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mebHeeokeÀer³e.... : cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë

Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer : meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë

[e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe : keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë

keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj Òee. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee ë mebHeeove mene³³e ë

DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ceO³eHe=ÿ ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele De#ejpegUCeer/mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

www.paryavaran.org apalaparyavaran@gmail.com vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

peeieeflekeÀerkeÀjCee®³ee ÒeJeeneceO³es `mceeì& efmeìer'®es mJeHve Deelee nUtnUt meceepeceveeuee YetjU Ieeuee³euee ueeieues Deens. ³ee mceeì& efmeìer mebkeÀuHeves®es ¢<³emJeªHe Depetvener mJeHveJele Demeues lejerner oUCeJeUCe Je JeenlegkeÀer®eer megueYelee, mebHekeÀe&®eer meesHeer, mJemle Je menpe ÒeCeeueer, ceeefnleer®ee Òe®eb[ DeesIe DeeHeu³eemeeþer meesH³ee keÀjCeeN³ee ³eb$eJele j®evee Demes keÀenermes l³ee®es mJeªHe Demesue cnCetve®e ³ee efJe<e³ee®³ee DeY³eemekeÀ megue#eCee cenepeve ³eeb®ee uesKe ³ee DebkeÀele Deens. Yetleeve®eer Deelee `keÀeye&ve Glmepe&veeJej efJepe³e efceUJeCeeje osMe' DeMeer DeesUKe Peeueer Deens. ³ee osMee®eer DeLe&j®eveener efvemeie& ®e¬eÀeJej DeeOeejerle Deens. pewJeefJeefJeOelee ³ee osMee®ee ÒeeCe Deens. cnCetve®e mceeì& efmeìer meejKes®e `ûeerve efmeìer'®esner mJeHve Deelee DeveskeÀebvee KegCeeJet ueeieues Deens. cenelcee ieebOeer®³ee jeä^efveefce&leer®³ee mebkeÀuHevesceO³es `mJe³ebHetCe& ieeJee'®eer mebkeÀuHevee nesleer. DeeHeu³ee DeeJeM³ekeÀleeb®eer Hetle&lee keÀjC³eemeeþer ueeieCeeN³ee meJe& ieesäeR®eer DeeHeu³ee Heefjmejeleerue GHeueyOelee, ³ee keÀ®®³ee ceeueeJej Òeef¬eÀ³ee keÀjCeejs ueIeg DeeefCe kegÀìerj GÐeesie Je l³eeceOeerue opexoej efveefce&leer, ieeJeeceOeerue SkeÀceskeÀeb®³ee iejpee HetCe& keÀjCeejs DeLe&keÀejCe DeeefCe l³eeJej DeeOeejerle DeLe&J³eJemLee! DeMeer mJe³ebHetCe& ieeJee®eer mebkeÀuHevee ner efvemeiee&®³ee ce³ee&efole Je DeeJeM³ekeÀ lesJe{îee GHe³eesieeJej DeeOeejerle nesleer. efvemeiee&®³ee Mees<eCeeJej DeeOeejerle veJnleer. mceeì& efmeìer®³ee mebkeÀuHevesle efnjJesieej jmles, cegkeÌle yeeiee, peueÒeJeen, leueeJe, ceeskeÀUer cewoeves ³eeb®eer ®e®ee& keÀOeer nesleevee efomele veener. lej DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ ueeskeÀmebK³ee DeekeÀef<e&le keÀjsue DeMee mees³eermegefJeOeebveer ³egkeÌle Iejs Je ie=nmebkegÀues lemes®e l³eeb®³eemeeþer Yeuesceesþs jmles Je G·eCeHegue DeMee keÀener ³eespeveebyejesyej®e SìerSce, Þeerceble MeeUe, cee@ume, efJeceeveleUs ³ee®eer®e peeefnjele kesÀueer peeles. cnCetve®e Menje®es pebieue, Meneje®ee peueeMe³e, ceeskeÀȳee peeies®es efve³ece, peuem$eesleebHeemetve®es Deblej, pewJeefJeefJeOeles®eer cnCepes JevemHeleer DeeefCe ÒeeC³eeb®eer megj#ee DeeefCe ceeveJeer mees³eeR®es efvemeiee&®³ee Mees<eCeeJej nesCeejs HeefjCeece keÀceer keÀjCeejer peerJeveMewueer ns `mceeì& efmeìer'®es HeLeoMe&keÀ O³es³e Peeues Heeefnpes.


efYebiejer He#³eeb®eer mceeì& keÀe@ueveer

Yeeie ë 13 ~ DebkeÀ ë 6

ceveg<³e ÒeeC³ee®eer mceeì& keÀe@ueveer (?)

