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mebHeeokeÀer³e.... ³ee Je<eea efoJeeUer®³ee Heneìsuee : cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë

Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer : meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë

[e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe : keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë

keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj Òee. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee ë mebHeeove mene³³e ë

DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ceO³eHe=ÿ ë DebkegÀj ceesF&$ee De#ejpegUCeer/mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

www.paryavaran.org apalaparyavaran@gmail.com vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

HeÀìeke̳eeb®³ee DeeJeepeeves peeie Deeueer veener ... lej Ie[îeeUe®³ee iepejeves Deeueer. HeÀìeke̳eeb®³ee KejsoerefJe¬eÀerJej, ogkeÀeveeb®³ee mLeeveeJej, v³ee³eeue³ee®³ee efJeefJeOe efveCe&³eebJej meceepeceeO³eceebceO³es Gueìmegueì ®e®ee& ®eeuet nesleer. He³ee&JejCeJeeÐeeb®eer `HeÀìeke̳eebJej mebHetCe& yeboer Ieeuee' DeMeer DeveeJeM³ekeÀ Dee¬eÀcekeÀ ceeb[Ceer veJnleer. HeÀìekesÀ JeepeJet F®íerCeeN³eeb®eerner ®e®ee& ye®eeJeelcekeÀ®e nesleer. SketÀCe iesueer 8 les 10 Je<ex meelel³eeves HeÀìeke̳eeb®³ee OJeveer Òeot<eCeeyeÎue®eer pevepeeiejCee®eer ceesnerce DeveskeÀ HeeJeues Heg{s mejkeÀueer. ³ee meJe& He³ee&JejCeJeeÐeebvee HeÀkeÌle efnbog meCeebceO³es®e He³ee&JejCe keÀe DeeþJeles? Dev³e Oeefce&³e Dev³e Òemebieer Òeot<eCe keÀjleele lesJne ns He³ee&JejCeJeeoer kegÀþs Demeleele? Demes DeveskeÀefJeOe Dee#esHe IesC³eele Peeues. yengmebK³eeb®³ee SkeÀef$ele ke=Àleerves Òeot<eCe DeefOekeÀ nesles cnCetve®e yengmebK³eebkeÀebveer mekeÀejelcekeÀ yeoue meJe&ÒeLece Deceueele DeeCeu³eeme Flej meJe& l³eeÒeceeCes nUtnUt yeoueleerue DeeefCe HeefjJele&ve #ecelesJej DeeefCe DeeOegefvekeÀles®³ee meJe& efvekeÀ<eebJej Þes<þ þjCeeje DeeHeu³ee yengmebK³eebkeÀe®³ee Oecee&ceOes Je meCeeb®³ee meepejerkeÀjCeeceOes nesCeeN³ee He³ee&JejCeelcekeÀ yeoueeb®ee meceepe Je osMe cnCetve DeeHeCee meJee¥vee DeefYeceeve®e Demesue. DeewÐeesefiekeÀjCe Je JeenlegkeÀercegUs nesCeejs Òeot<eCe, ceesþceesþîee meceejbYeele nesCeejer HeÀìke̳eeb®eer Deele<eyeepeer ³eecegUs Òe®eb[ Òeog<eCe nesle Deens ceie ceeP³ee HeÀìeke̳eebveer l³eeceO³es keÀe³e Yej He[Ceej ? ne ³ee ®e®exleerue metj cee$e ef®ebles®ee neslee. DeewÐeesefiekeÀjCe Je JeenlegkeÀ DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ He³ee&JejCemJesner JneJeer cnCetve DeeHeCe DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ leb$e%e efveceeCe& keÀjlees³e. ns leb$e%eeve ®eeueJeC³eemeeþer DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ Gpee& efveefce&leer ... ³ee Gpexmeeþer DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ Òeot<eCe ...Hejle ®e¬eÀ efHeÀªve ³esles les MeeMJele efJekeÀemeekeÀ[s. Kejlej MeeMJele efJekeÀeme cnCepes Òel³eskeÀ Hee³ejerJej efvemeie& Je He³ee&JejCe veeMee®³ee IeìveebyeÎue DeeHeCe DeeHeu³ee mJele:®³ee cevee®eer Ieeleuesueer mecepetle Deens. Òeieleer ³ee mebkeÀuHevesyeodoue®eer Devewmeefie&keÀ mebkeÀuHevee ceveele yeeUieu³eeJej leer Òel³e#eele ³esle Demeleevee DeeHeCe efvemeiee&®es peleve DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe mebJeOe&ve keÀmes keÀª MekeÀlees ? Jew%eeefvekeÀ mebMeesOeveeletve Òeieleer®³ee veJ³ee mebkeÀuHeveebmeeþer leb$e%eeve mebMeesOeve Je leb$e%eevee®es GHe³eesie ns efoIe&keÀeueerve DeeefCe MeeMJele peerJeveemeeþer nesC³eeSJepeer leelkeÀeueerkeÀ Je leelHegjl³ee DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Je Ghee³e³eespeveemeeþer nesT ueeieueb Deens.He³ee&JejCe men³eesieer peerJeve peieC³ee®eer mebkeÀuHeveener leb$e%eeve men³eesieer DemeeJeer Demee ceO³ececeeie& mJeerkeÀeªve DeeHeCe SkeÀe DeveLee&keÀ[s ÒeJeeme keÀjerle Deenesle keÀe? ³ee®ee efJe®eej vekeÌkeÀer keÀjeJee. Heg{erue ceefnv³eele (11 ef[meWyej) jespeer ³esCeeN³ee peeieeflekeÀ HeJe&leefoveeefveefceÊe efie³ee&jesnCe DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe ³ee efJe<e³eeMeer efveie[erle ceeefnleerHetCe& uesKe ³ee DebkeÀele Jee®ee...


ì^skeÀme&®³ee DeeJe[er®³ee efþkeÀeCeebHewkeÀer SkeÀ me¿eeêerleerue keÀueeJebleerCe cee®eer

A favorite spot for trekkers in Sahyadris Kalawantin Machi

Yeeie ë 14 ~ DebkeÀ ë 6

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

efie³ee&jesnCe : Fefleneme, meenme DeeefCe meb³ece ~ ÒeoerHe kesÀUkeÀj efie³ee&jesnCe DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe. ~ meercee jepesefMekexÀ [eWiej-oN³eebveener HueemìerkeÀ®ee efJeUKee ~ [e@. efÒeleer Heìsue YetJesef<ìle peueer³e HeefjmebmLee ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs ÒeMve legce®ee... GÊej efJe%eevee®es ~ [e@. megOeerj ceesW[keÀj JeveefHebieUe mebJeOe&ve efoJeme ~ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë ye´ïe keÀceUe®³ee MeesOeele ~ Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j Deeu³ee®eer Iejiegleer ueeieJe[ ~ DeMeeskeÀ DeebyeskeÀj

5 7 9 11 13 14 15 18 23 24

Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

26

All Creatures great and Small

I Nivedita Kothare

28

Peeping Toms... Arunachal : Land of Mountains

I Franklyn Silveira I Aseem kumar Kothiala

29 30

Chronicles of Sahyadri

I Juee Khopkar

32

An Evening at Harishchandragad I Vallari Sanzgiri

34

Environmental Game

I Shreelata Menon

35

Endengered Plants

I Anita Kindre

37

DebkeÀ oj ceefnv³ee®³ee 1 leejKesuee Heesmìeletve jJeevee neslees. p³ee Jee®ekeÀebvee 10 leejKesHe³e¥le DebkeÀ efceUeuee vemesue l³eebveer l³ee ceefnv³ee®³ee 15 leejKesHe³e¥le þeCes keÀe³ee&ue³eele keÀUJeeJes. (ogjOJeveer ë 022-2541 1633. mekeÀeUer 11 les mee³eb. 6) l³eebvee DebkeÀ HeeþJeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee keÀjC³eele ³esF&ue. l³eeveblej Deeuesu³ee le¬eÀejeR®eer oKeue Ieslee ³esCeej veener. le¬eÀej keÀjleevee veeWoCeer/HeeJeleer ¬eÀceebkeÀ osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. - J³eJemLeeHekeÀ

®es Jeie&Ceeroej Jne Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400

ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800

Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

HejosMeer Jee®ekeÀebmeeþer ë Jeeef<e&keÀ ©. 2500/-

DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.

ke=ÀHe³ee OeveeosMe `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe' (Apala Paryavaran) ³ee veeJeeves keÀe{eJee.

ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer meeF& ieCesMe cegêCeeue³e, keÀUJee ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, Keejìve jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. mebHeke&À ë 022-2541 1633


efJeMes<e uesKe

eife³eej&ensCe : Felfeneme, meenme DeeeCfe me³bece

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ÒeoerHe kesÀUkeÀj Þeer efMeJeí$eHeleer HegjmkeÀej efJepesles 98691 24632

osMee' Demes ³eLeeLe& JeCe&ve keÀJeeRveer ceneje<ì^e®es DeLeel&e me¿eeêe®res keÀsues Deen.s ¿ee®e me¿eeêe®r³ee HeJe&le jebiesle pegVej®³ee HeefM®ecesuee DemeCeeN³ee efkeÀuues efMeJevesjerJej efpepeeT meensyeebveer efMeJeeF& osJeerme veJeme kesÀuee, `ns ceeles ceuee Heje¬eÀceer ³ees×e Demee Heg$e nesT os. l³ee®es veeJe (efMeJee) efMeJeepeer Demes þsJeerve.' 19 HesÀye´Jg eejer 1630 JeÐelel=ee³ree MekeÀs, 1551 uee epfepeeTvbee He$gejlve Peeues l³ee®es veeJe efMeJeepeer þsJeues. yeeueHeCeer l³eeb®es iegª oeoespeer keÀeW[osJe ³eebveer Mem$es ®eeueefJeC³ee®es Oe[s efoues. Heg{s cenejepeebvee jeceoeme mJeeceeRmeejKes iegª ueeYeues l³eebveer ceneje<ì^euee Je osMeeuee osMeOece&, je<ì^Oece& Je YekelÌeeOrece& eMfekeÀeJfeuee. SkeÀskeÀeUer cenejepee®beer jepeOeeveer Demeuesu³ee efkeÀuues je³eie[ DeJeI³ee ceneje<ì^ e ®es mHet À leea m Leeve þjues , ³ee®e ekfeÀuu³eeJej 9 pevte 2006 jepseer eMfeJeMekeÀ 333

uee megªJeele nesle Deens. ne efoJeme cnCepes Deecne meJe& oigeÒ&ecseevree SeslfeneemfekeÀ eofve þjCeej Deens. efMeJekeÀe³ee&Jej Þe×e Je efve<þe þsJetve Deecne efie³ee&jesnkeÀeb®es keÀe³e& DeKeb[HeCes JesieJesieȳee ceeiee¥veer ®eeuet Deens. ¿ee®eyejesyej keÀener peeCeerJeeb®es Yeevener DeeHeCe þsJee³euee Heeefnpes. efkeÀuu³eeb®es HeeefJe$³e peleve keÀjCes. DeeHeu³ee HeJtep&eevbeer eofueus³ee ne oewofH³eceeve Jeejmee He{ g ®³ee efHeef{uee pemee®³ee lemes meesHeJeCes. DeveskeÀ vejefJejebveer l³eeJesUer efkeÀuues efpebkeÀleevee Je jeKeleevee Òemebieer DeeHeu³ee íeleer®ee keÀesì keÀªve DeeHeu³ee ÒeeCeeb®eer Deengleerner efoueer Deens. l³ee jCeMeeog&ueeb®eer veeJes efkeÀuu³eeJej keÀOeerner keÀesjueer iesueer veener. cee$e Deepe HeefjefmLeleer vescekeÀer Gueìer Deens. meceepeeleerue eJfekeÀ=le ceveemfLelee®reer GoenjCes Deepe DeeHeCeeme efkeÀuu³eeJej Hene³euee efceUleele. efpekeÀ[s


eflekeÀ[s efkeÀuu³eeb®eer ogo&Mee HeneJe³eeme efceUles. Jeemleg®es peleve Je j#eCe keÀjC³eeSsJepeer l³eeb®ee nesCeeje Nneme Heentve ceve efJe<eCCe nesles. l³eele®e Feflenemee®es efJeke=Àle oMe&ve. ¿ee DeOeesieleerme peyeeyeoej keÀesCe Deens? efie³ee&jesnkeÀ, He³e&ìkeÀ, Meemeve keÀe meceepeeleerue efJeke=Àle DeJemLee? ns meJe& kegÀþslejer Leebyee³euee®e nJes. efie³ee&jesnkeÀebveer, efie³ee&jesnkeÀ mebmLeebveer lemes®e meeceeefpekeÀ yeebOeefuekeÀer peHeCeeN³ee mebmLeebveer ¿eeJej ceele keÀjC³eemeeþer DeeHeueer kebÀyej keÀmeueer Deens. DeeHeCe í$eHeleer Je efMeJekeÀeueeJej Òesce keÀjCeeN³eebveer peyeeyeoejerves Je Yeeve þsTve Jeeieues Heeefnpes. ceneje<ì^e®eer pe[CeIe[Ce me¿eeêercegUs®e Peeueer Deens. keÀeskeÀCe Je IeeìceeLee Demes oesve Yeeie ne l³ee®ee®e ÒekeÀej Deens. ¿ee me¿eeêer®³ee keÀgMeelre Deobepes 350 ekfeÀuues Deenlse. DeeHeCeeuee leLseeure eofmeCeeje evfemeie,& efieefjefMeKejs efJeefJeOe $eÝletleerue efomeCeeje efvemeie&, HeeJemeeȳeele efomeCeejs efvemeiee&®es leeb[Je HeÀsmeeUles keÀesmeUCeejs OeyeOeyes efnJeeȳeele efnjJee Meeuet HeefjOeeve kesÀuesu³ee, SKeeoe veJeJeOetmeejKee efomeCeeje me¿eeêer efûe<ce $eÝletle efomeCeejs GIe[syees[kesÀ [eWiej Je efieefjogie& DeeHeu³ee jekeÀìHeCee®eer Je YeJ³eles®eer mee#e osleele. Gb®eGb®e megUkesÀ mej keÀjC³eemeeþer Heef#eefveefj#eCe, ve#e$eeb®eer DeesUKe, SsefleneefmekeÀ Jeemletb®ee DeY³eeme ns meJe& keÀjC³eemeeþer DeeHeu³eeuee efvemeiee&®³ee kegÀMeerle®e peeJes ueeieles. ceneje<ì^euee KeN³ee DeLee&ves efie³ee&jesnCee®es Jes[ DeHHee leLee iees. efve.oeb[skeÀj Je yeeyeemeensye Hegjbojs ³eebveer ueeJeues. l³eeJesUer efiejerÒeYeCe keÀjCeejs Lees[®s e nesles. l³eekeÀeUer efieefjÒeYeCe SkeÀ íbo cnCetve®e yeefIeleues peele nelse.s ¿ee yepgeige& ueekseÀevbeer þJseueus³ee ekfeÀuu³ee®b³ee veeoWelre leHeeMfeueJeej ceeefnleer Sself eneefmekeÀ veeWoer®es Yeeve þsJetve [esUme ke=Àleerves meceepeeHeg{s JeemleJe efueKeeCe keÀªve DeY³eemeelcekeÀ JeCe&ve keÀªve meceepeele efie³ee&jesnCee®es yeerpe GieJeues 70 ®³ee oMekeÀele ¿ee íboekeÀ[s keÀuee cnCetve Heeefnues peeT ueeieues. cegbyeF& efJeÐeeefHeþeceO³es efie³ee&jesnCe mebmLee mLeeHeve Peeueer, l³ee®e mecgeejeme ceybgeFl&e `eifejeerJfenej neu@ee[ r s ne³ekeÀme& keuÌeeFc&yeme& keuÌeye', HeCg³eele `efiejerÒesceer' DeMee SkeÀeHeeþesHeeþ SkeÀ mebmLeeb®eer megªJeele Peeueer. efJe%eevee®³ee Òeieleervegmeej efie³ee&jesnCeelener yeoue nesle iesues. 80 ®³ee oMekeÀele ¿ee íbo Je keÀueskeÀ[s Meem$e cnCetve yeefIeleues peeT ueeieues. ns meJe& 300 Je<ee&HetJeea ®eeuet nesles. l³eeJesUerner cenejepeebveer Je l³eeb®³ee Metj ceeJeȳeebveer DeveskeÀ ie[keÀesì ¿ee me¿eeêerle keÀeyeerpe kesÀues. DeJeO³ee 16 J³ee Je<eea efMeJeepeer cenejepeebveer keÀeW{eCee GHe&À efmebnie[ efpebketÀve efnboJeer mJejep³ee®es leejsCe yeeObeue.s p³eevbee Deepe DeeHeCe ìks^eÀeiRe ekfeÀbJee eife³eej&ensCe cnCelees. leeveepeer ceeuegmejWveer IeesjHe[er®³ee mene³³eeves efmebnie[e®ee keÀ[e mej kesÀuee ¿eeuee®e Deepe®³ee efie³ee&jesnCee®³ee HeefjYee<esle Deecner `megUkesÀ ®e{eF&' Demes cnCelees. 1984 ®³ee SefÒeue ceO³es Ke[eHeejMeer megUkeÀe efiejereJf enej leHexÀ mej keÀªve ceneje<ì^ele Òeiele GHekeÀjCeeb®³ee mene³³eeves megUkeÀe ®e{eF&me megªJeele Peeueer. ne uesKe efuenerleevee, meebieleevee ceuee DeefYeceeve Jeeìle Deens keÀer ceneje<ì^ele ÒeLece 100 megUkesÀ mej keÀjCeeje ceer Heneruee efie³ee&jesnkeÀ Deens. Deelee keÀe@Heexjsì meskeÌìj ceO³es efie³ee&jesnCee®es cenÊJe Jee{ues Deens. ¿eeuee Deboepes 90 ®³ee oMekeÀele megjJeele Peeueer. efie³ee&jesnCeeleerue vewHegC³eles®ee DeeOeej Iesle kebÀHev³eebceO³es iegCeJeÊee keÀMeer

