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He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®ee Ghe¬eÀce Yeeie 14 ~ DebkeÀ 5 ~ He=ÿmebK³ee 40 cetu³e ª. 40/1 Dee@keÌìesyej 2017 RNI. NO. MAHMAR/2004/4361 THC-04/2017-2019 Post : Thane Central Division


DeeHeu³ee meieȳeebvee®e íesìsceesþs, jbieefyejbieer efHemeeb®es, ueebye-yeekeÀoej ®ees®eeR®es, legjsJeeues, efJeefJeOe DeeJeepeeb®es He#eer yeIee³euee DeeJe[leele. l³eemeeþer keÀOeerkeÀOeer DeeHeCe cegÎecentve KetHe ueebye-ueebyener peelees. l³eeleues®e keÀener He#eer ns otj HejosMeeletve G[le G[le DeeHeu³ee Yesìeruee Deeuesues Demeleele. l³eebvee®e DeeHeCe `mLeueeblejerle He#eer' cnCelees. ceie Hejle DeeHeueer OeeJeHeU l³eebvee yeIeC³ee®eerYesìC³ee®eer... DeeHeu³eeHewkeÀer DeveskeÀebveer Demes mLeueeblejerle He#eer yeefIeleuesner Demeleerue. ceie ®euee lej, G®euee uesKeCeer DeeefCe efuene yejb ³ee He#³eeb®³ee YesìerefJe<e³eer...

DeeHeueer Je=ÊekeÀLee apalaparyavaran@gmail.com

³ee F-cesue Dee³e[erJej HeeþJeeJeer. DeefOekeÀ ceeefnleermeeþer mebHeke&À 022-25411633 8879074506 Meyoce³ee&oe - 350 Meyo. Yee<ee - Fbûepeer DeeefCe cejeþer meesyele He#³ee®es íe³eeef®e$e HeeþefJeu³eeme GÊece. mHeOex®ee efvekeÀeue 15 ef[meWyej 2017 jespeer peenerj nesF&ue. efveJe[keÀ Je=ÊekeÀLeebvee peevesJeejer 2018 ®³ee `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe'®³ee DebkeÀeletve Òeefme×er efoueer peeF&ue. ÒeLece Heeefjleesef<ekeÀ - ©. 1000/efÜleer³e Heeefjleesef<ekeÀ - ©. 700/le=leer³e Heeefjleesef<ekeÀ - ©. 500/-


mebHeeokeÀer³e.... pewJeefJeefJeOelee ner efvemeiee&®³ee : cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë

Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer : meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë

[e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe : keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë

keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj Òee. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee ë mebHeeove mene³³e ë

DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë Òee. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee ceO³eHe=ÿ ë DeueeskeÀ YeeJes De#ejpegUCeer/mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

www.paryavaran.org apalaparyavaran@gmail.com vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

meg®eeueveekeÀjlee GYeer jeefnuesueer ³eb$eCee Deens. Deepetyeepet®es He³ee&JejCeer³e DeefmlelJe efìkeÀeJes cnCetve Deepe peeieªkeÀHeCes keÀener ÒeceeCeele Òe³elve nesleevee efomele Deensle. Hejblet efvemeiee&®es ³eb$e megefJenerleHeCes ®eeueC³eemeeþer®³ee ³eb$eCeeceOes efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee peerJeeb®ee meJee&le ceesþe Jeeìe Deens. Tpee& veecekeÀ ®ewlev³ee®ee ÒeJeen meJe& peieleeletve DeJ³eenleHeCes efHeÀjle jneJee cnCetve leer Tpee& GlHevve keÀjCeejer, JeeHejCeejer DeeefCe l³eeveblejner peerJevekeÀe³e& Peeu³eeJej Flej peerJeme=<ìeruee $eeme ve oslee ve<ì nesCeejer ner meJe& GlHeÊeer DeeHeu³ee efJe%eevee®³ee DeekeÀueveeHeueerkeÀ[s Deens. peieeceOes GlHevve Peeuesueer keÀesCeleerner iees<ì efvejLe&keÀ Jee efve©He³eesieer veener. l³ee GlHeÊeer®ee DeLe& Jee GHe³eesie MeesOeC³ee®ee DeeHeuee ÒeJeeme cnCepes®e mebMeesOeve DeeefCe DeeHeues peerJeve. met#ceeletve GlHeÊeer nesTve ceesþîee peerJeekeÀ[s nesCeeje ÒeJeeme, ³ee ÒeJeemeelener DeeHeCe Flejebvee Jee FlejebkeÀ[tve peeleevee DeeHeu³ee meejK³ee mepeerJeeuee ³eesi³e mebK³esle pevce osTve DeeHeu³ee DeefmlelJee®es meelel³e þsJeC³ee®ee Òe³elve. ¿ee meJee¥letve efvecee&Ce nesCeeje mepeerJe me=<ìer®ee Fefleneme ne ceeveJeer GlkeÀ<ee&®³ee Je vesle=lJeemeeþer ue{eF& keÀjCeeN³eeb®³ee FeflenemeeHes#eener DeefOekeÀ DeekeÀ<e&keÀ, meceHe&keÀ Je DeeHeu³ee ÒeieuYelesceOes Yej IeeueCeeje ..... Dee@keÌìesyej®ee Heefnuee DeeþJe[e ne Jev³e ÒeeCeer peerJeve meHleen. ¿ee efveefceÊeeves pewJeJewefJeO³eeves HejerHetCe& Demeuesu³ee Jev³epeerJeeb®³ee DeY³eemee®ee, l³eebvee DeeþJeC³ee®ee efoJeme. ³ee Jev³epeerJeeb®³ee DeefmlelJeecegUs®e DeeleeHe³e¥le efìketÀve jeefnuesu³ee JevemebHeosyeÎue DeeMJemle Jne³e®es keÀer Jeveeb®³ee efJeodOJebmeeves l³eeb®es jenC³ee®es efþkeÀeCe DeeHeu³ee GodOJemle keÀjlees Deenesle ³eeyeooue ef®eblee J³ekeÌle keÀje³e®eer. DeefmlelJee®eer ner ue{eF& vewmeefie&keÀefjl³ee meJe& mepeerJe ue{le Deensle®e HeCe DeeHeu³ee meJe&Þes<þles®³ee YeeJevesletve ceeveJe cee$e Flej meJe& mepeerJeebvee ne rue{eF& ue{Ces DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ keÀþerCe keÀ©ve þsJele Deens. ÒeMve HeÀkeÌle meJee¥®es DeefmlelJe ceev³e keÀjC³ee®ee Deens DeeefCe l³ee l³ee mepeerJeeuee l³ee®es efvemeie&oÊe keÀe³e& HetCe& keÀjC³eemeeþer ³eesi³e leer mebOeer efceUC³ee®ee Deens. Deepe®³ee ceveg<³ekeWÀêerle peeieeflekeÀ efJe®eejÒeCeeueerves DeMee ÒekeÀejs ÒeeC³eeb®es menDeefmlelJe ceev³e keÀªve l³eebvee ³eesi³e leer mebOeer GHeueyOe keÀ©ve efoueer Heeefnpes... ne efJe®eejner Hejle ceeveJeer Þes<þlJeeletve®e pevceeuee ³eslees Demes Jeeìle veener keÀe? Demees ! peeieeflekeÀ Jev³epeerJe meHleene®³ee efveefceÊeeves pebieueeb®es DeeefCe pebieueeleerue JevemHeleer Je ÒeeC³eeb®³ee pewJeefJeefJeOeles®es menDeefmlelJe ceev³e keÀªve l³eeb®³ee mebJeOe&veemeeþer Òel³e#e Jee DeÒel³e#eefjl³ee mene³³eYetle nesC³ee®ee efveefM®ele Òe³elve keÀ©³ee !


efnceeue³eele ÒeosMeefveÿ Demeuesuee, efmekeÌkeÀerceceO³es Dee{Uuesuee OeeskeÀeûemle js[ Heeb[e...

Yeeie ë 14 ~ DebkeÀ ë 5

Red Panda found in Sikkim... an endangered species endemic to the Himalayas...

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

ogue&ef#eleeb®es Oeveer ~ efkeÀjCe ceesjs mebkeÀìûemle Òepeeleer ~ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ÒeMve legce®ee... GÊej efJe%eevee®es ~ [e@. megOeerj ceesW[keÀj YetJesef<ìle peueer³e HeefjmebmLee ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs Demes ceuee Jeeìles... legcneuee? ~ [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë Je[e®es kegÀU ~ Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j Jev³eÒeeC³eeb®eer Òe³eesieMeeUe ~ Heefjef#ele met³e&JebMeer

5 7 8 9 12 15 18 23 24

Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

27

DebkeÀ oj ceefnv³ee®³ee 1 leejKesuee Heesmìeletve jJeevee neslees. p³ee Jee®ekeÀebvee 10 leejKesHe³e¥le DebkeÀ efceUeuee vemesue l³eebveer l³ee ceefnv³ee®³ee 15 leejKesHe³e¥le þeCes keÀe³ee&ue³eele keÀUJeeJes. (ogjOJeveer ë 022-2541 1633. mekeÀeUer 11 les mee³eb. 6) l³eebvee DebkeÀ HeeþJeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee keÀjC³eele ³esF&ue. l³eeveblej Deeuesu³ee le¬eÀejeR®eer oKeue Ieslee ³esCeej veener. le¬eÀej keÀjleevee veeWoCeer/HeeJeleer ¬eÀceebkeÀ osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. - J³eJemLeeHekeÀ

®es Jeie&Ceeroej Jne Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400

The Elusive Red Panda I Prof. Clara Correia

28

From Least Concern to... Threatened Species I

30 31

Wildlife Week

I

I Dr. Shubhda N. Savant Avinash Bhagat

Kalpana Malani

34

Environmental Game

35

Familiar Strangers Endengered Plants

I I

Benitta M. Babu Anita Kindre

ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

HejosMeer Jee®ekeÀebmeeþer ë Jeeef<e&keÀ ©. 2500/-

33

Endemic and Threatened Species I Fact File I Shreelata Menon

ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800

36 37

DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.

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DeeJfe veeMe Yeiele

ueeue HebKee®ee ®eb[esue

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DeeJfe veeMe Yeiele

DeeJfe veeMe Yeiele

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ceeUjeve, ceeskeÀUs cewoeve, veeheerkeÀ he´osMe ns ®eb[esue®es Iejìîeemeeþer Je GojYejCeemeeþer nkeÌkeÀe®es DeefOeJeeme. heCe `efve©he³eesieer peceerve' DeMee mejkeÀejer veecekeÀjCeeKeeueer Peeuesu³ee Mees<eCeeves ceeUjeveeb®b es leervelesje kesÀuesle.Deefveye¥Oe keÀejKeeveoejer, l³eeheeþer Deeuesues MenjerkeÀjCe, efJekeÀeme ³eespevee ³eemeeþer peceerveer®eer iejpe Yeemet ueeieueer. l³eemeeþer ceeUjeve, veeheerkeÀ peceerveeruee ue#³e keÀjC³eele Deeues. heefjCeeceer ceesþîee he´ceeCeele MenjeYeesJeleeue®eer ceeUjeves mebhetve efleLes efmeceWì®es pebieue DeeefCe keÀejKeeves GYes jenerues. p³ee he#³eeb®³ee Òepeeleer Deeheu³ee Ieje®³ee Deepegyeepegves efomee³e®³ee l³eebvee heenC³eemeeþer 15 -20 efkeÀueesceerìjJej otj peeJes ueeieles. ³ee®ee DeLe& keÀe³e, lej ceesþîee he´ceeCeele efomeC³eeN³ee peeleer Deelee efJejU nesle ®eeueu³ee Deensle. l³eele ®eb[esuemeejK³ee íesìîee Je DeveekeÀ<e&keÀ he#³eeb®eer ieesä®e efvejeUer. ³eeuee peyeeyeoej kesÀJeU jepekeÀer ³ e DeveemLee®e veener lej DeeheCemeg × e Deenes l e. ceeveJeer meceepeemeesyele he#³eebveener `Deej#eCe' efceUe³euee®e nJes. l³eemeeþer DeewÐeesieerkeÀerkeÀjCe, jepekeÀejCe, efJeefJeOe efJekeÀeme ÒekeÀuHe Je Deeheueer peerJeveMewueer he³ee&JejCehetjkeÀ keÀjCes iejpes®es Peeues Deens.


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mekbeÀìûemle Òepeeleer DeeHeu³ee DeemeHeeme®³ee meJe&

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DeefJeveeMe Yeiele 98920 61899

peerJeme=<ìerceO³es He#³eeb®es cenÊJee®es mLeeve Deens. He#eer DevvemeeKeUerleerue SkeÀ cegueYegle IeìkeÀ Demetve He³ee&JejCeemeeþer les ceesuee®es keÀece keÀjleele. Pee[eb®es efyepeÒemeejCe, GHeêJeer ekfeÀìkeÀeJbej evfe³e$beCe, peewJfekeÀ keÀ®eN³ee®es eJfeIeìve DeMeer DeveskeÀ keÀeces He#eer keÀjleele. YeejleeceO³es He#³eebvee HetJeea ³eesi³e DeefOeJeeme GHeueyOe neslee. l³eecegUs DeveskeÀ He#eer Yeejlee®³ee DevegkegÀue JeeleeJejCeeceO³es mLeueeblej keÀ©ve ³esle. mLeeveerkeÀ He#³eebveemeg×e cegyeuekeÀ pebieues, HeeCeLeU peeiee Je ³eesi³e DeefOeJeeme neslee. keÀeueeblejeves Jee{leer ueeskeÀmebK³ee Je l³ee®es nesCeejs og<HejerCeece ns He#³eebyejesyej Flej peerJeme=<ìerueener YeesieeJes ueeieues . nJ³eemeeHees ì er ceeCemeeves cees þ îee ÒeceeCeeJej pebieuelees[ kesÀueer. HeeCeLeU peeiee Je ieJeleeU ÒeosMe ³eeJej meg×e keÀypee kesÀuee. ³ee meJee¥®ee pewJeefJeefJeOelesJej Ye³eevekeÀ HeefjCeece Peeuee. efMekeÀej, Òeot<eCe, Jee{les MenjerkeÀjCe DeMee DeveskeÀ keÀejCeebcegUs yeN³ee®e peeleeR®es peerJe ve<ì nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej Heesnes®eues. peeieleerkeÀ HeeleUerJej ve<ì nesle Demeuesu³ee Je mebkeÀìûemle ÒepeeleeR®³ee DeekeÀ[sJeejer®ee DeY³eeme IUCN ner meb m Lee keÀjer l e Deens . peieYejeleerue pewJeefJeefJeOeles®ee DeY³eeme keÀ©ve l³eeb®eer mebK³ee ue#eele IesTve keÀesCel³ee peeleer ve<ì nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej Deensle Je l³eeb®³eemeeþer

keÀesCel³ee Ghee³e³eespevee kesÀu³ee Heenerpesle lemes®e l³eebvee DemeCeejs OeeskesÀ keÀUC³eemeeþer 1994 ceO³es Fbìjve@Meveue ³egveerì HeÀe@j kebÀPeJexMeve Dee@HeÀ ves®ej (IUCN) ³ee mebmLesves keÀece meg© kesÀues. ³ee meb m Les v es pew J eef J eef J eOeles ® eer meÐeef m Leleer keÀUC³eemeeþer keÀener ÞesCeer þjefJeu³ee Je l³eeÒeceeCes Òel³eskeÀ peeleer®eer efJeYeeieCeer kesÀueer. ³ee®es efvekeÀ<e Hegef{ueÒeceeCes Deensle. - : ueeskeÀmebK³ee keÀceer nesC³ee®ee oj - : YeewieesefuekeÀ efmLeleer - : mebK³ee HetJeeaHeemetve keÀceer - : ÒeosMeefve<þ efkebÀJee ueneve #es$eeceO³es®e GHeueyOelee. - : HeefjCeeceJee®ekeÀ efJe<ues<eCeevegmeej efJeuegHle nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej. DeMee Hee®e efvekeÀ<eebJe©ve Òel³eskeÀ peeleer®eer efJeYeeieCeer Hegef{ueHewkeÀer Jeiee&le kesÀueer peeles. ³eecegUs Jew%eeefvekeÀebvee Je meeceepeerkeÀ mebmLeebvee SKeeÐee peeleer®es mebj#eCe Je mebJeOe&ve keÀjCes meshes nesles. IUCN ves ÒekeÀeMeerle kesÀuesu³ee ÞesCeer efJeuegHle - Extinct : SKeeÐee peeleer®ee MesJeì®ee peerJemeg×e ve<ì Peeuee Demetve ³eesi³e ÒekeÀejs Je ef J eMeer < ì keÀeueeJeOeer m eeþer meJex#eCeeceO³es megOoe Dee{Ugve Deeuee veener. vew m eieea k eÀ Deef O eJeemeeceOeg v e ef J eueg H le Extinct in wild : SKeeÐee peeleer®es peerJe ns ef v emeiee& l eg v e ef J eueg H le Peeues Deens l e Hejb l eg mebJeOe&veelcekeÀ nslegves keÀener peerJe ceeveJeefveefce&le efþkeÀeCeer peleve kesÀues Deensle.


