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efJeMes<e uesKe [e@. efveefuecee kegÀuekeÀCeea drneelimakulkarni@gmail.com

meJe& peeJree®bee j#eCekeÀlee& Demee (³et Jeer ekfeÀjCeeHbeemevte) DeePseevse®ee Lej HeeleU nelse peelees. ³ee Leje®eer keÀeUpeer IesCes Del³eble iejpe®ses Deen.s ns ue#eele Deeu³eeJej GÊej ieesueeOee&leerue Òeiele (DeewÐeesefiekeÀ Òeieleer) je<ì^ebveer 1996 Heemetve keÌueesjesHeÌuegjes keÀeye&ve®³ee JeeHejeJej yeboer Ieeleueer Deens. DeLeel&e meJe& je<ìe^vbeer peeieb neCs³ee®eer iejpe Deen.s Dev³eLee keÀceer neCseeje DeePseevse®ee Lej HeL=JeeJrejeure peeJreme<=ìe®ree Ieele keÀjCeeje þjuse ³eele MekbeÀe veene.r

DeePseevse®es mejg#eekeÀJe®e... DeesPeesve (O3) ®ee Òee®eerve nerye´gceOeerue DeLe& `osJee®ee MJeeme' Demee neslees. He=LJeer YeesJeleeue®es JeeleeJejCe cnCepes DeveskeÀ Jee³etb®es Jes<ìve. l³eeceO³es 78 ìkekÌeÀs vee³eìe^pseve (N2), 21 ìkekÌeÀs Dee@keÌmeerpeve (O2), 0.03 ìkeÌkesÀ keÀeye&ve [e³eDee@keÌmeeF[ DeeefCe Flej keÀener Jee³etb®ee meceeJesMe neslees. He=LJeer®³ee JeeleeJejCee®ee Heefnuee Lej DeLeJee HeeHegêe (layer) cnCepes ì^esHeesmHeÀer³ej- pees He=LJeer®³ee He=ÿYeeieeHeemetve Jej 10 efkeÀueesceerìj He³e¥le Hemejuesuee Deens. ogmeje Lej cnCepes mì^@ìesmHeÀer³ej pees meeOeejCele: 50 efkeÀ.ceer.He³e&le Jej Hemejuesuee Deens. DeesPeesve®ee Lej ³ee®e Yeeieele Demelees. ³eeleerue DeesPeesve®es jsCet met³e&efkeÀjCeebceOeerue Deleerefveue efkebÀJee pebyetHeej efkeÀjCeebvee (UV radiation) Mees<etve IesC³ee®es keÀece keÀjleele. ³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esceO³es Deleerefveue efkeÀjCeeb®eer Tpee& G<CelesceO³es ©Heebleefjle kesÀueer peeles. DeesPeesve®³ee ³ee cenleercegUs®e meb³egkeÌle je<ì^eb®³ee pevejue DemeWyueerves 16 meHìWyej ne `DeesPeesve Leje®³ee j#eCeemeeþer®ee efoJeme' Demes Ieesef<ele kesÀues Deens. ³ee DeesPeesve®³ee Lejeb®ee MeesOe 1931 meeueer SkeÀe ÖeWÀ®e Meem$e%eeves ueeJeuee. SkeÀ ueeKe keÀeìser Je<eeH¥eJteea Deieoer ÒeejYbee®r³ee peer J eeb H ew k eÀer nef j leveer È ³ee peueMes J eeUeves meew j Tpex ® ee JeeHej keÀªve HeeCeer Deeef C e