Jee{erme ueeiesue ¿eemeeþer ¿ee íboe®ee JeeHej nesT ueeieuee. efie³ee&jesnCe cnCepes efvemeie&³ee$ee, efveKeU Deevebo. ¿eelener Deelee YejHetj Òeieleer Peeueer Deens. YeìkebÀleer keÀjleevee efoMes®es %eeve, DeeHeu³eeuee meeOeeJe³ee®es GefÎ<ì, megUkeÀe DeLeJee efMeKej ®e{eF& ceesnercesle ³esCeejs De[LeUs, Òeiele GHekeÀjCeeb®eer ceeefnleer Je ³eesi³e JeeHej, efpeÎ, ef®ekeÀeìer, meenmeer Je=Êeer, De®etkeÀ efveCe&³e IesC³ee®eer Je=Êeer, ns iegCe GÊece efie³ee&jesnkeÀe®³ee efþkeÀeCeer DemeCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. keÀeUeÒeceeCes efie³ee&jesnCeeleerue efmLel³eblejsner DeeHeCe Heeefnueer. Deepe®³ee MelekeÀele efie³ee&jesnCeeuee OebosJeeF&keÀ mJeªHe ÒeeHle Peeues Deens, ner JemlegefmLeleer veekeÀejlee ³esle veener. l³eecegUs nUtnUt l³ee®es nesle ®eeueuesues yeepeejerkeÀjCe ns keÀìgmel³ener veekeÀejlee ³esle veener. efie³ee&jesnCe ceesnerce DeLeJee efMeefyejeceO³es nesCeeN³ee DeHeIeeleeme DeeHeCe peeieªkeÀ Demee³euee nJes. l³ee®eyejesyej Keeueerue iees<ìeR®eer veeWo IesCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. efMeyeerjs keÀesCeer I³eeJeerle?, efMeyeerjeb®es nesCeejs yeepeejerkeÀjCe, efMeyeerjebmeeþer JewÐekeÀer³e mesJee GHeueyOe keÀjCes, efMeyeerjeleerue efoJeme Je l³eeleerue DemebK³e efJe<e³e ³eemebyebOeer meeOeC³eele ³esCeeN³ee leeUcesUe®ee DeY³eeme, efveJeeme, Yeespeve- HeeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee, efMeyeerjÒecegKe Je mebmLee ³eeb®ee YetlekeÀeUeleerue DevegYeJe leHeemetve HeenCes. ÒemlejejesnCe ceesnerceebceO³esner DeHeIeele nesle Demeleele. l³eeleerue Keeueerue iees<ìeR®eer keÀeUpeer IesCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. efve³eespevee®ee DeYeeJe, Òeiele GHekeÀjCeeb®eer ceeefnleer Je ³eesi³e JeeHej, mJele: velsel=Je keÀjC³ee®eer keÀgJele, Oee[me keÀjC³ee®eer ce³eeo&e - ¿ee®es vemeueuses Yeeve, DeeflejskeÀer Je HeÀepeerue DeelceefJeMJeeme ¿eebcegUs DeeHeCe DeHeIeeleeuee Deeceb$eCe®e oslees. l³ee®eyejesyej efvemeie&efveefce&le nesCeeN³ee DeHeIeeleeb®eermeg×e DeeHeCe keÀeUpeer Iesleueer Heenerpes. ceesnerces®³ee JesUer keÀesmeUCeejs íesìs-ceesþs oie[, Gvne®³ee JesUsuee De®eevekeÀ ceOeceeM³ee GþCes ³eemeJe& yeeyeeRcegUs DeHeIeele nesle Demeleele. efce$eebvees, ceer DeeHeu³eeuee SkeÀ®e meuuee osT Fef®ílees. meenme ne ³eMee®ee Hee³ee Deens DeeefCe meenmeerJe=Êeer ne ³eMeescebefoje®ee Hee³ee Deens. Deepener me¿eeêerleues efkeÀuues Feflenemee®es cegK³e mee#eeroej Deensle. mJejep³ee®³ee GYeejCeerle Deeuesueer mebkeÀìs, cenejepeebveer oeKeefJeuesues Demeeceev³e keÀle=&lJe, O³es³eefve<þe, l³eeie, J³eJenejkeÀewMeu³e, kegÀMeue jepeefveleer ¿eecegUs Deepe®³ee efHe{eruee ÒeKej osMeYekeÌleer, je<ì^Oece&, SkeÀelcelee ¿ee iegCeeb®eer ÒesjCee efceUle Deen.s Deepe GCeeHrejger meJJee leevreMes Je<e& ueeìsueer lejer eMfeJeepeer cenejepee®beer ueekseÀeÒfe³elee Depevtener leJse{e®re eìfkeÀtve Deen.s ekfeÀuu³ee®beer j®evee Je J³eJemLee Heentve mLeeHel³eMeem$e DeeefCe JeemleteJf eMeejo Deepener Dee®ebefyele nesleele. meceLee¥®³ee Meyoeble meebiee³e®es lej, ³eMeJeble, efkeÀleeaJeble, meeceL³e&Jeble, JejoJeble HegC³eJeble, efveleerJeble, peeCelee jepee DeMee efMeJeepeer cenejepeeb®ee SKeeoe Hewuet pejer DeeHeCe efpeJeveele, Dee®ejCeele DeeCeuee lej leer l³eevbee Kejer Deeojepbeueer þjuse. DeMee ojt¢<ìer Demeuesu³ee cenejepeebvee ceePee ceevee®ee cegpeje.


eJfeMe<se ueKse

eife³eej&ensCe DeeeCfe He³eeJ&ejCe 1923 ceefOeue heefnu³ee SJnjsmì

efie³ee&jesnkeÀemeeþer heJe&lekeÀ[e Jee megUkeÀe mej kesÀu³eeJej®ee Deevebo ne DeJeCe&veer³e®e Demelees. heCe ne keÀ[e mej keÀjleevee heeJeueesheeJeueer DeeOeejefKeUs ve þeskeÀlee, keÀceerle keÀceer DeeOeejefKeUs ceeªve DeejesnCe kesÀues lej®e les ³eesi³e DeeefCe Kejs he´mlejejesnCe. keÀejCe ³ee efíêebceO³es heeJemeeves heeCeer, he´®eb[ Tve, ³eebcegUs Yesiee he[e³euee ueeieleele. l³eecegUs keÀ[îee®ee keÀefþCeheCee keÀceer nesJetve lees efþmetU yeIeC³ee®ee OeeskeÀe efvecee&Ce nesJet MekeÀlees.

meercee MesKej jepesefMekexÀ

cees e f n ces ® es ves l es pe@ e pe& ces u ejer ³eeb v ee SkeÀe cegueeKeleerle efJe®eejues nesles, `legcner heJe&le keÀe ®e{lee?' l³eeJej les cnCeeues, `keÀejCe lees heJe&le efleLes Deens cnCetve.' yengleebMeer efie³ee&jesnkeÀebvee heJe&le efomeuee keÀer lees ®e{eJeemee Jeeìlees Je l³ee heefuekeÀ[s keÀe³e Deens les heneJeemes Jeeìles. ceveg<³e ne lemee MeesOekeÀ Je meenmeer he´eCeer Deens. Deeheu³ee J³emle oieoieer®³ee peerJeveeceOetve, keÀesueenuee heemetve otj, efvemeiee&le efHeÀjC³ee®eer mebOeer lees MeesOele Demelees. Yeejleehegjlee efJe®eej kesÀuee lej, ceie lees ³ee$eskeÀªb®³ee ©heeves [eWiejceeL³ee Jejerue osJeUele, he³e&ìkeÀeb®³ee ©heeves Leb[ nJes®³ee efþkeÀeCeeJej Jee efie³ee&jesnkeÀe®³ee ªheeves keÀOeer kegÀCeer ve iesuesu³ee [eWiejeJej peele Demelees Jee ie[keÀesìeb®³ee meeefveO³eele peele Demelees. ³ee$eskeÀªbvee hegC³e efceUles, he³e&ìkeÀeb®eer cepee nesles lej efie³ee&jesnkeÀebvee meenmee®ee DevegYeJe efceUlees. ³ee leervener he´keÀejehewkeÀer efie³ee&jesnkeÀ ns peemle mecebpeme Je efMemleefhe´³e Demet MekeÀleele. ³eele ef i e³ee& j es n keÀ cnCepes ³ees i ³e he´ k eÀejs he´efMeef#ele Jee DevegYeJeer, [esUmeheCes [eWiejoN³ee ngbo[Ceejs ie=efnle Oejuesues Deensle. peeT efleLes IeeCe keÀª ner meeJe&ef$ekeÀ Je=Êeer Demeu³eeves ³ee$eskeÀª Je meJe&meeceev³e he³e&ìkeÀeb®ee lej FLes ef J e®eej®e keÀje³e®ee veener . nJeMes - veJeMes [eWiejYeìke̳eeb®ee meg×e FLes efJe®eej veener. FLes efie³ee&jesnCe cnCepes efiejerYe´ceCe, heoYe´ceCe, he´mlejejesnCe Je Flej me¿eeêer Je efnceeue³eeleerue meenmeer ceesnercee Demes ie=nerle Oejues Deens. megefMeef#ele, he´efMeef#ele Je DevegYeJeer pejer Demeues lejer yengleebMeer efie³ee&jesnkeÀebceO³es heJe&efle³e he³ee&JejCeeyeeyele DeveemLee Dee{Utve ³esles. DeeheCe p³ee [eWiejeJej peeCeej Deens l³ee [eWieje®³ee hee³eL³eeheemetve ceeL³eehe³e¥le SkeÀ Del³eble veepetkeÀ DeMeer pewefJekeÀ heefjmebmLee Demeles Je efleLes vegmel³ee peeC³eevesner leeruee OeeskeÀe nesT MekeÀlees Jee leer he´ogef<ele nesC³ee®eer Meke̳elee Demet

MekeÀles ³ee®eer peeefCeJe yengleebMeer efie³ee&jesnkeÀeble DemeC³ee®eer Meke̳elee veener. keÀejCe Deeheu³ee osMeele ³ee efJe<e³eeJej l³eebvee efMe#eCe®e efoues iesues veener. l³eecegUs ne he´Mve Del³eble iebYeerj Demet MekeÀlee.s meeOes eHfeDeeHsee®r³ee ieCehelee®Res GoenjCe hegjsmes Deens. Menjer megefMeef#ele JeeleeJejCeele megOoe efHeDeesHeer®³ee ieCeheleercegUs Je l³ee®³ee jbieecegUs heeCeer heo´gef<ele nesles ns hegjsmes pevepeeiejCe keÀªve megOoe megefMeef#ele meceepeele mecepeGcepe Deeues u eer veener . ceie [eW i ejceeL³eeJeef j ue pewefJekeÀefJeefJeOeles®eer peeefCeJe Je l³ee®es mebJeOe&ve keÀjC³ee®eer mecepe Je lemes Dee®ejCe efie³ee&jesnkeÀebkeÀ[tve nesT MekesÀue Demes cnCeCes Oee[mee®es®e þjsue. veeefMekeÀ peJeUerue Debpevesjer®³ee heefjmejele keÀener og e | c eU Heg À ues Gceueleele. l³eeb ® ³ee DeefOeJeemeeuee OeeskeÀe nesT MekeÀlees cnCegve efleLeu³ee efie³ee&jesnCeeJej®e yeboer Deeuesueer Deens. meelee´³eepeJeUerue pegvee Jeemeesìe efkeÀuuee Jee keÀes³eveeveiej les mebieceséejepeJeUerue he´ef®eleerie[ heefjmejele ³ee Del³eble megboj ì^skeÀeRie ªì Jej lees meO³ee J³eeIe´he´keÀuheele ³esle Demeu³eeves Je efleLeueer pewefJekeÀ efJeefJeOelee Oeeske̳eele ³esJet MekeÀles cnCevte elfeLes eife³eej&enskeÀ®e keÀe³e lej keÀeCsel³eener ceeveJehe´eC³eeme JeveefJeYeeieeves yeboer Ieeleueer Deens. Demes DeeleleeF& efveCe&³e Meemeveeme I³eeJes ueeieleele keÀejCe he³ee&JejCehegjkeÀ efie³ee&jesnCe nesF&ue Demee efJeéeeme jeefnuesuee veener. Je lees efJeéeeme ³eesi³e les efMe#eCe, he´efMe#eCe vemeu³eeves, Jee mejkeÀejer ceeie&oMe&keÀ lelJesner vemeu³eeves efie³ee&jesnkeÀebveer keÀmee efceUJee³e®ee ne he´Mve®e Deens. 70 Je<ee¥®ee Fefleneme DemeCeeN³ee British Mountaineering Council (BMC) uee megOoe l³eeb®eer Environment Policy le³eej keÀje³euee®e 2007 meeue Gpee[eJes ueeieues. lej British Mountaineering Council ®eer ner `he³ee&JejCe veerleer' ³ee yeeyele keÀe³e cnCeles les heent. p³ee [eWiejoN³eele efie³ee&jesnkeÀ peeCeej Deens efleLeu³ee efvemeiee&®eer l³eeme ceeefnleer DemeeJeer Je


8 l³ee®es peleve keÀjC³ee®eer l³eeceOes kegÀJele DemeeJeer. efie³ee&jesnCeecegUs efleLeu³ee he³ee&JejCeeJej efveeq½ele®e og<heefjCeece nesle Demelees Je l³eeves l³ee®eer peyeeyeoejer Iesleueer heeefnpes. B M C uee ³ee peyeeyeoejer®eer peeefCeJe Deens Je ner mebmLee lesefLeue efie³ee&jesnkeÀebvee he³ee&JejCe mebj#eCeemeeþer me#ece keÀjerue. efie³ee&jesnkeÀ Je l³ee®eer mebmLee he³ee&JejCe mvesner Demesue. les l³eeb®³ee owveefove Je keÀe³ee&ue³eerve peerJeveele keÀeieo, heeCeer, Jeerpe, FbOeve, jmee³eves DeeoeR®ee keÀefcelekeÀceer Jeehej keÀjerue. Je ³ee meJee¥®eer ceespeoeo keÀªve l³ee®ee Dee{eJee Iesleuee peeF&ue. meeJe&peefvekeÀ Jeenveeb®ee he´Jeemeemeeþer Jeehej keÀª, efJeceeve he´Jeeme Meke³ÌeleeJsej ìeU.t (iee[îeeb ceOevte evfeIeCeeje Oejt, keÀeyev&e[e³e DeekemÌeeF[ & cegUs..lesLeerue JeeleeJejCe, lesLeerue leeheceeve,³eeJej nesCeeje heefjCeece keÀceerle keÀceer nesF&ue veJns lees veiebC³e®e Demesue ns keÀeìskeÀesjheCes heenerues peeles.. keÀejCe leeheceeve Jee{er®³ee heefjCeeceecegUs l³ee l³ee hejermejeJej Yeªve ve efveIeCeejb vegkeÀmeeve nesle Demeleb.) nJeeceeve yeoueebyeeyele efie³ee&jesnkeÀebvee peeieªkeÀ keÀª Je l³eeb®³ee ceesefncescegUs nJeeceeveeJejerue efJehejerle heefjCeece nesCeej veenerle ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer IesT. pemes heejbheejerkeÀ Tpex®ee Jeehej. efie³ee&jesnCe keÀjerle Demeleevee [eWiejoN³eele jeä^e³r e cenÊJee®es Je oge|ceU Jevemheleer Je he´eCeer efJeée Demet MekeÀles. B M Cl³eeb®eer keÀeUpeer efveeq½ele®e IesF&ue. lemes®e efJeefJeOe he³ee&JejCe mebj#eCe mebmLeeb®eer ³eesi³eleer ceole IesTve efie³ee&jnkeÀeJej ³eesi³eleer yebOeves Ieeuetve IesT. ³ee yeeyele ³eesi³eles mebMeesOeve Je pewefJekeÀefJeefJeOeles®³ee mebJeOe&vee®es keÀe³e& Deecner keÀª he³ee&JejCee®es peleve Je mebJeOe&ve ns Deece®³eemeeþer efie³ee&jesnCeehes#ee peemle cenlJee®es Deens Je les he´l³eskeÀ efie³ee&jesnkeÀeJej eEyeyeJeues peeF&ue. mLeeefvekeÀ meeceeefpekeÀ Je Deee|LekeÀIe[er®ee mlej melele Jee{lee jenerue ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer IesT. efie³ee&jesnkeÀeb®eer heb{jer cnCetve he´efmeOo Demeuesu³ee eqmJePeue¥[ ceO³es Union International Des association D Albinism (UIAA) ³ee mebmLesves lej UNEP & IUCN ®³ee ceoleerves efleLeu³ee [eWiejoN³eeleerue vewmee|iekeÀ heefjmebmLee efìketÀve jneC³eemeeþer efie³ee&jesnCeemeeþer Del³eble keÀ[keÀ efve³ece yeveJeues Deensle Je l³ee®es les heeuevener keÀjleele. l³eecegUs efleLeu³ee efie³ee&jesnkeÀebceOes he³ee&JejCeeyeÎue yejer®e peeCeerJe DeeefCe efMemle efometve ³esles. heCe ns®e efie³ee&jesnkeÀ Yeejleele Jee vesheeUceO³es Deeues lej meJe& eJfemejleele. ceeTìb SJnjmsì Jeªve Je heejfmejelevte ojJe<eea ìveeJeejer keÀ®eje meeHeÀ kesÀuee peelees. lesJne ne he´Mve Ye³ebkeÀj®e efyekeÀì Deens Demes Jeeìles. Deeheu³ee Indian Mountaineering Foundation uee Je efJeefJeOe efie³ee&jesnCe mebmLeebvee (keÀener DeheJeeo JeieUlee) Demes heJe&efle³e he´osMeeleerue he³ee&JejCe mebj#eCe Demes keÀener Demeles les Depetvener ceeefnle vemeeJes. ceie mLeeefvekeÀ he´Meemeveeuee mejmekeÀì yeboer DeeCeC³eemeejKes DeIeesjer he´keÀej keÀjeJes ueeieleele. Deeheu³ee me¿eeêerle efHeÀjleevee hueemìerkeÀ, hueemìerkeÀ®³ee yeeìu³ee, Lecee&keÀesue®³ee leeìu³ee Demee keÀ®eje lesLeerue he³ee&JejCe,heeC³ee®es ñeesle, ogef<ele keÀjleevee meje&me efomelees. nuueer ne keÀ®eje meeHeÀ keÀjCee´³ee keÀener mebmLee efomeleele heCe mJe®í keÀjCeejer ceeCemes ®eej DeeefCe IeeCe

keÀjCeejer ceeCemes MebYej Demes meceerkeÀjCe Demesue lej keÀmes nesCeej? Je keÀ®eje meeHeÀ kesÀuee cnCepes he³ee&JejCee®es mebJeOe&ve kesÀues ner mecepe DeOe&Jeì Deens. l³ee heefuekeÀ[s he³ee&JejCe Deens les keÀmes Je keÀesCe mecepeeJeCeej ne®e keÀUer®ee cegÎe Deens. efie³ee&jesnkeÀemeeþer heJe&lekeÀ[e Jee megUkeÀe mej kesÀu³eeJej®ee Deevebo ne DeJeCe&veer³e®e Demelees. heCe ne keÀ[e mej keÀjleevee heeJeueesheeJeueer DeeOeejefKeUs ve þeskeÀlee, keÀceerle keÀceer DeeOeejefKeUs ceeªve DeejesnCe kesÀues lej®e les ³eesi³e DeeefCe Kejs he´mlejejesnCe. keÀejCe ³ee efíêebceO³es heeJemeeves heeCeer, he´®eb[ Tve, ³eebcegUs Yesiee he[e³euee ueeieleele. l³eecegUs keÀ[îee®ee keÀefþCeheCee keÀceer nesJetve lees efþmetU yeIeC³ee®ee OeeskeÀe efvecee&Ce nesJet MekeÀlees. keÀeleUkeÀ[îeeJejner SkeÀ he³ee&JejCe keÀJe®e Demeles. íesìîee ceesþîee Jevemheleer Je peerJeeb®es JeemleJ³e Demeleb. ieª[,efieOee[s, memeeCes, ceOeceeMeeb®es JeemleJ³e keÀ[skeÀheeN³eebceOes Gb®e efþkeÀeCeer®e Demeles. ³eeJej heefjCeece nesJet MekeÀlees. DeMee DemheMeeale efþkeÀeCeer DeeheCe peeTve efleLes {JeUe{JeU keÀjCes ns l³ee peerJeeb®³ee peerJeve®e¬eÀele Keghe ceesþer, GueLeeheeueLe keÀjle Demeles, ns Deeheu³ee O³eeveelener ³esle veener. DeeheCe cee$e ceesnerce hegCe& kesÀu³ee®³ee Deeveboele Demelees. yespeyeeyeoej he³e&ìveecegUs peeieef l ekeÀ Jeejmee mLeU Demeues u ³ee keÀeme heþejeJej Deelee heefnu³eemeejKee HegÀueeb®ee yenj ³esle veener. keÀener HegÀueeb®³ee peeleer lej Deelee efomelener veenerle. Kejs lej ueneveheCee heemetve®e heJe&efle³e he³ee&JejCee®³ee mebj#eCeemeeþer®³ee efve³eceeb®es keÀìe#eeves heeueve kesÀues heenerpes. ne DeÆeneme Demesue lej®e les DebieJeUCeer he[sue. ceesþsheCeer l³eele menpelee menpeheCes Deeuesueer Demesue. efvemeiee&®es mJele:®es keÀener efMemleyeOo efve³ece Deensle les DeeheCe heeUues®e heenerpesle. keÀejCe efpeLes efMemle Demeles efleLes®e he´ieefle nesle Demeles. veener keÀe? ceer DeeÊee henele DevegYeJele Demeuesuee efvemeie& ceeP³ee heg{erue efhe{îeebveerner heneJee, DevegYeJeeJee ³ee efJe®eejebveer efie³ee&jesnkeÀ Je DeLee&le®e ³ee$eskeÀª Je he³e&ìkeÀ he´sefjle Jne³euee heenerpes. l³eecegUs `meceesj efomeuee heJe&le cnCetve ceer ®e{uees heJe&le' ner efie³ee&jesnCee®eer J³eeK³ee Je mecepe yeoueC³ee®eer Je he³ee&JejCehegjkeÀ efie³ee&jesnCee®eer ®eUJeU GYeer jneCes efveleeble iejpes®es Deens.