8 Critically Endangered - ve<ìÒee³e DeefleMe³e Oeeske̳eepeJeU Je

efJeuegHle nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej DemeCeeN³ee peeleer p³eeb®eer mebK³ee iesu³ee 10 Je<ee&le 80 les 90 ìke̳eebveer Ieìueer Deens efkebÀJee mebK³ee 50 efpeJeebHes#ee keÀceer jenerueer Deens. OeeskeÀeûemle - Endangered : Oeeske̳eepeJeU Je efJeuegHle nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej DemeCeeN³ee peeleer p³eeb®eer mebK³ee iesu³ee 10 Je<ee&le 50 les 70 ìke̳eebveer Ieìueer Deens efkebÀJee mebK³ee 250 efpeJeebHes#ee keÀceer jenerueer Deens. mebYeeJ³e mebkeÀìûemle Òepeeleer - Vulnerable: Oeeske̳eepeJeU Je efJeuegHle nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej DemeCeeN³ee peeleer. p³eeb®eer mebK³ee iesu³ee 10 Je<ee&le 30 les 50 ìkekÌe³eevbeer Ieìueer Deens Je meKb³ee 1000 epfeJeeHbe#see keÀceer jeneureer Deens. mebkeÀìmeefceHe - Near Threatened : DeMee peeleer p³ee ve<ì neCs³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej Deensle Je YeefJe<³eele p³eeb®eer mebK³ee ef®ebleepevekeÀ nesG MekeÀles. Least Concerned – DeMee peeleer p³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀeUpeerHegJe&keÀ cegu³eebkeÀveeveblej J³eeHekeÀ Je cegyeuekeÀ Deens. Data efficient – p³ee peeleeR®es ³eesi³e ÒekeÀejs cegu³eebkeÀve Peeues vemegve l³eeb®³eeyeooue HegjsMeer ceenerleer GHeueyOe veener. Not evaluated – peieeleerue 1.6 oMeue#e peeleeRHewkeÀer DeY³eeme ve Peeuesu³ee peeleer p³eeb®es cegu³eebkeÀve IUCN Deepegve ves kesÀues veener³es. Deepe peieYejele IUCN membLevses peenejr keÀsueus³ee ÞeCseevremgeej peeieleekreÀ

HeeleUerJej pewJeefJeefJeOelee mebJeOe&ve Je mebj#eCe nesle Deens. 2013 meeueer Òeefme× Peeuesu³ee ³eeoervegmeej YeejleelemegOoe DeveskeÀ peeleeRJej mebJeOe&veelcekeÀ keÀece meg© Deens. efJeuegHle nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej Demeuesu³ee peeleeR®es mebj#eCe Je mebJeOe&ve keÀjCes menpe Meke̳e veener Hejbleg MeemekeÀer³e HeeleUerJej Je pevemeeceev³eeb®³ee ceoleerves ns keÀece meg© jenerues lej keÀener peerJeebvee vekeÌkeÀer®e ³ee®ee HeÀe³eoe nesCeej Deens. ³ee keÀeceeceO³es De[LeUe Je peerJe mebkeÀìûemle nesC³ee®eer keÀener ÒecegKe keÀejCes megOoe IUCN ³ee mebmLesves peenerj kesÀueer Deensle leer Hegef{ueÒeceeCes. : efveJeemeer Je J³eJemee³eerkeÀ efJekeÀeme efJemleej : Mesleer Je celmeMesleer : Tpee& GlHeeove ÒekeÀuHe Je KeeCekeÀeces : JeenlegkeÀ Je jmles : pewefJekeÀ mebmeeOeveeb®ee JeeHej : ceeveJeer IegmeKeesjer Je nmle#esHe : vewmeefie&keÀ J³eJemLesleerue yeoue : Flej peeleeR®es nuues Je jesie : Òeog<ekeÀ : YegieYeea³e yeoue : nJeeceeve yeoue : Flej keÀejCes

ÒeMve lecge®ee... GÊej eJfe%eevee®e.s.. - peie keÀmes efvecee&Ce Peeues? 13.8 Deype Je<ee&HetJeea efJeMJeeleerue HeoeLe& (ce@ìj) ns efyeboJt ele nesles. veblej l³ee®ee ceesþe mHeÀesì nesTve megceejs 30 meskebÀoele Jesieeves ogHeìerves lees efJemleejle iesuee. ³eeletve ieg©lJeekeÀ<e&Ce Je Flej yeues efvecee&Ce Peeueer. HeoeLe& Je ÒeefleHeoeLe& (De@vìerce@ìj) ³eeb®³ee keÀCeele Tpee& ©Heebleefjle Peeueer DeeefCe l³eebveer HejmHejebvee veeefnmes kesÀues. HeCe l³eeletve efMeuuekeÀ jeefnuesu³ee HeoeLee&letve He=LJeer, ûenceeuee le³eej Peeu³ee. Heefnu³ee keÀener meskebÀoele Òeesìe@ve, v³egìe^ @ve SkeÀ$e Deeues. vebblej keÀener efceefveìele l³eeb®³eeHeemetve nw[^eps eve Je nsefue³ece®eer keWÀêkesÀ le³eej Peeueer. Deepener efJeMJeele nw[^eps eve ns cetueêJ³e efJeHegue meeHe[les. leerve ueeKe Je<ee¥veer Òeesìe@ve Je FueskeÌìe@ve ³eeb®³ee meb³eesieeves DeCeg le³eej Peeues. HeefjCeeceer efJeMJeele nw[^eps eve Je nsefue³ece Jee³etb®es {ie le³eej Peeues. leerve ueeKe SsMeer npeej Je<ee&veblej ³ee meeN³eeletve le³eej Peeuesu³ee HeÀesìe@vme®³ee ceeefuekesÀ®ee MeeOse HeesvfPe³eeve Je eJfeumeve ³ee Meem$e%eevbee ueeieuee. me#tce eJfeMJeuenje®Reer HeeMJeY&ecteer (keÀe@emf cekeÀ cee³ekeÀesJesJn ye@ûeeTb[) ner DeMeer Deens. ³ee uenjer Hemejle peeTve eJfeMJemeecreevbee DeeoUvte mHeÀeìs keÀjle OJeveeÒreelfeOJeveer ÒeceeCes Hejle ³esle Demeleerue. ³eeuee®e `efyeieye@ie efLeDejer' cnìues peeles. ns SJe{s jecee³eCe meebefieleues lejer 13.6 Deype Je<ee¥HetJeea SkeÀe íesìîee efyebotletve ns efJeMJe keÀe efvecee&Ce Peeues ns lemes peieeuee De%eele®e Deens cnCee³e®es !

- yes[tkeÀ Ye#³e efieUleevee [esUs keÀe efce®ekeÀeJelees? Je<ee& $eÝletle [jeJe [jeJe keÀjle, HeeCeLeUYeeieele G[îee ceejle efHeÀjCeeje yes[tkeÀ ne Ye#³e efieUleevee HeneC³eepeesiee Demelees. lees DeeHeues Ye#³e meeHeeÒeceeCes Lesì efieUlees. l³eeJesUer lees DeeHeues [esUs efce®ekeÀeJeleevee efomelees. keÀejCe Devve KeeTve IeMeele peerYe, Heg{®es Hee³e Je [esȳeeb®³ee meene³³eeves {keÀuelees. [esUs efce®ekeÀeJeu³eeJej, [esȳeeb®³ee mvee³egoeye cegKee®³ee mvee³egJb ej He[u³eecegUs Devve efieUC³eemeeþer ceole nesles. - ®ebê efveUe Demelees keÀe ? keÌJeef®ele GieJeCeeN³ee ®ebêeme `efveUe ®ebê' (yuet cetve) cnCeleele. `Jevme Fve De yuet cetve' ne Fbûepeer JeekedÀÒe®eej `keÌJeef®ele GieJeCeeje' ³ee DeLeea JeeHejleele. SkeÀe®e ceenfv³eele omgeN³eeobe HeeewCfec&ee Deeu³eeme l³ee ®eêbeme `yuet cevte' cnCeleele. HeCe lees ®ebê Keje®e efveUe Demelees keÀe ns meebieCes DeefveefM®ele Deens. keÌJeef®ele peJsne nJelse OeetufekeÀCee®bes ÒeceeCe DeeOfekeÀ Demele.s leJsne ÒekeÀeMeHeejfCeeceeceU g s ®eêbeJej, efveUer PeekeÀ efomet MekeÀles. HetJeea efveUe ®ebê ne JeekedÀÒe®eej `keÀOeer®e veener' ³ee DeLeea JeeHejle. HeCe meO³ee lees `keÀOeerlejer®ee' ³ee DeLeea JeeHejleele. [e.@ meOgeejr cee[ W keÀj 9869575594


9

YeJtees<fìle peuee³re HeejfmembLee

Yeejlee yeenjseure veÐee : nJgeeibe nes

uesKeebkeÀ 8

oet<fele HeeC³eeceU g s veoer KeeNs³eeleeure pevelelse pevcepeele oe<se, peuepev³e Deepeej Je keÀkeÀ&jeisee®³ee ÒeeoYgeeJ&eele ceeþser Jee{ Peeueer Deen.sMeeib[eiBe ceOeeure ePfeDeD@eeespfeejfDeve Ke[sîeeleeure 1300 jenfJeeMeeHbekweÀer 70 peCe veoelre keÀele[er keÀceeJfeC³ee®³ee, keÀeieo yeveeJfeCeeN³ee Je Flej GÐeesieebceOeerue meeb[HeeCeer veoerle mees[u³eecegUs ce=l³egcegKeer He[ues. veoerkeÀeþ®³ee Flej ieeJeebceO³esner Lees[îee HeÀej ÒeceeCeele n®se Dee{Uvte ³else Deen.s

Òee. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs 93225 07685

peieeleerue meneJ³ee ¬eÀceebkeÀeJejerue DeeeCfe DeeeMfe³ee Ke[ b eleeure elfemeN³ee ¬eÀceekbeÀe®eer ueebyeer Demeuesueer ngJeebie nes efkebÀJee Heerle veoer ner GÊej ®eerve ceOeerue meJee&le cenÊJee®eer veoer Deens. ner veoer ef k eÌ J eb I eeF& Òeeb l eeleer u e ye³eeve nj HeJe&lejepeerle Giece HeeJetve mene ÒeebleebceOetve Jeenle Pee[eiBe Òeelbeeleeure [eeWif³eibe MenjevepeekreÀ yeenseF& mecegêeme efceUles. efn®eer SketÀCe ueebyeer 5464 ekfeÀ. ecfeìj Demevte enf®³ee KeeNs³ee®eer HeJte& -HeeMf®ece ©boer 1900 efkeÀ.efceìj Deens. ngJeebie nes ®es peue efvemmeejCe Keesjs (drainage basin) 753 menm$e Jeie& efkeÀueesefceìj SJe{s Deens. ³ee veoer®es Keesjs Òee®eerve ®eerve®es meJee&efOekeÀ mece=× Keesjs Demetvener JeejbJeej ³esCeejs Hetj Je Dece³ee&o meeþCeeje ieeU p³eeceU g s veoe®r³ee ceeieel&e neCseejs yeoue ³eecbeU g s ner ®eevre®ee Dee¬eÀeMse ekfeÀbJee nvgeeveer ueeskeÀebJejerue DeeHeÊeer mecepeueer peeT ueeieueer. ngJeebie nes ®eerve®³ee DeefmlelJeeuee efìkeÀJetve þsJeCeeN³ee veÐeebceOeerue SkeÀ Demeueer lejer DeveskeÀoe Deeuesu³ee Òeue³ebkeÀejer Ye³ebkeÀj HetjebcegUs efkeÀl³eskeÀ oMeue#e ®eerveer Òepes®eer ce=l³egIebìener þjueer. ³eeleerue meJee&le Ye³eevekeÀ Hetj 1332-33 ceOeuee neslee, p³eele 70 ue#e

ueeskeÀ cejCe HeeJeues. meve 1887 ceOeerue Hegjele peJeUHeeme 20 oMeue#e lej 1931 ceO³es Deeuesu³ee Hegjele 40 oMeue#e ueeskeÀ ce=l³egcegKeer He[ues . uees S me HeþejeJe©ve ceeleer ® ³ee DeJe#esHeCeeves efvecee&Ce nesCeeje ieeU leUeMeer meeþCes ns ³ee Hegje®es ÒecegKe keÀejCe Deens. ieeU meeþtve menpeer ve keÀUtve ³esCeejs yebOeejs Je menpeer eofmet MekeÀCeejs ÜeHre / e$feYepge ÒeoMse le³eej nelseele p³eecegUs HeeCeer veoer®es yeebOe Deesueeb[le efkebÀJee HeÀes[le YeesJeleeue®³ee meceleue efkebÀJee meKeue ÒeosMeele Hemejles. keÀener JesUe ³ee®e yebOeejsÜerHeebcegUs veoer®ee ÒeJeen veJeerve efoMesves Jeent ueeielees. iesu³ee keÀener MelekeÀeble veoer®es mecegêele GIe[Ceejs cegKe oef#eCe Jee GÊejskeÀ[s peJeUHeeme 400 ekfeÀ.ecfe. DelbejeJej mejkeÀueuses Deen.s ³eele Yej cnCetve ®eerveer ueeskeÀebveer veoer®³ee keÀeþebJej G®be yeeObe GYeejues Deenlse. ³eeceU g s DeeOfekeÀ HeeCeer veoerle meeþle peeles Je l³ee®³ee Jee{l³ee jsìîeeHeg{s yeObeeje p³eeJeU s er #eleeûremle nelsees Je HeÀgìlees leJsne Hegje®es HeeCeer Jesieeves YeJeleeueer Hemejles. veoer®³ee GOJe& GÊej Yeeieele vewmeefie&keÀ efjleerves yeHeÀe&®es yeebOe le³eej nesleele pes keÀesmeUu³eeves ner HetjefmLeleer efvecee&Ce nesles. iesu³ee MelekeÀele ³ee ÒekeÀejs 11


10 JesUe Hetj Deeues Deensle. DeMee HetjebceOetve nesCeejer peerJe Je efJeÊe neveer jesKeC³eemeeþer DeepekeÀeue yeHeÀe&®es yeebOe OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ nesC³eeDeeOeer®e efkeceeveebletve mHeÀesìkesÀ ìeketÀve les GodOJemle keÀje³e®eer megªJeele kesÀueer iesueer Deens. DeJee&®eerve keÀeUeleerue OejCes yeebOeueer peeC³eeHetJeea ngJeebie nes ®es Hetj ®eerveceO³es vesnceer®e ³esle. iesu³ee 3000 Je<ee&le efkeÀceeve 2000 JesUe ngJeebie nesuee Hetj Deeues Deensle. efle®ee ceeie&ner ³ee keÀeUele 30 JesUe yeoueuee Deens. yeebOeebvee IeeleHeele Ie[Jetve Me$etuee veeceesnjce keÀjC³eekeÀefjlee Hetj DeeCeC³ee®es ue<keÀjer [eJeHe®se ®eevre®³ee Òeelbee³re ³eOgoecbeOevte DevekseÀoe JeeHejues ieuse.s ³ee `meewvfekeÀeSbJsepeer vemweeifek&eÀ DeeHeÊee'r [eJeHe®see®bee JeeHej meve 1344 ceO³es ÒeLece®e efcebie jepeJeìerle MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee GþeJe ef®ej[C³eemeeþer kesÀuee iesuee (ns Mem$e JeeHejCeeN³eeJej®e Gueìues leer iees<ì Deueeefnoe). veblej meve 1851 Je 1855 ceO³es Hetj HeefjefmLeleerves ieebpetve efveSve Je HewefHebie yeb[Keesjebveer GþeJe kesÀuee. meve 1931 ceO³es ef®e³eebie kewÀMeskeÀ®³ee velsel=JeeKeeueeure je<ìJ^eeoer lekgeÀ[evres omgeN³ee meevree-speHeeve ³e× g ele peHeeve®³ee Heg{s mejkeÀCeeN³ee mewv³eeuee LeesHeefJeC³eemeeþer yebOeejs HeÀes[tve ke=Àef$ece Hetj DeeCeuee neslee. ³ee HegjeceO³es efkeÀleer peHeeveer keÀeceer Deeues ns %eele vemeues lejer 5 les 9 oMeue#e ®eerveer cee$e ceejues iesues. ®eerveer DevJes<eCe Je mebMeesOeve ceb[U (China Exploration and Research Society) ³ee mebmLesves ngJeebie nes veoer®ee Giece ye³eeve nj ) HeJe&lejepeerle, ³egMeg efleyesìer mJee³eÊe YetHeÆ (Yushu - Tibetian ) ®³ee keÀ[sJej nesle Demeu³ee®es efJe<eo kesÀues Deens. ³ee veoer®³ee m$eesle ÒeJeeneb®ee efJemeie& ieesuee@ie ÒeosMeeleerue i³eeefjbie (Gyring) Je ieesefjbie (Ngoring) mejesJejebceO³es neslees. ngJeebie nes GÊejskeÀ[s JeUtve Heg{s FMeev³eskeÀ[s JeUles Je Dee@F&me uetHe yeveefJele HetJe& efoMesves GÊej ®eerve meceleueeJe©ve yeesneo DeeKeeleekeÀ[s Jeenles. ³ee veoer®es Keesjs mee[smeele ue#eJeie& efkeÀueesceerìj Hemejues Demetve ngJeebie nes ³esLeerue 1000 ue#e ueeskeÀebvee efHeC³ee®es, efmeb®evee®es Je Flej iejpeebmeeþer JeeHejC³ee®es HeeCeer HegjJeles. nJgeeibe nes veoe®res meeceev³ele: leevre ìHHes He[leele. ns meeOeejCeHeCes elfeyeìs®es Heþej, cee@Fm& e ntHe Je GÊej ®eerveer meceleue ns nesle. veoer®³ee Jej®ee ìHHee ye³eeve nj HeJe& l ejepeer les nskeÀeT Menj ne Demetve lees 3475 ef k eÀ.ef c e ueeb y eer ® ee Deens. ³ee®es Keesjs SkebÀojerle veoer KeesN³ee®³ee 51 ìkeÌkesÀ efkebÀJee 30600Jeie& efkeÀ.efce SJe{s Deens. ³ee ìHH³eele ngJeebie nes mecegê meHeeìerkeÀ[s 3496 ef c eìj Glejles . ef k eÌ J eb I ee³e #es $ eeceOeer u e veoer ® ³ee ³ee ìHH³eeJej efle®es HeeCeer veerleU Je meLbe JeenCeejs Demevte leer keÀgjCe,s oueoueer Je ìskeÀ[îeebceOetve en.wikipedia.org ÒeJeeme keÀjles . Peeef u eb i e Je

SefuebiemeejKeer mHeÀefìkeÀeÒeceeCes efveleU HeeC³ee®eer mejesJejs veoerueiele ³ee ìHH³eebJej Dee{Uleele. Deives cee®eerve HeJe&lejepeer®³ee keÀ[sves ngJeebie nes HetJexkeÀ[s Jeenle ceevmet ceOeerue ceeketÀ ceguegKeele ÒeJesMe keÀjles. Heg{s ner veoer PeesFies HeeCeLeU ³ee DeefOekeÀ Gb®eerJejerue peerCe&keÀ HebkeÀ DeLeJee Heerì yee@ieuee JeUmee Ieeuele Hegvne efkeÌJebIeeF ceO³es ÒeJesMe keÀjle oef#eCesuee efPebiee³ekeÀ[s Jeenles. ³ee veoer®ee ojer efJeYeeie efkeÌJebIeeFceOeerue ueesi³eebie®³ee efKeb[er Heemetve ieemet ³esLeerue efkeÌJebieìeBie efKeb[erHe³e¥le®ee Demetve ³ee Yeeieele veoer®³ee oesvner leìebJej mejUmeesì keÀ[s Deensle. ³esLes veoer®es Hee$e De©bo Demetve Gleej DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeves efle®es HeeCeer KeUeUle Jesieeves ceeie&¬eÀceCe keÀjles. ³ee Yeeieele ueesi³eebie, peerMeer, efueGefpeDee, yeeHeve Je efkeÌJebieìeBie DeMee ÒeefmeOo eKfe[ b er (gorges) Deenlse. ³ee Yeeieele nJgeeibe nes ekfeJÌeIbeeF Òeelbeelevte omgeN³eeobe yeensj He[tve efueGefpeDee efKeb[er®³ee DeefuekeÀ[s ogmeN³eeboe ieevmet #es$eele ÒeJesMe keÀjles. efkeÌJebieìeBie efKeb[erletve yeensj He[tve ngJeebie nes efceb®egDeeve DeeefCe efnleeDees meceleueebletve Jeenles. ³ee #es$eele efle®³ee Heefjmejele kesÀJeU JeeUJebìs Je ieJeleeU ÒeosMe Dee{Uleele. ngJeebie nes ®³ee ceO³e efJeYeeieele leer Òe®eb[ JeUCes Iesle Dee@[&me uetHe yeveefJeles. ne efJeYeeie efveeqkeÌPe³ee ceOeerue DeeWiveeRie ceguegKeeHeemetve MeebkeÌPeerceOeerue leWiiegDeeve ³esLes `yeer' veoer®³ee mebieceeHe³e¥le 1206 efkeÀ.efce ueebye Hemejuee Deens. ³ee #es$eeleerue veoer Keesjs 344000 Jeie& efkeÀ.efce DeLeJee SketÀCe KeesN³ee®³ee 45.7ìkeÌkesÀ SJe{s Deens. ³ee efJeYeeieele ngJeebie nes veoeuree 30 ceeþ s îee GHeveÐee ³eT s ve ecfeUleele, p³eeceU g s veoelrevte JeenCeejs HeeCeer 43.5 ìkeÌke̳eebveer Jee{les. ceO³e efJeYeeieele ngJeebie nes ueesSme HeþejeJeªve Jeenles pesLes peefceveer®es KetHe DeHe#ejCe nesles DeeefCe veoerceO³es peJeUpeJeU 92 ìkeÌkesÀ ieeUe®eer Yej He[les. ³eecegUs ngJeebie nes peieeleerue meJee&eOf ekeÀ ieeU Jeentve DeeCeCeejer veoer þjles. ³ee ieeUe®es Jemlegceeve 1933 meeueer 39 keÀesìer ìve ³esJe{s nesles. meve 1977 meeueer ngJeebie nes ves efJe¬eÀceer 920 ekfeÀ. ecfe. ieeU Òel³ekseÀer SkeÀe Ieveecfeìj HeeC³eeyejeysej Jeenvte DeeCeuee. ne ieeU yeg[eMeer yemetve veoer®ee leU Gb®eeJele peeTve ngJeebie nes `peefceveerntve Gb®e JeenCeejer veoer' ner efye©oeJeueer OeejCekeÀleea yeveueer. nskeÀeG les ³eceWiekeÀeG ojc³eeve ngJeebie nes ®es ÒecegKe Hee$e meueie DeMee