keÀye&Jee³et®³ee jsCet®es efJeIeìve keÀ©ve l³eeHeemetve meWêer³e meb³egie DeeefCe jsCJeer³e (cee@ueske̳eguej) Dee@keÌmeerpeve le³eej kesÀuee. ³ee meewjTpex®³ee GHeHeefjJele&veeuee `HeÀesìesefmevLesefmeme' Demes cnCeleele. ³ee Òeef ¬ eÀ³es Ü ejs le³eej Peeues u ³ee Dee@ k eÌ m eer p eve®ee keÀener ÒeceeCeele meW ê er ³ e Dee@keÌmeerpeveMeer meb³eesie nesTve keÀeye&ve [e³eDee@keÌmeeF[ (Co2) ®ee jsCet le³eej Peeuee. Mes<e jeneruesuee Dee@keÌmeerpeve JeeleeJejCeele mee®ele iesuee DeeefCe keÀeye&ve [e³e-Dee@keÌmeeF[®es ÒeceeCe Ieìle iesues. ³eecegUs De@vejesyeerkeÀ peerJeeb®³ee Deef m leÊJeeuee Oees k eÀe ef v ecee& C e Peeuee. JeeleeJejCeele peemle Gb ® eer J ej Deleer e f v eue Dee@keÌmeerpeve jsCet (O2) met³e&ÒekeÀeMe efkeÀjCeebvee Mee<sevte mJele: eJfeIeìve HeeJevte Deek@emÌeepreve®ee SkeÀ DeCet le³eej keÀ© ueeieue.s Demes DeCet (O) DeeeCfe Dee@keÌmeerpeve (O2) SkeÀ$e ³esTve DeesPeesve jsCet (O3) le³eej Peeues. jsCet ³eg Jeer efkeÀjCes DeefleMe³e ÒeYeeJeerHeCes Mees<etve Iesleele DeeefCe l³eecegUs®e He= L Jeer J ejer u e mepeer J eeb m eeþer neveer k eÀejkeÀ Demeuesu³ee Deefleveerue efkeÀCeebmeeHetmeve He=LJeeruee DeeefCe He=LJeerJejerue mepeerJeebvee peCet mebj#eCe®e efceUeues. ne DeesPeesve®ee Lej meeOeejCele: 600 oMeue#e Je<ee¥Heemetve He=LJeerYeesJeleer DeefmlelJeele


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vee³eieje Menjele nesles. l³eeJesU®ee l³eeb®ee DevegYeJe l³eebveer `o mHeesì&medceve DeB[ ve@®eje@efuemì' ceO³es efueefnuee neslee lees Demee... SkeÀe JesUer G[Ceejer ueeKees keÀyeglejs Heentve ceer ®eefkeÀle Peeuees neslees. l³eeb®³ee G·eCeecegUs met³e& PeekeÀuee iesuee neslee. lees keÀUHe mejU js<esle G[le ®eeueuee neslee. l³ee®eer ©boer cewueYej lejer DemeeJeer. l³ee®ee Deeiee efomele veJnlee Jee efHeíener o=ef<ìHeLeele veJnlee. ne keÀUHe efleLetve efomesveemee Peeuee 14 leemeebveer. efkebÀie®³ee DeboepeeÒeceeCes l³eeb®ee Jesie leeMeer 95 efkeÀ.ceer DemeeJee. l³ee HeueìCeer®eer ueebyeer 480 efkeÀ.ceer SJe{er DemeeJeer. ns Òe®eb[ keÀUHe efpeLes legìtve He[e³e®es efleLeues HeerkeÀ meeHeÀ ve nesF&ue lej®e veJeue. les Pee[ebJej yemele lesJne l³eeb®³ee Yeejeves HeÀebÐee legìtve peele. l³ee®bes keÀUHe meeOeejCe 10 keÀeìse®Res Demele. Fleke³Ìee Òe®e[ b meKb³evses Demeueuses He#eer DeJeI³ee 40 Je<ee¥le veeceMes<e keÀmes Peeues?