9

efJeMes<e uesKe

DeeofJeemeer peibeuemehbeÊeeJrej DeJeueybevte nesles. keÀeueeblejeves l³eele yeoue nesle iesues. l³eeceO³es mee³seemreegJfeOee, DeeOfekeÀ Melseer GlheVe Demes IeìkeÀ keÀejCeeYrelte nelse.s heCe pemeb Deeus³ee yejeysej mekgeÀb peUle lemeb meegJfeOee®b³ee pee[sevres keÀener DeveeJeM³ekeÀ yeeyeer ³eLseosKseeure Iemgeu³ee Deenlse. Deieoer heej ceU t ehbe³el¥e ieus³ee Deenlse. l³eeleeure meJee&eOf ekeÀ [e®eCeejer yeeye cnCepes hueeemqìkeÀ®ee ceneYemceemejt.

[e@. he´erleer heìsue

[eWiej-oN³eebveener HueemìerkeÀ®ee efJeUKee...

SkeÀ [eWiejYeìkeÀer cnCetve me¿eeêer®³ee [eWiejoN³eele YeìkeÀleevee DeveskeÀ JesieJesieUs DevegYeJe ³esle Demeleele. DemebK³e he´keÀej®eer DemeKb³e ceeCemeb Yeìsleele, peibeuee®eer DevekseÀeJfeOe ©heb heene³euee efceUleele. ceeCemeebceO³es nesCeejs yeoue pemes peeCeJeleele lemes pebieueeleues, [eWiejeleues yeoue osKeerue [e®eleele. he³ee&JejCe ne keÀener ceeP³ee Lesì DeY³eemee®ee efJe<e³e veener. heCe pes efomeles les keÀOeer keÀOeer Kethe®e $eemeoe³ekeÀ Demeles . ceePee ceg K ³ele: JeeJej nes l ees lees me¿eeêer®³ee hee³eL³ee®³ee DeeefCe IeeìceeL³ee Jej®³ee ieeJeele. lesLes nesCeejs Deieoer þUkeÀheCes peeCeJeCeejs yeoue keÀe³ece þmeþmeble jenleele. DeewÐeeseif ekeÀ ¬eÀebleer, peeieeflekeÀerkeÀjCe ³ee meJee¥®ee he´YeeJe kesÀJeU Menjebhegjlee®e ve jenlee Deepe Deieoer Kes[eshee[er heesn®euee Deens. l³eeheemetve otj jenCes ns lemes keÀefþCe®e Deens. Mesleerleues yeoue, Jeenveeb c eO³es Peeues u es yeoue, IejyeebOeCeerleues yeoue ³ee meJee¥ceOetve nesle DemeCeeje he³ee&JejCee®ee Nneme ne eE®eles®ee efJe<e³e Deens®e. heCe megefJeOeebvee Menjehegjles ce³ee&oerle þsJee³e®es DeeefCe ie´eceerCe Yeeieeuee he³ee&JejCee®es Oe[s efMekeÀJee³e®es Demeb nesT MekeÀle veener. keÀOeerkeÀeUer ie´eceerCe Yeeiee®eer peerJeveMewueer ner efvemeiee&Meer peJeUerkeÀ meeOeCeejer nesleer, leer he³ee&JejCehetjkeÀ nesleer®e Demes cnCelee ³esCeej

veener. l³eeb®³ee Deepetyeepet®³ee heefjmebmLesleerue l³eeb®eer {JeUe{JeU ner SkeÀe ce³ee&oshe³e¥le®e efmeceerle nesleer. Mesleer DeeefCe ®eej iegjb heeUtve ogOeogYeleb ne®e keÀe³e lees peieC³ee®ee cegK³e ñeesle neslee. DeefoJeemeer pebieuemebheÊeerJej DeJeuebyetve nesles. keÀeueeblejeves l³eele yeoue nesle iesues. l³eeceO³es mees³eermegefJeOee, DeefOekeÀ Mesleer GlheVe Demes IeìkeÀ keÀejCeeYrelte nelse.s heCe pemeb Deeus³ee yejesyej megkebÀ peUle lemeb megefJeOeeb®³ee pees[erves keÀener DeveeJeM³ekeÀ yeeyeer ³esLesosKeerue Iegmeu³ee Deensle. Deieoer heej cetUebhe³e¥le iesu³ee Deensle. l³eeleerue meJee&efOekeÀ [e®eCeejer yeeye cnCepes hueeeqmìkeÀ®ee ceneYemceemetj. mees³e ne l³eeceeie®ee meJee&le cenlJee®ee keÀejCeerYetle Demeuesuee IeìkeÀ. one hebOeje Je<ee¥hetJeea ceer pesJne [eWiejele efHeÀje³e®es lesJne SKeeÐee Iejele ®ene ef c eUeuee®e lej lees ef®eveerceeleer®³ee keÀheeletve ³ee³e®ee. heCe Deepe meje&me hueeeqmìkeÀ®es keÀhe neleer efoues peeleele. keÀhe OegJee³euee heeC³ee®eer keÀcelejlee Jeiewjs keÀejCe Demeleerue heCe ceie ³ee hueeeqmìkeÀ®³ee keÀheeb®eer efJeunsJeeì ueeJee³e®eer lejer keÀesCeleer J³eJemLee ³ee ieeJeele Demeles? ³ee®es GÊej veener Demes®e Deens. DeLee&le l³eeuee DeeheCe Menjer ueeskebÀosKeerue keÀejCeerYetle Deenesle. pesLes keÀOeerkeÀeUer one-hebOeje ueeskeÀ pee³e®es lesLes


10

Deelee efkeÀceeve Mes-oesveMes®³ee Keeueer mebK³ee peele veener. l³eehewkeÀer ì^ks eÀj ceb[Uer DeeheDeeheues hueeeqmìkeÀ hejle meesyele IesTve ³esleele. heCe he³e&ìkeÀeb®es keÀe³e. ceie pesJee³euee heCe Lecee&keÀesue®³ee huesì. yejb ns SJe{îeehegjles®e ce³ee&oerle jenle veener, Menjeletve peeCeejs Leesj he³e&ìkeÀ `nesue JeeJej Fpe DeJej' ³ee OeesjCeeves efyeveOeemle hueeeqmìkeÀ®ee keÀ®eje keÀjle Demeleele. peer mees³e he³e&ìkeÀeb®eer mebK³ee Jee{ueer cnCetve DeJeuebyeueer leer®e ceie mJele:®³ee ieeJeeleerue ceesþîee keÀe³e&¬eÀceeleosKeerue ©{ Peeueer. pemeb Deepe SKeeÐee Menjeyeens©ve peeleevee [beqcheie ie´eTb[ ueeieles lemes he´l³eskeÀ íesìîeeceesþîee ieeJeeyeensj hueeeqmìkeÀ®ee keÀ®eje he[uesuee efomelees. heCe ns he´keÀjCe SJe{îeeJej®e Leebyele veener. SkeÀlej ns keÀener DeefOeke=Àle [beqcheie ie´eTb[ vemeles. l³eecegUs keÀ®eN³ee®eer efJeunsJeeì keÀMeer ueeJee³e®eer ne ceesþe he´Mve Demelees. Deepe ceesþîee Menjebmeceesj®e keÀ®eN³ee®eer efJeunsJeeì ne he´Mve Dee Jeemetve GYee Deens, lesLes ³ee íesìîee ieeJeeb®ee keÀe³e hee[eJe ueeieCeej. l³eele ner ieeJeb [eWiejceeL³eeJej eEkeÀJee Deieoer [eWieje®³ee hee³eL³eeMeer Demeleerue lej ceie keÀe³e efJe®eeje³euee®e

vekeÀes. JeeN³ee JeeoUele ne keÀ®eje Lesì veoer®³ee hee$eele iesuee®e cnCetve mecepee³e®es. cnCepes Gieceele®e veoeruee he´otef<ele keÀjC³ee®es Þes³e ³ee meJee¥vee ueeYeles! ueesCeeJeȳeepeJeUerue Deebyee veoer®³ee GieceepeJeUerue ner ¢<³e efJe®eefuele keÀjCeejer Deensle. yeeje ceefnves he³e&ìkeÀeb®eer jsue®esue Demeuesu³ee ceneyeUséej, ceeLesjeve, YeerceeMebkeÀj Fl³eeoer efþkeÀeCeeb®eerner keÀener JesieUer heefjeqmLeleer veener³es. DeewÐeesefiekeÀjCe, Mesleerle nesle Demeuesues DeeefCe he³ee&³eeves ie´eceerCe peerJeveMewueerleues yeoue ns DeveskeÀJesUe Deheefjne³e& Demeleele. lees jsìe ceesþe Demelees. l³ee jsìîeeuee he³ee&³e osleevee eflelekeÀe®e þesme Ghee³e keÀjeJee ueeielees. lees meJe&meeceev³eebkeÀ[tve nesF&ue®e Demes veener. heCe pesJne mees³eer®³ee veeJeeKeeueer SKeeoer ieesä Deeheu³ee peerJeveMewueerle efMejkeÀeJe keÀjles lesJne l³eeuee JeU s e®re LeeybeJeCes iejpe®ses Demele.s Dev³eLee hueeemqìkeÀ®³ee keÀ@vmej®ee efJeUKee YeefJe<³eele me¿eeêer®³ee oN³eeKeesN³eeuee he[u³eeefMeJee³e jenCeej veener.


11

YeJtees<fìle peuee³re HeejfmembLee

Yeejlee yeenjseure veÐee : Deey@e veoer

uesKeebkeÀ 9

Dee@ye veoer Keesjs ogie&ce Je efvemeie& megob j nesleb Je Deens ner Hejblet ceeveJeer nmle#eHseecbeU g s Òeo<teCe Je l³eeceU g s vemweeifek&eÀ HeejfmembLee®bes vekgeÀmeeve nelse Deen.s DeCet keÀe³e¬&eÀce ce³eee&ofle keÀjCe,s DeeCfJekeÀ Mem$eemb$ee®b³ee evfeecfel&eer Je meeþîeeJej ce³eeo&e DeeCeCes ns Deepe®³ee keÀeUele DeeJeM³ekeÀ Peeue³e.b DeeHeCe keÀsJeU meeof®íe keÀ© MekeÀlees keÀer peie ³ee DeeJeM³ekeÀlee®bee ÒeeOeev³eeves eJfe®eej keÀ©ve evfemeie& mejb#eCee®ee Jemee IeFsu&e.

Òee. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs 93225 07685

Deey@e ekfeÀbJee Deey@eer ner HeeMf®eceer meyweesjf³ee ³ee jeMfe³eve Òeelbee®ee 85 ìkekÌeÀs YeYteeie J³eeHeCeejer ÒecegKe veoer peieeleerue meJee&efOekeÀ ueebyeer®³ee veÐeeb c eOeer u e meeleJ³ee ¬eÀceeb k eÀeJej Deens . SleÎsMeer³e Keeìer peceeleermeeþer leer `Dee@me', vesvesìdmemeeþer `keÀesuelee' efkebÀJee `kegÀDee³e' lej mewyesejf ³eve ueelee&j peceeleermeeþer ner veoer `Gceej' ef k eb À Jee `Dees c eeme' veoer Deens . y³es u eg K ee HeJe&leeJejerue efnceveieeHeemetve Giece HeeJetve 700 efkeÀ.ceer ÒeJeeme keÀ©ve ³esCeejer keÀeletve veoer DeuleeF-keÀeFceOeer u e ef y e³emkeÀHeemet v e 25 efkeÀ.efce. DeblejeJej DeuleeF HeJe&lejepeerleerue lesueslmkeÀes³e mejesJejeHeemetve Giece HeeJeCeeN³ee efve³ee veoerle efJeueerve nesTve Dee@ye veoer yeveles. Dee@ye®eer ÒecegKe Oeeje kesÀJeU jMeer³eeletve®e Jeenle Demeueer , lejer ef l e®³ee GHeveÐee keÀPeeiemleeve, ®eerve lemes®e cebieesefue³eeletvener Jeenleele. Fjef ì Me ³ee ®eer v eceO³es Giece HeeJeCeeN³ee Je DeeOfekeÀ ueeybee®r³ee veoeMreer Deey@e®ee mebiece Peeu³eeJej efleuee DeveskeÀ HeÀeìs HegÀìleele. FjefìMe®³ee m$eesleeHeemetve les Dee@ye®³ee keÀeje meeiejele ecfeUCeeN³ee ceKgeeHe³el¥e®eer SkeÀtCe ueeybeer 5410 ekfeÀ.ecfe. SJe{er Deen.s SkeÀe$fele HeCes Deey@e Je FjefìMe veoer ÒeCeeueer ner ³esefvemeer ³eebiPeer Je Heerle veoer ³eeb®³ee KeeueesKeeue peieeleueer ®eJeL³ee

¬eÀceebkeÀe®eer ueebye veoer ÒeCeeueer Demetve efle®es Keesjs peJeUHeeme 30 ueeKe Jeie& efkeÀueesefceìj SJe{s ef J emle= l e Deens . ³ee Kees N ³eele le= C eceeU (Steppe), DeveeJe=Êeefyepe Je=#eJeves efkebÀJee ìwiee, oueoueer (swamps) , ìg b [ ^ e (tundra) Je JeeUJebìemece (desert like) ÒeosMe Deensle. Deey@e veoe®res leevre ìHHes He[leele : GOJe& Deey@e, ceO³e Dee@ye Je efvecve Dee@ye. GOJe& Dee@ye : keÀeletve Je efye³ee veÐeeb®³ee mebieceeletve yeveuesueer GOJe& Dee@ye HeefM®ece ÒeJeener Demetve DeveskeÀ ueneve ceesþîee ÜerHeebveer ³egkeÌle, meg H eer k eÀ ieeU DemeCeeN³ee keÀeþ Je leU ueeYeuesueer ner veoer ®eeefjMe veoerMeer mebiece Peeu³eeJej yeveef[ue MenjekeÀ[s GÊej efoMesves Jeenles. DeeCeKeer SkeÀe [eJeerkeÀ[tve ³esCeeN³ee Deues³e veoerMeer efle®ee mebiece Peeu³eeJej GOJe& Dee@ye®es Hee$e ©boeJeles. yevee&Gue MenjepeJeU Dee@ye®ee ÒeJeen Hegvne HeefM®eceskeÀ[s JeUlees DeeefCe ®egefceMe GHeveoeruee meeceeJetve Iesle Keesue yevelees. ³ee ìHH³eele GOJe& Dee@ye®³ee efkeÀl³eskeÀ ueneve ceesþîee MeeKee yeveleele Je DeveskeÀ mejesJejs osKeerue veoerJej efometve ³esleele. keÀecesvee-veeDeesyeer peJeU Hegvne GÊejskeÀ[s JeUle Dee@ye®eer Oeeje mebkeÀesef®ele nesle peeCeeN³ee ojerletve Jeenles. veesJneefmeefyekeÌme&®³ee Jejerue Debieeme Fvee³ee