11 DeveskeÀ oN³eebletve Jeenles. ³ee oN³eebvee SkeÀef$eleHeCes efpebMeeve ojer cnbìues peeles. ³ee®e #es$eele ngJeebie nes veoerJej MebkeÌPeer Je MeebkeÌPeer ³eeb®³ee mejnÎerJej ngkeÀesG OeyeOeyee Deens. ngJeebie nes veoer®ee DeOemLe efJeYeeie nsveeve ³esLeerue PeWiPet Heemetve yeesneF mecegêele GIe[CeeN³ee efle®³ee cegKeeHeb³e&le megceejs 786 efkeÀ.efce ueebye Hemejuee Deens. keÀener Lees[îee GHeveÐee®e lesJe{îee ³ee efJeYeeieele ngJeebie nes ceO³es efJeueerve nesleele. veoer®³ee DeOemLe Yeeiee®es Keesjs mebHetCe& KeesN³ee®³ee HeÀkeÌle 3 ìkeÌkesÀ, 23000 Jeie& efkeÀ.efce. Deens. Jej cnìu³eeÒeceeCes veoer DeOemLe YeeieeHe³e¥le Hees®elee Hees®elee efle®³eeleerue ieeUe®es ÒeceeCe meJee&eOf ekeÀ nesles DeeefCe veoer Del³eble mebLe Jeenle Demeu³eeves ne ieeU leUeMeer pecee nesTve ÒeJeeneuee DeveskeÀ ueneve-ceesþs De[LeUs efvecee&Ce nesle Demeleele. ³ee keÀejCeeves®e veoer®es cegKe JeejbJeej veJ³ee peeieer yeouele jenles. $eÝletveg©He veoerletve DeefOekeÀlece 25000 Je v³etvelece 245 Ieve efceìj HeeCeer Òel³eskeÀ meWkeÀoeuee ³ee Yeeieele Jeenles HeCe efJeefJeOe keÀejCeebveer meve 1975 Heemetve veoercegKeeletve mecegêekeÀ[s JeenCeejs HeeCeer Ieìle iesues Deens. HeeJemeeȳeele pejer ngJeebie nes ceOegve Jeeef<e&keÀ JeenCeeN³ee HeeC³eeHewkeÀer 60 ìkekÌeÀs HeeCeer Jeenle Demeues lejer emfe®beveemeeþer HeeC³ee®eer G®®elece ceeieCeer cee®e& les petve ojc³eeve Demeles. cnCetve efmeb®eve, peueefJeÐegle Je Hetj efve³eb$eCe ³eebmeeþer ngJeebie nes Jej mevceWefkeÌPe³ee (1960), meveMesiieeBie (1966), efkeÌJebieìeBieefPe³ee (1968), efueGefPeDeeefkeÌPe³ee (1974),efueefpeDeeefkeÌPe³ee (1977), ³eebiegDee@efkeÌPe³ee (1975), efleDeebefie³eeDees (1977), yeeHeebefkeÌPe³ee (1980), ueWc³eebeif PÌ e³ee (1992) oe iee@pe& (1998), ueer iee@pe& (1999) efPe³eeDeesueebefi[ (2001), ueeefyPe³ee (2010), ³eebiiet (2015) Je ceerGeb fie (2016) DeMeer OejCes yeebOeueer Deensle. Hejblet ieeUe®³ee mecem³escegUs l³eeb®es Dee³eg<³e veeìîece³e efjleerves keÀceer nesle ®eeueues Deens. oef#eCe-GÊej peuemeb¬eÀceCe ÒekeÀuHeeodJeejs (South-North water transfer Project ) ³eebielmes Je neve veÐeebletve HeeCeer ngJeebie nes keÀ[s JeUefJeC³ee®es DeveskeÀ GHe¬eÀce DeepeJej jeyeefJeC³eele Deeues Deensle. HeCe Deepener ngJeebie nes ®es cegKee®³ee veefpekeÀ®es HeeC³ee®es ogefYe&#e keÀceer nesleevee efomeuesues veener. Òee®eerve keÀeUer keÀoeef®ele ngJeebie nes mece=× pewJeJewYeJe efcejefJele Demesuener. Hejblet l³eeefJe<e³eer®es efvemebefoiOe DenJeeue Kegu³ee ceeO³eceebJej GHeueyOe veenerle. ie{tU HeeC³eecegUs HeeoHe-HueJekeÀeb®es ÒeceeCe KetHe keÀceer Demeu³eeves DevveeDeYeeJeer ÒeeCeer - HueJekeÀ Je HueJekeÀYe#eer ÒeeCeer ³eeb®³ee Òepeeleer keÀceer mebK³esle Dee{Ule Deensle. veoerleerue ceeMeeb®³ee meeOeejCe 30 ìkeÌkesÀ Òepeeleer keÀueewIeele ueesHe HeeJeu³ee Deensle Je p³ee efìkeÀeJe Oeªve Deensle l³eeb®eer HeeC³eeleerue Ievelee keÀceer nesleevee efomele Deens. ceO³e Je oef#eCe ®eerve ceOeerue veÐeeb®³ee letuevesle ngJeebie nes celm³eMesleermeeþer (aquaculture) HeÀejMeer DevegketÀue vemeueer lejer keÀener Yeeieeble leer kesÀueer peeles. Del³eble mJeeefo<ì mecepeu³ee peeCeeN³ee ®eerveer ceT Heeþer®³ee HeeCe keÀemeJeeb®es mebJeOe&ve ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej ngJeebie nes ceO³es nesle Deens. Heerle veoer meHeÀeF& Dee³eesie (The Yellow River Conservancy Commission) ³ee mebmLesves 2007 ceO³es kesÀuesu³ee 13500 efkeÀ.ceer ueebye Hee$ee®³ee meJex#eCeele Dee{Utve Deeues keÀer veoer®³ee 33.8 ìkeÌkesÀ #es$eeleerue HeeCeer HeerC³eemeeþer®e veJns lej celm³eHeeueve, J³eeHeej Je MeslekeÀer®³eener

JeeHejemeeþer ³eesi³e jeefnuesues veener. ³ee®es ÒecegKe keÀejCe cnCepes Jee{l³ee ueeskeÀmebK³es yejesyej Jee{uesues meeb[HeeC³ee®es efJemeie&. SketÀCe meeb[HeeC³eeHewkeÀer 70 ìkeÌkesÀ GÐeesie- J³eJemee³eebletve, 23 ìkeÌkesÀ efveJeemeer #es$eeletve lej GJe&ejf le Flej m$eesleebceO³es GlHevve nesles. ³ee meeb[HeeC³eele Ieve-keÀ®eje Je cewuee ³eeb®es DeefOeke̳e Deens. keÀesCeleerner Òe¬eÀer³ee ve keÀjlee DeLeJee DeHetCe&, ÒeeLeefcekeÀ Òe¬eÀer³ee keÀ©ve efJemeie& nesCeeN³ee cewuee³egkeÌle meeb[HeeC³eeves veoerleerue ÒeeCeJee³et HetCe&HeCes JeeHejuee peeTve peJeUHeeme 50 ìkeÌkesÀ veoer peerJeMeem$eer³e¢<ìîee ce=le Peeueer Deens. ef[meWyej 2005 ceO³es ieesþu³eecegUs HegÀìuesu³ee lesue Jeeefnveerletve 6 ìve ef[Pesue ngJeebie nes®³ee SkeÀe GHeveoerceOetve Jeeefnues Je 40 cewue ueebyeer®ee leuse leJeibe evfeceeC&e Peeuee. Deek@eìÌeyWej 2006 ceO³es nJgeeibe nes ®³ee 1 ekfeÀ.ecfe. ueebye HeeC³ee®ee jbie ueeue nesTve l³eeuee Deme¿e ogie¥Oeer ³esT ueeieueer. keÀejCe uek@ePÌee[ s Menjeleeure SkeÀe GÐeeiseeves l³ee®es mee[ b HeeCeer veoelre mee[ s ues nesles. efPeDeebie ³ee SkeÀe Menjeletve 10 ue#e ìve SJe{s Òe¬eÀer³ee ve Peeuesues HeeCeer nJgeeibe nes ceO³es mee[ s ues peele Deen.s oet<fele HeeC³eeceU g s veoer KeeNs³eeleeure pevelesle pevcepeele oes<e, peuepev³e Deepeej Je keÀke&Àjesiee®³ee ÒeeogYee&Jeele ceesþer Jee{ Peeueer Deens. Meebi[eBie ceOeerue efPeDe@DeesefpeefjDeve Kes[îeeleerue 1300 jefnJeeMeebHewkeÀer 70 peCe veoerle keÀele[er keÀceefJeC³ee®³ee, keÀeieo yeveefJeCeeN³ee Je Flej GÐeesieebceOeerue meeb[HeeCeer veoerle mees[u³eecegUs ce=l³egcegKeer He[ues. veoer keÀeþ®³ee Flej ieeJeebceO³esner Lees[îee HeÀej ÒeceeCeele ns®e Dee{Utve ³esle Deens. meve 2008 He³e¥le veoerceOetve DeefOekeÀlece HeeC³ee®³ee letuevesle 60 ìkeÌkesÀ HeeCeer Jeenle nesleb HeCe l³eeceOeerue 6000 keÀesìer Ieveefceìj HeeCeer yeerepf ebie, nsyeer Je Meeb[eBie MenjebceOeerue og<keÀeU efveJeejCeemeeþer Je keÀUme cnCepes Dee@efuebefHekeÀ ¬eÀer[e mHeOee¥ceOeerue veewkeÀeve³eve ¬eÀer[e ÒekeÀejemeeþer JeUefJeC³eele Deeu³eeHeemetve ngJeebie nes ®es cegKe keÀesj[s jenC³eeme meg©Jeele Peeueer Deens. ngJeebie nes ®³ee Hee$eeleerue HeeC³ee®³ee keÀcelejles®eer meg©Jeele Deieoer efle®³ee GieceeHeemetve nesT ueeieueer Deens. peeieeflekeÀ leHeceeve Jee{ercegUs GÊej efleyes쮳ee HeþejeJejerue efnceveieeb®³ee Dee¬eÀmeC³eeves Je HeþejeJejerue og<keÀeUecegUs veoerceO³es HeeCeer keÀceer ÒeceeCeele ³esle Deens. Hejblet Menjer #es$eeb®³ee Hes³e peue, efJeÐegle, GÐeesie, meHeÀeF& Fl³eeoer ceeieC³ee HetCe& keÀjC³eemeeþer GHeueyOe HeeC³eeHewkeÀer 80 les 90 ìkeÌkesÀ HeeCeer JeeHejues peele Deens, p³eecegUs ner mecem³ee efoJemeWefoJeme efyekeÀì nesle Deens. GÊej ®eerve®³ee meceleueeble ®eerve®eer 40 ìkeÌkesÀ GHepeeT Meslepeceerve Demetvener HeeC³ee®eer GHeueyOelee cee$e kesÀJeU 10 ìkeÌkesÀ Deens. He³ee&JejCe j#eCe-mebJeOe&veemeeþer ®eerveves Hegjsmes keÀe³eos kesÀues Deensle. HeCe l³eeb®eer Decceue yepeeJeCeer cee$e DeYeeJeeves®e nesles³e. efkebÀyengvee DeefOekeÀeN³eebvee ÒeeosefMekeÀ DeeefLe&keÀ YejYejeìerMeer efveieef[le DeeefLe&keÀ Òeelsmeenve eofues peele Demeu³eeves He³eeJ&ejCe neveer keÀ[s ouge#&e keÀ©ve GÐeeiseevbee Heeefþbyee efceUtve Òeot<eCee®eer mecem³ee iebYeerj yevele Deens. ³ee OeesjCeebcegUs ®eerve DeeefLe&keÀ cenemeÊee Peeuee Demeuee lejer vewmeefie&keÀ meeOevemebHeÊeer®³ee DeHeefjefcele neveercegUs YeefJe<³eele l³eeueener Òeieleer MeeMJele þsJeCeb efpekeÀerjer®eb nesCeej Deens.


12

efJeMes<e uesKe

veerUe jbie ne vekeÀejelcekeÀ YetefcekesÀ®ee DeeeCfe eJfe®eeje®ee ÒeelfekeÀ Deen.s ieȳee®ee evfeUmejHeCee cnCepes J³ekelÌee®res vekeÀejelcekeÀ eJfe®eej yeenjsner ³eT s ve³else DeeeCfe Meejfjele peeTve Keeuse HeejfCeece keÀ© ve³else ³ee®es ÒeelfekeÀ Deen.s evfeUkeÀbþ ne vekeÀejelcekeÀ eJfe®eejeJej keÀmee eJfepe³e ÒeeHle keÀjeJe³ee®ee, O³e³se ÒeeHleekreÀ[s mekeÀejelcekeÀ HeOoleevres Heenvte peeJreve ³eMemJeer keÀmes keÀjeJes ³ee ¢<ìekreÀevsee®es ÒeelfekeÀ Deen.s njJele peeCeeN³ee evfeUkeÀbþ He#eekeÀ[s HeenC³ee®eer DeeHeueer ¢<ìer DeMeer DemeeJeer Demes ceuee Jeeìles !

[e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs 98696 12531 nstekale@gmail.com

ceuee Demes Jeeìles... legcneuee?

cejeþJee[îeeceOeerue SkeÀ íesìsmes ieeJe ns ceePes pevcemLeU. ceneeJfeÐeeue³eelbe G®®e eMfe#eCe DeeeCfe velbej ceybgeFc&eOeeure veekseÀjer ³eeceU g s ceePee ³ee megboj ieeJee®ee mebyeOe 1964 veblej HeÀkelÌe meÆger Hejglee®e Gjuee. oevse iee<sìecReU g s ceuee ceeP³ee ieeJee®eer keÀe³ece Dees{ ueeieuesueer Demes. SkeÀ ceePeer pevceoeleer DeeF& DeeefCe ogmejer ieeJee®³ee yeensj JeenCeejer mJe®í veoer Je efle®³ee leerjeJejerue Je=#e mebHeÊeer. keÀeUe®³ee DeesIeele ns meJe&®e njJeues DeeefCe ceuee Giee®e HeesjkesÀ Jeeìt ueeieues. ieeJeer peeC³ee®eer F®íe®e nesle veJnleer. HeCe ceve IeÆ keÀ©ve MesJeìer iesuees®e. Iejer peemle LeebyeC³eeHes#ee Heefjmejele®e peemle YeìketÀ ueeieuees lemee De®eevekeÀ lees megboj efveUkebÀþ ceuee efomeuee. otleHeÀe& DeveskeÀ ueneve ceesþs Je=#e, oesvner yeepemte eJfeemfleCe& Melsee,r HeeC³ee®eer juse®euse DeeeCfe He#³eeb®eer Þeercebleer. ceeP³ee IejeHeemetve je<ì^er³e ceneceeiee&uee pees[Ceeje lees SkeÀ íesìe jmlee neslee; Deboepes 3 efkeÀ.efce. ueebyeer®ee. ³ee jml³eeves Heneìs®³ee JesUer efHeÀjC³ee®eer ceuee meJe³e®e ueeieueer. l³eeuee efveefceÊe nesles MeskeÀ[es He#³eeb®eer meeLemebiele. ieeJee®eer Dees{ Hetvne Jee{ueer DeeefCe DeMee®e SkeÀe Heneìs meg³eexo³ee®³ee JesUsme ³ee®e jml³eeJej ceuee yeepet®³ee leejsJej lees O³eevemLe $eÝ<eerÒeceeCes yemeuesuee efomeuee. meeUgkb eÀerHes#ee ueneve DeekeÀeje®ee SkeÀ megob j

He#eer. jbie efnjJeì, [esUs leebyegme, ®ees®e ef$ekeÀesCeer ìeskeÀoej, keÀeUer. [eskesÀ efnjJeì DeeefCe ef v eUmej ©b o ieUe. ®eent u e ueeielee®e keÀeJeȳeemeejKee keÀke&ÀMMe DeeJeepe keÀjle lees G[tvemeg×e iesuee. Deelee ieeJe®³ee ceeP³ee Òel³eskeÀ Yesìerle lees ceuee nceKeeme Yesìlees. Demee®e JeenletkeÀer®³ee jml³eeJej, yeepeg®³ee leejebJej, KeebyeeJej efJemeeJeuesuee. ceuee DeeJe[uesu³ee DeveskeÀ megob j He#³eebHewkeÀer ne SkeÀ. ®ees®e les MesHeìerHe³e¥le®eer ueebyeer Deboepes 25 me.secfe. Jepeve 100 ûec@e®³ee DeemeHeeme. [ekseÀs ceesþ,s HeCe l³ee leguevesle ®ees®e ueneve. G[leevee ³ee®ee efveUe jbie KetHe®e DeekeÀ<e&keÀ efomelees. jnoejer®³ee jml³eeJej oesvner yeepetme Demeuesu³ee Je#=eeJej ne nceKeeme eofmeCeej®e. eJfepe®ses Keeybe, leeje ³esLes lees DeveskeÀoe SkeÀìe®e yemeuesuee efomelees. ieJeleeU kegÀjCes, ceeUjeve, Peg[Heeb®es pebieue, Mesleer ner l³ee®eer DeeJe[leer efþkeÀeCes. pebieueele lees efomele veener, cee$e JeCeJee Hesìuee keÀer ns ceneMe³e ueneve efkeÀìkeÀªHeer Ye#ee®³ee MeeOseele meJeÒ&eLece leLses oeKeue nelseele. evfeUkeÀbþ ne MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee efce$e He#eer Deens. Gvneȳeele Mesleer veebiejCeer®³ee JesUer lees ì^@keÌìj®³ee ceeies peefceveerceOetve yeensj He[CeeN³ee Deȳee, efkeÀ[s KeeC³eemeeþer efHeÀjle Demelees. DeveskeÀJesUe lees keÀeJeȳeeceO³es ef c emeUt v e peelees . oef # eCe