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

efnjJeer DeeefCe mceeì& Menjs ~ megue#eCee cenepeve n@Heer Hue@vesì... Yetleeve ~ Yeei³eÞeer ûeeceHegjesefnle cesUeJej Deeueer keÀejJeer ~ Heefjef#ele met³e&JebMeer jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs Demes ceuee Jeeìles... legcneuee? ~ [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë ~ keÀejJeer®ee Hegd<HeeslmeJe.... Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j ìe@efkeÌmemeerìer ~ [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer

5 7 9 11 14 16 18 23 24

Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

26

DebkeÀ oj ceefnv³ee®³ee 1 leejKesuee Heesmìeletve jJeevee neslees. p³ee Jee®ekeÀebvee 10 leejKesHe³e¥le DebkeÀ efceUeuee vemesue l³eebveer l³ee ceefnv³ee®³ee 15 leejKesHe³e¥le þeCes keÀe³ee&ue³eele keÀUJeeJes. (ogjOJeveer ë 022-2541 1633. mekeÀeUer 11 les mee³eb. 6) l³eebvee DebkeÀ HeeþJeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee keÀjC³eele ³esF&ue. l³eeveblej Deeuesu³ee le¬eÀejeR®eer oKeue Ieslee ³esCeej veener. le¬eÀej keÀjleevee veeWoCeer/HeeJeleer ¬eÀceebkeÀ osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. - J³eJemLeeHekeÀ

®es Jeie&Ceeroej Jne Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400

Wildlife and Development

I

I Shilpa Nair

27

Vishwatej Pawar

29

Say Yes to No Playback Policy I Sarvesh Abhyankar

32

Nature toons I

33

Ashlesha Pandit

Eco-Voluntourism I Shubhda Kushwaha Smart Homes ...

I

Prof. Clara Correia

A Journey through Waste World I Dr. Sanjay Joshi The Plant Life... I Dr. Sweedle Cerejo-Shivkar

ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

34 35 36 37

Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

ë efJeMes<eebkeÀemeeþer ë Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 500

Urbanisation and It’s Impact ...

ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800

ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1000

Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 2500

efHe[erSHeÀ DebkeÀ ë Jeeef<e&keÀ ©. 200/HejosMeer Jee®ekeÀebmeeþer ë Jeeef<e&keÀ ©. 2500/DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.

ke=ÀHe³ee OeveeosMe `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe' (Apala Paryavaran) ³ee veeJeeves keÀe{eJee. ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer meeF& ieCesMe cegêCeeue³e, keÀUJee ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, Keejìve jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. mebHeke&À ë 022-2541 1633


efJeMes<e uesKe

mceeì& emfeìer cnCepes omgejs elfemejs keÀener vemevte nejfle OeejsCeeuee hejtkeÀ Demes le$beeOeeärelre veeiejer OeejsCe. nejfle Menje®³ee hei´eleecreOeeure he{g®ee lehhhee. hei´ele nejfle Menjevbeer heeCee,r mee[bheeCee,r Ieve keÀ®eje, Gpee& ns heM´ve ceeþsîee hec´eeCeele ³eMemJeehreCes mee[seJfeues Deen.s hejlbeg DeMee meJseener DeelfeMe³e keÀe³e#&ece keÀjC³eemeeþer veJeevre mceeì& le$bes DeeeCfe GhekeÀjCes Jeehejueer peeleele.