12 GHeveoerMeer mebiece HeeJetve Dee@ye Heg{s yeebOeuesu³ee OejCeecegUs efJemleeaCe peueeMe³eele yeoueles. Heg{s ìe@ce veoeruee meeceeJetve Iesle Dee@ye DeeCeKeer ©boeJeles Je efle®eer Keesueer 2 les 6 efceìj nesles. ceO³e Dee@ye : ìe@ce®³ee mebieceeveblej®³ee ìHH³eeuee ceO³e Dee@ye cnìueb peeleb. ³ee ìHH³eele Jee³eJ³eskeÀ[s JeenCeeN³ee Dee@yeMeer GpeJeerkeÀ[tve ³esCeeN³ee efJeMeeue ®egefuece veoerMeer lej [eJ³ee Debieeves ³esCeeN³ee MesieekeÀe& veÐeebMeer Dee@ye®ee mebiece neslees Je leer DeefOekeÀ ©bo Je Keesue nesles, Heg{s ì^e@ce³esieve, l³eeefceve Je veeefPece ³ee GpeJeekreÀ[vte ³eCseeN³ee leme®se yeeuseMeec@e-³eigeve, eJfeMeeue meeefuece DeeefCe MesJeìer DeerjefìMe ³ee [eJeerkeÀ[tve ³esCeeN³ee veÐee Dee@yeceO³es efJeueerve nesleele. ³ee ceO³e Dee@ye®³ee ìHH³eeJej ©boer Je Keesueer Jeeþuesuee Dee@ye®ee ÒeJeen DeveeJe=Êe efyepe JeveebceOetve Jeenlees. Hegje®³ee keÀeUele Dee@ye®es HeeCeer ³ee ìHH³eele 24 les 80 efkeÀueesefceìj otjJej Hemejles Je 2-3 ceefnves lemes®e jenles. efvecve Dee@ye : FjefìMeMeer mebiece Peeu³eeveblej®³ee efvecve Dee@ye ìHH³eeJej HesjsefûekeÀvees³es He³e¥le ner veoer Jee³eJ³e ieeefceveer Demeles. l³eeHeg{s leer GÊejskeÀ[s ìwiee DejC³e Heej keÀjerle DejC³e-ìgb[e^ ÒeosMeele efMejles Je DeKesjerme efle®³ee ef$eYegpe ÒeosMeeHe³e¥le Hees®eles. ³ee ìHH³eele efvecve Dee@ye®eer Oeeje DeveskeÀ MeeKee GHeMeeKee iegbHeÀerle Je mejesJejs yeveJeerle Jeenles. Hesjsefûeyvees³es®³ee Keeue®³ee Debieeme Dee@ye®es ûesì (yeesueMee³ee) Dee@ye Je efueefìue (ceuee³e) Dee@ye ³ee MeeKeeble efÜYeepeve nesles. ûesì Dee@yeceO³es keÀePegce DeeefCe kegÀveesJele GHeveÐee meeceeJeleele lej eufeeìfue Deey@e®ee meemseJee, JnecseugkeÀe DeeeCfe emfev³ee veÐeeMbeer mebiece neslees. Dee@ye®³ee ³ee oesve MeeKee Hegvne MegM³e&keÀejer®³ee Keeue®³ee Debieeme SkeÀ$e ³esleele. Deelee Dee@ye®es Hee$e 19 efkeÀ.efce. ©bo Je 40 efceìj Keesue nesles. Heg{s Heesuegce veoerMeer mebiece Peeu³eeJej Dee@ye DeeCeKeer SkeÀoe Keeceevfeume Deey@e Je veeeOfece Deey@e MeeKeecbeO³es eJfeYeeieles Je e$feYepge ÒeoMsee®³ee Keeue®³ee ìeskeÀeMeer SkeÀ$e ³esle Dee@ye®es DeeKeele yeveles. Keeceevesume Dee@yeceO³es Me®et veoer®es ceerueve nesles lej veeefOece Dee@ye cegK³e Oeeje ÒeJeen jenles. Dee@ye®es DeeKeele ns peieeleerue meJee&le ceesþs DeeKeele 80 efkeÀ.efce. ©bo Je 800 efkeÀ.efce. Demetve l³ee®es Keesjs 105000 Jeie& efkeÀ.efce. SJe{s efJemle=le Deens. JeeleeJejCe : Dee@ye®³ee KeesN³eele ÒeoerIe& efnJeeUe Je $eesìkeÀ GvneUe Demelees. peevesJeejer ceefnv³eele mejemejer leeHeceeve 16 les 28 ef[ûeer mesefume³eme lej peguew ceO³es 4 les 20 ef[ûeer mesefume³eme Demeles. oef#eCeskeÀ[erue JeeUJebìer Yeeieele keÀceeue leeHeceeve 40 ef[ûeer mesefume³eme lej efkeÀceeve leeHeceeve DeuleeF HeJe&lejepeerle GCes 60 ef[ûeer mesefume³eme Demeles. HeeTmeceeve GÊejskeÀ[s Jeeef<e&keÀ 16 Fb®eentve keÀceer, ìwiee Jeveele 20 les 24 Fb®e lej ieJeleeU ÒeosMeele 12 les 14 Fb®e Demeles. DeuleeF HeJe&lejepeer®³ee oef#eCe GleejebJej cee$e 62 Fb®ee He³e¥le HeeTme neslee. GÊejskeÀ[s nercee®íeove 240 les 270 efoJeme lej oef#eCeskeÀ[s 160 les 170 efoJeme Demeles. Jeeef<e&keÀ efnce Je<ee&le Jeve#es$eele 24 les 36 Fb®e ìg[ b ^e #es$eele 12 les 30Fb®e, ieJeleeU

ceeUebJej 8 les 16 Fb®e lej HeJe&lejepeerle 80 Fb®eebHe³e¥le neslees. SefÒeue®³ee meg©Jeeleerme KeesN³eeleerue efnce efJeleUu³eeves GOJe& Dee@yeuee JeemebeflekeÀ Hetj ³eslees Je Hegvne DeuleeF HeJe&lejepeerleerue efnce efJeleUu³eeJej Hetj ³eslees. JeemebeflekeÀ Hetj peguew He³e¥le Deesmejlees HeCe Mejo $eÝletleerue HeeJemeecegUs meHìWyej - Dee@keÌìesyejceO³es HeeC³ee®eer HeeleUer Jee{le peeles. ceO³e Dee@ye ³ee HegjebHeemetve otj Demeueer lejer efle®es HeeCeer Jemeble Je ûeer<ceele Jee{uesues jenles. ns HeeCeer efnJeeȳeele ieesþs He³e¥le nUt nUt keÀceer nesle peeles. efvecve Dee@yeceO³es SefÒeue MesJeìeHeemetve ces®³ee HegJee&Oee&He³e¥le HeeC³ee®eer HeeleUer Gb®eeJeuesueer Demeles Je leer 4 ceefnves leMeer®e DeefOekeÀ jenles. Dee@keÌìesbyej mejleevee Dee@ye veoerleues HeeCeer ieesþe³euee ÒeejbYe nesJetve veesJnWyej®³ee DeKesjerme HetCe& veoer ieesþvt e peeles. GOJe& Dee@ye l³eeveblej 150 efoJeme lej efvecve Dee@ye 220 efoJeme ieesþuesueer Demeles. oef#eCe yevee&Gue #es$eele veesJnWyej les SefÒeue lej GÊejer meuesKeo& #es$eele Dee@keÌìesyej les petve veoer ieesþuesueer Demeu³eeves ÒeJeener Demele veener. Dee@ye®³ee HeeC³ee®eer #eejlee veieC³e Demeueer lejer ÒeefleJe<eea ner veoer 302 ue#e ìve #eej keÀeje mecegêele mees[les. veoer®³ee ÒeJeene yejesyej oj Je<eea SketÀCe 500 ue#e ìve IeveHeoeLe& keÀeje mecegêele Hees®eleele. JevemHeleer Je ÒeeCeer peerJeve : Dee@ye Je efle®³ee DemebK³e GHeveÐeeb®es efkeÀveejs Je l³eebleerue ÜerHes kegÀjCeebveer De®íeoueer Deensle. Hetj#es$ee yeensj, Gb®e ÒeosMeele HeeFve, efme[ej, efmeunj HeÀj, DemHesve Je efye®e& Je=#eeb®eer Jeves Deensle. veoer®³ee Hee$eepeJeU efJeuees mveesyee@ue, ye[&®esjer yekeÀLee@ve&, cevegkeÀe Je jeve-iegueeye Jee{leevee efomeleele. J³eeHeejer cenÊJeeb®³ee mìefpe&Dee@ve, vesucee, keÀcemeve, Penerj, Hesues[, HeeFkeÀ, yejyee@ì, mewyesefj³eve [sme, keÀeHe&, He®e& DeMee 50 ngve DeefOekeÀ ceeMeeb®³ee Òepeeleer Dee@ye, efle®³ee GHeveÐee Je mejesJejs ³eeble Dee{Uleele. yeHeÀe&®ee Lej pecee Peeu³eeves HeeC³eeleerue ÒeeCeJee³et keÀceer nesle peeTve Òel³eskeÀ efnJeeȳeele efìce veoer®³ee mebieceeHeemetve Lesì ef$eYegpe ÒeosMeeb He³e¥le®³ee Yeeieele Dee@yeceOeerue ceemes ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele ce©ve HeeC³eeJej lejibeleele. Deey@e®³ee KeeNs³eele e®fe®eêbger meejKes eofmeCeejs ³ejgeesHfe³eve


13 Je meyweesjf³eve ceeuse, DeceesjfkeÀve Je meyweesjf³eve ecfekbeÀ, SceeF&ve, keÀeusn,s uee[ b ie,s SukeÀ, MegYe´ memes (white hare) HeeCe Gboerj, keÀmlegjer Gboerj, HeeCe ceebpejs, (otters) HeeCe DemJeues (beavers) Demes kesÀmeeU memleve ÒeeCeer Je 170 ntve DeefOekeÀ He#eeb®³ee Òepeeleer osKeerue Jeeme keÀjleele. Òeot<eCe : meve 1945 les 48 ³ee keÀeUele Del³eble IeeF&ves jefMe³ee®³ee DeCetyeeBye ÒekeÀuHeebleie&le Huegìesefve³ece efvecee&Ce DeCetYeÆer DeeefCe Hegve: mebmkeÀjCe ³eemeeþer DeeseMf e³eeskeÌme& MenjepeJeU ce³eekeÀ efvecee&Ce ceb[U (Mayak pro duction Association) ner efJeMeeue DeCet megefJeOee (nuclear facility) GYeejC³eele Deeueer. ³ee efþkeÀeCeer 1957 meeueer Feflenemeeleerue SkeÀ ceneYe³ebkeÀj DeHeIeele Peeuee DeeefCe 750 Jeie& efkeÀ.efce He³e¥le®³ee #es$eele ekfeÀjCeelsmeieea HeoeLee®¥ee Je<eeJ&e Peeuee. Deepener ³ee ekfeÀjCeelsmeiee®&es HeejfCeece ef ì ket À ve Deens l e. ³ee ef J eYeeieeleer u e les ® ee ³ee Dee@ y e®³ee GHeveoer l e efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&DeJeefMe<ìeb®ee efJemeie& Deepener kesÀuee peele Deens. meve 2000 meeue®³ee SkeÀe DenJeeueevegmeej efkeÀl³eskeÀ menm$e ke̳etjerpe SJe{s efkeÀjefCelmeieea ìe³eìeefve³ece, mì^e@efvMe³ece Je mesefPe³ece les®ee veoerleerue 25 keÀesìer Ieveefceìjntve DeefOekeÀ HeeC³eele mees[ues peele nesles. Heesueeoer He[oe OeesjCeecegUs ³ee efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®es og<HeefjCeece peieeHeg{s ³esT MekeÀues vemeues lejer Deboepes 8000 ueeskeÀ ³eele ce=l³egcegKeer He[ues DemeeJesle. DeeCeKeer

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14

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15

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meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

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®eH@ìj 17 ë Yeeie 1

DeeOeejerle Deens. peerJeMeem$ee®³ee efJeefJeOe efJemle=le #es$eele keÀece keÀjCeejs le%e ³eele DeeHeues ³eesieoeve osle Deensle - pemes keÀerìkeÀMeem$e%e, jesieefveoevele%e, pevegkeÀMeem$e%e, MejerjefJe%eeve le%e, peerJejmee³eve Meem$e%e, He³ee&JejCeMeem$e%e. ns meJe& p eCe pew e f J ekeÀ ef v e³eb $ eCee®³ee veJ³ee Meem$ee®³ee GYeejCeermeeþer DeeHeues %eeve Je efveefce&leer®³ee DeeHeu³ee veJeveJ³ee keÀuHeveeb®eer Yej Ieeuele Deensle. pee@ve ne@HeefkeÀvme®es peerJeMeem$e%e ÒeesHesÀmej keÀeue& Heer mJe@vemeve cnCeleele, ’Òel³eskeÀ Meem$e ns Jeenl³ee veoermeejKes Demeles. l³ee®eer megªJeele DemHeä Je cegiOe mJeªHeele Demeles. l³ee®³ee megHle mebkeÀuHevee Jee ®e{Gleej, l³eeleerue keÀener Meg<keÀHeCes peeCeeje keÀeU efkebÀJee YejYeªve JeenCes, ns meJe& veoermeejKes Demeles. DeveskeÀ meb M ees O ekeÀeb ® es Heef j Þece Deeef C e Flej efJe®eejOeejebceOetve ³esCeejer ceeefnleer ³eecegUs leerme ieleer efceUle jneles. DeveskeÀ mebkeÀuHevee DeeefCe meeceev³ele: nUtnUt efJekeÀefmele nesle peeCeeN³ee efJeOeeveebcegUs ner veoer DeefOekeÀ®e Keesue Je efJemle=le nesle peeles. “ lesJne DeeOegevf ekeÀ ¢äerkeÀesveeletve ns pewefJekeÀ efve³eb$eCe Meem$eeMeer efveie[erle Deens. SKeeÐee MelekeÀeDeeOeer DecesefjkesÀle pewefJekeÀ efve³eb$eCee®eer DemHeäMeer meg © Jeele nes l eer . pes keÀer ì keÀ MeslekeÀN³eebvee $eemeoe³ekeÀ þjle nesles, l³eeb®³eeJej vewmeefie&keÀ Me$et mees[C³ee®ee Heefnuee Òe³elve kesÀuee iesuee. ne Òe³elve keÀener JesUe HeÀej ceboHeCes keÀece keÀª ueeieuee efkebÀJee keÀOeer cegUer®e keÀece Peeues veener. HeCe Deelee l³ee®³ee efJeue#eCe ³eMeecegUs GÊespevee efceUeu³eeves peesjoej ieleer Iesleueer Deens. pewefJekeÀ efve³eb$eCe HeOolener keÀener keÀeU og<keÀj Peeueer nesleer. keÀejCe keÀerìkeÀeb®ee DeY³eeme keÀjCeejs meJe&peCe 1940 meeueer MeesOe ueeieuesu³ee efJeefMeä veJ³ee keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀebveer ÒeYeeefJele Peeues DeeCes l³eebveer pewefJekeÀ HeOoleerkeÀ[s Heeþ efHeÀjJeueer. lesJne®e jemee³eefvekeÀ efve³eb$eCe ne®e efvel³e¬eÀce nesC³eeme megªJeele Peeueer.


16 leLeeefHe ns peie keÀer[peblet J³eefleefjkeÌle keÀjC³ee®es O³es³e ceeies He[les Deens. efveoeve Deelee ns lejer mHeä Peeues Deens keÀer, efve<keÀeUpeerHeCes Deefveye¥Oe Demee jmee³eveeb®ee JeeHej keÀerìkeÀebHes#ee DeeHeu³eemeeþer®e DeefleMe³e OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ Deens. pewefJekeÀ efve³eb$eCee®³ee veoer®ee ÒeJeen Hejle Jeent ueeieuee Deens DeeefCe l³eele veJ³ee efJe®eejÒeJeeneb®eer Yej He[les Deens. veJ³ee HeOoleercb eO³es keÀener meJeel&e DeekeÀ<ek&eÀ Deenlse, l³ee cnCepes keÀeìrkeÀe®beer mJele:®eer leekeÀo l³eeb®³ee®e efJeªOo JeeHejCes. keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee peerJeve Gpex®ee ÒeJeen l³eeb®ee veeMe keÀjC³eemeeþer JeeHeje³e®ee. ³eele meJee&le peemle JewefMeäîeHetCe& ¢äerkeÀesve Deens lees vej keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee vemeyeboer®ee. ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmed®³ee MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeleerue keÀerìkeÀMeem$ee®³ee mebMeesOeve MeeKes®es ÒecegKe [e@. S[Je[& efveHeefuebie DeeefCe l³eeb®es menkeÀejer ³eebveer ns leb$e efJekeÀefmele kesÀues. meeOeejCe HeeJe MelekeÀeHetJeea [e@. efveHeefuebie ³eebveer ¿ee DeefYeveJe HeOoleerves keÀerìkeÀ efve³eb$eCe keÀjC³ee®eer keÀuHevee ceeb[ueer. l³eecegUs l³eeb®es menkeÀejerner Dee½e³e&®ekeÀerle Peeues. l³eebveer Demee efmeOoeble ceeb[uee keÀer, pej ceesþîee mebK³esves vej keÀerìkeÀeb®eer vemeyeboer keÀªve l³eebvee mees[vt e efoues, lej keÀener eJfeeMfeä HeejfemfLeleelre vemeyeober keÀsueuses vej Flej peibeueer vejeybejeysej ³eMemJeerHeCes mHeOee& keÀª MekeÀleerue. DeeefCe JeejbJeej vemeyeboer Peeuesues vej mees[C³eele Deeues lej HeÀkeÌle efveyeeape Deb[er efveHepeleerue, pesCeskeÀªve keÀerìkeÀeb®eer mebK³ee cejCeHebLeeme ueeiesue. ³ee efmeOoebleeJej Flej Jew%eeefvekeÀebveer DeefJeéeeme oeKeefJeuee DeeefCe lees veeskeÀjMeener®³ee efojbieeF&le De[keÀuee. HeCe [e@. efveHeefuebie®³ee ceveele ner keÀuHevee ¢{HeCes Iej keÀªve nesleer. ns leb$e Òel³e#e ®eeb®eCeermeeþer IesC³eeDeeOeer SkeÀ ceesþer mecem³ee mees[Jee³e®eer jeefnueer nesleer keÀerìkeÀeb®eer vemeyeboer keÀjC³ee®eer meg³eesi³e HeOole MeesOee³e®eer nesleer. keÀerìkeÀebvee #e keÀerjCeeb®³ee (SkeÌme js) mebHekeÀe&le DeeCeues lej l³eeb®eer vemeyeboer nesT MekeÀles. ner JemlegefmLeleer DeY³eemeeletve 1916 meeueeHeemetve®e ceenerle nesleer, pesJne peer. S. jvej ³ee keÀerìkeÀMeem$e%eeves efmeiejsì yeerìuemed ³ee keÀerìkeÀeb®eer ³ee®e ÒekeÀejs vemeyeboer kesÀu³ee®ee DenJeeue efouee neslee. nce&ve c³etuej ³eebveer pes

ÒeeLeefcekeÀ Hee³ee IeeueCeejs keÀe³e& kesÀues les cnCepes, #e keÀerjCeeb®³ee GHe³eesieeves keÀerìkeÀebceO³es peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoue (c³egìsMeve) Ie[Jetve DeeCeues. ³ee Òe³eesieecegUs 1920 ®³ee DeKesjerme ³ee meboYee&le efJe®eej keÀjC³eemeeþer ceesþ®s e oeueve GIe[s Peeues DeeefCe ³ee MelekeÀe®³ee ceO³eeHe³e¥le ³eeJej keÀece keÀjCeeN³ee DeveskeÀebveer DenJeeue efoues keÀer, #e keÀerjCe efkebÀJee ieecee keÀerjCeeb®³ee mene³³eeves keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee efveoeve SkeÀ [Peve lejer ÒepeeleeR®eer vemeyeboer keÀjlee Deeueer. Hejbleg ner meieUer Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue Òeel³eef#ekesÀ nesleer. Òel³e#eele l³eeb®ee JeeHej neCses ns HeÀej ojt®es nelse.sæ [e.@evfeHeeufeibe ³eevbeer ieYbeejrHeCes Òe³elve keÀjC³ee®es þjefJeues. keÀerìkeÀeb®eer vemeyeboer ns Mem$e JeeHeªve l³eebveer oef#eCeskeÀ[erue iegjeb®ee cegK³e Me$et m¬etÀ Jee@ce& ³ee ceeMeeb®ee vee³eveeì keÀje³e®ee neslee. m¬etÀ Jee@ce& Òepeeleer®³ee ceeÐee G<Ce jkeÌlee®³ee iegjebvee Peeuesu³ee GIe[îee peKeceebceO³es Deb[er Ieeueleele. lesLes Deb[îeeletve yeensj Deeuesu³ee Deȳee HejpeerJeer Demeleele DeeefCe ³epeceeve ÒeeC³eeb®³ee cebemeeJej DeeHeues Hees<eCe keÀjleele. HetCe& Jee{ Peeuesueer iegjs peer ³ee Deȳee Jeentve vesle Demeleele, leer l³eeb®³ee megUmegUeìe®³ee mebmeiee&ves one efoJemeeb®³ee Deele yeUer He[t MekeÀleele. ³evgeeFì&[ s mììsmecdeO³es DeMee ÒekeÀejs iejge{ejse®bes neCseejs vekgeÀmeeve Deboepes ®eej keÀesìer [e@ueme& FlekesÀ Deens. pebieueer iegjbe®es ce=l³eg®es ÒeceeCe ceespeCes keÀþerCe®e Deens, lejerner les peemle®e DemeCeej. ìskeÌmeemeceOeerue keÀener Yeeieebleerue njerCeeb®³ee ogefce&Ules®ee mebyebOe m¬etÀ Jee@ce&Meer pees[uee peelees. ner keÀerìkeÀ Òepeeleer G<CekeÀìeryebOeeleerue efkebÀJee GHe G<CekeÀìeryebOeeleerue Deens. ¿eeb®es JeemleJ³e meeOeejCele: oef#eCe Je ceO³e DecesefjkesÀle DeeefCe ceseqkeÌmekeÀesle DeeefCe ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmed®³ee vew$eÝl³e YeeieeHe³e¥le ce³ee&efole Deens. 1933 ®³ee megceejeme, cee$e l³ebe®ee ÒeJesMe DeHeIeeleeves HeÌueesjer[ele Peeuee, pesLes efnJeeȳee®³ee ceesmeceelener les leietve jent MekeÀues DeeefCe DeeHeueer mebK³ee Jee{Jet MekeÀues. l³eeb®ee efJemleej Deieoer oef#eCe Deueeyeecee DeeefCe pee@efpe&³eeHe³e¥le Peeuee. ueJekeÀj®e Deives³e efoMeskeÀ[erue jep³eebceOeerue HeMegOeve GÐeesieeuee peJeUpeJeU oesve keÀesìer [e@ueme& Fleke̳ee Jeeef<e&keÀ vegkeÀmeeveeruee leeW[ ÐeeJes ueeieues. ìskeÌmeeme ³esLeerue MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeleerue Jew%eeefvekeÀebveer Fleke̳ee Je<ee&le