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Yeejleele ns meje&me HeenC³eeme efceUles. efveUkebÀþ ne keÀceer Gb®eerJej cnCepes pescelesce 25-30 HetÀì Gb®eerJej G[Ceeje He#eer Deens. G[Ceejs efkeÀìkeÀ, Helebie, veekeÀlees[s ns l³ee®es Ye#e. ueeF&쮳ee YeesJeleer G[Ceejs DemebK³e Helebie cnCepes efveUkebÀþe®eer efoJeeUer®e Demeles. ne He#eer Yeejleele meJe&$e Dee{Ulees. GÊej Yeejleele l³ee®es ÒeceeCe peje peemle®e Deens. pescelesce 15 les 18 Je<e& Dee³eg<³e ueeYeuesuee ne He#eer oer[ Je<e& Je³eeHeemegve Òepeveveeme megjJeele keÀjlees. ne keÀeU cee®e& les pegve®³ee ojc³eeve Demelees. efveUkebÀþ He#³eeceO³es vej ceeoer DeesUKeCes keÀþerCe Deens. Òepevevee®³ee keÀeUele ceeoer He#eer Pee[e®³ee Gb®e ìeskeÀeJej peeTve yemeles. l³eeJesUer leerve-®eej vej He#eer Keeue®³ee HeÀeboerJej peeTve yemeleele. ne ÒekeÀej leerve-®eej JesUe neslees. l³eeb®eer ceeve Keeueer-Jej keÀ©ve les JeOet-Hemebleer oMe&eJf eleele. cee$e JeOet HeÀkeÌle SkeÀeuee®e HeÀeboer®³ee ìeskeÀeJej yeesueeJeles DeeefCe pees[er G[tve peeles. ³ee pees[er®es veblej nJesceOeues Deeveboer ve=l³e HeenC³eemeejKes Demeles. efveUkebÀþe®es Iej Pee[e®³ee HeeskeÀUerle, megleej He#³ee®³ee Dee³el³ee efjkeÀec³ee Iejele DeLeJee lee[erHeece Je=#eeJej kesÀuesu³ee Keesue Kee®eeceO³es Demeles. Iejemeeþer Heefnueer Jeerì, cnCepes keÀe[er, DeeCeC³ee®es keÀece vej He#³ee®es Demeles. Iejeuee keÀHeemeejKee DeekeÀej efou³eeJej ceeoer l³eeceO³es 4 les 5 ieesueekeÀej Heeb{jer Deb[er Ieeueles DeeefCe leer GyeJeC³ee®es keÀece oesIes efceUtve keÀjleele. ne keÀeueeJeOeer leerve DeeþJe[îeeb®ee Demelees. efHeuueebvee Òeefleefove leepee ÒeLeerve³egkeÌle Deenej efceUeu³eecegUs leer SkeÀ ceefnv³eeceO³es®e G[tve peeleele. efveUkebÀþ ne YeieJeeve Þeer MebkeÀje®es He#eerªHe ceeveuee peelees. jeJeCee®³ee JeOeeveblej efJepe³e HeleekeÀe IesTve Þeerjece Dee³eesO³esme Deeues

lees efoJeme cnCepes efJepe³eeoMeceer. jeJeCe ne ye´eïeCe neslee. ye´eïeCe nl³es®es HeeHe Ie[ues cnCetve Þeerjeceeves HeeHecegkeÌleermeeþer MeerJe Hetpee kesÀueer, lesJne MebkeÀj efveUkebÀþe®es ©He IesTve He=LJeerJej Deeues DeeefCe Þeerjeceeme oMe&ve efoues Demeener GuuesKe jecee³eCe Je MeerJe HetjeCeele Deens. omeN³ee®³ee efoJeMeer efveUkebÀþ He#³ee®es oMe&ve MegYe ceeveues peeles. keÀejCe ³ee SkeÀe®e JesUer YekeÌleebvee Þeerjece®ebê DeeefCe ÞeerceneosJe ³eeb®es oMe&ve nesles Demes ceO³e DeeefCe GÊej Yeejleele lemes®e oef#eCesceO³esner ceeveues peeles. ne He#eer DeebOe´ÒeosMe, Deese[ f mee, keÀvee&ìkeÀ DeeefCe lesuebieCee®ee jep³eHe#eer Demeuee lejer l³ee®eer meJee&le peemle nl³ee ³ee®e jep³eebceO³es nesles ne efJeef®e$e ³eesiee³eesie Deens. omeN³ee®³ee efoJeMeer efveUkebÀþe®³ee oMe&veecegUs HeeHe#eeueve nesles ³ee DebOeÞe×sHeesìer Deepe ne He#eer IUCN ®³ee ³eeoerceO³es mebjef#ele mecepeuee peelees. Je<e&Yej megjef#ele peerJeve peieCeeje efveUkebÀþ omeje meCee®³ee SkeÀ ceenfvee DeeOeer eHfepbeN³eele yeob nelsee.s nêweyeeo®³ee ceeP³ee ecfe$eeves evfeUkeÀbþe®es nesCeejs neue oeKeJeC³eemeeþer ceuee cegjieer yeepeejceO³es vesues nesles. ³ee yeepeejele DeveskeÀ efveUkebÀþebvee efHebpeN³eele yebo kesÀues peeles. ieJeleeU kegÀjCes, Heeke&À, jml³ee®³ee keÀ[suee leejebJej yemeuesues efveUkebÀþ HekeÀ[Ceejs l³eeceO³es lejyespe Demeleele. efHebpeN³eele ìekeÀu³eeJej l³eeb®es Hee³e yeebOeleele, l³ee®³ee HebKeevee G[lee ³esT ve³es cnCetve Lees[s keÀeHeleele. HebKee®eer HeÀ[HeÀ[ peemle nesT ve³es cnCetve Deeleu³ee yeepetme ef®ekeÀì jemee³eefvekeÀ HeoeLe& ueeJeleele. DebOeÞe×sJej efJeMJeeme þsJeCeejs ueeskeÀ omeN³ee®³ee efoJeMeer efveUkebÀþe®es efHebpejs Iejer DeeCeleele. Þeer MebkeÀj cnCetve l³ee®eer efHebpeN³eeceO³es®e Hetpee keÀ©ve mJele:®es HeeHe#eeueve (?) keÀ©ve Hegvne Je<e&Yej HeeHe keÀjC³eeme ceeskeÀUs


14 nesleele Je veblej Heefjmejele l³ee He#³eeuee mees[vt e osleele. omeN³ee®³ee efoJeMeer DeveskeÀ cebefojebyeensj efveUkebÀþ Jeeues l³eeb®es efHebpejs IesTve yemeleele. meerceesuebIeve Peeu³eeJej ueeskeÀ cebefojele peeleele. kegÀCeer efveUkebÀþe®es efHebpeN³eele®e oMe&ve Ieslees lej kegÀCeer l³eeme mHeMe& keÀjlees. ìe@JesueceO³es iegb[eUtve l³ee®eer HeÀkeÌle ®ees®e DeeefCe efveUer ceeve oeKeJele omeN³ee®³ee ieoeaceO³es Hewmes keÀceeJeCeejs ceneYeeiener ceer ³esLes®e Heeefnues. omeje mebHeuee keÀer efveUkebÀþe®es cenÊJe mebHeles DeeeCfe l³eeuee peeieer mee[ s vte eofues peele.s Demes cekgelÌe He#eer DeelfeMe³e ketÀHees<eerle Demeleele, HebKe keÀeHeu³eecegUs l³eebvee veerì G[leemeg×e ³esle veener. cnCetve®e les HeefjmejeceOeerue kegÀ$eer, ceebpejer ³eeb®es menpe Ye#e nesleele. efveUkebÀþ ne Flej He#³eebÒeceeCes efHebpeN³eeceO³es Devve Keele veener. keÀejCe nJesceOeerue G[Ceejs efkeÀìkeÀ Je l³eeb®es LeJes ns l³ee®es cegK³e Devve Deens DeeefCe Demes Devve efHebpeN³eeceO³es le³eej keÀjCes Meke̳e veener. evfeUkeÀbþ ne ieJeleeU ÒeoMseele eofmele Demeuee lejer Oeev³e, yeer³ee Keele veener. ³ee He#³ee®eer ner Mees®eveer³e DeJemLee Heentve nwêeyeeoceOeerue DeveskeÀ He#eerÒesceer Heg{s Deeues. l³eeceO³es HSI ³ee meceepemesJeer mebmLes®ee ceer ³esLes DeefleMe³e Deeojeves Guues K e keÀjlees . ³ee meb m Les v es omeN³ee®³ee DeeOeer H eemet v e®e MeeUe, ceneefJeÐeeue³eele peeTve efveUkebÀþ, l³eeb®es meeQo³e&, MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee efce$e, DevvemeeKeUerceOeerue l³ee®es cenÊJe efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee mecepeeTve meebeif eleues. ³eeletve MeskeÀ[es mJe³ebmesJekeÀ le³eej kesÀues DeeefCe ³ee®ee®e HeefjCeece cnCetve Deepe ³ee He#³eeuee Jev³epeerJe keÀe³eoe 1972 ®³ee Mes[îegue IV Debleie&le mebj#eCe efceUtve ne He#eer kegÀCeer HekeÀ[uee DeLeJee efHebpeN³eele þsJeuee lej l³eeme 25000 © ob[e®eer lejleto Deens. ®eej Je<ee¥HetJeea ³ee He#eerÒesceer mebIeìvesves omeje mebHeu³eeJej DeveskeÀ efveUkebÀþebvee Kejsoer keÀ©ve Menjeyeensj ceeskeÀȳee ieJeleeU kegÀjCeele mees[ues DeeefCe lesLes®e les peiet MekeÀleele ns efme× keÀªve oeKeJeues. keÀvee&ìkeÀ jep³eele ³ee megboj He#³eeuee HekeÀ[tve DebOeÞe×sHeesìer l³eeb®es HebKe GHeìtve, l³ee HebKee®ee ®etje ieeF&®³ee KeeÐeele ìekeÀleele. ³eecegUs otOe GlHeeoveele Jee{ nesles ne kesÀJeU iewjmecepe Deens. Deelee ³esLeerue Meemeve ³ee He#³ee®³ee mebj#eCeemeeþer meleke&À Peeues Deens. omeN³ee®³ee efoJeMeer meerceesuebIeve keÀjle Demeleevee oef#eCeskeÀ[erue keÀener otie&ce Yeeieele Deepener ³ee He#³eeuee HekeÀ[tve l³ee®es neueneue keÀ©ve ceejleele. ÒeLee DeMeer Deens, Òel³eskeÀ peCe ³eslees DeeefCe efveUkebÀþe®³ee keÀeveele (?) l³eeves kesÀuesues HeeHe meebielees. HeeHe kesÀuesu³eeb®eer jebie Jee{le®e peeles. efveUkebÀþ®eer efveUmej ceeve ueeskeÀeb®³ee HeeHe³egkeÌle efJe<eeves peemle efveUer He[le Deens Demee meceepe neslees. Deelee les HeeHe yeensj ³esF&ue cnCegve ueies®e l³ee He#ee®eer ceeve cees[vt e nl³ee kesÀueer peeles. ³ee DeIeesjer ÒeLesJej efve³eb$eCe þsJeC³ee®es Òe³elve MeemeveeleHexÀ ®eeuet Deensle. efveUkebÀþ ne LeJ³eeceO³es jenCeeje He#eer veener. cee$e HebpeeyeceO³es ient keÀe{Ceer®³ee keÀeUele DeveskeÀ efveUkebÀþ Mesleele SkeÀ$e

efomeleele DeeefCe Hebpeeyeer MeslekeÀjer Deeveboer ieerle ieeleele. pesJe{s efveUkebÀþ peemle lesJe{s GlHevve YejHetj ne l³eeb®ee mecepe ceuee HetjeCeeceOeerue ceb$eeHes#eener peemle HeefJe$e Jeeìuee. efveUkebÀþ jml³eekeÀeþer leejsJej, KeebyeeJej Meeble yemeuesuee Demelees DeeefCe G[Ceeje efkeÀìkeÀ efomeuee keÀer lesLes peeTve l³ee®eer efMekeÀej keÀªve Hejle HetJeea®³ee peeiesJej ³esTve yemelees. ceer ieeJeer kesÀuesuee ne efveUkebÀþe®ee JesieUe DeY³eeme Deens. mecegêcebLeveeletve nueenue efveIeeues, l³ee®³ee oMe&veeves osJe-oeveJe yesMeg× Peeues. meJe& efpeJeerleebvee DeYe³e osC³eemeeþer MebkeÀjeves les nueenue Òee<eve kesÀues DeeefCe osJee®ee ieUe efveUe Peeuee. cnCetve lees efveUkebÀþ. efJe<e MebkeÀje®³ee Heesìele peeT ve³es cnCetve HeeJe&leerves l³eeb®³ee Meefjjele ÒeJesMe keÀ©ve l³ee nueenuee®eer ieȳeeKeeue®eer Jeeì jesKeueer. efMeJeHetjeCeeceO³es ns meefJemlej efuenues Deens. MeerJee®ee efveUe ieUe cnCepes efveUkebÀþ Deecneme Hetpeefve³e Deens. ceie ceePee DeeJe[lee efveUkebÀþ He#eer Deecneuee DeHetpeefve³e keÀe JeeìeJee? Je<e&Yej MeskeÀN³eeb®ee efce$e DemeCeeje ne megob j He#eer `omeje meCe ceesþe' ³ee efoJeMeer®e l³eeb®ee Me$eg keÀe JneJee? l³ee®eer efveUmej efHemeeb®eer ceeve l³ee®³ee®e ce=l³eg®eer Iebìe keÀe JeepeJele Deens veerUe jbie ne vekeÀejelcekeÀ YetefcekesÀ®ee DeeefCe efJe®eejeb®es ÒeeflekeÀ Deens. ieȳee®ee efveUmejHeCee cnCepes J³ekeÌleer®es vekeÀejelcekeÀ efJe®eej yeensj ³esT ve³esle DeeefCe Meefjjele peeTve Keesue HeefjCeece keÀ© ve³esle ³ee®es ÒeeflekeÀ Deens. efveUkebÀþ ne vekeÀejelcekeÀ efJe®eejebJej keÀmee efJepe³e ÒeeHle keÀjeJe³ee®ee, O³es³eÒeeHleerkeÀ[s mekeÀejelcekeÀ He×leerves Heentve peerJeve ³eMemJeer keÀmes keÀjeJes ³ee ¢<ìerkeÀesvee®es ÒeeflekeÀ Deens. njJele peeCeeN³ee efveUkebÀþ He#³eekeÀ[s HeenC³ee®eer DeeHeueer ¢<ìer DeMeer DemeeJeer, Demes ceuee Jeeìles ! legcneuee? meJe& íe³eeef®e$eeb®ee meboYe& : NatureConservation.in


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DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee

keÀemseUl³ee ÒeHeelee®ee ie[ie[eì! ®eH@ìj 16 ë Yeeie 3 p³ee keÀerìkeÀebcegUs efHekeÀebJej jesie

mee³eueWì efmÒebie uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

DeeHeCe SkeÀe OeekseÀeoe³ekeÀ jml³eeJeªve ÒeJeeme keÀjlees Deenelse. DeeHeu³eeuee evfe³e$beCee®³ee GHee³eemeeþer keÀener GlmeenHeCte& meMbeeOseve keÀjeJes ueeieCeej Deen.s GHee³e pes jemee³eevfekeÀ veJns lej peewJfekeÀ Demee³euee nJelse. DeeHeues O³e³se Demes Demeues Heeenfpes keÀer peyejomleevres nuuee keÀjC³eeSJsepee,r DeeHeCe meeJeOeHeCes vemweeifek&eÀ Òee¬feÀ³eusee nJ³ee l³ee eofMevses keÀe³e& keÀjC³eeme ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues Heeefnpes.

meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

He[lee,s l³ee®beer keÀLeener leMee®re Deen.s meeOeejCe [PeveYej Mesleeleerue keÀerìkeÀ, pes HetJeea®³ee keÀeUeleerue Demesbêer³e jmee³evebevee ÒeeflekeÀej keÀjerle Deensle, l³ee ³eeoerle Deelee Flej keÀeìrkeÀveeMekeÀe®b³ee mecente®eer Yej He[ueer Deen.s pemes [er [ er ì er , yeer S®ed meer , ef u ev[s v e, ìe@keÌPeeHeÀerve, [e³eSu[^erve, De@u[^erve DeeefCe Deieoer He@ÀemHesÀìmegOoe, p³ee®³eeyeÎue DeeMee nesl³ee. efHekeÀe®ee veeMe keÀjCeeN³ee ÒeeflekeÀej#ece Òepeeleer®ee DeekeÀ[e 1960 meeueer 65Jej Heesnes®euee neslee. [er[erìer®³ee ÒeeflekeÀeje®³ee Mesleeleerue keÀerìkeÀebyeeyele®³ee Heefnu³ee Ieìvee, ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmeceO³es 1951 meeueer Ie[u³ee. les efle®³ee ÒeLece JeeHejeveblej mene Je<ee¥veer. keÀoeef®ele meJee&le DeefOekeÀ $eemeoe³ekeÀ HeefjefmLeleer Deens leer, keÀe@[efuebie cee@Le meboYee&le, pes [er[erìeruee ÒeeflekeÀej#ece yeveues Deensle, lesner peieeleerue meHeÀj®eboe®eer ueeieJe[ keÀjCeeN³ee yenglebeMe Yeeieele. keÀesyeerleerue keÀerìkeÀeb®ee ÒeeflekeÀej ner SkeÀ ogmejer®e iebYeerj mecem³ee le³eej nesles Deens. ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmedceOeerue DeveskeÀ efJeYeeieele yeìeìîeeJejer u e keÀer ì keÀ jemee³eef v ekeÀ efve³eb$eCeeletve efvemeìtve peele nesles. keÀeHemeeJejerue keÀer ì keÀeb ® ³ee mene ÒekeÀej®³ee Òepeeleer , l³eeyejeysej®e eJfeeJfeOe ÒekeÀej®es keÀeìrkeÀ (eLfeH´me)d, HeÀUebJej®eer HeeKejs, HeeveebJej®es G[îee ceejCeejs leg[leg[s, megjJebì, DeHeÀer[, íesìs keÀerìkeÀ (ceeF&ì), leejsmeejKes pebblet (keÀener yeerìue®³ee Deȳee, p³eebvee Jee³ejJee@ce& cnìues peeles) DeeefCe Flej DeMee keÀener keÀer ì keÀeb v ee Deelee MelsekeÀN³ee®b³ee ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ nuu³eekeÀ[s keÀeCee[esUe keÀjCes Meke̳e Deens. ÒeeflekeÀeje®³ee KesopevekeÀ yeeyeerme leeW [ os C ³eemeeþer jemee³eef v ekeÀ GÐeesiemecetn keÀoeef®ele mecepetvener veeKet<e Deensle. 1959 ceO³es osKeerue, efveoeve 100Hes#ee DeefOekeÀ keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee

Òepeeleer p³ee jmee³eveebvee efveef½eleHeCes ÒeeflekeÀej oMe&eJf ele nesl³ee. ke=À<eer jmee³eveMeem$ee®³ee SkeÀe ÒecegKe efve³elekeÀeefuekeÀele Demes cnìues iesues keÀer, keÀer ì keÀeb ® ee Òeef l ekeÀej ne ‘Keje keÀer keÀeuHeefvekeÀ.’ pejer DeeMee keÀª³ee keÀer GÐeesieOebos ³eebHeemetve ogmeN³ee efoMesuee ceeve JeUJeleerue, lejer mecem³ee keÀener otj peele veenerle DeeefCe l³eeletve DeeefLe&keÀ yeeyeerleerue keÀìt mel³es meceesj ³esleerue. l³eeHewkeÀer SkeÀ cnCepes keÀerìkeÀ efve³eb$eCee®³ee jmee³eveeb®eer efkebÀcele nUt n Ut Jee{les Deens . l³eeceg U s Deelee jmee³eveeb®ee meeþe Deieoer Deieesoj®e keÀjCes ³eeHeg{s Meke̳e veener, keÀejCe pes jemee³eefvekeÀ keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀ Deepe Kee$eeruee³ekeÀ Deens, les GÐee keÀoeef®ele Ye³eevekeÀ DeHe³eMeer þª MekeÀles. keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®³ee GlHeeoveeme HeeþeRyee osCes Je l³eeb®ee Oeboe megª keÀjC³eele YejHetj ÒeceeCeeleerue DeeefLe&keÀ iegbleJeCetkeÀ meceeefJeä Deens, peer keÀoeef®ele Jee³ee peeT MekeÀles. keÀejCe keÀerìkeÀebveer ns Hegvne SkeÀoe efmeOo kesÀues Deens keÀer, ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ MekeÌleer JeeHeªve efvemeiee&uee meeceesjs peeCes ns keÀOeer®e HeefjCeecekeÀejkeÀ þjle veener. DeeefCe efkeÀleerner peueoHeCes DeeHeCe leb$e%eevee®³ee JeeHejeletve keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee veJeveJ³ee ÒekeÀejs Òe³eesie keÀª DeeefCe l³eeb®ee GHe³eesie keÀª lejerner Demes Dee{UC³ee®eer Meke̳elee Deens keÀer, keÀerìkeÀ DeeHeu³ee SkeÀ Hee³ejer Heg{s®e Deensle ... vewmeefie&keÀ efveJe[er®es ³ee ÒeeflekeÀej ³eb$eCesves

efLe´Hmed


16 GÊej efoues Deens. l³eeHes#ee GÊece GoenjCe KegÎ [eefJe&veuee mJele:ueener keÀoeef®ele meeHe[ues vemeles. keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee cetU mebK³esle efYeVe ÒekeÀej Deensle, ÒeecegK³eeves Mejerj yeebOeCeer®³ee iegCeOecee&le, Jele&veele efkebÀJee Mejerjj®evesle. ‘e®feJeì/ yeueJeeve’ keÀeìrkeÀ jemee³eevfekeÀ nuu³eelevte ye®eeJeleele. HeÀJeejCeer ogye&ueeveeb®e ceejles. p³ee keÀerìkeÀebkeÀ[s pevcepeele iegCeOece& Deensle, p³eecegUs les ogKeeHeleerHeemetve megìkeÀe efceUJeleele les®e kesÀJeU Jee®eleele. ns®e veJ³ee efHe{er®es HeeuekeÀ Deensle. l³eeb®³eeceO³es mejUHeCes Deeuesu³ee JeejMeecegUs ef®eJeìHeCee Deens, pees l³eeb®³ee HetJe&peebkeÀ[s pevcepeele neslee. DeHeefjne³e&HeCes ³eeveblej leerJe´ ÒeceeCeele MeeqkeÌleJeeve jmee³eveeb®eer HeÀJeejCeer Peeueer. p³eemeeþer ¿ee®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles, leer mecem³ee cee$e DeefOekeÀ®e iebYeerj Peeueer. HeefjCeecele: keÀener efHe{îeebveblej Lees[s yeueJeeve Je Lees[s DeMekeÌle DeMee keÀerìkeÀ ÒepeeleeRSsJepeer, ÒeeflekeÀej#ece keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee ÒekeÀejele mebHetCe& yeueJeeve keÀerìkeÀeb®eer mebK³ee jeefnueer. p³ee®b³ee mene³³eeves keÀeìrkeÀ ÒeelfekeÀej keÀjleele, l³ee ieeäser yenOgee yeouele jenleele DeeefCe Depetvener les mebHetCe&HeCes mecepeuesues veener. keÀener keÀerìkeÀ jemee³eefvekeÀ efve³eb$eCeeuee efJejesOe keÀjleele Demes Jeeìles, lees keÀoeef®ele l³eebvee Mejerjj®eves®ee HeÀe³eoe efceUle DemeeJee. HeCe l³eekeÀjerlee HeÀej®e Lees[e Òel³e#e HegjeJee Deens. keÀener ÒekeÀej®³ee keÀerìkeÀebceO³es ÒeeflekeÀej#ecelee Deens, ns mHeä Peeues Deens. leLeeefHe, efmHebieHeÀesyeea, [svceeke&À ³esLeerue keÀerìkeÀ efve³eb$eCe mebmLesleerue [e@. efye´Spej ³eeb®³ee ceeMeeb®³ee efvejer#eCeeletve Deeuesu³ee DenJeeueele Demes cnìues Deens keÀer, ’¿ee ceeMee Deieoer Iejeleu³eemeejK³ee [er[erìerle®e jentve mJele:®es ceveesjbpeve keÀjleele. peCet keÀener Òee®eerve keÀeueeleerue ®esìefkeÀCeer menpeHeCes peUl³ee efveKeeN³eeJej ve=l³e keÀjerle Demeleele. “ peieeleerue ogmeN³ee Yeeieeletvener DeMee ÒekeÀej®es DenJeeue Deeues. ceuee³eeleerue keÀewueeueebHetj ³esLes [er[erìer®³ee JeeHejeveblej ÒeLece [emeeb®eer Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee DeMeer nesleer keÀer, [er[erìer ceejuesu³ee Ieje®³ee Deeleerue Yeeieeletve les HeUeues. cee$e peMeer ÒeeflekeÀej#ecelee Jee{ueer, mes les DeMee He=ÿYeeieeJej efveJeebleHeCes yemeuesues efomeues. efJepesjer®³ee Gpes[ele mHeä efomele nesles keÀer, l³eeb®³ee MejerjeKeeueerue He=ÿYeeieeJej [er[erìer®ee Lej neslee. DeeefCe oef#eCe lewJeeve ³esLeerue mewefvekeÀer íeJeCeerle ÒeeflekeÀej#ece {sketÀCeeb®es vecegves Dee{Uues. ns {sketÀCe [er[erìer®es Lej l³eeb®³ee DebieeJeªve KejesKej®e Jeentve vesleevee efomeues. ³ee {sketÀCeebJej Òe³eesie keÀjleevee pesJne l³eebvee [er[erìerves Dee®íeefouesu³ee keÀHe[îeebceO³es mees[ues. les peemleerle peemle SkeÀ ceefnvee peieues, HeCe Heg{s peeTve l³eebveer Deb[er Ieeleueer. l³eeletve Deeuesues íesìs {sketÀCe Jee{ues DeeefCe l³eeb®es Hees<eCener Peeues. Demes Demeues lejer ÒeeflekeÀeje®eer iegCeJeÊee l³eeb®³ee Meejerejf keÀ yeebOeCeerJej DeJeuebyetve Demeles Demes veener. [er[erìerkeÀjerlee ÒeeflekeÀej#eæce Demeuesu³ee ceeMeeb ® ³ee Mejer j ele Demeues u ³ee êJ³ee®³ee (SvPeeF& c e) mene³³eeves keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀebleerue efJe<ee®eer leerJe´lee keÀceer keÀªve les [er[erFc& eO³es yeouetve ìekeÀleele. ns SvPeeF&ce êJ³e HeÀkeÌle l³ee®e ceeMeebceO³es Demeles, p³eeb®³eekeÀ[s [er[erìer®³ee ÒeeflekeÀej#eceles®ee pevegkeÀer³e IeìkeÀ Deens, ne IeìkeÀ DeLee&le®e DeevegJeebeMf ekeÀ Deens. meWêer³e HeÀe@mHeÀjme³egkeÌle jmee³eveeb®es efveefJe&ef<ekeÀjCe ³ee ceeMee efkebÀJee Flej keÀerìkeÀ keÀmes keÀjleele, ns Depetve mHeäHeCes mecepeC³eele

ceuejse³ree®ee [eme Deeuesues veener. keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee Jele&vee®³ee keÀener meJe³eermegOoe l³eebvee jmee³eveebHeemetve otj þsJet MekeÀleele. DeveskeÀ keÀeceieejeb®³ee ns ue#eele Deeues Deens keÀer, ÒeeflekeÀej keÀjCeeN³ee ceeMeeb®eer HeÀJeejCeer Peeuesu³ee efYebleerHes#ee DeefOekeÀ, HeÀJeejCeer ve Peeuesu³ee Dee[J³ee He=ÿYeeieeJej yemeC³ee®eer ÒeJe=Êeer Deens. ÒeeflekeÀej#ece ceeMeebceO³es keÀoeef®ele SkeÀe peeieer efmLej yemeC³ee®eer meJe³e Demeles. l³eecegUs efMeuuekeÀ jeefnuesu³ee efJe<eeMeer JeejbJeej mebHeke&À ³esCes yeN³ee®e ÒeceeCeele keÀceer nesles. keÀener ceuesjer³ee®³ee [emeebvee ner®e meJe³e Demeles, p³eecegUs l³eeb®ee [er[erìer®ee mebHeke&À nesle veener DeeefCe les DeÒel³e#eefjl³ee ÒeeflekeÀej#ece yeveleele. HeÀJeejCeer®³ee $eemeeves les Iej mees[vt e yeensj®e peieleele. meeceev³ele: ÒeeflekeÀej#ecelee Jee{C³eeme oesve les leerve Je<ex ueeieleele. HeCe Òemebieer les SkeÀe®e nbieeceele efkebÀJee l³eener Hes#ee keÀceer JesUele efJekeÀefmele nesles. lej ogmeN³ee ìeskeÀeuee les Deieoer mene Je<ee¥He³e¥le leeCeues peeT MekeÀles. SkeÀe keÀerìkeÀeves SkeÀe Je<ee&le efkeÀleer efHe{îee pevceeuee Ieeleu³ee Deensle, ns cenlJee®es Deens DeeefCe l³eele Òepeeleer Je nJeeceeveevegmeej HeÀjkeÀ Demelees. GoenjCeeLe&, ke@Àve[eleerue ceeMeebceO³es oef#eCe ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmeceOeerue ceeMeebHes#ee ceboieleerves ÒeeflekeÀej Jee{lees. l³eeb®³ee leguevesle oef#eCe ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmedceO³es Gvneȳeeleerue iejceercegUs Òepeveve HeÀej peueo ieleerves nesles. SkeÀ DeeMeeoe³ekeÀ ÒeMve Demee keÀOeer keÀOeer efJe®eejuee peelees keÀer, ’pej keÀerìkeÀ ÒeeflekeÀej#ece yevet MekeÀleele, lej ceveg<³eÒeeCeer HeCe lemee yevet MekesÀue keÀe? “ leeeqlJekeÀ¢äîee nes. lees yevet MekesÀue HeCe l³ee ieesäeruee DeveskeÀ MelekesÀ Jee menm$e Je<ex ueeiet MekeÀleerue Je lesJne efpeJeble DemeCeeN³eebmeeþer lemes efveOee&mleHeCes peieC³ee®eer Meke̳elee HeÀej keÀceer Deens. ÒeeflekeÀej#ecelee ner DeMeer ieesä veener keÀer leer SkeÀe®e J³ekeÌleerle efJekeÀefmele nesT MekesÀue. pej l³ee®³eekeÀìs pevcepeele®e Demes keÀener iegCeOece& Demeleerue keÀer p³eecegUs FlejebHes#ee efJe<eemeeþer lees keÀceer mebJesovee#ece Demesue, lej l³ee®³ee peieC³ee®eer Meke̳elee peemle Deens DeeefCe lees cegueebvee pevce osT MekesÀue. keÀeuee®³ee ieCevesle, ÒeeflekeÀej#ecelee ner DeMeer ieesä Deens keÀer peer Heg<keÀU efkebÀJee efkeÀl³eskeÀ efHe{îeebveblej mebHetCe& Òepeeleerle efJekeÀefmele nesles. oj MelekeÀeYejele ceeveJeer ueeskeÀmebK³esle meeOeejCele: leerve efHe{d³eeb®eer efveefce&leer nesles. HeCe keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee veJ³ee efHe{îee Deieoer Lees[îee efoJemeele efkebÀJee


17

{kseÀtCe (ye[s yeie). DeeþJe[îeele le³eej nesleele. [e@. efye´Spej ns Hueevì Òeesìks eÌMeve meefJe&me®es (JevemHeleer j#eCe mesJee efJeYeeie) meb®eeuekeÀ Demeleevee l³eebveer ne@ueb[ ³esLes Demee meuuee efouee keÀer, Lees[îee keÀeUemeeþer vegkeÀmeeve HetCe&HeCes ìeUtve YeefJe<³eele ue{C³ee®es meeOeve®e njJetve yemeC³eeHes#ee Deelee Lees[ms es vegkeÀmeeve neT s oCses MeneCeHeCee®es þjuse.” J³eeJenejekreÀ meuuee Demee keÀe,r ’ Deieoer legce®³ee #eceles®³ee MesJe쮳ee ìeskeÀeHe³e¥le HeÀJeejeCeer ve keÀjlee efpelekeÀer keÀceer HeÀJeejCeer keÀjlee ³esFu& e eflelekeÀer keÀjeJeer.& keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee mebK³esJej Deieoer keÀceer ÒeceeCeele oeye ìekeÀeJee. ogozJeeves, ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmed®³ee ke=À<eer mesJee meboYee&le Demee ¢äerkeÀesve efometve ³esle veener. 1952 ®³ee MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®³ee Jeeef<e&keÀ HegmlekeÀele, pes mebHetCe&HeCes keÀerìkeÀebvee®e Jeeefnues nesles, ³ee ieesäeruee ogpeesje osles,keÀer keÀerìkeÀ ÒeeflekeÀej#ece Peeues Deensle. Hejbleg Heg{s cnCeles, ’peemle ÒeceeCeele

keÀeìrkeÀveeMekeÀe®beer HeÀJeejCeer keÀjC³ee®eer peªj Deens cnCepes Hejgmes evfe³e$beCe efceUJelee ³esF&ue.” He=LJeeruee keÀerìkeÀjnerle®e veener lej peerJevejnerle keÀªve ìekeÀCeejer jmee³eves®e HeÀkeÌle efMeuuekeÀ jenleerue, lesJne keÀe³e nesF&ue, ³eeJej ³ee efJeYeeieeves keÀener®e cnìuesues veener. HeCe 1959ceO³es, meele Je<ee&veblej, keÀveskeÌìerkeÀì ³esLeerue keÀerìkeÀMeem$e%eeb®es cnCeCes, MeslekeÀer DeeefCe DeVe jmee³eveMeem$ee®³ee efve³elekeÀeefuekeÀele íeHetve Deeues, les Demes keÀer, ³ee®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve, keÀceerlekeÀceer SkeÀ efkebÀJee oesve keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee efkeÀ[eRJej DeKesj GHeueyOe Demeuesueer veJeerve meeceûeer JeeHejueer peele nesleer. [e@. efye´Spej cnCeleele, ’ns lej DeefOekeÀ®e mHeäHeCes mecepeles Deens keÀer DeeHeCe SkeÀe OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ jml³eeJeªve ÒeJeeme keÀjlees Deenesle. DeeHeu³eeuee efve³eb$eCee®³ee GHee³eemeeþer keÀener GlmeenHetCe& mebMeesOeve keÀjeJes ueeieCeej Deens. GHee³e pes jemee³eefvekeÀ veJns lej pewefJekeÀ Demee³euee nJesle. DeeHeues O³es³e Demes Demeues Heeefnpes keÀer peyejomleerves nuuee keÀjC³eeSsJepeer, DeeHeCe meeJeOeHeCes vewmeefie&keÀ Òeef¬eÀ³esuee nJ³ee l³ee efoMesves keÀe³e& keÀjC³eeme ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues Heeefnpes. DeeHeu³eeuee Deepe iejpe Deens leer, DeefOekeÀ G®®e ceve:ÒeJe=Êeer®eer DeeefCe meKeesue Debleo&ä= er®eer, peer ceuee DeveskeÀ mebMeesOekeÀebceO³es efomele veener. peerJeve ne DeeHeu³ee DeekeÀueve#eceles yeensj®ee ®ecelkeÀej Deens DeeefCe pejer l³eeefJeªOo DeeHeu³eeuee Peie[eJes ueeieues lejer DeeHeCe l³ee®ee Deeoj jeKeuee Heeefnpes. efve³eb$eCe efceUJeC³eemeeþer keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀebmeejK³ee Mem$eeb®ee DeJeuebye keÀjCes cnCepes DeeHeu³ee DeHegN³ee %eevee®ee HegjeJee Deens DeeefCe efvemeiee&®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³eeb®es ceeie&oMe&ve keÀjC³eeme DemeceLe& Deenesle ns efomeles, keÀejCe lesJne peyejomleerves nuuee keÀjCes peªjer®es vemeles. vece´lee DemeCes®e þerkeÀ Deens; ³esLes Jew%eeefvekeÀ DenbkeÀeje®ee oHe& yeeUieC³ee®es keÀesCelesner keÀejCe veener.

Birding at Great Rann of Kutch A different avian world of Desert and Wetland

Batch 11-- 31st JanuaryJanuary - 3rd February 2018 Batch 22-- 7th FebruaryFebruary - 10th February 2018

Group Size -8

For deails contact : 9892061899 022-25411633


18

HeÀgueJee Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 9324565060 MeeUsle Demeleevee keÀOeerlejer SkeÀ iees<ì SskeÀC³eele Deeueer nesleer. cee@ejf Meme ³esLes [es [es He#eer uegHle Peeu³eecegUs SkeÀe Je=#ee®eer Òepeeleer osKeerue ueesHe HeeJeC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej Deens. l³ee Je=#ee®es veeJe Calvaria Tree (sideroxylon grandiflorum) ¿eeuee [es [es ì^er cnìues peeles. lej ¿ee Je=#ee®³ee ìCekeÀ efye³ee [es [es Kee³e®ee DeeefCe efJe<þsletve He[uesu³ee efye³ee ©petve veJeerve jesHeb le³eej nesle. [es [es He#eer extinct Peeu³eeJej ¿ee Je=#ee®³ee efye³eeb®eb ªpeCeb Leebyeueb. yejer®e Je<e& ner iees<ì Kejer Jeeìle nesleer. veblej cee$e DeveskeÀ JevemHeleer lep%eebveer ¿ee efmeodOeeblee®ee efJejesOe kesÀuee. keÀeneR®es cnCeCes Demes He[ues keÀer [es [es ®e veJns lej cee@ejf MemeceOetve keÀemeJeemeejKes ÒeeCeeorKseeure veeceMe<se Peeu³eeceU g s ¿ee Je#=ee®³ee DeemflelJeeJej yeeOee Deeuee.r keÀenerner Demees, SJe{b cee$e vekeÌkeÀer keÀer efkeÀìkeÀ, ÒeeCeer-He#eer DeeefCe l³eeb®eb DeefmlelJe SkeÀceskeÀebJej DeJeuebyetve Demeleb.