megue#eCee cenepeve author.sulakshana@gmail.com

enfjJeer DeeeCfe mceeì& Menjs ... Menjs keÀMeer DemeeJeerle ³eeyeÎue he´l³eskeÀ veeieefjkeÀe®³ee Dehes#ee Demeleele. YeejleeceO³es mceeì& efmeìer®es DeefYe³eeve 2014 meeueer meg© Peeu³eeJej lej DeMee Dehes#ee®e®ee& meJe&$e nesT ueeieu³ee. l³ee Deieesoj veiejMeem$e DeeefCe Jeemlegj®evee #es$eele ‘nefjle Menjs’ mebkeÀuheves®ee yeesueyeeuee neslee. nefjle DeeefCe mceeì& Menje®eer mebkeÀuhevee ³esLes Lees[îee efJemleejeves ceeb[Ceej Deens. 1970®³ee oMekeÀele DeveskeÀ MenjebceO³es Pee[s ueeJee-Pee[s Jee{Jee DeMeer cees n er c e veiejheeef u ekeÀeb v eer jeyeef J eueer nes l eer . keÀejKeev³eeleeure Oejt, OeU t , oigeO¥eecreU g s neCsee³´ee Jee³et he´ot<eCeeJej Ghee³e cnCetve Pee[s Jee{Jee ceesnerce jeyeJeueer nesleer. þeCes-yesueehetj, ®eWyetj ³eemeejK³ee Gheveiejele lesJne jemee³eefvekeÀ keÀejKeev³ee®b³ee heo´<geCeeves keÀUme ieeþuee nelsee. SkeÀerkeÀ[s keÀejKeev³eebveer l³eeJej Ghee³e kesÀues DeeefCe ogmejerkeÀ[s veiejheeefuekeÀebveer. l³ee JesUer jml³ee®³ee keÀ[usee DeeeCfe peceuse elfeLes heeeufekeÀsves DeeefCe veeieefjkeÀebveer Pee[s ueeJeueer. l³eeleerue keÀener peieueer, Jee®eueer DeeefCe HeÀesHeÀeJeueer DeeefCe DeveskeÀoe veblej®³ee jmlee ©boerkeÀjCe ceesefncesle íeìueer-keÀeheueerner iesueer. ³ee ognsjer OeesjCeeves he´ot<eCe Deeìeske̳eele Deeues. efMeJee³e Menjs efnjJ³ee Pee[erves veìtve Lees[er DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Peeueer. nefjle mebkeÀuhevesìceO³es Deelee DeveskeÀ veJ³ee mekbeÀuheve meeecfeue Peeu³ee Deenlse. ceU t ®³ee nefjle OeesjCeeuee veJes Oegceejs HegÀìtve nefjle Menjeb®ee Je=#e [sjsoej nesTve yenjuee Deens. 21J³ee MelekeÀeleeure nejfle Menjs ³ee mebkeÀuhevesuee Meeéele efJekeÀemee®ee meboYe& Deen.s nejfle Menje®beer mekbeÀuhevee Kehte®e J³eehekeÀ DeeefCe JewefJeO³ehetCe& Peeueer Deens. nefjle Fceejleer l³eeleerue SkeÀ cenÊJee®ee IeìkeÀ. he´l³eskeÀ Fceejleerves heeC³ee®ee Jeehej ce³ee&efole keÀjCes; Fceejleer®³ee DeeJeejele/YetieYee&le heeJemee®³ee heeC³ee®eer meeþJeCe keÀjCes, meeb[heeC³eeJej he´ e f ¬ eÀ³ee keÀªve heg v eJee& h ej keÀjCes , Gpee& ye®eleermeeþer efoJes, hebKes, JeeleevegketÀueve ³eb$es