17 m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®eer peerJeMeem$eer³e ceeefnleer yeN³ee®e ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele SkeÀ$e kesÀueer. 1954 meeueeHe³e¥le, keÀener ÒeeLeefcekeÀ ®eeb®eC³ee HeÌueesjer[e yesìeb®³ee yeensjerue #es$eele Iesleu³eeveblej, [e@ efveHeefuebie l³eeb®³ee efmeOoebleevegmeej HetCe& ÒeceeCeele ®eeb®eCeer IesC³eeme meppe Peeues. ³eemeeþer, [®e mejkeÀej®³ee mene³³eeves, [e@. efveHeefuebie ke@Àjereyf e³eve mecegêeleerue ke̳egjemeeDees yesìeJej iesues, pes yesì cegK³e YetYeeieeHeemetve efJeYeeieues peeTve mecegêele efveoeve 50 cewue Deele nesles. Deei@emì 1954®³ee meª g Jeeleemre HeuÌeejse[ r e ³eLseeure MelsekeÀer eJfeYeeiee®³ee Òe³eesieMeeUsle, m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®eer peesHeemevee keÀªve l³eeb®eer vemeyeboer keÀjC³eele Deeueer DeeefCe ke̳egjeefMeDees®³ee 400 ®eewjme cewue HeefjmejeJej oj DeeþJe[îeeuee efJeceeveeletve HemejefJeC³eele Deeues. peJeUpeJeU ueies®e®e, Òe³eesieemeeþer jeKeuesu³ee yekeÀN³eebJej ceesþîee mebK³esves pecee nesCeejs Deb[îeeb®es HegbpekesÀ nUtnUt keÀceer nesT ueeieues, lemes®e l³eeb®es Òepevevener ceboeJeues. ns vemeyeboer kesÀuesues m¬etÀ Jee@ce& HemejefJeC³eeme megªJeele kesÀu³eeHeemetve meele DeeþJe[îeeveblej meJe& Deb[er JebO³e efveIeeueer. ueJekeÀj®e SkeÀner Deb[îee®es peeU,s veeHeekreÀ Jee Dev³e keÀmenser meeHe[Ces ce<gkeÀeure Peeue.s ke³ÌejgeeMfeDeecseOevte m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®ee Kejs®e vee³eveeì keÀjC³eele Deeuee. ke̳egjesefMeDee ³esLeerue mebHetCe& ³eMemJeer Òe³eesieecegUs HeÌueesjer[eleerue HeMegOeve Jee{efJeCeeN³eeb®eer GlmegkeÀlee Jee{ueer. l³eebvee m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®³ee DeefjäeHeemetve megìkeÀe efceUefJeC³eemeeþer leMee®e ÒekeÀej®es Òe³eesie nJes nesles. pejer leguevesle ¿ee De[®eCeer Òe®eb[ ÒeceeCeele nesl³ee -íesìîee ke@ÀjerefyeDeve yesìebntve 300 Heì ceesþe Heefjmej neslee ö 1957 ceO³es ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmed®³ee MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieele DeeefCe HeÌueesjer[e jep³emejkeÀej ¿eebveer ¿ee efJeveeMee®³ee keÀeceemeeþer Hewmes HegjefJeC³eeme megªJeele kesÀueer. ³ee ÒekeÀuHeele Keeme keÀªve yeebOeuesu³ee `ceeMeeb®ee keÀejKeev³eele' oj DeeþJe[îeeuee 50 oMeue#e m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®es GlHeeove nesle Demes. l³eemeeþer DeeOeer®e Jeerme efJeceeveeb®eer ojjespe Hee®e les mene leeme G·eCee®eer ³eespevee keÀjC³eele Deeueer. Òel³eskeÀ efJeceeve, #e-efkeÀjCe p³eeb®³eeJej Hee[ues Deensle DeMee 200 les 400 ceeMeeb Demeuesues keÀeieoer KeeskesÀ Jeentve vesle Demes. 1957 58®³ee Leb[ieej efnJeeȳeele, pesJne GÊej HeÌueesjer[euee

ieejþCeeN³ee nJeeceeveeves Iesjues nesles DeeefCe m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®eer mebK³ee Ieìueer nesleer Je l³ee ceeMee Lees[îeeMee®e ÒeosMeele De[keÀu³ee nesl³ee, lesJne®e veJeerve keÀe³e&¬eÀce neleer IesC³eeme DeveHesef#ele mebOeer efceUeueer. meeOeejCe 17ceefnves mebHelee mebHelee ne keÀe³e&¬eÀce mebHetCe& Peeuee Demes ceeveC³eele Deeues. mee[sleerve Deype Fleke̳ee ke=Àef$eceHeCes Jee{efJeuesu³ee m¬etÀ Jee@ce& ceeMeeb®eer vemeyeboer keÀªve, l³ee HeÌueesjer[ele DeeefCe pee@efpe&³eele Je Deueeyeecee®³ee keÀener efJeYeeieeleerue Heefjmejele mees[u³ee iesu³ee. m¬etÀ Jee@ce&Meer mebyebefOele MesJeì®eer mebmeie& Peeuesueer peKece meeHe[ueer leer HesÀye´gJeejer 1959meeueer. Heg{u³ee keÀener DeeþJe[îeele efkeÀl³eskeÀ vej ceeMee meeHeȳeele De[keÀu³ee. l³eeveblej m¬etÀ Jee@ce& ceeMeeb®ee keÀener®e ceeiecetme ueeieuee veener. Jee³eJ³e efoMeskeÀ[erue Yeeieele l³eeb®ee HetCe& vee³eveeì Peeu³ee®es efmeOo Peeues. cetueYetle mebMeesOeve, ef®ekeÀeìer DeeefCe efpeÎ ³eeletve efceUeuesu³ee Jew%eeefvekeÀ ef¬eÀ³eeMeerueles®³ee ceneve efJepe³ee®es ns Òeel³eef#ekeÀ Deens. Deelee efceefmemeerHeerleerue l³eebvee JesieUs þsJeC³eemeeþer kesÀuesu³ee cees®exyeboercegU,s Jee³eJ³eskeÀ[tve Hegvne ³esCeeje m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®ee ueeW{e jesKetve Oejuee peelees. ceseqkeÌmekeÀesJej Hegvne nesCeeN³ee nuu³ee®eer Meke̳elee DeeefCe l³eele meceeefJeä Demeuesuee efJemleerCe& YetYeeiee®ee efJe®eej keÀjlee, l³eeb®es mebHetCe& efvece&tueve keÀjCes ns DeJeIe[ keÀe³e& Deens. lejermegOoe, ne HeCe G®eueCes HeÀej keÀþerCe Deens DeeefCe MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®ee Demee keÀener keÀe³e&¬eÀce DeeKeC³ee®ee efJe®eej efomelees keÀer, p³ee®³ee DeeKeCeerletve m¬etÀ Jee@ce&®eer mebK³ee efveoeve DeefleMe³e keÀceer ÒeceeCeele þsJelee ³esF&ue. keÀoeef®ele ìskeÌmeeme DeeefCe Jee³eJ³eskeÀ[erue Flej mebmeie& Peeuesu³ee Heefjmejele ueJekeÀj®e Demee keÀe³e&¬eÀce jeyeefJeuee peeF&ue. m¬etÀ Jee@ce& ceesnerces®³ee Glke=Àä ³eMeeves Deelee leer®e HeOole Flej keÀerìkeÀebmeeþer JeeHejC³ee®eer GlmegkeÀlee Òe®eb[ Jee{ueer Deens. DeLee&le®e, meJe& keÀerìkeÀebmeeþer les Meke̳e veener. ³ee leb$eekeÀjerlee Òe³eesie keÀjC³eeme ³eesi³e Demes keÀerìkeÀ, lemes®e l³eeb®ee peerJeve Fefleneme, l³eeb®³ee mebK³esleerue Ieveles®es ÒeceeCe DeeefCe l³eeb®eer efkeÀjCeeslmeejeJejerue Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee ³eeJej KetHeMee ieesäer DeJeuebyetve Deensle. ¬eÀceMeë

JeveeHfeibeUe meJbeOev&e eofJeme ë efceUJelee ³esF&ue lemes®e jemee³eefvekeÀ

leervener me$es Del³eble ceesuee®eer ceeefnleer osCeejer nesleer. ³ee me$eebveblej meJe& ueeskeÀebmeesyele ®e®ee&me$e IesC³eele Deeues. ueeskeÀeb®³ee ceveeleerue ÒeMve, DebOeÞe×e, Jev³epeerJeebyeÎue®eer ceeefnleer Demes DeveskeÀ efJe<e³e ³ee ®e®ee&me$eele neleeUues iesues. He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[UeleHexÀ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele, megneme HeJeej Je megYee<e Fmeeces ³eebveer keÀe³e&MeeUsle GHeefmLele jentve ®e®ee&me$eebceO³es menYeeie Iesleuee.

Mesleer ve keÀjlee peefceveerleerue meWêer³e keÀye& keÀmes Jee{Jelee ³esF&ue ³eeyeÎue ceeie&oMeve kesÀues. l³eebveer DeeHeu³eemeesyele mebJeefOe&le kesÀuesu³ee HeejbHeejerkeÀ efye³eeC³eeb®³ee peeleeR®es vecegves meg×e ÒeoMe&veemeeþer þsJeues nesles. mLeeefvekeÀ MeslekeÀN³eeb®³ee %eeveele ³ee me$eecegUs ceesuee®eer Yej He[ueer. Heg{erue me$e [e@. Deej.Sce.{esues-osJejeF& HeÀeGb[sMeve HegCes- ³eeb®es nesles. ceneje<ì^eleerue osJeje³ee Je l³eeb®es cenÊJe l³eebveer ueeskeÀebvee HeìJetve efoues. mLeeefvekeÀ Pee[s, JevemHeleer, l³eeb®es Deew<eOeer iegCeOece& Je J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ¢<ìîee cenÊJe ³eeyeÎue l³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. l³ee®eyejesyej mLeeefvekeÀ JeeCee®es mebJeOe&ve keÀmes keÀjeJes ³eeyeÎue GHe³egkeÌle ceeefnleer efoueer. DeecejeF&, osJejeF&, Heb®eJeìer, ef®eb®eesuee ³ee mebkeÀuHevee vekeÌkeÀer keÀe³e Deensle ns l³eebveer mHe<ì keÀsue.s [e.@ {euses ³eevbeemre× g e Yeejlee³re Pee[e®b³ee eyfe³ee ÒeoMev&eemeeþer cee[ b u³ee nesl³ee.


18

HeÀgueJee

yeï´e keÀceUe®³ee MeeOseele...

Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 9324565060 meve 1931. ie{Jeeue efnceeue³eeleu³ee 25,447 HetÀì Gb®eer®es keÀecesì efMeKej mene Fbie´pe efie³ee&jesnkeÀebveer mej kesÀues. hejleer®³ee ceeiee&Jej OeJeueer ojerleu³ee iecemeeueer ieeJeele les Glejues, leesJej meJe& þerkeÀ nesleb. ceevmetve®eb Deeieceve Peeueb nesleb. Jeeìe Deesu³ee nesl³ee. l³ee JeeleeJejCeele DeesueeJee, Leb[er, ieeWieeì, ieej Jeeje ieesþJele neslee. DebieeJej®es efYepeuesues keÀhe[s efLepele nesles. efLepeuesu³ee keÀhe[îeeb®eer Leb[er JeeleeJejCeeleu³ee Leb[erle Yej Ieeuetve De#ejMeë ne[ebvee ieesþJele nesleer. Jeeì kegÀþs Deens, ³ee®ee keÀener heÊee veener. heg{s keÀe³e? ³ee®ee efJe®eej keÀjle Demeleevee®e De®eevekeÀ l³ee ®ecetleuee Jevemheleerlep%e nesu[mJeLe& Deesj[uee, `` ns yeIee!!'' `efÒeceguee' yeIeCeb peje DeJeIe[®e nesleb, heCe pesJne vepej eqmLejeJeueer ueebye heJe&leeb®³ee Ke[keÀebJej efveȳee jbieeb®es leeìJes efomeues. l³ee efveȳee jbieeves heJe&leeb®³ee keÀ[e GpeUu³ee nesl³ee. ceie keÀe³e? Leb[er, MeerCe, ogëKe meieUb SkeÀeSkeÀer efJemeje³euee Peeueb. l³ee ojer®³ee efoMesves Glejuees lemes osKeC³ee®³ee HegÀueebveer DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee cebo megJeemeeves Iesjueb. efveȳee heekeÀȳeebJej he[Ceejs heeJemee®es LeWye l³eeb®³ee meeQo³ee&le DeeCeKeerve®e Yej Ieeuele nesles. Keeueer ojerle DemebK³e he´keÀej®eer JewefJeO³ehetCe& HegÀueb nesleer. HegÀueebvee ve leg[Jelee SkeÀner heeTue ìekeÀCeb DeJeIe[ nesleb. HeBÀ´ keÀ eqmceLe ³ee efie³ee&jesnkeÀeves `Jn@ueer Dee@HeÀ HeÌuee@Jeme&' ceO³es efueefnuesueb ns JeCe&ve. heg{s ³ee hegmlekeÀeheemetve he´sjCee IesTve peesDeeve ceeiee&jìs uesies ³ee ojelre pevte 1939 ceO³es oeKeue Peeuee.r FLeu³ee HeÀguee®bee DeY³eeme keÀje³euee elfeuee Fibue[®³ee je³@eue yeeìse@vfekeÀue iee[v&eves heeþJeueb. HegÀueb DeesUKeCeb, ieesUe keÀªve l³eeb®es J³eJeeqmLele peleve keÀjC³eele leer lep%e nesleer®e cnCee. ogozJeeves, ns keÀece keÀjle Demeleevee hee®eJ³ee®e efoJeMeer keÀ[îeeJeªve he[tve efle®ee ce=l³et Peeuee. efle®³ee mce=leerle efle®³ee yeefnCeerves FLes®e Le[ieb yeebOeueb DeeefCe l³eeJej ‘I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help’ DeeefCe Deepe Jevemheleerhe´cs eer, ì^skeÀme&

DeeJepetv& e ³ee Le[i³eeuee Yesì osleele. `Jn@ueer Dee@HeÀ HeÌuee@Jeme&' ®eer DeesUKe pejer He´BÀkeÀ eqmceLeves keÀªve efoueer Demeueer lejer mLeeefvekeÀ ueeskeÀebvee `vebove keÀeveve' heefj®e³ee®es nesles®e. FLes heN³ee KesUe³euee ³esleele DeMeerner SkeÀ

mecepetle Deens. `vebove keÀeveve'cnCepes Fbêe®eer yeeie Demeener GuuesKe Dee{Ulees. FLeu³ee veoerle HegÀueb Jeenleevee heentve heeb[Jeebveer ³eeuee `Heg<heJeleer' veeJe efoues, DeMeerner SkeÀ DeeK³eeef³ekeÀe Deens. SkebÀoj keÀe³e, lej FLeueer Pee[b, heeveb, HegÀueb meJe& %eele nesles. FLeueer pewJeefJeefJeOelee ue#eele IesTve l³eeb®³ee mebJeOe&veemeeþer mebhetCe& heefjmeje®es Deepener mebj#eCe kesÀues peeles. heefM®ece efnceeue³ee®³ee heefjmejele DemebK³e ÒeosMeefveÿ (HeÀÊeÀ heefM®ece efnceeue³eele Dee{UCeeN³ee) JevemheleeR®³ee mebj#eCeeLe& 1982 meeueer veboeosJeer ve@Meveue heeke&À®ee opee& efceUeuee, lej 2005 meeueer `³egvesmkeÀes'ves ner pewJeefJeefJeOelee mebheVe HegÀueeb®eer ojer `peeieeflekeÀ Jeejmee mLeU' cnCetve Ieese<f ele kesÀueer. meHbeCte& heejfmej YeeiweeesufekeÀ, peewJfekeÀ DeeeCfe Jevemhelee®r³ee ¢äevres DeeÜflee³re Deens. mecegêmeheeìerheemetve ³ee®eer Gb®eer 3,200 les 6,675 ceerìj (megceejs 10 npeej les 20 npeej HetÀì) SJe{er Deens. heg<heeJeleer veoer®³ee KeesN³eele JeenCeejs DeveskeÀ ueneveceesþs Dees{,s efnceefMeKejebyejesyej Jeentve Deeuesuee ieeU ³ee meieȳeecegUs ne heefjmej pewJeefJeefJeOeles®³ee ¢äerves SkeÀcesJeeefÜleer³e Peeuee Deens. lemes®e, ³ee heefjmejele DeveskeÀ ueneveceesþer leUerosKeerue Deenssle. veeieleue ³ee leȳee®³ee YeesJeleer DemebK³e efJe<eejer Jevemheleerner Dee{Uleele. evfeJJeU `Jnu@eer DeeH@eÀ HeuÌeeJ@eme'& ®³ee 87.50 ®ee.wekfeÀcee®r³ee heefjmejele®e 521 he´peeleer®³ee Jevemheleer Dee{Uleele. ³eeceO³es 72 JevemheleeR®³ee kegÀUeb®ee meceeJesMe Deens. Heeve 25 Jej...