Je[e®es keÀtU

Ficus

[e@. meefuece Deueer cnCele, Je=#e vemeleerue lej efkeÀìkeÀ vemeleerue DeeefCe He#eer vemeues lej Je=#e vemeleerue. DeeHeCe Je=#eebvee mJe³ebHetCe& ceevelees. Je=#e pejer mJele:®eer Devveefveefce&leer keÀjle Demeues lejer l³eeb®eer Je=×er, DeefYeJe=×er keÀje³euee l³eebvee efvemeiee&®³ee Dev³e IeìkeÀebJej DeJeuebyetve jeneJeb ueeieleb. JevemHeleer®b ³ee efye³ee JeeN³eeves, HeeC³eeves, He#³eebÜejs, ÒeeC³eebÜejs Òemeej HeeJeleele. l³eeÒeceeCes l³eebvee keÀener efJe<esMe iegCeOece& Demeleele. JeeN³eeves G[CeeN³ee efye³ee ®eHeìîee efkebÀJee HebKe me¢<³e DeJe³eJe Demeuesues Demeleele. HeeC³eeJeeìs Jeenle peeCeeN³ee efye³eebvee lejbiee³euee Air-sacs Demeleele. ÒeeCeer-He#eer p³ee efye³ee HemejJeleele l³eele DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®³ee iebceleerpeceleer o[uesu³ee Demeleele. HeÀUeb®ee jbie Heefnu³eeboe efnjJee Demelees. HeCe efHekeÀuesu³ee HeÀUe®ee jbie DeekeÀ<e&keÀ efHeJeUe, ueeue®egìkt eÀ Demelees. efHekeÀuesu³ee HeÀUe®³ee efye³ee HeefjHekeÌJe DeeefCe ©peC³eepeesi³ee Demeleele. HeÀU iees[ Demeleb HeCe efye³ee keÀ[g Demeleele, ìCekeÀ Demeleele, l³eeb®³eeJej pee[ seed coat Demelees. keÌJeef®ele l³eele efJe<eejer ÒeoeLe& Demelees. GÎsMe Demee keÀer, ÒeeC³ee-He#³eeves HeÀU KeeJeb HeCe yeer LekbgeÀtve ÐeeJee.r DeeCeKeer SkeÀ iee<sì, DeeHeu³eekeÀ[®³ee Pee[e®b³ee yeeyeleelre ¿ee efye³ee ceele= Je=#eeHeemetve ueebye peeJ³ee. Je=#e mJele:®³ee DeefYeJe=×ermeeþer keÀesìîeJeOeer efye³eeb®eer efveefce&leer keÀjleele. l³eeletve vesceke̳ee efkeÀleer efye³ee ªpetve Je=#e nesleele, ns ceeefnle veener. HeCe ÒeeCeer-He#eer, Forest Regeneration ®eb ceesþb keÀece keÀjle®e Demeleele. He#³eebvee DeekeÀef<e&le keÀje³euee Je=#e keÀener yeveJeeyeveJeer HeCe keÀjleele! keÀener He#eer HeÀUb Keeleele. keÀener efkeÀìkeÀYe#ekeÀ Demeleele lej keÀener meJe&Ye#ekeÀ Demeleele. efkeÀìkeÀ KeeCeejs yejs®e He#eer Demeu³eecegUs Je=#e HeÀU DeeefCe efye³eeb®³ee yeeyeleerle mimesis DeeefCe mimicry keÀjleele. cnCepes Ye´ce efvecee&Ce keÀje³e®ee. letleer®eer HeÀUb DeUer efkebÀJee megjJebìebmeejKeer eofmeleele. He#eer DeUer mecepevte Keeleele ekfeÀbJee eyfe³ee®bes jibe®e SJe{s DeekeÀ<ek&eÀ Demeleele keÀer He#eer l³eebvee HeÀU cnCegve leeW[ele Iesleele Goe. iegbpe DeeefCe Leesjueer iegbpeeb®³ee efye³ee. Cantharospermum Scarabaeoides ns JevemHeleeR®es veeJe efkeÀìkeÀebmeejKee efomeC³eeJeªve Deeues Deens. HeÀU KeeC³ee®³ee He#³eeb®³ee DeveskeÀ leNne Deens. keÀener He#eer keÀener HeÀU KeeTve ìekeÀleele DeeefCe ceie efJe<þsJeeìs efye³ee ueebye kegÀþslejer peeTve He[leele ne ÒekeÀej íesìîee efye³eeb®³ee yeeyeleerle neslees. keÀener JeU s e He#eer HeÀU Keeleele. HeCe l³ee®eer yeer Heeìselevte Regurgitation Üejs Gueìgve ìekeÀleele. DeeHeCe pemes yeesj, peebYetU, ef®ekegÀ Keeleevee efye³ee Legkb eÀgve oslees lemes. He#³eeb®³ee Gizzard ceOes yeejerkeÀ Ke[keÀ Demeleele. l³eecegUs keÀener keÀþerCe keÀJe®e Demeuesu³ee efye³eeb®es seed Coat ogKeeJeleele DeeefCe l³ee efye³ee efJe<þsJeeìs yeensj He[u³ee keÀer ªpeleele. Heeve 26 Jej


Je[e®es ketÀU Ficus

http://tropical.theferns.info


Gharial - a long riverine crocodile native to India - Critically Endangered.


keÀe@ceve Le´er efjbie íe³eeef®e$e ë cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea


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ekfeÀìkeÀe®b³ee eJfeMJeele ³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338 e[ f iej JeemHe ceeM³eeb®³ee ieìeleerue efkeÀìkeÀeb®es JewefMe<ìîe cnCepes ns meejs efkeÀìkeÀ keÀesCel³ee vee keÀesCel³ee keÀuesle Heejbiele Deensle. ³ee®e kegÀUele ef[iej JeemHe ³esles. peefceveerJej SKeeoer ³eesi³e peeiee MeesOetve ner ceeMeer KeesokeÀece meg© keÀjles. Ke·e peje Keesue Peeuee keÀer Deele Gle©ve ceeleer GkeÀ© ueeieles. Keesoleevee efveIeCeejer ceeleer, DeeHeu³ee Heg{®³ee JeUCeoej Hee³eebceO³es veenerlej [eske̳eeJej G®euetve yeensj ìekeÀles. Hegjsmee Ke·e KeCetve Peeu³eeJej ner ceeMeer yeensj®ee ceeleer®ee ef{ie meHeeì keÀ©ve ìekeÀles. DeeHeu³ee ceeie®³ee Hee³eebveer leer ³ee ef{ieeleueer ceeleer DeMeer Hemejles keÀer efleLes Ke·e KeCeuee neslee ³ee®ee pejener HeÊee ueeieCeej veener. ne Ke·e efleves DeeHeu³ee efHeuueeb®es Devve meeþJeC³eemeeþer kesÀuesuee Demelees. Devve MeesOeC³eeHegJeea ner ceeMeer DeeHeu³ee Iejìîee®³ee DeJeleerYeesJeleer G[tve DeemeHeeme®ee Heefjmej veerì ue#eele þsJeles. keÀejCe DeveskeÀoe leer mJele:®³ee DeekeÀejeHes#ee ceesþs Ye#³e HekeÀ[les, leWJne les G®euetve G[Ces leeruee Meke̳e vemeles. ceie les Ye#³e HeÀjHeÀìle DeeCeleevee, jmlee MeesOeC³eemeeþer leeruee ³ee ceeefnleer®ee GHe³eesie neslees. ³ee ceeMeer®es cegK³e meeJepe cnCepes HegÀueHeeKeª DeeefCe Helebieeb®³ee Deȳee. ns meeJepe efomeu³eeJej ef[iej JeemHe l³eeJej nuuee keÀ©ve JeejbJeej obMe keÀjles. Deȳeebb®³ee Mejerjj®eves®eer efleuee efvemeie&le:®e ceeefnleer Demeu³eeves, DeȳeebJej nuuee keÀ©ve l³eebvee þej ve ceejlee kesÀJeU yesMeg× keÀjC³eele leer ³eMemJeer nesles. ceie l³ee DeUeruee DeeHeu³ee peye[îeele HekeÀ[tve, Hee³eeb®³ee DeeOeejs {keÀuele IejìîeekeÀ[s IesTve peeles. Devvee®eer HegjsMeer lepeJeerpe kesÀu³eeveblej, l³ee®e Ke[[³eele ceeMeer Deb[er Ieeueles DeeefCe lees Ke[[e yegpeJetve ìekeÀles. efvemeiee&ves efle®³eeJej meesHeJeuesueer keÀeceefiejer efleves HegCe& kesÀuesueer Demeles.

Digger Wasp Digger wasps are from Order Hymenoptera which includes insects like wasps, bees and ants. The digger wasp first prepares a burrow in a suitable spot, and then starts digging. When a little hole is made, it then enters it and comes out carrying soil between its curved forelegs and its head, repeating this till there is a considerable heap of soil. It then demolishes the heap by standing and kicking it away with its hind legs, leaving no evidence of its excavation. Before beginning hunting it makes a complex series of short flights around and above the nest site, fixing in its mind a visual pattern of its location and of prominent landmarks by which it can be located from a long distance. Many times wasps hunt for larger prey, sometimes heavier than itself, and may have a long and difficult task dragging the load over rough terrain and through dense, tangles vegetation.

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901 keÀec@eve Lee´r ejfibe Meem$eer³e veeJe - FefHLecee De@mìsjesHe kegÀue - efvecHe@Àueer[er GHekegÀue - meìe³ejerveer keÀe@ceve Le´er efjbie HegÀueHeeKeje®³ee HebKeeb®ee efJemleej 30-37 efceefce Demelees. HebKeeb®eer Keeue®eer yeepet efHeÀkeÀì jbieeJej yeejerkeÀ ie[o leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®³ee js<eebveer ie®®e Yejuesueer Demeles. Jej®³ee HebKee®³ee ìeskeÀepeJeU meesveefHeJeȳee jbieeves Jeue³eebkeÀerle ceesþe keÀeUe efþHekeÀe Demelees. Keeue®³ee HebKee®³ee Jej®³ee ìeskeÀepeJeU SkeÀ Je Keeue®³ee ìeskeÀeuee peJeUpeJeU Demes oesve efþHekesÀ Demeleele. HebKeeb®eer Jej®eer yeepet efHeÀkeÀì leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®eer Demeles. Heg{erue HebKee®³ee Jej®³ee ìeskeÀeuee pegȳee yegyyegUemeejKee SkeÀ keÀeUe ceesþe Je efHeJeUmej jbieeves Jeue³eebkeÀerle efþHekeÀe Demelees. vej-ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes Demeleele. Jej®es HebKe Keeue®³ee HebKeeKeeueer Dees{tve þsJee³e®eer ³ee®eer meJe³e Demeles. ns SkeÀ DeefmLej HegÀueHeeKe© Deens. melele FLes efleLes G[le Demeles. ³ee®es G·eCe peefceveerueiele Je HeÀejmes peesceoej vemeles. keÀceer Gb®eer®³ee peeiee, ieJeleeU cewoeves, og³³ece pebieues-l³eeleerue ceeskeÀȳee peeiee, Mesleer Heefjmej DeMee efþkeÀeCeer ³ee®ee JeeJej Demelees. ìskeÀ[îeeb®³ee Yeeieele megceejs 1500 efceìj Gb®eerHe³e¥le ³ee®ee JeeJej Demelees. Pe[ g HteeJbejeure ueneve HeÀgueeJbej ns ceOeÒgeeMeve keÀjle.s e®feKeueHeeveemeeþer Deeusemej peecfeveeJrej ³esles. YeejleYej l³ee®³ee DeefOeJeemeele meeceev³ele: Dee{UCeejs ns HegÀueHeeKeª peieele vesHeeU, Yetleeve, c³eeveceej, yeebiueeosMe, HeeefkeÀmleeve Je DeHeÀieeefCemleeve ³esLes Dee{Ules. ogJee¥®³ee peeleerleerue íesìîee ieJeleebJej ns Deb[er Ieeueles. Commom Three Ring Sc Name - Ypthima asterope Family - Nymphalidae Sub-family - Satyrinae Common threering is a common butterfly among the ‘Ring’ group! Wingspan 30-37 mm. Pale colour with fine and smaller brown striations densely packed all over the underside. There is a big black spot encircled by golden yellow ring at the upper corner of the fore wing of the wing margin. On the hind wing a smaller spot at the upper corner near the outer margin and two spots near the end corner. These spots may appear to be like small dots in dry season form. Upper wing is paler brown and has a large double pupil spot ringed with yellow. This spot appears to be on a fainter square area. On the hind wing a small spot near lower corner. Sexes are alike. It has a habit of tucking in its forewing so the big eye spot may be partly visible. Mostly found in lowland habitats, open grassland, agriculture areas, secondary open forests. It flies up to 1500 meters in Hills. It loves nectaring on small herbs and shrub flowers and mud puddling. It is commonly found in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan. It lay eggs on small grasses like Cynodon spp .


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efJeMes<e uesKe

Jev³ehe´eC³eebmeeþer®eer he´³eesieMeeUe

dc-cdn.s3-ap-southeast-1.

pevegkeÀer³e leb$e%eevee®ee Jeehej keÀªve mebkeÀìie´mle he´peeleeR®³ee ³egicekeÀeb®es mebie´nCe DeeefCe l³eeletve l³eeb®³ee hegvemLee&heves®³ee Meke̳elee ³eebeJf e<e³eer®es mebMeesOevener ueskeÀe@vmeceO³es meg© Deens.

Heefjef#ele met³e&JebMeer 98696 12531 nstekale@gmail.com

ieus³ee oevse npeej Je<eel¥e uehgle Peeu³ee veenelre l³eehe#see peemle Jev³epeeJre hep´eeleer 1970 les 2012 ³ee keÀeUele veä Peeu³ee. ³ee®e Jesieeves l³ee veä nesle jeefnu³eeme 2020 he³e¥le peieeleerue SketÀCe Jev³ehe´eC³eebhewkeÀer 2/3 he´peeleer veä nesC³ee®eer Meke̳elee Meem$e%eebveer Jele&efJeueer Deens. DeMee Ye³eb k eÀj heef j eq m Leleer l e Jev³epeer J e meb J eOe& v eemeeþer vew m ee| i ekeÀ Deef O eJeeme mebj#eCeeyejesyej®e pewJeleb$e%eevee®ee Jeehej keÀªve he´³eesieMeeUsle Jev³epeerJe mebJeOe&veemeeþer he´³elve nesCes osKeerue DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. he´eC³eeb®es Jele&ve DeeefCe Gl¬eÀebleer®ee Fefleneme mecepetve IesCes, DeJewOe efMekeÀejer®eer he´keÀjCes mees[JeCes, jesieeb®es ueJekeÀj efveoeve keÀªve l³eeb®ee he´meej jesKeCes DeMee DeveskeÀ #es$eele pewJeleb$e%eevee®eer ceesþer ceole nesT MekeÀles. ner®e iejpe DeesUKetve peieele DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer Jev³epeerJe [erSveS yeBkesÀ®eer mLeehevee keÀjC³eele Deeueer Deens. pee³ebì heeb[e®³ee mebJeOe&veemeeþer ®eerveves mLeeheve kesÀuesues ®eWie[t heeb[e mebMeesOeve keWÀê DeeefCe ³egkesÀ®eer He´ÀesPeve Deeke&À ner DeMeer®e oesve GoenjCes. Yeejleelener mekbeÀìiem´le Jev³epeeJre hep´eelee®R³ee meJbeOev&eemeeþer meW ì j HeÀe@ j mes u ³eg u ej DeB [ cees u es k eÌ ³ eg u ej yee³eesuee@peerÜejs (meermeerSceyeer) 1998 meeueer nwojeyeeo ³esLes ueskeÀe@vme (Laboratoyr for the Conservation of Endangered Species) ®eer mLeehevee keÀjC³eele Deeueer. he´³eesieMeeUs®eer mLeehevee 2007 meeueer nesTve ceepeer jeä^heleer S heer pes Deyogue keÀueece

³eeb®³eenmles efle®es GodIeeìve Peeues. meÐeeqmLeleerle ueskeÀe@vme ner Yeejleeleerue heefnueer DeeefCe SkeÀcesJe Jev³epeerJe [erSveS yeBkeÀ DeeefCe he´³eesieMeeUe Deens. Jev³epeeJre meJbeOev&e #e$seele uekseÀev@me®es ³eeiseoeve Jev³epeerJeeb®eer DeJewOe efMekeÀej : Deepe peieele ceeokeÀ heoeLe& DeeefCe nl³eejeb®³ee lemkeÀjerveblej DeJewOe J³eeheejeble meJee¥le Jej®ee ¬eÀceebkeÀ ueeielees lees Jev³epeerJeeb®³ee efMekeÀejer®ee. DeJewOe efMekeÀejer®es he´ceeCe he´®eb[ Jee{C³eeceeie®es hec´eKge keÀejCe cnCepes ³eelbeeure ievgniseejevbee eMfe#ee nesC³ee®es Del³euhe he´ceeCe. DeveskeÀoe efMekeÀejer hekeÀ[ues iesu³eeveblejner v³ee³eeue³eele l³eeb®³ee efJejesOeele hegjsmes YekeÌkeÀce hegjeJes meeoj keÀjlee ve Deeu³eecegUs megìtve peeleele Je hegvne lees®e iegvne keÀjC³eeme OepeeJeleele. efMekeÀe´³eebkeÀ[tve pehle keÀjC³eele Deeuesu³ee Jemlet yejs®eoe v³ee³eeue³eele hegjeJee cnCetve keÀcekegÀJele þjleele. DeMeeJesUer pevegkeÀer³e leb$e%eevee®eer ceesþer ceole nesT MekeÀles. Goe. [erSveS®ee vecegvee he´eC³eeb®es efMepeJeuesues, JeeUuesues ceebme, meesueuesues ®eece[s, veKes, ceeMeeb®eer JeeUuesueer hejs, Deb[îeeb®es ìjHeÀue, he´eC³eeb®es kesÀme, ne[s, oele, neqmleoble, eEMeies, keÀemeJee®es keÀJe®e, efhemes, ceeMeeb®es KeJeues DeeefCe FlekesÀ®e veJns DeJewOe Jev³epeerJe Glheeoves Jeentve veCs³eemeeþer JeehejC³eele Deeueus³ee ehfeMeJ³eecbeOevte osKeerue Ieslee ³eslees. [erSveS®³ee leheemeCeerletve lees he´eCeer, l³ee®es eEueie Fl³eeoer DeesUKelee ³esleele.