DeeefCe Flej GhekeÀjCes ³eeb®ee Jeehej ce³ee&efole keÀjCes; Fceejleer®³ee ílee®ee Jeehej keÀªve iejce heeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee keÀjCes; Iejele met³e& ®egueer DeeefCe jml³eebJej met³e&efoJes yemeefJeCes; Ieve keÀ®eje JesieUe keÀªve l³ee®es Jewodv³eeefvekeÀ he×leerves J³eJemLeeheve keÀjCes. FceejleeR®³ee yeebOekeÀeceebceO³es efmeceWì, ueesKeb[ DeeefCe lelmece meeceevee®ee DeefleefjÊeÀ Jeehej keÀceer keÀjCes, vewmee|iekeÀ Jee³egJeerpeve keÀªve nJeeceeve meblegefuele jeKeCes ; l³eemeeþer YeeR l eer - íleeuee G<CeleejesOekeÀ meeceevee®ee Lej osCes, keÀe®es®³ee efKe[ke̳eeb®ee DeekeÀej efoMee DeeefCe met³e& ekfeÀjCee®bee eJfe®eej keÀªve þjeJfeCe,s Fceejlee®r³ee oMe&veer Yeeiee®eer efoMee, Gb®eer, DeeefCe j®evee keÀjleevee eJfe®eejheJtek&eÀ eKfe[ke³Ìee ojJeepes þJseCes Demes Deves k eÀ he³ee& ³ e nef j le Fceejleer ® ³ee mekbeÀuhevecseO³es meceeeJfeä Peeues Deenlse. l³eemeeþer yeeObekeÀece meeceeveelbe meMbeeOseve nelse Deen.s Jeemlet le%eebvee efJeMes<e efMe#eCe osC³eele ³esT ueeieues Deens. efJeefJeOe he´osMeeleerue Jeemlegj®evee lesLeerue nJeeceeveeMeer DeeefCe vewmee|iekeÀ he³ee&JejCeeMeer memgeibele keÀjC³eeuee cenÊJe Deeues Deen.s eMfeJee³e heejbheeefjkeÀ Jeemlet j®evesleerue meg³eesi³e efJe®eej, leb$es DeeOegefvekeÀ JeemletbceO³es meceeefJeä nesle Deensle. ³ee®³ee heg{®ee nefjle mebkeÀuheves®ee ìhhee cnCepes Fceejleer DeeefCe Menjs ³eeb®ee SkeÀef$ele efJe®eej keÀjC³ee®ee. he´l³eskeÀ Fceejle Menjer heefjmejeJej heefjCeece keÀjles®e. Jeemlegj®evee keÀjleevee l³ee®ee efJe®eej menmee kesÀuee peele vemes. heCe nefjle Menje®³ee keÀuhevesle DeeefCe j®evesle l³ee®ee efJe®eej he´eOeev³eeves kesÀuee peelees. Menjeleerue Fceejleer DeeefCe veeiejer J³eJemLee, GoenjCeeLe& jmle,s meeJep&eevfekeÀ JeenlekteÀ, heeCeer DeeefCe meeb[heeCeer, IevekeÀ®eje J³eJemLee ³eeb®ee SkeÀeeqlcekeÀ efJe®eej kesÀuee peelees. Menjeleerue he´l³eskeÀ IeìkeÀe®es, J³eJemLes®es efve³eespeve, efvecee&Ce J³eJemLeeheve, og©mleer ¿eeb®ee efJe®eej kesÀuee peelees. l³eele Fceejleer®³ee meboYee&leerue Jej eofueuseer nejfle lelJes lej Demeleele®e. l³eeeMfeJee³e