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ekfeÀìkeÀe®b³ee eJfeMJeele ³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338

PeUeUles G[les `keÀemeJe'... Mejerje®³ee Heg{®³ee DeeefCe yeepeg®³ee Yeeieeuee pees HeejoMe&keÀ Yeeie Demelees lees Deieoer lebleesleble keÀemeJeemeejKee efomelees cnCetve ³eebvee `keÀemeJe {eueefkeÀ[s' cnCeleele. Òeew{ keÀer[îee®³ee DebieeJejerue HebKee®³ee keÀ[e peemle ÒemejCe HeeJeuesu³ee Demeleele. l³eeb®³ee [eske̳ee®³ee DeeefCe Mejerje®³ee YeeieeHes#ee l³ee peemle yeensj Deeu³ee Demeleele. ne Yeeie efyevejbiee®ee DeeefCe HeejoMe&keÀ Demelees. keÀemeJee®es pemes {erueerletve ®eej Hee³e DeeefCe MesHegì yeensj ³esles lemes®e efþHekesÀ ³ee HeejoMe&keÀ jbieeJej Demeleele. ³ee ÒekeÀej®es {euekeÀer[s ns peieeleerue meJee&le megboj DeeefCe jbieeryesjbieer Demeu³eecegUs l³eeb®ee JeeHej oeieerves yeveJeerC³eekeÀjlee neslees. efvemeiee&le efHeÀjleevee ns keÀer[s DeefleMe³e menpe Flejeb®es ue#e JesOetve Iesleele, keÀejCe ¿eeb®ee PeUeUCeeje, ®ecekeÀCeeje meesvesjer jbie. ns keÀer[s jleeUs DeeefCe l³ee peeleer®³ee Flej Pee[ebJej Jee{leele. ³ee {euekeÀer[îee®eer ceeoer Heeveeb®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepeguee Deb[er Ieeueles. Deb[îeelegve ®eej les mene efoJemeele Deȳee yeensj ³esleele. Deȳee yeensj Deeu³ee Deeu³ee Heeves Kee³euee megjJeele keÀjleele Ô³ee Deȳee ®eHeìîee HeerJeUì jbiee®³ee Demegve l³eeb®³eeJej HeÀebÐee Demeuesues keÀeìs Demeleele. ¿ee Deȳeeb®es SkeÀ cepesoej JewefMe<ìîe cnCepes l³eebveer keÀele ìekeÀuesueer pegveer keÀele[er DeeefCe l³eeb®eer efJe<þe l³eeb®³ee MejerjeJejerue keÀeìîeebJej l³ee meebYeeUtve þsJeleele. ns keÀeìsmegOoe JewefMe<ìîeHegCe& Demeleele DeeefCe nuet MekeÀleele. l³eecegUs les kegÀþu³eener efoMesuee l³eeb®³eeJej®es meeceeve HeÀerjJet MekeÀleele. ³ee®³eecegUs l³eeb®³ee DeibeeJej SkeÀ ÒekeÀej®eer mejb#ekeÀ {eue®e le³eej nelse.s l³ee®b³ee yeN³ee®eM³ee Ye#ekeÀeHbeemevge l³eeb®es mebj#eCe nesles.

Tortoiseshell Beetles Tortoise beetles range between 9 and 12 mm in length and resemble a tortoise because of the forward and sideways extensions of the body. In some western countries tortoise beetles are among the most brilliantly colored coleopterans and are used in making jewellery. These insects easily attract the attention of nature lovers due to their brilliant and attractive metallic golden colors. The golden tortoise beetle is associated with sweet potato and related species such as morning glory, Ipomoea species. On this plant, the entire life cycle takes place. Eggs are laid in-groups and are cemented together in a paperlike egg capsule whose thin brown layers separate and camouflage them. The larvae, which hatches in four to six days burrows directly through the egg capsule and feed on the leaf epidermis. Larvae are broad and flattened and adorned with branched spines. They are always in groups say 30 to 40 upto 100 on a single underside of the leaf. When the beetle emerges it is white in color then it changes its color gradually into orange and then finally metallic gold.

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901

Dev@eecseu@eme veJeeye Meem$eer³e veeJe ë Hee@ueer³egje Deûe@jer³ee kegÀue ë efvecHe@Àefue[er GHekegÀue ë ke@ÀjskeÌPeerveer ns HegÀueHeeKeª ÒeLeceoMeea keÀe@ceve veJeeyemeejKes efomeles. yeejkeÀeF&ves Heeefnu³eeveblej cee$e oesIeebceOeuee HeÀjkeÀ ue#eele ³eslees. ³ee®³ee HebKeeb®ee efJemleej 95 les 100 efceefce Demetve jbie efHeÀkeÀì efHeJeUmej Demeleele. HebKee®eer yeepet cegK³ele: leHeefkeÀjer jeKee[er jbiee®eer Demetve ceO³eYeeieer oesvner HebKe efceUtve ceesþe Je ªbo Demee efHeÀkeÀì efHeJeUmej HeÆe Demelees. Heg{erue HebKee®es ìeskeÀ efvecegUles Demetve l³eeJej oesve efHeJeUs efþHekesÀ Demeleele. ³ee oesve efþHeke̳eeb®³ee Keeueer SkeÀ Gueìe efþHekeÀe Demelees. Keeue®³ee HebKee®es ìeskeÀ efvecegUles Demetve oesve MesHeìîee Demeleele. HebKeeb®³ee yeensjerue keÀ[ebJej efveUmej jbiee®eer PeekeÀ, kebÀmee®³ee DeekeÀeje®³ee KegCee Demeleele. HebKeeb®eer Jej®eer yeepet keÀeUmej leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®eer Demetve l³eeJej Jejerue yeepetJej Demeuesues efHeJeUs efþHekesÀ Je ceO³eJeleea HeÆe l³ee®e efþkeÀeCeer Demelees. DeekeÀej meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes $eerkeÀesCeeke=Àleer Demelees. G·eCe JesieJeeve Je ®eHeU Demetve cee®e& les veesJnWyej ³ee ceefnv³eele G[leevee efomeles. ³ee HegÀueHeeKejeuee ef®eKeueHeeve, HeePejCeeje Je=#ejme, peemle Peeuesueer HeÀUs DeeJe[leele. oef#eCe Yeejleele iegpejeleHe³e¥le, njer³eevee, efncee®eue ÒeosMe, GÊejeb®eue FLes ns efomeles. peieele vesHeeU Je ÞeeruebkeÀe ³ee osMeebceOes Dee{Ules. Kewj, keÀeUe efMeefj<e ³ee Pee[ebJej ns HegÀueHeeKeª Deb[er Ieueles.

Anomalous Nawab Sc Name - Polyura agraria Family - Nymphalidae Sub-family - Charaxinae Anomalous Nawab is bigger than Common Nawab with wing span of 95-100 mm and paler in colour. Basic colour of underwing is browinish grey with a tinge of blue on the edges and a large, paler, broad central band connecting both the wings. The forewing tip is more acute whereas the hind wing is pointed with two tails. Near the forewing appex are two yellow dots with a bigger one turned upside down towards the central band. The edges have bluish tint and chain of arc like distinct markings. The upperwing colour is uniformly dark brown with the paler central band and yellow spots at the same place as that of underwing. Overall it is a tringular shaped butterfly. Flight is strong and swift. Likes mud puddling, oozing tree sap, rotten fruits. Found in plains as well as hilly area. Found below 2,000 meters in Himalaya. In India it is found in South India upto Gujrat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranachal Pradesh. In the world it is found in Nepal and Sri Lanka. It lay eggs on Acacia catechu (Cutch Tree, Black catechu), Albizia chinensis (Chinese Albizia).


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Deeu³ee®eer Iejielgeer ueeieJe[ Je<e&YejeHetJeea ceeP³ee SkeÀe efce$eeves

Hej[er HeÀe[svte yeenjs ³eT s ve³es ner DeHe#see keÀjC³eeeMfeJee³e ceeP³ee neleele keÀener veene.r DevekgeÀtue Ie[ues lej GÊece®e HeCe ÒeelfekeÀtue Dee[ue,s cnCepes DeeCeKeer Jee{vte Hej[e®r³ee yeenjs Deeue.s lej ceer ceePeer leugevee Leec@eme DeuJee S[emreveMeer keÀje³euee ceekseÀUe ! Deeues keÀMeeÒekeÀejs Jee{t MekeÀle veener ¿ee®ee Heenfuee JemleHteeþ ecfeUeuee cnCevte !

DeMeeskeÀ DeebyeskeÀj aashokain@gmail.com

HeeC³ee®eer SkeÀ efueìj®eer yeeìueer keÀeHetve l³eele ueeJeuesu³ee Deeu³ee®³ee Pee[e®ee HeÀesìes ceuee HeeþJeuee neslee. ner iees<ì ceuee De®eevekeÀ DeeþJeueer Je ceer HeCe ne Òe³eeise keÀje³e®es þjeJfeue.s l³eeves kesÀuesu³ee Òe³elveele SkeÀ ®etkeÀ Peeueer. Deeu³eeuee Jee{e³euee peeiee keÀceer He[ueer DeeefCe les Kegjìues. ceer leer ®etkeÀ keÀjCeej veJnlees ! ceeP³eekeÀ[s ef o JeeUer Yes ì er ojc³eeve SkeÀ HueeefmìkeÀ®eer Hej[er Deeueer nesleer. Deboepes yeeje Fb®e J³eemee®eer. l³eele ceer Òe³eesie keÀje³e®es þjefJeues. Iejemeceesjerue Pee[eKeeueer SkeÀ yeeF& iesueer efkeÀl³eskeÀ Je<ex efcej®³ee keÀesefLebyeerj DeeefCe meeiejer cesLeer efJekeÀe³euee yemeles. ( Pee[eKeeueer yemeCeejer cnCetve ieuueerleu³ee HesÀjerJeeu³eeveer efle®es veeJe meelreeceeF& cnCevte þJseues Deen.s l³ee meelreeceeF& keÀ[tve ceer veerì Heentve petve Deeues efJekeÀle Iesleues. l³eeleerue SkeÀ Fb®e Deeu³eeuee ®eebieues leerve [esUs nelse.s Iejeleeure Deeus³ee keÀ®eN³eeHeemevte yeveeJfeueuses kebÀHeesmì DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue keÀ[tve DeeCeuesues ieeb[tUKele ³eeb®es efceÞeCe Lees[îee ceeleerle Ieeleues. Hej[erletve ceeleer yeensj peeT ve³es cnCetve vee³euee@ve®es keÀeHe[, pes l³ee®e efoJeeUer Yesìer®³ee He@ e f k eb À iemeeþer JeeHejues nes l es , les DeeleceOes DeebLejues. l³eeJej HeeCeer Oe©ve jneJes cnCetve veejUe®³ee Me[ W îee neleeves veeìr eJfe®be©ve Ieeleu³ee. l³eeJej ceeleer®³ee efceÞeCee®ee oer[ Fb®ee®ee Lej efouee Je ceO³eYeeieer Deeu³ee®ee lees legkeÀ[e Dee[Jee þsTve l³eeJej Hejle SkeÀ Fb®ee®ee ceeleer®ee Lej efouee. nueke̳ee neleeves HeeCeer Ieeleues. megceejs Deeþ efoJemeeveer ceeleerletve Deeu³ee®ee efnjJee keÀeWye Jej Deeuee. jespe DeemegmeuesHeCeeves ceer Pee[e®eer Jee{ Henele neslees ! ceefnv³eeYejele SkeÀe®es leerve keÀeWye Peeues Deve lejeªve peesceeves Jee{t ueeieues. Deelee GlmegkeÀlee nesleer peefceveerKeeueerue Jee{er®eer. keÀenerJesU leer Leebyeu³eemeejKeer Jeeìueer. cnCetve ceer Hejle DeO³ee& Fb®ee®ee ieeb[U t Kelee®ee Lej ®e{efJeuee. l³eeves®e keÀer veener les meebiele ³esle veener, HeCe Deeþ SkeÀ

efoJemeebveer cetU peeiesHeemetve SkeÀ Fb®eeJej Demes meJe& yeepetves keÀeWye HegÀìt ueeieues. yenej Deeueer ! Deevebo Peeuee. Deelee HeefjefmLeleer DeMeer Deens keÀer DeveskeÀ yeepetveer keÀeWye HegÀìues Deensle. ceeleerletve efpeLes keÀeWye Jej ³eslees lesLeerue keÀeWyee®eer pee[er DeOee& les HeeTCe Fb®ee®eer Deens. Hej[er SJe{er Yejie®®e Peeueer Deens keÀer ÒeMve He[eJee keÀer yeeyeejs Deelee let DeeCeKeer efkeÀleer peeiee J³eeHeCeej Deensme? oCekeÀì JeeìCeejer Hej[er Deelee Deeu³ee®³ee Jee{evres Keeue®³ee yeepevtes G®ekeÀìueer Deen.s ceO³es SkeÀe MeslekeÀjer efce$eeuee HeÀesve keÀ©ve efJe®eejues keÀer Deeu³ee®es HeerkeÀ I³ee³euee efkeÀleer efoJeme ueeieleele DeeefCe les keÀe{Ceerme le³eej Peeues Demes mecepeeJes. ceer Deelee Jeeì Henelees Deens Heeves mekgeÀC³ee®ee!r ueeJeu³eeuee Deboepes DeeþSkeÀ ceefnves Peeues Deensle. HeCe Pee[e®es cee$e Jee{lee Jee{lee Jee{s ®eeueues Deens ! Hej[er HeÀes[tve yeensj ³esT ve³es ner DeHes#ee keÀjC³eeefMeJee³e ceeP³ee neleele keÀener veene.r DevekgeÀtue Ie[ues lej GÊece®e HeCe ÒeelfekeÀtue Dee[ues, cnCepes DeeCeKeer Jee{tve Hej[er®³ee yeenjs Deeue.s lej ceer ceePeer leugevee Leec@eme DeuJee S[er m eveMeer keÀje³euee cees k eÀUe ! Deeues keÀMeeÒekeÀejs Jee{t MekeÀle veener ¿ee®ee Heefnuee JemletHeeþ efceUeuee cnCetve !


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yeï´e keÀceUe®³ee MeeOseele... FlekesÀ JewefJeO³ehetCe& JevemheleeR®es he´keÀej Demeleevee Yeejleer³e ìheeue Keel³eeves efveJe[keÀ ®eej he´peeleeRvee efnceeue³eeleueer Keemeb HegÀueb cnCetve efveJe[ues. ³eeceO³es `keÌJeerve Dee@HeÀ efnceeue³eeped', `yu³et Hee@Heer', `iegue S efveuece', `Fv³etuee ûeB[erHeÌueesje', `HeesMekesÀMej', `De@jermeeiescee', `keÀesye´e eufeueer ekEeÀJee meHek&eÀbgYe' DeeeCfe `yeï´ekeÀceU' ³ee HeÀguee®bee hee´ceKg³eeves meceeJeMse Deens. l³eehewkeÀer ceePee MeesOe ye´ïekeÀceUe®ee neslee. Jeeìsle DemebK³e ueeskeÀ Yesìues DeeefCe he´l³eskeÀeuee ye´ïekeÀceU ceenerle nesles DeeefCe he´l³eskeÀeves les yeefIeleuesner nesles. ueeskeÀebMeer yeesueleevee SJe{er ceeefnleer efceUle iesueer DeeefCe ner HegÀueb yeIeC³ee®eer GlkebÀþe DeefOekeÀ®e Jee{le iesueer. ye´ïekeÀceU hetJeea GÊej he´osMee®es jep³e HetÀue nesles. Yeejlee®es meJee&le ceesþs jep³e veesJnWyej 2000 ceO³es efJeYeeieues iesues DeeefCe GÊejeKeb[ ³ee veJ³ee jep³ee®eer mLeehevee Peeueer. ceie he´Mve Deeuee, lees ceeveef®evne®ee. ye´ïekeÀceUe®ee. veJ³ee jep³eeves meJe& keÀener veJ³eeves keÀjeJes Demeb ie=nerle Oeju³eeme ye´ïekeÀceU GÊej he´osMeekeÀ[s jene³euee nJeb nesleb. heCe, ye´ïekeÀceU cegUele GÊejeKeb[ele GieJeleb. l³eeuee ueeieCeeje Gb®e Leb[ he´osMe cegUele GÊejeKeb[ele Demeu³eecegUs GÊej he´osMee®es jep³e HetÀue þsJeC³eeme keÀener leL³e veJnles DeeefCe ye´ïekeÀceU ns GÊejeKeb[e®es jep³e HetÀue Peeues. (heg{s heUme GÊej he´osMee®es jep³e HetÀue cnCetve efveJe[ues iesues.) ns HetÀue efveJJeU jep³ee®³ee cenÊJee®³ee mLeeveebJej veener, lej meJe& osJemLeeveeb®³ee efþkeÀeCeer osKeerue ceevee®³ee mLeeveeJej Dee{Ules. yeefêveeLe ³esLes efJe<Cetuee DeeefCe kesÀoejveeLeeuee MebkeÀjeuee ns heUmee®eb HetÀue Jeeefnueb peeleb. veboeäceer®³ee heJee&®³ee JesUer he´meeo cnCetvener ns HetÀue Jeeìueb peeleb. ye´ïekeÀceU ³ee HegÀuee®³ee efvee|celeer®³ee osKeerue keÀener oblekeÀLee he´efme× Deensle. l³eehewkeÀer SkeÀe keÀLesle GuuesKe Dee{Ulees keÀer, MebkeÀjeuee pesJne ieCeheleer®³ee Oe[eJej nÊeer®eb [eskebÀ pees[e³e®eb nesleb, l³eemeeþer ye´ïeeves ye´ïekeÀceU efvecee&Ce kesÀues. l³ee®³ee heekeÀUerletve Dece=le m$eJeueb. lej ogmejer keÀLee DeMeer keÀer, mebpeerJeveer®ee Ghee³e Peeu³eeJej ue#ceCe pesJne Gþuee, leJsne oJseevbeer mJeieel&evte ³ee HeÀguee®bee Je<eeJ&e keÀsuee. cnCepe,s ner HeÀgues mJeieel&evte DeJelejueer Deensle, Demee ³ee keÀLes®ee DeeMe³e. DeMee olbekeÀLee yeN³ee®e JeU s e l³ee HeÀguee®es ieCgeOecen&er keÀUle-vekeÀUle meebietve peeleele. ye´ïekeÀceUe®es Deew<eOeer iegCeOece& efnceeue³ee®³ee heefjmejele