l³eeb®³ee veeMeeuee ceveg<³e®e keÀejCeerYetle neslee. l³eeb®ee efveJeeme neslee ceO³e DeeefCe HetJe& DecesefjkesÀleerue pebieues. leer pebieues lees[ueer iesueer. l³ee yejesyej l³eeb®ee efveJeeme iesuee DeeefCe l³eeb®es Devvener. yeer®evej, DekeÀe@ve& F. Pee[eb®eer HeÀUs, efye³ee ns l³eeb®es Devve nesles. l³eeefMeJee³e efMekeÀejer®³ee nJ³eemeeHee³eer l³eeb®eer DeKesj Peeueer. SkeÀe JesUer npeejes He#eer yeUer peele nesles. yebogkeÀer®³ee SkeÀe yeejele DeveskeÀ He#eer ìHeeìHe He[le. npeejes J³eeJemee³eerkeÀ efMekeÀejer l³eeb®³ee ceeies nele OegTve ueeieues nesles. keÀyeglejs Hees®eueer keÀer l³eeceeieecseeie eMfekeÀejer elfeLes Hee®sevte eMfekeÀej keÀjle. eJfemeeJ³ee MelekeÀe®³ee meg©Jeeleeruee ³ee keÀyeglejeb®³ee efMekeÀejerJej yeboer Ieeleueer iesueer. HeCe lesJne KetHe GMeerj Peeuee neslee. l³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀceer neslee neslee kesÀJeU `ceeLee&' efMeuuekeÀ jeefnueer nesleer. ÒeeefCemebûeneue³eele jeefnu³eeves®e leer FlekeÀer Je<ex peieueer nesleer. keÀes ì îeJeOeeR ® ³ee meb K ³es v es DemeCeeje ne He#eer DeuHekeÀeUele veeceMes<e Peeuee. l³ee®ee DecesefjkesÀleerue HeefjefmLeefleJej keÀe³e HeefjCeece Peeuee Demesue ³ee®eer keÀuHevee®e keÀjeJeer ueeiesue. ner HeeKejs p³ee HeMeHte#³ee®beer eMfekeÀej nelse,s l³ee®bes keÀe³e Peeues Demeuse? les He#eer p³ee Pee[eJbej Heesmeues peele nesles l³ee Pee[eb®es keÀe³e? l³eeb®³ee KeeC³eele pes ÒeeflemHeOeea nesles l³eeb®es keÀe³e? efvemeie&meeKeUerle Òel³eskeÀ Òepeeleer ogmeN³ee DeveskeÀ ÒepeeleeRMeer pees[uesueer Demeles. l³eeleueer SkeÀ keÀ[er efvemeìueer lejer l³ee®es neojs otjHe³e¥le peeleele ns®e meebietve ceeLee& ns peie mees[tve iesueer. íe³eeef®e$es meewpev³e ë wikipidia.org tuspalmas.es carry Akroyd Rochester Museum & Science Center


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[e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs 98696 12531 nstekale@gmail.com

ceuee Demes Jeeìles! legcneuee? ieeJeekeÀ[s Demeleevee Deece®eer MeeUe 10 les 5 DeMeer Demes. ner MeeUe megìueer keÀer ceer DeeefCe ceePes efce$e IejekeÀ[s Hejleer®³ee JeeìsJej DemeCeeN³ee DeeieȳeeJesieȳee efvemeie& MeeUsle peele Demet. leer MeeUe kegÀþu³ee íHejeKeeueer veJnleer, leer nesleer SkeÀe Hes©®eer yeeie. l³ee MeeUlseeure eJfeÐeeLeea cnCepes MekseÀ[es HeeHseì. SkeÀe Pee[eJe©ve G[tve ogmeN³ee Pee[eJej cnCepes efceefveìeefceefveìebveer Jeie& yeoueCeejs ns efJeÐeeLeea Heentve ceve njketÀve peele Demes. ³ee MeeUs l e Deecneme Hees H eìeb v eer ®ees ® e ueeJeuesues Hes© efceUle, efHeJeUs, ueeueYe[keÀ, SJe{s iees [ ceOet j Hes © l³eeveb l ej keÀOeer ® e ®eeKeeJe³eeme efceUeues veenerle. Keeueer He[uesues Hes© Jes®ele Deecner SkeÀe Pee[eHeemetve ogmeN³ee, eflemeN³ee Pee[ekeÀ[s peele Demet. Pee[eJej®³ee Hes©uee nele ueeJee³e®ee veener ³ee jeKeCeoeje®³ee efve³ecee®es Deecner Heeueve keÀjle. yeeies®³ee yeensj 25 Hewmes efkeÀuees ojeves Hes© efceUle, HeCe l³ee HeeìecreOeeure He©sHe#see Deecneuee HeeHseìeves eofueus³ee He©s®eer ®eJe Deieoe®re v³eeje.r Meyeje®reer yeejss nelseer leer. HeesHeì ne He#eer ceePee 5 Jeer Heemegve®ee efce$e Deens. l³ee®eer cew$eer ceer 10 Jeer He³e¥le meebYeeUueer