l³eeb®es Deee|LekeÀ DeeefCe he´MeemekeÀer³e nefjle leeUsyebo (Dee@ef[ì) le³eej keÀªve l³eele meelel³eeves megOeejCee keÀjC³eemeeþer he´³elve kesÀues peeleele. ¿ee mesJee oerIe& keÀeU keÀe³e&#ece jenC³eemeeþer efJeMes<e efJe®eej neslees. SkesÀkeÀeUer keÀesCeleener meeJe&peefvekeÀ veeiejer he´keÀuhe le³eej keÀjleevee kesÀJeU he´l³e#e yeebOekeÀecee®ee Ke®e& ue#eele Iesleuee peele Demes. nefjle he´keÀuheele DeMee he´keÀuhee®ee mebhetCe& peerJeve keÀeue keÀmee keÀe³e&#ece DeeefCe mJemle jenerue ³eeuee cenÊJe efoues peeles. l³eecegUs megjJeeleeruee Yeeb[Jeueer Ke®e& pejer peemle Peeuee lejer keÀener oMekeÀeb®ee DeeefCe osKeYeeue-og©mleer®ee Ke®e& keÀceer neslees. nefjle Menjeb®³ee mebkeÀuhevesceO³es meeJe&peefvekeÀ JeenletkeÀ mesJee ner meJee&le cenÊJee®eer. peeieeflekeÀ heeleUerJej veeiejerkeÀjCe, he³ee&JejCe DeeefCe nJeeceeve yeouee®³ee mecem³esle JeenletkeÀ DeeefCe Gpee& ns oesve efJe<e³e meJee&le keÀUer®es Deensle. l³eeb®ee SkeÀceskeÀebMeer efvekeÀì®ee mebyebOe Deens. efJemeeJ³ee MelekeÀe®³ee GÊejeOee&le Keepeieer Jeenves DeeefCe efJeMes<ele: ceesìejer ³eeb®³eecegUs he´iele osMeele Tpee& meeOevee®ee Jeehej Kethe Jee{uee. l³ee®eyejesyej jmles , ceneceeie& Deeef C e iee[er l eU ef v ecee& C e keÀjC³eemeeþer peecfevee®Ree DeeeCfe meeOeve mehbeÊee®ree DeJeemleJe Jeehej Peeuee. [eWiej, o´³ee, Melsepeecfevee,r peibeue,s DeeeCfe Jemeueuseer Menjs veä keÀªve ceneceeie&, G·eCehetue yeebOeues iesues. DecesefjkesÀleerue ns Jes[ peieYej hemejues. cee$e ³egjesheceOeerue yengleskeÀ Menjevbeer l³ee Je[ s hseCeeuee JeU s e®re DeeJej Ieeleuee. ®eeueCes , mee³ekeÀueCes , meeJe&peefvekeÀ yeme DeeefCe jsuJes, cesì^es ³eebvee he´eOev³e efoues peeT ueeieues. oef#eCe DecesefjkesÀleerue Menjebveer yeer.Deej.ìer mesJee Mees O eueer . Menjeb l eer u e nef j le Jeenlet k eÀ mebkeÀuhevee peieele ©peJeueer. eEmeieehetj meejK³ee ueneveMee osMeeves nefjle Menjemeeþer DeefleMe³e efJe®eej keÀªve efve³eespeve kesÀues. Keepeieer ceesìejer keÀceer keÀjC³eemeeþer evfeOeej&ev&es heeJeues G®eueueer DeeeCfe l³ee®es DevekgeÀjCe velbej ue[ b ve DeeeCfe Flej he´iele Menjebveer kesÀues. ogoxJeeves ns MeneCeheCe cenemeÊee Demeuesu³ee Deces e f j kes À ves meg j Jeeleer u ee mJeer k eÀejues veener . cee$e Keef v epe les u e Jee®eefJeC³eemeeþer Yejhetj mebMeesOeve keÀªve ceesìejer DeefOekeÀ keÀe³e&#ece keÀjC³ee®es, he´Jeeme mJemle keÀjC³ee®es DeeefCe Menjer he´ot<eCe keÀceer keÀjC³ee®es DevekseÀ Ghee³e keÀsue.s cee$e ieus³ee mene meele Je<eel&e v³e³geekseÀ& Menjeves Keepeieer Jeenves keÀceer keÀªve heeo®eejer DeeefCe mee³ekeÀueer ³eebvee he´eOeev³e osC³ee®es OeesjCe jeyeefJeues. keÀeshevensieve Menje®ee DeeoMe& [esȳeemeceesj þsTve v³eg³ee@ke&À®ee vetj heej yeouetve ìekeÀuee. ceesìejer®es J³emeve ueeieuesu³ee megefMeef#ele veeieefjkeÀebvee nefjle OeesjCe heìJetve osCes keÀener meeshes veJnles. meece, oece, ob[, Yeso Demes meJe& ueeskeÀMeener Ghee³e l³eemeeþer Jeehejues DeeefCe he´meej ceeO³eceeb®ee efJeMes<e DeeefCe keÀewMeu³eeves Jeehej keÀjC³eele Deeuee. nJee DeeefCe OJeveer he´ot<eCe keÀceer nesles, Jeenve mebK³ee ce³ee&efole

