. Succinic dehydrogenase activity is significantly decreased in affected calves. Internal hydrocephalus: Internal hydrocephalus is commonly called as Water head. It is an accumulation of excessive fluid within the ventricular system of the brain. The animals are generally born dead or die within a few days after birth. It is inherited as a simple autosomal recessive gene in Herefords and Shorthorns, and is also caused by BVD and bluetongue viruses. Waterhead (internal hydrocephalus)

Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


The head is markedly enlarged; The bones of the skull are malformed and appear as loosely organized bony plates that fall apart when the head is opened. The cranium is filled with fluid and no recognizable brain tissue is evident. The spinal canal is also dilated and no observable spinal tissue is found. Internal hydrocephalus Cerebellar hypoplasia: In cerebellar hypoplasia, the cerebellum is small or absent. It has been described as a genetic defect in many breeds, but intrauterine fetal infections with BVD and bluetongue viruses have also been incriminated as causative agents. Affected calves are recumbent with extended limbs, intermediate opisthotonos (head twisted backward), and ataxia. Mannosidosis Mannosidosis is a lyosomal storage disease associated with accumulation and storage of the enzyme amannosidase. The deficiency of a-mannosidase is characterized by ataxia, incoordination, head tremor, aggression, and reduced growth. Calves may be affected at birth, but clinical signs usually do not appear until they are several weeks or months of age. The most affected cattle die within the first 12 months of life. Heterozygous animals are carriers. This is a simple autosomal recessive condition and can be defined biochemically. It has been reported in Angus and Murray Grey cattle. Progressive Bovine Myeloencephalopathy: It is commonly known as Weaver calf. Calves start developing a weaving gait at 6-8 months and get progressively worse until death at 12-20 months. Inherited as a simple recessive trait. Weaver calf (progressive bovine myeloencephalopathy)

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Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


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Pashubandha 2014

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01


gÀ§âgï ªÀÄgÀ, ºÁ®Ä ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ±À¸ÀÛçaQvÉìUÉƼÀ¥ÀlÖ

monthly e-Bulletin Published and circulated by Veterinary College, Hebbal Bengaluru Editor:

Associate Editior:

Dean, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bengaluru Dr.S.Yathiraj (Ex-Officio)

Head,Dept of Vety & Animal Husbandry Extension Education Dr.K.Satyanarayana (Ex-Officio)

Contact : Dept of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education Veterinary College, Hebbal Bangalore email: pashubandhavch@gmail.com

Pashubandha 2014

PELVIC

Volume No : 3 Issue : 01

Jan 2014  

Pashubandha Monthly eBulletin