veblej cee$e leer DeeþJeCeer®³ee [esneceO³es yeg[eueer. lees 60-61 ®ee keÀeU neslee. Deece®³ee ieuueerceO³es peer 20-25 Iejs nesleer l³ee Òel³eskeÀ Iejer jeIeg®ee efHebpeje Demes. DebieCeele íeve HewkeÀer ìebieuesuee MesleeceOeerue cegiee®³ee, YegF&cegiee®³ee MeWiee, Hes©, peebYeUs, yeesj, Deeby³ee®eer HeÀes[, ieepej, Deesues njyejs, ceke̳ee®es keÀefCeme DeMeer efkeÀleerlejer MesleeJejerue meWefê³e HeÀUb jeIeg®³ee efHebpeN³eele efomele. HeesHeì ne Òel³eskeÀe®³ee Iejer MelseeceOeeure ie[îeeves DeeCevge eofueusee Deme.s cee$e Deece®³ee Iej®ee HeesHeì SkeÀe HeejO³ee®³ee cegueeves ceuee efouee neslee. l³ee®³ee yeou³eele DeeF&ves l³eeuee HeesìYej pesJee³euee efoues nesles. HeesHeì osTve ®eìveer YeekeÀjer efceUefJeCes ne l³ee®ee J³eJemee³e®e neslee. ieeJeeyeensj®³ee osJeUele, ceþeceOetve lees ceesþer efHeuues efMeleeHeÀerves HeUJele Demes. ceer 7Jeeruee Demeleevee Deece®³ee efye´ìerMekeÀeueerve MeeUs®³ee SkeÀe keÀewueeceO³es ceer HeesHeìe®eer leerve efHeuues yeefIeleueer nesleer. ojjespe Jeiee&le Deeues keÀer SkeÀe þjeefJekeÀ peeiesJej yemetve ceer l³ee efHeueeb®eer Jee{ yeIes. leerve ®eej ceefnves KetHe cepee kesÀueer. Iejer peeleevee yeeiesceOeerue Hes© IesTve


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30 climate and atmospheric sciences at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, at the University of California San Diego and a co-author of the new study. Rising emissions are causing severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions. Pollution in Delhi, the nation’s capital, has reached levels comparable to Beijing, one of the most polluted cities in the world, according to India’s Air Monitoring Center. The main component of smog, ozone at ground level can cause leaf damage that stifles plant growth, injuring and killing vegetation. According to the new study published Aug.14 in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, surface ozone pollution damaged 6 million metric tons of India’s wheat, rice, soybean and cotton crops in 2005. India could feed 94 million people with the lost wheat and rice crops, about a third of the country’s poor, according to Sachin Ghude, an atmospheric scientist at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) in Pune, India and lead author of the new study. There are about 270 million Indians that live in poverty, according to the study. Ghude said the new paper, which is the first to quantify how much damage India’s ozone pollution has caused the country’s major crops on a national level, could help policymakers craft new ozone pollution standards. It could also help India, a country with a high rate of poverty, as the country implements a new law that subsidizes grain for two-thirds of the country’s residents, he said. The new food security bill requires the country to provide 61.2 million metric tons of cereal grains – that include wheat and rice – to India’s poor each year at a subsidized rate. The new study found that the 5.6 million metric tons of wheat and rice lost to ozone pollution was equal to 9.2 percent of the new law’s subsidized cereal requirement. Under the new law, residents who qualify to receive cereal at the subsidized rate can purchase 60 kilograms of grain per year. Based on these numbers, the 5.6 million metric tons of wheat and rice lost could therefore feed 94 million people in India, according to the new study. Calculating ozone damage The researchers calculated the amount of total crop damage from ozone pollution by comparing emissions estimates from 2005 with data about how much ozone each of the four crops could withstand. Plants start to exhibit damage when they are exposed to ozone levels that reach 40 parts per billion or above, according to previous research. A computer model used by researchers calculated ozone levels during crop growing seasons that were more than 40 to 50 parts per billion over most of the country. The team ran the model with different emissions estimates to come up