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[erSveS leheemeCeer®ee DenJeeue ne v³ee³eeue³eele YekeÌkeÀce hegjeJee þjlees DeeefCe iegvnsieejeuee efMe#ee nesC³ee®eer Meke̳eele DeveskeÀ heìeRveer Jee{les. jesieeb®es efveoeve DeeefCe he´efleyebOe: DeJewOe efMekeÀejerhe´ceeCes®e SKeeÐee jesiee®eer meeLe osKeerue Kethe ceesþîeehe´ceeCeeJej Jev³epeerJeeb®³ee ce=l³etme keÀejCeeYrelte þª MekeÀle.s [eSrveS le$be%eevee®ee Ghe³eeise keÀªve DeMee jeisee®bes ueJekeÀj efveoeve DeeefCe l³eebJej JesUer®e Ghe®eej keÀªve l³eeb®³ee he´meejeme DeeUe IeeueC³eeme `ueskeÀe@vme' ceole keÀjles. mebkeÀìie´mle/ueghle he´peeleeR®eer hegvemLee&hevee : pevegkeÀer³e leb$e%eevee®ee Jeehej keÀªve mebkeÀìie´mle he´peeleeR®³ee ³egicekeÀeb®es mebie´nCe DeeefCe l³eeletve l³eeb®³ee hegvemLee&heves®³ee Meke̳elee ³eebefJe<e³eer®es mebMeesOevener ueskeÀe@vmeceO³es meg© Deens. keÀeceeifejer ueskeÀe@vmeves meeO³e kesÀuesu³ee keÀener he´cegKe GheueyOeer Keeueeruehe´ceeCes : -: Jev³epeerJeeb®es DeJe³eJe, DeJeMes<e eEkeÀJee ceuecet$e Fl³eeoeR®³ee leheemeCeerletve l³eebvee DeesUKelee ³esC³eemeeþer SkeÀe meJe&meceeJesMekeÀ [erSveS DeeOeeefjle ceeke&Àj®eer (met®ekeÀ) efvee|celeer. -: lemkeÀjebkeÀ[tve mees[Jeuesu³ee mìej keÀemeJeeb®eer pevegkeÀer³e leb$e%eevee®ee ceoleerves l³eeb®³ee cetU DeefOeJeemeele hegvemLee&hevee -: ceebpejJeiee&leerue ceesþs he´eCeer DeeefCe Kegj DemeCee´³ee he´eC³eeb®eer he´peveve#ecelee DeeefCe ieYee&JemLes®eer eqmLeleer peeCetve IesC³eemeeþer mebhetCe&heCes Fpeejefnle he×leeR®ee efJekeÀeme. -: Yeejleeleerue JesieJesieUer he´eCeer mebie´neue³es DeeefCe Jev³epeerJe

DeYe³eejC³eeleerue mebkeÀìie´mle Jev³epeerJeeb®³ee [erSveS®ee DeY³eeme keÀªve l³eeb®³eeleerue efJeefMeä hejpeerJeer, peerJeeCet DeeefCe efJe<eeCegpev³e jesieeb®es efveoeve. -: eEmen, JeeIe DeeefCe efyeyeìîeeb®eer efJe<ece³egicekeÀlee(heterozygosity) ceespeC³eemeeþer DeeefCe he´eCeer mebie´neue³e J³eJemLeehekeÀebvee he´eC³eeb®³ee Debleëhe´peveveele ceole keÀjC³eemeeþer he´peeleer-efJeefMeä cee³e¬eÀesmesìsueeF&ì ceeke&Àj®eer efvee|celeer. -: Yeejleeleerue 250 ntve DeefOekeÀ he´eCeer, he#eer DeeefCe mejheìCee´³ee he´eC³eeb®³ee [erSveS®es mebie´nCe. -: ¬eÀe³eesefhe´PeJexMeve (pewJe IeìkeÀeb®es Del³eble keÀceer leeheceeveele peleve keÀjCes) leb$e%eeveeÜejs ueghlehe´e³e he´eC³eeb®³ee peveveie´bLeeR®es mebie´nCe DeeefCe l³eeb®ee Jeehej keÀªve keÀe³e&Meerue ³egicekeÀeb®es hegve©ppeerJeve. -: ke=Àef$ece jsleevee®³ee ceoleerves SkeÀe ef®eleU nefjCeerheemetve `mhee@ìer' lej SkeÀe keÀeUJeerì nefjCeerheemetve `yueskeÀer'®ee pevce -: [erSveS DeeOeeefjle Fpeejefnle he×leeR®ee Jeehej keÀªve JeeIeeb®eer mebK³ee, l³eeb®es eEueie iegCeesÊej DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee ueeskeÀmebK³es®eer j®evee peeCetve IeCse.s DeMeehe´keÀejs Jev³epeerJe mebJeOe&veele ueskeÀe@vme ceesþs ³eesieoeve osle Deens.

ueskeÀe@vmeJejerue keÀecee®ee he´®eb[ oeye DeeefCe GÊejYeejlener DeMee SkeÀ he´³eesieMeeUs®eer iejpe ue#eele IesTve meermeerSceyeerves yejsueer ³esLes DeeCeKeer SkeÀ DeMeer®e [erSveS yeBkeÀ GYeejC³ee®eer le³eejer meg© kesÀueer Demetve ³ee Je<ee&®³ee DeKesj he³e¥le leerner keÀe³ee&eqvJele nesF&ue DeMeer DeeMee ³esLeerue Meem$e%eebveer J³eÊeÀ kesÀueer Deens. meJe& íe³eee®fe$ee®bee meobYe& : http://juliewest505.wixsite.com/juliewest/ single-post/2015/03/07/Forensics-and-Future-Conservation-LaCONESHyderabad


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Je[e®es keÀtU ... Heeve 18 Jeªve... [es[es He#³ee®es DeeefCe Calvaria tree ®³ee efye³eeb®es ns®e ieefCele nesleb. ¿ee efye³ee pej leMee®e Hesju³ee lej ©pele veenerle. keÀejCe l³eeb®³ee Seed Coat ceOetve HeeCeer Deele peeT MekeÀle veener. cnCetve DeMee efye³ee ÒeeCeer He#³eebJej Òeef¬eÀ³esmeeþer DeJeuebyetve Demeleele. ne@ve& efyeue cnCepes OevesMe, keÀesefkeÀU, yeejyesì He#eer HeÀUb KeeTve yeerpe Òemeej keÀjleele. ne@ve& efyeue lej megHeejer, pee³eHeÀUe®³ee efye³ee osKeerue HemejJeleele. He#eer DeeefCe Je=#eeb®eb HejmHej veeleb mecepee³euee SkeÀe Je=#e kegÀUe®es GoenjCe IesT³ee. HeÀe³ekeÀme ¿ee kegÀUele Je[, efHebHeU, Gbyej, veebêkg eÀ, efHebHejCeer Demes DemebK³e Je=#e ³esleele. SkeÀoe keÀe ns Je=#e HeÀUues keÀer l³eeJej DemebK³e ÒekeÀej®es He#eer ³ee³euee ueeieleele. cewvee, yegueyegue, nUÐee, yeejyesì, keÀeJeUsmeg×e. Heefjmejele SkeÀ®e HeÀe³ekeÀme kegÀUe®es Je=#e Demeues lejer l³ee®eer pewJeefJeefJeOelee Jee{les. keÀejCe jesìer DeeefCe cekeÀeve®ee yeboesyemle Peeuesuee Demelees. FLes efkeÀìkeÀ, He#eer, Keejer, ceekeÀ[b Demes meieUs®e veeboleele. keÀener He#eer HeÀUb Kee³euee ³esleele. HeÀUeleues efkeÀìkeÀ Keele Demeleevee HeÀUe®ee eyfe³ee³ekgelÌe iej ®ee®seeuree e®fekeÀìuee keÀer leer ®ee®se meeHeÀ keÀjleeveener efye³eeb®ee Òemeej neslees. Ficus ®es keÀener ÒekeÀej Epiphytic cnCepes Pee[ebJej Jee{Ceejs Demeleele. DeMee efjleerves pej keÀOeer He#³ee®³ee efJe<þsletve efkebÀJee ®ees®eerletve efye³ee SKeeÐee Pee[e®³ee {esueerle efkebÀJee lee[-cee[e®³ee Heevee®³ee yes®eke̳eele He[u³ee, l³eebvee Lees[emee DeeOeej efceUeuee, DeesueeJee efceUeuee keÀer l³ee ªpetve Pee[ Jee{t ueeieleb. Lees[îeeMee peeiesle-DeesueeJ³eele les leietve jenleb. nUtnUt cegUb Keeueer mees[leb. HeeJemeeȳeele Pee[e®eer Jee{ nesles. keÀener Je<ee¥veer leer cegUb peefceveerle ©peleele DeeefCe ceie Pee[e®eer Jee{ peesceeves meg© nesles, Deieoer megmeeì. ¿ee Jee{er®ee cegU Pee[euee efJeUKee yemelees. meg©Jeeleeruee cegU Pee[ vegmelee DeeOeej osleb. HeCe veblej Je[ efkebÀJee efHebHeU l³ee®eer Jee{ KegbìJelees. cnCetve ¿eebvee Strangler Fig cnCeleele.

Je[eKeeueer keÀesCeer Jee{le veener Demeb cnCeleele. Je[e®eer meeJeueer SJe{er oeì Demeles keÀer l³ee meeJeueerle keÀener Jee{Ceb Meke̳e nesle veener. HeCe, l³ee®ee SkeÀ ceesþe iegCe Deens. ceesþîee íleeKeeueer KetHe HeeCeer efpejleb. l³eecegUs Keeueer veener HeCe YeJeleeueer yejer®e Pee[b Jee{t MekeÀleele. Je=#eeJej efkeÀìkeÀ, He#eer, ÒeeCeer ¿eeb®eer pewJeefJeefJeOelee veebole Demeles®e. ¿eeb®eer efJe<þe Keeueer He[u³eecegUs Keeue®eer peceervener Del³eble metHeerkeÀ nesles. Je[eKeeue®eer ceeleer DemebK³e peerJepebletbveer HeefjHetCe& Demeles. ner ceeleer Mesleele Kele cnCetve efMebHe[ueer peeles. keÀejCe l³eeletve®e Mesleerleu³ee GHe³egkeÌle yegjMeer Ieeuelee ³elseele. DeeHeCe pes Deebpfej Keelees les oesKfeue HeÀe³ekeÀme keÀgUeleeure®e. Depbeejr ns Kejb lej SkeÀ ceesþb HegÀueb. Jeªve ieesue efomelees lej Deeleu³ee HeeskeÀUerle DemebK³e HegÀueb Demeleele. l³ee HegÀueeb®es HejeieerkeÀjCe meieUs®e efkeÀìkeÀ keÀª MekeÀle veener, SkeÀ efJeefMe<þ efkeÀìkeÀ fig wasp keÀjlees. l³eele ceeoer Deb[er Ieeueles. Kejb lej Ficas ®eer HegÀueb, HeÀUb ns®e l³eeb®es Òemegefleie=n. HeÀe³ekeÀme DeeefCe fig wasp ns codependent evolution Deens. keÀesìîeJeOeer Je<ee¥Heemetve ns SkeÀ$e Jee{leele. HeÀe³ekeÀme®³ee 750 Òepeeleer Deensle DeeefCe Òel³eskeÀe®es HejeieerkeÀjCee®es efkeÀìkeÀ þjuesues. HeÀe³ekeÀmevee Key stone species cnCeleele. pebieueeletve ¿eebvee keÀe{gve ìekeÀueb lej meieUer HeejfmembLee®e keÀeusece[use. DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s oesKfeue Je[e®es Pee[ keÀeHevte ìekeÀC³ee®es, l³eeb®es yegbOes peeUtve ceejC³ee®es ÒekeÀej Jee{le Deensle. Kejb lej SKeeÐee Heef[keÀ peefceveer®³ee efJekeÀemeemeeþer HeÀe³ekeÀme GÊece Deens. Je=#eejesHeCe keÀjleevee HeÀe³ekeÀme kegÀUe®ee JeeHej Jee{eJee. DeeHeCe Je[euee Hegpelees, Gbyejeuee HeefJe$e ceevelees, efHebHeUeJej lej cegbpee Jeeme keÀjlees Demes cnCelees. ¿ee mecepegleercegUs DeeleeHe³e¥le yejs®e Je=#e Jee®eues. meJe& íe³eeef®e$eeb®ee meboYe& : www.biolib.cz


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Jeelee& He$e / News Letter FkeÀes efHeÀuce keÌueye ë efo. 5 Dee@iemì 2017 jespeer He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee Jeleerves `DeeHeueb He³eeJ&ejCe FkeÀes eHfeÀuce keuÌeye' GHe¬eÀcee®es Dee³eepseve keÀjC³eele Deeues nelse.s ³ee GHe¬eÀceelbeiel&e He³ee&JejCeeleerue efJeefJeOe Ie[ecees[eRJej DeeOeejerle ueIege®f e$e efHeÀle oeKeefJeC³eele Deeu³ee. megosMevee HegCeleebyeskeÀj ³eebveer GHeefmLeleebvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Eco Film Club Activity : On 5th August 2017, PDMandal conducted an ‘Aapala Paryavaran Eco Film Club’ in Paryavavaran Shala, Thane. Documentary films on various environmental subjects were screened in this session. Sudeshna Puntambekar conducted this session.

Deesuee keÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 23 Dee@iemì 2017 jespeer He³ee&JejCe o#elee ce®be DeeeCfe ûeenkeÀ He®bee³ele ³ee®b³ee me³bekgelÌe eJfeÐeceeves YeieJeleer MeeUlse Deeus³ee keÀ®eN³ee®es J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. Deesu³ee keÀ®eN³eeHeemetve Kele yeveefJeC³ee®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ ³eeJesUer oeKeefJeC³eele Deeues. HegefCe&cee efMejieeJekeÀj, jesenf Ceer YeeJes, meew. oeleej ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Wet Waste Management Workshop : On 23rd Aug. 2017, PDM and Grahak Panchayat jointly organised wet waste management workshop at Bhagawati School. The students were explained the procedure of layering of magic bucket. Pournima Shirgonkar, Rohini Bhave and Mrs. Datar guided the participants.

efvemeie&cesUe ë He.o. ceb[U meb®eeefuele He³ee&JejCe MeeUs®³ee Jeleerves efo. 17 meHìWyej 2017 þeC³eeleerue Þeerjib e efJeÐeeue³e ³esLes efvemeie& cesȳee®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer ÒeeCeer-He#³eebJej DeeOeeejfle e®fe$ekeÀuee mHeOee,& ÒeMvecepbe<tee, ìekeÀeTlevte eìfkeÀeT, ìPs^ej nìb, evfemeie& íe³eee®fe$eCe, Pee[s DeeU s Kee DeMee eJfeeJfeOe 9 mHeOee& IeCs³eele Deeu³ee. 45 MeeUe DeeeCfe 10 ceneeJfeÐeeue³eecbeOevte megveceejs 1000 efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer menbYeeie Iesleuee. Nisagmela : On 17th Sept. 2017, PDM's Paryavaran Shala organised Nisargmela at Shrirang Vidyalaya. Various competitions were conducted on Nature photograhy, treasure hunt, drawing, etc. 1000 students from 45 schools and 10 colleges were participated.

pewJeefJeefJeOelee keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 16 meHìWyej 2017 jespeer He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee ûeerve efueefJnbie keÀvmeueìvmeer GHe¬eÀceebleie&le pewJeefJeefJeOelee keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. Òee. ef®evce³e KeeveesuekeÀj ³eebveer DeeHeu³ee Heefjmejeleerue pewJeefJeefJeOelesefJe<e³eer lemes®e Kee[erceOeerue pewJeefJeefJeOeleseJf e<e³eer GHeefmLeleebvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. HegefCe&cee efMejieeJekeÀj ³eebveer menkeÀe³e& kesÀues. A session on Biodiversity : On 16th Sept 2017, at Paryavaran Shala under Green Living Consultancy a session conducted on Biodiversity Prof. Chinmay Khanolkar focuses on different types of biodiversity around us. Prof. Khanolkar explained creek biodiversity especially flora and fauna. Mrs. Pournima Shirgaonkar co-ordinated session.


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Clara Correia

THE ELUSIVE RED PANDA

The biggest threat to the Red Panda however is people, who have affected this species mainly through deforestation of their incredibly unique habitats.

Prof. Clara Correia clara.correia210@gmail.com

The red panda is endemic to the temperate forests of the Himalayas. Once living in many parts of Asia including greater China, it is now confined to territories that collectively are a fraction of its original habitat. These isolated parcels interfere with feeding, migration, and breeding activities. In India, it is found in Sikkim, western Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and parts of Meghalaya. It is also the state animal of Sikkim. STATUS : Listed as endangered in the IUCN red list of Threatened Species and under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the red panda has the highest legal protection at par with other threatened species. WWFIndia has been working since 2005 in the Eastern Himalayan region for the conservation of this species. It has been classified as endangered by the IUCN because its wild population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals in the world and continues to decline due to habitat loss

and fragmentation, poaching, and inbreeding depression, although red pandas are protected by national laws in their range countries. THE IDENTITY CRISIS : Despite their name, they are not closely related to pandas. Red pandas are placed in a common group with bears but a research done in 2000 suggests they are not really related to bears or pandas. The red pandas are more closely related to skunks and racoons! Red pandas are considered by many to be living fossils. They have no close living relatives, and their nearest fossil ancestors, Parailurus, lived three to four million years ago! LIFESTYLE : Although complete information on these scarce creatures is not documented, certain facts are known. Adults lead solitary lives. However this endangered species has been observed to be more social prior to reproduction cycles.They are active from dusk to dawn (Crepuscular) and their primary habitat is above the ground in trees. In fact they breed and


29 sleep in trees. A major characteristic is the ability to traverse tree branches easily.These pandas like to eat, clean themselves, mate, and sleep. Life style of this animal includes a lot of play and mischief. Baby red pandas are energetic from the start. PHYSICAL FEATURES : Red pandas can be easily distinguished by its unique ruddy coat colour, which acts like camouflage in the canopy of fir trees where branches are covered with clumps of reddish-brown moss and white lichens. Long, coarse guard hairs cover the entire body and there is a soft, dense, woolly undercoat. Their face is predominantly white with reddish brown “tear tracks” extending from the eye to the corner of the mouth. These markings could have evolved to keep the sun out of their eyes. Red pandas have long, bushy tails that help give this arboreal species balance. Their tails are marked with alternating red and buff rings. DIET : Bamboo is the main diet of the red panda and is abundant in its natural habitat. However it will also eat a variety of other foods such as fruits, nuts, eggs, flowers, and seeds. They also have taste for other prey such as rodents and small birds. Red panda cubs eat bamboo until they are mature enough to expand their diet. Their bamboo ranges are endangered and threaten the life style of this unique species. COMMUNICATION : Red pandas are generally quiet, but at close proximity subtle vocalizations such as squeals, twitters and huff-quacks can be heard. They may also hiss or grunt. Predators include leopards and jackals. To escape predation, red pandas will climb trees or rocks, where they blend in with red lichen and mosses. Young cubs use a whistle, which sounds like a loud scream, to signal distress. REPRODUCTION : Breeding season is in the winter. The gestation period is about four months. Baby red pandas are born in an average litter size of one to four babies and are born in the late spring and summer.They build a nest or use hollow tree trunks or small caves to give birth to their new-born. The mother red panda takes care of her cubs until they reach adulthood when the next mating season begins. After birth adulthood is reached in 16 to 18 months. At 18 months both male and female are ready to mate and repeat the reproduction process. Many facts indicate that reproduction rates are on the decline. Research facts show many baby red pandas do not survive to adulthood. In fact it is now extinct in several countries according to information from conservation groups.

LIFESPAN : Red pandas may live as long as 22 years. They show symptoms of age at around 12 to 14 years. While females do not breed after age 12, males continue to be reproductively capable. THREATS : Due to the fact that Red Pandas inhabit highaltitude mountain forests, they actually have fewer natural predators than they would have living further down the slopes. Snow Leopards and Martens are the only real predators of the Red Panda along with Birds of Prey and small carnivores that prey on the smaller and more vulnerable cubs. The biggest threat to the Red Panda however is people, who have affected this species mainly through deforestation of their incredibly unique habitats. Due to Human encroachment, illegal hunting and poaching there have been drastic decline in the Red Panda population numbers, with these populations also being pushed into more separate, isolated areas. One of the main concerns with this is that these populations will although be threatened by inbreeding leading to less successful individuals in these areas.

LET’S TALK ABOUT THE RED PANDA IN INDIA • India has about 20 protected areas aimed at conserving the Red Panda population. These areas fall within Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal. • The three major national parks with known Red Panda population are Khangchendzonga National Park, Neora Valley National Park and Singalila National Park. •These three parks also have popular trekking trails within them, which causes major disturbance for the solitary panda. • The biggest threat to the Red Panda in India is the excessive extraction of fuel wood from forests. This causes deforestation of bamboo jungles, which unlike grasslands, take a longer time to grow back. Bamboo trees are the natural habitat of the Red Panda. • Forest Departments, Environment and Wildlife Management, and the World Wildlife Federation are effectively working towards securing forests. By providing alternates to fuel wood in villages and seeking support from local communities, activists hope to safely maintain the national parks, which are a natural habitat for several endangered animals.


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FROM LEAST CONCERN TO THREATENED TO NO MORE We live in an era defined by

The modern world is experiencing a “sixth great extinction” of animal species even when the lowest estimates of extinction rates are considered.