meJe&%eele Deensle. Deieoer meeOeer peKece, les Kej®eìC³eeheemetve Lesì ceppeemebmLes®³ee Deepeejebhe³e¥le DeveskeÀ jesie DeeefCe J³eeOeeRJej ye´ïekeÀceU Ghee³ekeÀejkeÀ Deens. `efleyesefì³eve cesef[efmeve' ner osKeerue SkeÀ Deew<eOehe×leer Deens. l³eelener ye´ïekeÀceUeuee Kethe cenÊJe efoueb Deens. ceWotuee jÊeÀhegjJeþe keÀceer Peeu³eeme ye´ïekeÀceUe®eer cee$ee efoueer peeles. ye´ïekeÀceUe®es meeQo³e&, l³ee®es Oeee|cekeÀ cenÊJe DeeefCe Deew<eOeer iegCeOece& ns®e vescekesÀ l³ee®³ee efJeveeMee®es keÀejCe þjues Deens. DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer ³ee yengiegCeer HegÀuee®eer mebK³ee jes[eJeles³e. DeveskeÀ GlmeJeebmeeþer mLeeefvekeÀ ueeskeÀ ìesheu³ee YejYeªve ye´ïekeÀceU DeeCeleele. l³eecegUs yeerpehe´meej nesle veener. l³eele®e ye´ïekeÀceUe®eer HegÀueb he´meeo cnCetve Jeeìueer peele Demeu³eecegUs ueeskeÀebkeÀ[tve efoJemeWefoJeme ³ee HegÀueeb®eer ceeieCeer Jee{le®e ®eeueueer Deens. lemes®e Deew<eOeer iegCeOecee&meeþerner ueeskeÀ meje&me ye´ïekeÀceU Gheìtve vesleele. lesJne, ³ee ceewu³eJeeve HegÀuee®³ee he´meejemeeþer Meem$eer³e keÀece megª Demeues lejer l³ee®³ee Jee{ermeeþer Deefle Gb®e, Deefle Leb[er®es JeeleeJejCe iejpes®es Demeu³eecegUs keÀener De[®eCeer efveefM®ele®e ³esleele. `Jn@ueer Dee@HeÀ HeÌuee@Jeme&' ceO³es Deefleogie&ce efþkeÀeCeer ye´ïekeÀceU GieJele Demeu³eecegUs l³eeleu³ee l³eele menpe heenelee ³eeJeb cnCetve `nscs ekegÀb [ meensye' ®eer Jeeì Oejueer. heCe meg©Jeeleer®³ee ìhh³eele keÀener ye´ïekeÀceU efomesvee. DeeOeer yeefIeleuesueer HegÀueb®e nesleer, Lees[er veJeervener nesleer. heCe nUtnUt JeeleeJejCe yeouele iesueb. Leb[er, {ie Jee{t ueeieues. éeeme IesCeb DeefOekeÀ®e DeJeIe[ nesT ueeieueb. keÌJeef®ele ceveele efJe®eej Deeuee, keÀMeemeeþer ne êeefJe[er he´eCee³eece keÀjlees³e? pees efvemeie& yeefIeleuee, p³ee pebieueeb®ee, PeN³eeb®ee Deevebo Iesleuee, yemmeb Peeueb keÀer Deelee... Jeeìe[îeeuee meejKee SkeÀ®e he´Þve efJe®eejle nesles, `keÀye efoKesiee?' l³ee®eb SkeÀ®e GÊej, `yeme Deewj Lees[e Ghej.' DeeefCe ceie De®eevekeÀ SkeÀe leerJe´ keÀ[îeeJej SkeÀ Yeuebceesþb keÀUer®³ee DeekeÀeje®eb HetÀue efomeueb. Deieoer ueneveheCeer l³ee heesmìe®³ee efleefkeÀìebJej yeefIeleuesueb nesleb lemeb®e, ceveele peMeer l³ee®eer íyeer nesleer, Deieoer lemeb®e l³ee DeJeIe[ keÀ[îeeJej ®e{tve Jej iesues. Kethe JesU l³ee®³eekeÀ[s yeIele®e yemeues. SJe{er Je<ex GjeMeer yeeUieuesueb mJehve hetCe& Peeu³ee®ee FlekeÀe Deevebo Peeuee. nU®te l³ee HeÀgueeuee mheMe& keÀsuee. yeenjs®³ee keÀUemreejK³ee HeÀguee®b³ee heekeÀȳee vemetve nefjle oue nesles. HegÀueeb®³ee osþeMeer DemeCeejer ner heekeÀȳeebmece heeveb ³ee DeefleLeb[ he´osMeele HegÀueeb®eb j#eCe keÀjleele, pesCeskeÀªve l³ee KeN³ee HegÀueebvee Tye efceUtve leer Jee{eJeer. l³eebveer efye³ee le³eej keÀjeJ³ee. veJeer jesheb JneJeer. Kejer HegÀueb yeejerkeÀ peebYeUì jbiee®eer Demevte keÀeneMreer Deeheu³eeuee heejfe®fele Demeueus³ee Dem@ìj®³ee HeÀgueembeejKeer efomeleele. leer keÀener ceuee efomeueer veener DeeefCe l³ee nefjle oueebvee Gueie[tve Deele PeekeÀe³e®eer F®íe ceuee cegUer®e Peeueer veener. Depetve Lees[er Gb®eer ieeþueer DeeeCfe he{ g s HeÀÊeÀ yeï´ekeÀceU®e!!! yeekeÀer SJe{îee G®beeJrej keÀeCselee®re HegÀueb leie Oeª MekeÀle veener. cevemeesÊeÀ ye´ïekeÀceU yeefIeleues, l³eeb®³ee meeQo³ee&®ee cevecegjeo Deevebo uegìuee DeeefCe Deieoer veeF&ueepeeves hejleer®eer Jeeì Oejueer.


26

Jeelee& He$e / News Letter Deeusee keÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve ë eof. 9 meHìyWej jepseer He.o.ce[ b U DeeeCfe ceybgeF& ûeenkeÀ He®bee³elee®r³ee Jeleerves veboveJeve nescemed, keÀUJee ³esLes Deesuee keÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nelse.s HeeewCfec&ee eMfejieeJekeÀj ³eevbeer cee@pfekeÀ yekeÀs쮳ee JeeHejelevte Deeus³ee keÀ®eN³ee®es Kele keÀjC³eeeJfe<e³eer ceeefnleer efoueer. Je<ee& yegjkesÀ, efveuee uegceeCe DeeefCe [e@. mJeeleer YeeJes ³eebveer menkeÀe³e& kesÀues. Wet Waste Management Workshop : On 9th Sept. 2017, PDM and Mumbai Grahak Panchayat organised Wet Waste Management workshop at Nandanvan Homes, Kalwa. Pournima Shirgaonkar explained the procedure of layering of magic bucket..Varsha Burke, Neela Luman, Dr. Swati Bhave co-ordinate the workshop.

He³ee&JejCemvesner DeekeÀeMekebÀefoue keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 28 meHìWyej jespeer He.o.ceb[U DeeefCe jeìsjer keyÌeue DeeH@eÀ ejfJnjmeeF[ & , keÀu³eeCe ³ee®b³ee Jeleevres keÀu³eeCe ³eLseeure eMfeMet eJfekeÀeme ceeO³eecfekeÀ eJfeÐeeue³e ³eLses DeekeÀeMekeÀbeofue keÀe³eM&eeU®ses Dee³eepseve keÀsues nelse.s ncseeibeer meecelbe, evfeÿe jeTle, megJeCee& yeebies, jepeWê JeeveKes[s, efJepe³e, efJeÐee ìekeÀ ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Eco-friendly Akash kandil Workshop : On 28 September, PDM and Rotary Club of Riverside, Kalyan jointly conducted the Eco friendly Aakash Kandil Workshop at Shishu Vikas Madhyamik Vidyalaya, Kalyan. Hemangi Samant, Nishtha Raut, Suvarna Bange, Rajendra Wankhede,Vijaya Vaidya guided the students.

efvemeie&Ye´bceleer - GjCe ë efo. 8 Dee@keÌìesyej jespeer He.o. ceb[Ueves GjCe ³esLes efvemeie&Ye´cebleer®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer peemeF&, HegÀb [s DeeefCe Heebpes ³ee ieeJeebceO³es efJeefJeOe He#³eeb®³ee SketÀCe 97 Òepeeleerue HeenC³eeme efceUeu³ee. lemes®e Fbef[³eve mkeÀercej, ³egjsefMe³eve ke̳egjsue, yue@keÀ ìsu[ iees[efJeì, HeWìs[ mìe@ke&À Deeoer Òepeeleerner yeIee³euee efceUeu³ee. Nature trail at Uran : On 8th October 2017, PDM has arranged a Nature trail at Uran Wetlands. Total 97 species of birds were seen at Jasai, Funde and Panje village. Some other threatened species like Indian Skimmer, Eurasian Curlew, Black-tailed Godwit, Painted Storks aslo seen during the trip. Resource person - Avinash Bhagat.

cegbye´e ³esLes He#eerefvejer#eCe ë efo. 14 Dee@keÌìesyej jespeer He.o. ceb[Ueves cegyb e´e ³esLes He#eer efvejer#eCe keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer yu³et je@keÀ Le´Me, ûes-ye´ms ìs[ efÒeveer³ee, Hesue efyeu[ Je LeerkeÀ efyeu[ HeÌuee@Jej efHekeÀme& ³ee He#³eebmen 7 j@Hìj He#eer DeeefCe Flej He#³eeb®³ee SketÀCe 21 Òepeeleer yeIeC³eele Deeu³ee. Bird Watching at Mumbra : On 14th Oct. PDM arranged a trail at Mumbra Hills. Participants saw 7 species of raptors. With these raptors they saw some other forest birds like Blue Rock Thrush, Greybreasted Prinia, Pale-billed and Thick-billed Flowerpeckers etc. 21 bird species sighted during the trail. Resource person - Avinash Bhagat.


27

Jeelee& He$e / News Letter ieeb[U t Kele keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 29 meHìWyej jespeer He.o. ceb[Ueves [eWefyeJeueer ³esLeerue mJeeceer efJeJeskeÀevebo efJeÐeeceboerj ³esLes ieeb[tU Kele keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer HeeweCf e&cee efMejieeJekeÀj, nsceebieer meeceble ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ieeb[U t KeleeefJe<e³eer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Vermicomposting Workshop : On 29th Sept., PDM organised Vermicomposting Workshop at Swami Vivekanand Vidyamandir, Gopalnagar, Dombivali. Pournima Shirgaonkar and Hemangi Samant explained to the students about vermicomposting.

DekbeÀgj Leecre HeekeÀ& Yeìs ë eof. 7 DeeeCfe 14 Deek@eìÌeysej jepseer vee.o. þekeÀjmeer ceenfuee eJfeÐeeHeeþrmeeblee¬etÀPe DeeefCe efJeMJeelcekeÀ Deesce ieg©osJe keÀe@uespe-DeIeF&®³ee efJeÐeeeLeea DeeefCe efMe#ekeÀebveer keÀUJee ³esLeerue Debkb etÀj Leerce Heeke&Àuee Yesì efoueer. ³eeJesUer He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀuHeeb®eer lemes®e ©iCeeue³eerve IevekeÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHevee®eer ceeefnleer keÀªve osC³eele Deeueer. ©Heeueer cesIee, Þeeruelee cesveve ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Visit to Ankur Theme Park : On 7th and 14th Oct., students and teachers from SNDT, Santacruz and Vishwatmak Om Gurudev College-Aghai, visited Ankur Theme Park. Rupali Megha and Sheelata Menon explained about the various projects and Bio Medical Waste Project.

He³ee&JejCemvesner DeekeÀeMe kebÀefoue keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 14 DeeefCe 16 Dee@keÌìesyej jespeer [eWefyeJeueer ³esLeerue DeJeleej efkeÀ[dme uee³eye´jer lemes®e JeveJeemeer keÀu³eeCe DeeÞece ³esLes He³ee&JejCe mvesner DeekeÀeMe kebÀefoue keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. nsceebieer meeceble ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee DeekeÀeMe kebÀefoue yeveefJeC³ee®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ oeKeJeues lemes®e He³ee&JejCeeefYecegKe efoJeeUer meepejer keÀjC³eeefJe<e³eer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Eco-Friendly Kandil Making Workshop : On 14th and 16th Oct., PDM conducted Eco-Friendly Kandil Making Workshops at Avantar Kids Library and Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram, Dombivli. Hemangi Samant conducted the workshop. She demonstrated step by step the making of Kandil and students followed her. She also explained them the importance of eco-friendly celebration of Diwali.


28

Nivedita Kothare

ALL CREATURES GREAT AND SMALL

Beautiful ferns sprung out of cracks in trees trunks. Caterpillars of all shapes and sizes lay waiting to morph into beautiful butterflies and moths. Nature was celebrating the festival of life.

Nivedita Kothare

Most of us are familiar with the fairytale about the frog who magically turns into “prince charming”on being kissed by a princess. The very perception of the frog turning into a “handsome” prince, meant that we looked at frogs as ugly.But if we try and understand the role they play in our lives, our perception of ugliness and beauty would change forever. Amphibians have a great impact in sustaining biodiversity. It’s very simple. Frogs feed on insects and so keep their population under control. If frogs are gone, it will lead to rise in insect population. These insects will then devour leaves destroying entire forests leading to reduced ground water precipitation. As a result, clouds will not form and thus without rains, rivers will run dry.Put simply, the disappearance of frogs will ultimately affect forests, rivers and consequently us humans as well. That’s how important frogs are to us. But sadly, their numbers are decreasing. My trip with “Nature India”,to Amboli, a hill station in the

Sahyadriswas an eye-opener. This tiny region abounds in unique flora and fauna especially herpetofauna and is the wettest region in Maharashtra. It was fascinating to see how creatures use clever strategy as a key to survival. Found in abundance in Amboli, the Malabar gliding frogs, like most other frogs, rest in the foliage during the day and are active at night.They build nests of foam from body fluids,on surface of leaves, whose location is strategically positionedabove water puddles. This ensures that the fertilized eggs fall into the water where tadpoles emerge and eventually develop into adult frogs. Another remarkable survival strategy was seen in Stick insects. They have a remarkable defense mechanism – the ability to resemble stems, twigs and leaves.The bodies of some species are even covered in moss-like growths that supplement their disguise. Some species can change colour depending on their


29 surroundings. In a further fascinating behavioural adaptation some stick insects make a rocking motion which mimics the movement of leaves or twigs swaying in the breeze! A grand design for survival! The Malabar Pit Viper is found in various shades of grey, green, brown and yellow,there being no common colour or pattern. This phenomenon of different colour morphs in a single species is known as polymorphism. Polymorphism could be a strategy used by certain species to confuse predators thus giving them a survival advantage.Indeed some clever strategy! We were lucky to see two individuals

in different morphs. There couldn’t have been a better way of calling it a day…..or rather night! Beautiful ferns sprung out of cracks in trees trunks. Caterpillars of all shapes and sizes lay waiting to morph into beautiful butterflies and moths. Nature was celebrating the festival of life. And as I remembered the fairytale of the frog turning into the handsome prince, meanwhile Nature was the princess busy kissing ugliness away and magically turning everything into a thing of beauty.

PEEPING TOMS AND RAIDING HOMES This is an incident that happened a couple of years back. I had gone on a 4 day trek to the Igatpuri region to visit 2 adjoining forts of Alang and Madangad. Alang has a broad flat top with a cave and water cisterns on it, while Madangad is a square high massif with a habitable grainhouse on it. The two are joined at the col which is about 300 mts below their tops.From the edge of Alang’s top you can see the imposing walls of Madangad across. We had reached Alang the previous night and stayed in the cave .The next day after lunch we decided to go to the edge of Alang’s plateau to see across to Madangad’s wall and the route we had to take the next day.As we were looking across to Madangad we saw a pair of Vultures flying overhead and after a while landing on one of the wall . Taking a look through the binoculars we saw that on a narrow shelf on the wall of Madangad there was a nest with a vulture chick in it.Its parents were periodically landing and

taking off from there. My friends and I were quite fascinated by the vultures pinpoint landing and their takeoff and were watching this for quite some time. After observing for an hour we decided to head back to Franklyn Silveira the cave and make some tea. As we approached the cave we noticed some movement there. On coming closer we saw that a troop of Rhesus monkeys were raiding our belongings to look for edible items to eat.Seeing us they scampered away strewing our things on the ground. When we entered the cave, all our things were scattered on the floor. Taking stock of the damage done we found that all the loose snacks like chikki and biscuits and fruits were eaten.The salt was strewn on the floor. Luckily all the other food items which were packed and sealed and kept in the rucksacks escaped their search. We retrieved some of the salt which had fallen down but about five more meals to be cooked for 4 of us it seemed grossly insufficient.Getting salt was impossible as the nearest village was about 4 hours away in the plains.We thought of abandoning our plan to go to Madangad the next day.Luckily I remembered that I had some salt in a container which I had carried to have with the boiled eggs we had for breakfast.That saved our trek and we could go to Madangad the next day. We had a good laugh at the whole incident and taught us a lesson never to peep in others homes.


30

ARUNACHAL : LAND OF MOUNTAINS

It seemed like a real ocean of green paradise. Birds of different altitudes were seen. The forest does home many mammals, the most common we saw were the Mithun and Yellowthroated Martins.

Aseem Kumar Kothiala kothiala@gmail.com

Arunachal Pradesh, is a state located in the remote north-eastern corner of India. The region is home to just about a million people but with varied culture and tradition, a land whose history and geography has seen the twists and turns of time, making it fascinating. The fascination continues with the number ofmountain ranges here. The regions we visited were Mishmi Hills, which is a part of Lower Dibang Valley in the east and Dirang and Sela Pass in the west of Arunachal Pradesh. If one looks at the topography of the state, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s obvious that one can only travel by road in north-south (or southnorth) direction. This is simply because the terrain has rivers and endless valleys. Mishimi Hills that falls under two Dibang Valley districts namely Lower Dibang Valley and Upper Dibang Valley, was a unique hill, amidst lofty hills, lush green forests and breathtaking landscapes which provide a panoramic view of the surrounding mountains and the landscape. The place wears a tranquility of its own and the view of snow-capped mountains adds serenity to its environment.

The region stretched over three ecozones tropical evergreen forests, subtropical and temperate forests, temperate broad leaved forests and temperate conifer forests. It seemed like a real ocean of green paradise. Birds of different altitudes were seen. The forest does home many mammals, the most common we saw were the Mithun and Yellow-throated Martins. There were very patches of land, that was being used for cultivating crops. We later headed into Arunachal Pradesh, this time towards the west. We entered through Bhalukpong. The entire terrain started to change again as we moved from the foothills to the uphillâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s towards our next halt, Dirang. Dirang, a small town, on the bank of river Kameng (Known as Jia Bharali in Assam), in the West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. Since it is placed in the river valley the altitude is relatively low (1500 meters). The weather here was very pleasant. Early morning, we headed towards Sela Pass and in about 3 hours, reached an elevation of 4170 meters. The Sela Pass (more appropriately called Se La, as La means Pass) is the high-altitude


31 31 mountain pass located enroute to Tawang. The pass hardly had any vegetation and was snowcovered to a large extent, though it was summer time. Mandala was another region we trekked to. Here, there was an excellent mixed forests of Oak and coniferous forest,

we also noticed a lot of de-forestation that had been done. Surely, an unknown birderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s paradise with no defined boundaries and none of these areas are protected.In all, Arunachal indeed seemed like a land of mountains. Images : Aseem Kumar Kothiala

Birding at

Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary Date : 11th - 12th November 2017 For booking and more details - Contact : 9892061899 / 022-2541 1633


32 32

CHRONICLES OF SAHYADRI

The sight of shiny waves swimming in the crystal clear water cistern was astonishing. I had never seen such beautiful creatures swimming in one cluster forming different shapes almost like clouds. The light was fading and their movement was getting increasingly haunting.