with an average amount of each crop that was lost due to ozone pollution. Despite air quality standards passed in the 1980s to curb industrial and vehicle emissions, cities in India are some of the most polluted in the world, according to the World Health Organization. The number of vehicles on the road in India has nearly tripled in the past decade, with 130 million vehicles on the road in 2013 compared to 50 million in 2003, according to the International Council on Clean Transportation. Long-term measurements of surface ozone over India – measured on the ground or by aircraft — are not available, making it difficult to get a clear picture of how ozone levels in the country have changed. However satellite-based studies show ozone has increased over the country in the last two decades. Warmer temperatures that are expected with climate change could also increase ground-level ozone, according to previous research. Ramanathan said that unlike most studies, which look at the effect emissions will have on agriculture decades in the future, the new study examined how ozone emissions are

already affecting crops in India. He said the new study could help spur interest in the issue and help policymakers enact new air quality standards or mandate use of new technology to cut emissions. A TERI study recently sounded the warning bells on the ozone levels in the atmosphere, both in rural and urban India. It has grave consequences—in terms of health and agricultural yield. While there is extensive monitoring for other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter, the extent of ozone pollution in the country is yet to be known. Delhi is the only city in the country where ozone monitoring is carried out. Data reveals that ozone concentrations in the city have violated permissible standards specifically in summer. In 2009, the permissible limit was fixed at 100 micrograms per cubic metre for eight


31 hours and 180 micrograms per cubic metre per hour. But by 2010, the levels had risen to a maximum of 408 micrograms per cubic metre at a kerbside location (ITO) in the city. On the outskirts, the ozone level was found to be 491 micrograms per cubic metre (maximum during the year). Besides Delhi, Bangalore, Pune and Kolkata too have high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen, a precursor to ozone pollution. The study also warns that ozone levels are likely to be higher in rural areas. Reconsideration of the current guidelines for Ozone It’s time to take steps. While primary pollutants could be checked through emission control strategies, secondary pollutants like ozone require an understanding of different roles played by various precursors and meteorological conditions in their formation. There is a need to come up with improved technology in transport, converting nonconventional sources of energy and replacement of domestic cooking fuel. Indian region is nitrogen oxides-limited’, hence it is easier to control ozone in the environment by taking efficient suitable precautionary measures to control the transport sector by reducing nitrogen oxides, say scientists.

There is currently no air quality standards in India designed to protect agriculture from the effects of ground-level ozone pollution. The paper, which is the first to quantify how much damage India’s ozone pollution has caused the country’s major crops on a national level, could help policymakers craft new ozone pollution standards. This could also help India, a country with a high rate of poverty, as the country implements a new law that subsidizes grain for two-thirds of the country’s residents. A recent study by the World Meteorological Organisation and the United Nations Environment Programme, identified Asia to be vulnerable to ozone pollution. As rising emissions cause severe ozone pollution in some of India’s most populated regions, the Government must increase awareness levels in the community. Under the Smart Cities initiative, the Government can adopt technology and develop applications that bring current weather and ozone updates to hand held devices, this will help people track real time ozone levels and plan their outdoor activity accordingly.

MANGROVE SAPLING PREPARATION On 14 th August 2016 I was a part of the group that volunteered to take part in the Mangrove sapling preparation. Since I had already taken part in the seed collection, I was eager to see the process of sapling preparation. First we were allotted small recycled plastic bags which were much smaller than the regular ones. There were no holes as mangrove saplings grow in waterlogged areas. We opened them up as it was easier to then fill them later. The target was to at least prepare 100 saplings in two hours. The first task completed, Avinash Bhagat the resource person demonstrated how to fill the sticky clayey soil from the creek. As we were filling the bags we saw the biodiversity in the soil. There were snails, slugs, earthworms, nereis and tiny crabs among many others. The greyish coloured soft clayey soil was not easy to fill. However we managed to fill around 60 each. All the bags were lined in tens and the mangrove seedlings were planted. The ones that had roots were to be planted by a different technique. We first had to make a hole in the clay and place the seedling root inside and then close it with the clay. The ones without roots had to be wedged in. Finally more than 1000 such saplings were prepared by 15 of us. On 17th August once again we went and completed the remaining sapling preparation, the second time we were

more experienced and managed to do hundred each. It was indeed a wonderful experience to be a part of such a noble cause, thanks to our teacher Ms. Clara Correia and Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal. Shalmali Ghogale Std XII Science, St. John the Baptist Junior College


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September 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine September 2016

September 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine September 2016

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