Dr. Shubhda Nikhil Savant shubhda.shubhs@yahoo.com

extinctions. Yet the concept is fairly new. The modern world is experiencing a “sixth great extinction” of animal species even when the lowest estimates of extinction rates are considered. The rate of extinction for species in the 20th century was up to 100 times higher than it would have been without man’s impact. The growing human population – which has increased by 130 per cent in the last 50 years and is set to rise to more than 10 billion by 2060. This has lead to the increasing demand for resources is ramping up the pressure on the natural world. Extinction is part of the constant evolution of life. However there is overwhelming evidence that habitat loss and fragmentation, overexploitation of biological resources, pollution, species invasions and climate change have increased rates of global species extinctions to levels that are much higher than those observed in the fossil record. In addition to extinctions, the IUCN has listed 208 species as “possibly extinct”, some of which have not been seen for decades. Nearly 17,300 species are considered under threat, some in such small populations that only successful conservation action can stop them from becoming extinct in future. This includes one-infive mammals assessed, one-in-eight birds, one-in-three amphibians and one-in-four corals.

We now find ourselves in the midst of a great extinction event, the sixth to strike our planet over the last half billion years. Past culprits have included asteroid impacts, which did for the dinosaurs 66million years ago, and soaring carbon dioxide levels which, 252million years ago, triggered extreme global warming and the extinctions of 96% of all marine species

and 70% of all terrestrial vertebrate species. With this wildlife disappearing at an “unprecedented” pace across the world, the Living Planet Report 2016 identifies India as an ecological black spot where around half of the wildlife lives in the danger of being wiped out. The crucial point about the current extinction is that the agent involved is not an inanimate object or a geophysical force but a living creature, us - Homo sapiens. We may have succeeded extravagantly on Earth but we have done so at the expense of just about every other species.


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THREATENED SPECIES In the environment all living

International Unit for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has started working on the species whose number has drastically decreased at the global level.

Avinash Bhagat 98920 61899

beings have important value. All the species are elements of the foodchain and they are a part of the ecosystem. Increasing forests, pollination, control ofinsects and other living beings as well as degradation of biological waste, all these work are done by the biodiversity in the environment. Earlier the tree cover, wetlands and other habitats were in good numbers, but in past few decades, due to increase in population of human beings and their greed have caused very harmful effects on the natural resources. Due to mass tree cutting, degradation of wetlands, dumping on mangroves, pollution, expansion of urbanisation and hunting, many wild living beings have reached a stage of extinction. In 1994 the International Unit for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has started working on the species whose number has drastically decreased at the global level. IUCN is studying the biodiversity and keeping track of the species who are on the verge of extinction as well as to find the causes

and solution to increase their numbers. IUCN follows some points to describe the categories of threatened species. 1. There is the present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range. 2. An over utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes. 3. The species is declining due to disease or predation. 4. There is an inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms. 5. There are other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. 6. Population size of a specific species 7. Climatic conditions 8. Numbers that are already less in the wild 9. Endemic or very small distribution On the basis of these major points IUCN has described the categories of threatened species.


32 1. Extinct – No records of the species when exhaustive surveys in known or expected habitat for a proper study time and a historic records 2. Extinct in the wild – The species is extinct in the wild habitat but some individuals are present in the captivity fop conservational purpose. 3. Critically Endangered – Global population is drastically declining by 80%-90% in past 10 years or the global population is less than 50 individuals. 4. Endangered – Threatened species which population is decreased by 50%-70% in past 10 years, or global population is less than 250 individuals. 5. Vulnerable – Threatened species which population is decreased by 30%-50% in past 10 years or the global population is below 1000 individuals. 6. Near threatened – Species which numbers are declining and in future it can be extinct. 7. Least Concerned – After a scientific and proper study, the numbers are good in the wild. 8. Data efficient – Very less information is available of the species. 9. Not evaluated – among the 1.6 million global

species, IUCN doesnot havethe study and analysis. The conservational work is being started after a redlist published by IUCN in 2013. The conservation work on threatened species is not easy, it needs the participation of general public, NGO’s and Government authorities. Many countries have realised the importance of biodiversity and they have started the conservational work. Following are the main threats to the biodiversity as per IUCN which are the problem factors in the conservation work. 1. Residential and commercial development 2. Agriculture and aquaculture 3. Energy production and mining 4. Transportation and service corridors 5. Biological resource use 6. Human intrusion and disturbance 7. Natural system modification 8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes and diseases 9. Pollution 10. Climate change and severe weather 11. Other options


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WILDLIFE WEEK Wildlife week is celebrated in India from 2nd October to Th

8 October. It was initially proposed by the Indian Board for Wildlife in 1952. Objectives of Celebrating Wild Life Week · To make people more aware of the conservation and protection of wild life. · To focus the people’s attention towards the importance of conservation of wild life. · To implement more services to preserve wild life. · To discuss all the issues related to the preservation of wild life. Every year governments, enviro-nmentalists, activists, educators organize different activities to increase awareness of wildlife conservation among people. India, being a megastorehouse of various species, is also able to manage several conferences, awareness programmes, and public meetings among nature lovers. Schools and educational institutions organize events such as wildlife related movie screening, painting competition/essay writing / debate competition for young children with wild life as the theme. However the seriousness of celebrating Wildlife Week is not only to educate or create awareness about wildlife among young people like school children and general public but also work with the government and help them form policies and design strategies favouring solutions that address wildlife conservation issues in today’s changing circumstances. The World Wide Fund-India (WWF) is organizing a National level Quiz called The Wild Wisdom Quiz 2017 which will be held at the school and city level from August to September and at the national level in Delhi at October 4. BNHS CEC-Delhi with the Forest Department is celebrating Wildlife Week at Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary. This year CEC Delhi will organize loads of interesting activities and competitions to celebrate Wildlife week like quiz competitions, face painting, slogan writing, clay modeling, origami, poster making etc. on related subjects on wildlife with students of various age groups.

Every year WII-ENVIS Centre celebrates ‘Wildlife Week’ by organizing a quiz competion among selected children from various local schools. This year the Institute is also organizing ‘XV InterSchool Wildlife and Environment Quiz’ - a collaborative activity of the Wildlife Institute of India and Kalpana Malani Friends Of The Doon Society (FODS) on October 6, 2017 at the Wildlife Institute of India as part of the Wildlife Week 2017 celebration. The Winning team will be awarded (i). WII-FODS Rolling Trophy and Book Prize and (ii). “Sameer Ghosh Memorial Nature and Wildlife Prize” Rolling Trophy by the Chief Guest IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES FOUND IN INDIA - The Royal Bengal Tiger - Greater One Horned Rhinoceros - Asiatic Lion - Lion Tailed Macaque - Nilgiri Tahr - Black Buck - Snow Leopard HOW TO CELEBRATE WILDLIFE WEEK - Organize a plantation drive in your society - Arrange a nature trail and bird watching session - Organize a documentary screening on wildlife - Invite an expert to speak on local wildlife and conservation - Plan a visit to a national park or sanctuary - Organize a silent rally to create awareness on wildlife Organize a street play or a flash mob, highlighting the importance of conserving wildlife - Organize a wildlife quiz competition - Publish a newspaper article on local biodiversity


Scientific Na

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SOME ENDEMIC AND THREATENED SPECIES OF INDIA Name Amboli Toad

IUCN Status

Information

Critically Endangered

area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km², Habitat loss.

Critically Endangered

severely fragmented population, known from fewer than 12 recent locations

Critically Endangered

the current threats are mostly from habitat loss and degradation

Critically Endangered

They were being found dead and dying due to anti-inflammatory veterinary drug diclofenac

Vulnerable

Rapid population declines are suspected to be occurring in line with the widespread degradation of riverine

Scientific Name Xanthophryne tigerina Forest Owlet Scientific Name Heteroglaux blewitti

Great Indian Bustard Scientific Name Ardeotis nigriceps

White-rumped Vulture Scientific Name Gyps bengalensis

Indian Skimmer Scientific Name Rynchops albicollis

Sarus Crane

Vulnerable

Scientific Name Antigone antigone

Green Munia Scientific Name Amandava formosa

Vulnerable

This speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population is suspected to have decreased, owing to the loss and degradation of wetlands rapidly declining population, owing to widespread trapping for the cagebird trade


35

ENVIRONMENTAL GAME

CHALA AAPAN EK KHEL KHELUYA ...

Students come to school with their own ideas, some correct and some not, about almost every topic they are likely to encounter. If their intuition and misconceptions are ignored or dismissed out of hand, their original beliefs are likely to win out in the long run, even though they may give the test answers their teachers want. Mere contradiction is not sufficient; students must be encouraged to develop new views by seeing how such views help them make better sense of the world.(Ref; Principles of Learning). Doing activities and playing thought provoking games can enhance this process to help facilitate independent learning and concept clarification. So here we are continuing our series of 'Chala Aapan Ek Khel Khelu Ya'. Keeping in line with our theme this time our game is on Forests and Wildlife. The objective of the game is to help students appreciate the fact that a forest can’t be created or generated by humans. We can only conserve or maintain natures’ creations. Thus we have no right to destroy it for our own needs. Place - The teacher can play this game indoors or outdoors. The entire class can be involved. It can be used as an icebreaker to start the topic or used as an extended activity while outdoors. Method – The children are asked to visualize a hypothetical situation of a disaster. This disaster would lead to the complete destruction of the forest in their vicinity. (Children are asked to name the forest of their area and

also asked if they have had a chance to visit it). As budding scientists the children are then asked to think of 10 such vital components with which they can regenerate the forest. They have been given a special aircraft to fly these things to a new location where they can create a new similar forest. Shreelata Menon In groups the children are 96195 52221 then asked to identify these components which are then collectively written on the board. While selecting these students are also asked to justify the same. Once the list is ready they are now asked to visualize a second situation wherein the pilot of the aircraft has encountered some problem with the weight of the components and thus asked the students to strike off 5 components from the list. The students are now to eliminate 5 components from the list of 10. A final round wherein the students are further to reduce the number to 3. Finally the class is then asked if they think that they would be able to recreate a forest with 3 components or even still with all the 10. Even if we humans are given all the compo-nents of a forest do we think we can create a forest? A forest is a complex network of intricate fine relationships and dependency. There are still so many things of a forest ecosystem that have to be still identified. In such a case how does the human race fathom that they are capable of digitizing a forest. The game is to bring to light the inability of the human super brain in front of natures’ creations and systems. A systematic change in our lifestyle can help us save our forests rather than destroying them and then thinking of regenerating one which is a task impossible!


36

FAMILIAR STRANGERS

Benitta Mariam Babu

throated Kingfisher as ever, nearly stale the show. Another thing that cought our attention was the diversity of mushrooms and other fluttering flights of various species of butterflies like the Danaid Eggfly, Grey Pancy and the Brown Awl. On our way back, a student of our team spotted a gorgeous Garden Lizard and with that beautiful sight, we ended our wonderful visit to this wetland. Avinash Bhagat

Isn’t it strange that we take our surroundings for granted? We are not even aware of the rich biodiversity that we have around us.

The birdwatching trip to Bhandup Pumping Station was a very successful visual feast of the avian beauties. A Pumping Station is where the sewage from the metropolitan area is treated and released into the ecosystem. The trip started at 7.30AM as we all gathered at the meeting point ready to walk and see the charming birds. The trip of 17 people was full of regional specialities and Indian Subcontinent endemics. Among the many highlights were a flock of three types of species of the herons, the bulbuls and the egrets! The sweet calls of the White-spotted Fantail added a pinch of soothing pleasure to the mind. There were a number of little cormorants that escorted us on our way. We had great fortune with sights of allowing insects like the beautiful Jewel Bug, the mesmarisingcalotropis, the lichen and the pretty Painted Grasshoppers. We also spotted flocks of Spot-billed Ducks, scaly-breasted Munia and the Wire-tailed Swallows. Another peculiarity about this place was its habitat. We all have heard wetlands, to see the mangroves at the horizon flanking the inter-tidal grasslands and the creeklet was a stunning experience. We also saw the fruiting and flowering of mangroves. Some of the species observed was Avicennia Marina – Grey Mangrove, Soneretia and Milky Mangroves. Some of the associate plants spotted were Meswak, Castor plants were in plenty too. The White-

Isn’t it strange that we take our surroundings for granted? We are not even aware of the rich biodiversity that we have around us. If it wasn’t for the trip I would not have known that there exists forests called mangroves or for the matter that what we think is wasteland is actually a ‘Wetland’ supporting life of birds, reptiles, insects and molluscs. Studying the birds made us aware of our very own familiar yet strangers. The entire trip was a huge eye-opener for all of us. We would like to thank our Biology teacher for sharing her precious time and knowledge and also for all the efforts she wholeheartedly put into this trip.


37

ENDANGERED PLANTS OF MAHARASHTRA

Rare plants are at a higher risk of extinction than other plants because of the unique beauty they offer.

Anita Kindre

Why plants are endangered? There are many causes of endangered species of plants. The main cause for a plant to become endangered is loss of its natural habitat. This is mainly due to the expansion of mankind. As urban development increase, plants loose more and more of their natural habitat. Clearing land for pastures and agricultural purposes also cause plants to loose their habitat. Grazing animals are a large contributor to causing endangered species of plants. Natural disasters also cause a plant to become endangered. Wild fires are a large natural cause for a plant to loose its natural habitat. Certain weeds and pests can deplete the land needed for rare and endangered plants to survive as well. Plants can become endangered due to their collection for multiple purposes. When plants are collected for nurseries or florists, the plant species number decreases. Rare plants are at a higher risk of extinction than other plants because of the unique beauty they offer. Plant collectors of rare plants are contributing to endangered species of plants. Some Endangered plants from Maharashtra : Delphinium malabaricum (Huth) Munz (Rananculaceae) Malabar Delphinium / efveueebyejer Delphinium malabaricum is a large perennial herb, 50-100 cm tall. It has erect, hollow stems. Leaves are basal

and cauline, deeply palmately lobed (5- 7 lobed). Lower leaves arise from the root. Stem leaves present with narrower segments and hairy upper surface. Flowers are numerous in terminal racemes inflorescence, approx. 30 cm long. Perianth (tepal) lobes 10 in two whorls, upper spurred, inner tepals 2, enclosed in upper spurred sepal. Stamens are 25-40. Pistils are 3 and simple. Fruits are follicles, aggregate and seesile. Seeds are dark brown to black. Flowering season is August to October. Habitat : On exposed rocky hill slopes. Status : Vulnerable Threats : Landslides and over grazing on hill slopes are the main causes of its rarity. Notes : Though this plant is reported from several localities, it has been put into vulnerable category due to its severely fragmented populations. In 1996 a very few individuals were noticed at Jarandeshawar hill of Satara district, whereas at Harishchandragarh it could not be located in 1998 inspite of intensive searching. In future, for the existenceof this beautiful plant, it is necessary not to feed the cattle on such habitats and to control the tourists. Thalictrumdalzellii Hook (Rananculaceae) Hill Meadow Rue / MJesleebyej Thalictrumdalzellii is an erect herb with perennial roots, growing up to one


38 and half feet tall. Stem and branches smooth and grooved. Leaves are 3-foliolate rarely 2-ternate. Leaflets are circular, 3-5 cm in diameter, with margins crenately lobed or toothed. Flowers are white small, 6 mm across, in small leafy panicles crowded at the ends of the branches. Sepals are 4, petaloid. Petals are absent. Many protruding filament-like stamens are prominent. Achenes (fruit type)are many, shortly stalked, ribbed and glabrous. Flowering season is July to September. Habitat : On steep slopes at an altitude of over 1200 m. Status : Endangered (Regionally in Maharashtra). Not evaluated (In India). Threats : Landslides is the major threat of this species. Notes : This species might have been vanished from Sindhudurg district because after Dalzellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s collection no one could relocate it from this place even after intensive searching. In its other localities, except Harishchandragarh and Kalsubai its distribution is severally fragmented. At Harishchandragarh and Kalsubai it is to some extent frequent on the hill slopes. Abutilon ranadei Woodrow et Stapf (Malvaceae) Son ghanta / meesveIebĂŹe Abutilon ranadeiis a shrub with 3-5 ft. tall. Young part of stem is densely pubescent with minute stellate hairs while mature part is glabrous. Leaves are 10-20 cm long; roundovate, margins are dentate / crenate. Stellate hairs are also present on both surfaces of leaf. Flowers are solitary, axillary. Petals are 5; 4 cm long, companulate, orange yellow, veined with purple. Stamens are united at the base into a tube 2.5 cm long. Styles are 5, longer than the stamens. Fruit is 2 cm long, hairy and ribbed. Flowering season is November-February. Habitat : On laterite soils in open places. Status : Critically endangered Threats : Over grazing. Notes : Up to1988 this species was considered to be extinct (Ahmedullah and Nayar) because after 1901 it could not be recollected either from its type locality or from adjoining areas. However, in 1989 Mistry and Almeida recollected the species from its type locality and proved that it was not extinct. Later in 1993 it was collected from Vasota fort from Satara district (Bachulkar), for the first time out of its type locality. Then Punekar and Kavade (1999) and Jagdale (2000) collected this plant for the first time from Pune district. (Dongarwadi, Shirwata and Vadivale dam catchment area).

Later on this species has beencollected from two new localities of the same district. (Torana fort and Shilim, Lakshminarsimhan, Diwakar and Prasanna 2001). In these two localities 300 mature individuals and 130 seedlings are distributed in an about 3 sq. km. This plant bears beautiful and showy flowers and hence, it can be conserved by introduction in gardens as an ornamental plant. Frereaindica Dalz. (Asclepiadaceae) Indian Frerea / efMeboUceekeĂ&#x20AC;[er Frereaindica is a fleshy perennial succulent herb. It has 50 cm long branchesthat have opposite, fleshy, shining and shortly stalked leaves. The leaves grow during the monsoons, it drops the leaves during dry seasons to conserve moisture.The crimson to cherry-red flowers are star shaped with yellow markings, 2-3 cm across. Sepals are 5-lobed. Petals are 5-lobed; fringed with fine deep brown hairs on edges. Follicles are paired or single. Flowering season is September-January. Habitat : Along steep slopes of hills on gravellu soils at an altitude of 1000 m. Status : Critically endangered. Threats : Among different threats such as fire, grazing and landslides, the most dangerous threat for this species is infestation by caterpillarsa of the plain and striped tiger butterfly. Notes : Earlier this species was reported only from Pune (Junnar), Rajgad and Satara districts. But from Mahabaleshawar it could not be recollected after fisrt report in 1924. In 1998, it has been collected for the first time from Ahmadnagar district, where hardly 10 mature individuals were located on steep slopes by the sides of the water falls. Few years back,it has been recollected from Sajjangad and Purandar fort where ca 700 and 230 individuals were noticed (Diwakar and Moorthy 2001 and Diwakar, Prasanna and Moorthy 2001, BSI). IUCN declared this species as one of the twelve most endangered plants on the earth. However, gradual increasing of its new localities, which are generally inaccessible in normal course does not warrant it to be much threatened. Few Research institutes such Agharkar research institutepune, NGCPR-Shirwal, BSI have been introduced the cuttings of this plant in their botanical gardens.


Anita Kindre

Anita Kindre

ENDANGERED PLANTS OF MAHARASHTRA

Malabar Delphinium / efveueebyejer

Avinash Bhagat

Milind Sardesai

Hill Meadow Rue / MJesleebyej

Son ghanta / meesveIebìe

Indian Frerea / efMeboUceekeÀ[er


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