Juee Khopkar

I have been trekking in the Sahyadris for a very long time. As a youngster mountains meant only adventures, so the beauty of flowers and birds never grabbed our attention much. However years passed by and the awe for natures biodiversity started seeping in. So here are a few of my unique acquaintances with nature during my treks in the Sahyadri. Redtail fairy Shrimps A team of 5 planned a leisure trek to Ramshej fort near Nasik last year during the Ganapati festival. We reached the base village in the night and slept outside under the shade of a nearby temple. Just at sunrise I heard a peculiar bird call with heavy flapping of wings and started searching high perches of big trees. I was unsure of what exactly to look for, but didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to search much. There was a Black naped Ibis busy collecting twigs and building its nest on one of the trees around us. Never had I witnessed such a sight before. Soon we were ready for a climb after a hot tea served by a local resident. Ramshej was a small fort with the climb being simple and gradual. On our way up we met a group of people who looked more like college professors than trekkers. They were holding a jar filled with water and something floating in it. Our leisure mood and inquisitive minds started a conversation and we found out that the little floaters were some rare shrimps found in clean water cisterns. Ramshej is one of such rare places that rear these Redtail fairy shrimps, which we even found in one of the water tanks on top of the fort later.

So the people we met were actually lecturers at a college and a lady amongst them was researching the rare shrimp. They were here to collect sample for the same purpose. We reached a temple at the gate of the fort and arranged all our stuff neatly inside. After an elaborate lunch followed by a chat n short nap, we headed towards the top plateau to begin our exploration. Initially, we gradually climbed the top most point exploring the remains of the fort and cistern; the shrimps, though, were on the other side, the flat side. And there we found that tank with fairy shrimps while it was getting dark. The shrimps were tiny and beautiful with a red tail and a green line on a white body. The sight of shiny waves swimming in the crystal clear water cistern was astonishing. I had never seen such beautiful creatures swimming in one cluster forming different shapes almost like clouds. The light was fading and their movement was getting increasingly haunting. We tried to take videos as well as pictures. A video gave a better perception of the cluster. We thought we would get better pictures in day light but the sight in the evening hours was supreme. Floral Diwali on historical ground A trend was setting in my family, to spend Diwali outdoors, mostly in the


33 mountains. So we packed our rucksacks with ration, gas stove, vessels, and clothes and set out to the ghat towards Shivaji’s capital fort of Rajgad. The plan was to do the traverse route of Rajgad torna so we parked our car at the base of Torna that is Velhe and took a rickshaw to drop us at the base village of Rajgad. We were on top by late afternoon. And were surprised to see the number of visitors on the fort on both the days till we stayed. They kept coming all through the night shouting slogans. It was very disturbing and polluting the quiet environment especially during the night. Anyways, we were very happy to observe many birds including barn swallows, kestrel and larks. It was a floral feast once we started our walk on the ridge towards Torna . Variety of butterflies like Danaid eggfly, Great eggfly, Peacock pansy, Painted lady, wild flowers like Wild gram, DeeYeeUer, HeCe&iegbHeÀer phyllocephalum scabridum purple heads and herds of goats kept me and my camera busy. The most memorable and heart touching moment with the goats was witnessing a new born babygoat. The mother was right on our path, which was on the ridge with steep slopes on both sides . She was with her just born kid helping it get under her towards bottles of milk..!! During our long 9 hour walk we passed through different landscapes, a path woven in the thick jungle of Karvi. Wet tall grass , a ridge with steep exposure on either side and dry rough grass as we reached on the Torna plato. A stinging nettle grass gave a nasty sting on a participant's hand making him terribly hyper but Aloe vera gel was the savior. We reached the temple on top of Torna after a half an hour traverse through the dry grass . I didn’t realize the trouble I had caused because of that. While we finished dinner cooked on the gas stove, we spread our mattresses and I wore my night time socks. Slowly my ankles started itching and also aggravated extremely.. Again Aloe vera gel came to the rescue, at least for the time being. The bites caused me trouble for the next 4 months as these are mite bites and they impact the skin so much that there is an itch and the marks which every jungle dweller carries on his body almost for 4 months … every season. But no complaints. Haah. Next day while climbing down the slope we saw wonderful wild flowers again. To name a few were. ceesþer eEjieCeer fruited pea Eggplant, keÀeìs PeW[t Echinops echinatus. Our car was waiting for us, to take us back to the city life after successful, beautiful Rajgad Torna trek. Ghost in the darkness of SGNP Now starts the bone chilling experience, which I can share about the King of SGNP. In those days back in the 1980s, Girivihar , Mumbai’s oldest mountaineering club used to hold basic rock climbing camp and adventure camp at Kanheri Caves. We used to live in the Forest rest house at the base

of Kanheri, practically sleeping out in the front yard as trainees specially children of the adventure camp were accommodated inside the Bungalow. After the hard work of the day, once all the children and older trainees were done with their dinner we trainers would gather for the days review outside, on the steps, leading to the caves. All the rush of visitors and the sellers would subside and it would be just sounds of the jungle in a dark, cool weather. That day somehow a mongrel (stray dog) was left alone and he was very nervous not to find his masters, probably the sellers, from small villages. He probably had wandered somewhere when all the villagers went back. We were busy discussing things while he kept circling us. A weird thought occurred in someone’s brain … ‘now since this dog is left alone here it’s possible that he won’t see tomorrow’s sun. Then another guy had a vicious idea of tying him to the bus stop pole which was right in front of us as a bait to see live hunting. I was sitting at the last step enjoying this hyped discussion. And “ Waackkkk….!” There was a sharp screeching sound just 5 feet behind me in the endless darkness …. Oh my goodness… a cold shiver ran through my body … where was that dog? He had strolled around me in the darkness to circle the group probably but the Ghost of the jungle had sensed him and waiting for his chance to attack, escaping our gaze. It was a split second and the Leopard had pounced, grabbed the dog, and jumped in the thicket behind the canteen besides steps. Torches in those days were not as powerful as they are now. We could only hear rustling and heavy breathing but not a glimpse of that majestic beauty. A thought that the beast was right behind us in a crouched position, who knows for how long, kept all of us thrilled, and awake most of the night. Next morning after a small search in the thicket and upwards on the slopes, we observed some fur, a few bones, and blood…that’s it. Photograph : Juee Khopkar


34

AN EVENING AT HARISHCHANDRA GAD For most hikers in Mumbai, a

For those who do trek here for the first time the view and your feelings on reaching this point make or break your future as a trekker. You either give in to the exhaustion or are exhilarated by the whole experience.

Vallari Sanzgiri

trekking excursion takes weeks of planning and days of preparation. Thanks to the growing cosmopolitan and the demands of the people living there, the greenery that used to surround this city now survives in small pockets sprinkled across the coast of western Maharashtra. Fortunately for those with a yen for the mountains, there still exist mountain ranges away from Mumbai that have managed to preserve their rich biodiversity. One such place is Harischandragad hill fort in the Malshej range of Ahmednagar. Harishchandragad is approximately 200km away from Mumbai with the third highest peak in Maharashtra Taramati (1431m). The area starts off with a fairly level slope and then steeps up to a concave cliff that could prove to be daunting for those trying out their legs for the first time. However for the more experienced ones, the fort offers a picturesque view all year round. The trek begins when you cross a short bridge that will probably have dried up in summer. You can begin with a pleasant walk as you cross the plain until you reach Belpada village. The hike gets steeper from hereon. Pro tip: if youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re keeping a look out for birds check out the Kalsubai Wildlife Sanctuary nearby since the steep climb and narrow path wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t allow much time for birding. However, there are other points to view there such as the Saptaritha Pushkarnilake the Kedareshwar Cave which have temple-like constructions around them. Sadly that has not stopped the people from polluting that area. Now, the oncedrinkable water of the lake has become

septic. This piece of information ruins the mood for responsible trekkers as they fail to enjoy the scenic view with all the plastic bags around them. Fortunately this situation does not continue as higher up, the air gets clearer and path gets trickier as you reach the concave part of the cliff. The best part is when you reach the summit of Taramati and you get to view the entire Naneghat range and the forts near Murbad. For those who do trek here for the first time the view and your feelings on reaching this point make or break your future as a trekker. You either give in to the exhaustion or are exhilarated by the whole experience. If the latter suits you then congrats! You may be well on your way to become a seasoned mountaineer. However, with this future there also come some responsibilities. As supporters of our rich biodiversity we must ensure that no lasting harm is done to the places we visit by not littering and following the hygiene rules of those areas. Only by inculcating our moral responsibility to the environment will we be able to continue enjoying our short excursions with Mother Nature.

Vallari Sanzgire


35

ENVIRONMENTAL GAME

Thousands of migrating birds never reach their destination due to several obstacles they encounter along their route. The strong winds may blow them off course, or they may be shot. They may not find enough food on the way or may be affected by polluted air or water.

Shreelata Menon 96195 52221

CHALA AAPAN EK KHEL KHELUYA ...

Migration Map of Indian subcontinent

“Play is our brain’s favorite way of learning” – Diane Ackeman. Research has shown that there are many benefits for playing daily games in the classroom. When playing games, students become more engaged in their learning, taught content is reinforced and class positivity is increased. Some of the benefits of playing games in the classroom are they increase class cooperation, increase attention span and also it is a less stressful way for students to demonstrate their knowledge. I feel the most important point of games is that it is so much fun. The minute you tell the children that you are going to play a game you would see a sparkle in their eyes. So keeping in mind the advantages of using games for education especially environment education here we are with one more

Source : The Book Of Indian Birds - Salim Ali

game in the series. The theme for this month is “Trekking and Environment”. Actually if one were to put it very simply trekking itself is an outdoor fun filled activity and a game in itself. The one game I could think of after a good trek is a sitting treasure hunt. After a long trek probably no one would be in a position to go through the whole trek again finding the clues and hunting the treasure. So a better way would be to have clues read out by a leader ( of the special things seen on the trek like foot hill,or a fort, a particular tree of interest, some stone or sculpture of significance etc) and the group has to identify the thing or place. If identified correctly one would move to the next clue till finally you reach the last clue and then the prize. This game would also help to recap the entire trek. This month the AaplaParyavaran team is also announcing an article


36 competition of stories related to bird migration. So I thought it would be a good idea to include a game on Bird Migration. Bird Migration Game: Migration is the seasonal, large scale, long distance, two way, regular movement of birds in a fixed direction. Migratory birds come to India from far away countries and regions in the north-west or north- east right from Germany, extreme Northern and Western Siberia as well as Central Asia, to Ladakh and Himalayas. Migration is a hazardous journey. Thousands of migrating birds never reach their destination due to several obstacles they encounter along their route. The strong winds may blow them off course, or they may be shot. They may not find enough food on the way or may be affected by polluted air or water. At every stage there are dangers for the travellers.Through this game students will understand the migration pattern and also appreciate the difficulties these flying beauties encounter. Few students will pretend to be migratory birds and some become the obstacles on the migratory route. Method: Identify a large open area and set boundary clearly with two opposite corners (North and South). Within the set boundaries draw six circles on the ground. These will represent the obstacles. 12 students can take part in one round while the rest of the class stand outside the boundary and watch. In each round six students become obstacles and each one stands in one obstacle circle. Each one also wears a label indicating the nature of the obstacle. For example

pollution, warfare, weather change, hunting, constructional activities etc. another six students represent the migratory birds. The task of these birds is to migrate from North to South without being caught by the obstacles. The students can do this by flapping their arms and running across at a given signal. The students who are acting as obstacles face only one direction throughout the round. As the birds are running across the obstacles have to try to catch hold of the birds without getting out of their circles. They can stretch their arms to reach the birds. Once a bird gets caught by an obstacle the bird freezes at that spot or falls to indicate that it is dead. Birds are not allowed to stand in a particular place, they have to continuously move around. All the birds continuously flap their wings while migrating. Some of the birds will safely migrate from north to south, some may get caught by the obstacles. After each round find out how many birds reach the south. Discuss what happened to the rest of the birds. After playing two or three rounds, mark 1 to 2 migratory routes on the playground eg Siberia to Bharatpur, Central Asia to Ladakh. Middle East to Gujarat etc. Ask birds to follow only their given paths not to run as they please. Students can also become different birds eg.Siberian Crane, Rosy Pastor etc and take their respective routes to migrate. Obstacles remain the same

A rare bird â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Black necked Grebe sighted at Mumbai. Black-necked grebe is a member of grebe family in water birds. This bird breeds in Europe, Africa , South America, Western United States and some parts of Asia. It migrates in winter to palearctic and Eastern parts of Africa and Asia. It prefers saline lakes and coastal estuaries. In India this bird is regularly seen in Gujarat and Rajasthan. There have been sporadic reports from Maharashtra state. On 23rd Oct 2017 this rarity the Black-necked grebe was sighted at Bhandup Pumping Station in Mumbai. It was a pleasant surprise to all Mumbai birdwatchers to see this rare beauty in the city. Avinash Bhagat


37

ENDANGERED PLANTS OF MAHARASHTRA

Anita Kindre

Ceropegia attenuata Hook. Tender Ceropegia Tender Ceropegia is a small perennial erect herb, tuberous, 20-30 cm tall. Leaves are opposite, minutely petiolate, 3-15 cm long, linear to lanceolate shaped,pointed at the tip, and narrowed at the base. Leaves are hairy when young. Flowers are borne in flat-topped clusters at the end of branches. The stalks carrying the clusters, 2 cm long, arise from upper leaf axils. Flower stalks are 1 cm long. Flower tube is swollen at the base, and the linear, hairy,Sepals are small and hairy. tender petals are 3-4 cm long. The narrow petals are joined at the tip, forming a large ovoid dome. Fruits (pods) are linear, 5-8 cm long. Flowering season is July to August. Habitat: Grows on exposed rocky areas on hill tops and gentle slopes among grasses and other herbs, in well-drained soils. Distribution: Endemic to Goa, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Maharashtra. Pune, Raigad, Sindhudurg Thane and Ratnagiri. Status: Vulnerable Threats: Consumption of its tubers is the apparent cause for its rarity. Notes: This species is mainly confined to Pune, Raigad and thane districts of Maharashtra. Long back it was reported from Malwan by Cooke and from Vengurla by Dalzell in Sindhudurg district. Later it has not been collected from these two places. Ceropegia evansii McCann Evans Ceropegia is a twining climber with a 2-6 cm wide, subterranean storage tuber. Leaves are opposite, ovate or ovate-lanceolate

- Part 2

in shape, 7-14 cm long. Base rounded. Flowers are in cymes, few flowered on hairy peduncles. Petals are 4cm long, tube 2.8 cm long, base inflated, narrowed in the middle, expanding upwards. Petals are white in their lower half and pale yellow in their upper. Fruits (follicles) up to 12.5 cm long, first erect then divaricate. Flowering season is July to October. Habitat: On slopes in low, mixed deciduous forests.Usually it grows in Carviacallosa canopy on steep slopes at an altitude of 300-1000 m. Distribution: Pune (Khandala, Lonavala), Satara, Ratnagiri (AmbaGhat) Status: Vulnerable. Threats: Consumption of its tubers appears to be one of the causes of threat to its wild populations. Notes : Earlier this species was collected several times by Santapu and Irani from Khandala adjoining. However, after Reddiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s collection on 1964, it has not been reported from Pune district. In 1997 a very few individuals were noted growing at AmbaGaht of Ratnagiri district. Tubers of this plant are edible. Ceropegia jainii Ansari & B.G.P.Kulk. Jaini Ceropegia JainiCeropegia is a small erect herb, 10-20 cm high, with tuberous root. Tubers are hairless, 2-3 cm. Slender stem is with oppositely arranged leaves. Leaves are linear-lanceolate shaped, 2-5 cm long, hairy on both sides, margins with stiff hairs. Flowers occur singly in leaf axils. Slender flower-stalks are 6-10 mm long. Sepals are lance-shaped, 3-5 mm. Flowers are 2-3 cm long, tubular, with the tube


38 enlarged at the base and white. Five narrow linear petals are 1 cm long, reddish-purple, and hairy at the base. Flowering season is August-October. Habitat: On rocky beds along the banks of rivulets at an altitude of ca1,000m. Distribution :Satara (Chalakewadi, Kas), Sindhudurg (Amboli) Status : Critically endangered. Threats: Increased pollution, changes in micro habitats by earth removal, littering and garbage disposal and unintended fires in summer caused by tourists and grazers. Notes: This species could not be recollected from its type locality after type collection. Later it was reported from Chalkewadi plateau and Kas plateau. Tubers of this plant are edible. Ceropegia mahabalei Hemadri & Ansari Ralegaon Ceropegia - Ralegaon Ceropegia is a perennial erect herb, grows up to 20-65 cm long. The stems grow from a subterranean tuber. Leaves are opposite; sub-sessile, linear to linear lanceolate, hairy above and 3-15 cm long. Flowers are in cymes, 1 flowered. Sepal lobes 1-2 cm long, hairy. Petals are 5.5-10 cm in long. The upper part of the petal is light green, the flower-tube is mottled yellowish brown, and the united petals are dark green. The inside of the flower is crimson. Fruits (follicles) in pairs, ca4cm long, narrowed at tip, glabrous. Seeds are many, 5 x 2.5 mm ovoid, coma 6mm long, white. For long it was known only from its type locality, i.e. Ralegaon Hills about 10 km west of Junnar, Pune District, Maharashtra. Flowering season is August to October. Habitat: On steep exposed slopes of the hills among grasses at an altitude of ca 1,000 m.

Distribution: Pune (Junnar) Status: Critically endangered. Threats: Overgrazing, degradation of grasslands and narrow distribution of the species are the main threats to the species. The species also has a narrow range of tolerance and its very specific in its requirements. Notes: So far this species is known only from its type locality, the two nwearby places of Junnartaluka. (Can be considered as a single locality). After type collection in 1965 and 1968, Yadav collected it in 1998 from the same place where ca 10 individuals were located in about 1 sq km area. Ceropegia noorjahaniae M.A.Ansari Noorjahan Ceropegia Noorjahan Ceropegia is an erect perennial herb, 15-40 cm tall. Stems are hairy above, round in cross-section. Leaves are opposite, linear-narrowly elliptic shaped, hairy above, pointed at tip, tapering at the base, 7-9cm long.Flowers are in cymes. 3-4 flowered.Bracts are small, 2-2.5 mm long. Sepals are glabrous, about 4 mm long. Petals are 2-2.7 cm long, slightly curved, tube 1.2-1.4 cm long, inflated at base, lobes 9-13 mm long. Fruits (follicles) are in pairs, ca 3cm long, glabrous. Seeds are many, ca3.5 x 2.5 mm, ovoid, margined; coma about 2 cm long. Flowering season is July-August. Habitat: Along ghat slopes in well drained rocky-gravelly soil, over 1,000m altitude. Distribution:Satara Status: Endangered. Threats: Over grazing and severally fragmented populations. Notes: Though this species has been reported from several localities, all these are situated in a small part of Satara district.

Birding at Great Rann of Kutch A different avian world of Desert and Wetland

Batch 2 - 7th February - 10th February 2018

Group Size -8

For deails contact : 9892061899 022-25411633

November 2017  
November 2017  

Aapala Paryavaran November 2017

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