nesles DeeefCe Jeenveeb®es Jesie DeeefCe l³eecegUs DeheIeele keÀceer nesleele, meeJe&peefvekeÀ JeenletkeÀ DeefOekeÀ JesieJeeve, keÀe³e&#ece DeeefCe Deejeceoe³eer nesles ns he´³elvehetJe&keÀ heìJetve ÐeeJes ueeieues. l³eemeeþer heee\keÀie®³ee peeieer veJes nefjle heeke&À le³eej kesÀues. heodheLe efJeMes<e he´keÀejs nefjle DeeefCe megboj kesÀues peeleele. ueeskeÀebvee ®eeueC³eemeeþer DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Menjer heefjmej le³eej kesÀuee keÀer ueeskeÀ peemle ®eeueleele. DeeJeM³ekeÀ DemeCeeje J³ee³eece menpe nesTve veeieefjkeÀeb®es Deejesi³e jeKeC³eeme ceole nesles. ®eeuele Demeleevee MenjeMeer, ueeskeÀebMeer peJeU®es veeles efvecee&Ce nesles. efMeJee³e ogkeÀeves, KeeÐe ie=ns DeeefCe jml³eeJejerue HesÀjerJeeues ³eebveener efMemleerle meeceeJetve Iesleues peeles. l³eecegUs Menjeb®eer DeLe&J³eJemLee megOeejles. Lees[ke̳eele cnbCepes veeiejer nefjle JeenletkeÀ OeesjCe ns ‘DeeKeg[ eEMeieer yengiegCeer’ iee³eerhe´ceeCes ueeYeoe³eer þjles. mceeì& efmeìer cnCepes ogmejs eflemejs keÀener vemetve nefjle OeesjCeeuee hetjkeÀ Demes leb$eeOeeräerle veeiejer OeesjCe. nefjle Menje®³ee he´ieleerceOeerue heg{®ee lehhhee. hei´ele nefjle Menjebveer heeCeer, meeb[heeCeer, Ieve keÀ®eje, Gpee& ns he´Mve ceesþîee he´ceeCeele ³eMemJeerheCes mees[efJeues Deens. hejbleg DeMee mesJeener DeefleMe³e keÀe³e&#ece keÀjC³eemeeþer veJeerve mceeì& leb$es DeeefCe GhekeÀjCes Jeehejueer peeleele. YeejleeceOeerue yengleskeÀ Menjele Depetvener DeMee mesJee Kethe Deheg´³ee Deensle. hejbleg l³eeb®eer j®evee keÀjleevee®e Deelee l³ee mceeì& kesÀu³ee lej Deeheu³eeuee Kethe HeÀe³eoe nesT MekeÀlees. mceeì& efmeìerceO³es DeveskeÀ IeìkeÀ DeeefCe mesJee ‘mceeì&’ keÀjCes Dehesef#ele Deens. l³eele heeCeer, meeb[heeCeer, vewmee|iekeÀ mebheÊeer, Tpee&, IevekeÀ®eje, JeenletkeÀ, Menj efve³eespeve, ceeefnleer mebkeÀueve DeeefCe he´meejCe, nJeeceeve mesJee, DeeheÊeer J³eJemLeeheve, efMe#eCe DeeefCe Deejesi³e DeMee mesJee mceeì& keÀjC³eemeeþer he´³elve kesÀues peeleele. hejbleg l³eemeeþer mceeì& veeieefjkeÀ DeeefCe mceeì& he´Meemeve ns oesve IeìkeÀ keÀUer®es þjleele. Deeheu³eekeÀ[s Deelee yengleskeÀ veeieefjkeÀeb®³ee neleeì mceeì& HeÀesve Deeues lejer veeiejer Je=Êeer DeeefCe he´Je=Êeer mceeì& nesCes yeekeÀer Deens. pesJne veeieefjkeÀ MeneCes, peyeeyeoej DemeeJes ueeieleele. peele, Oece&, he´osMe DeeefCe Yee<ee ³eeb®³ee heueerkeÀ[s peeTve Menje®³ee meeJe&peefvekeÀ efnlee®ee efJe®eej keÀjCeejs DemeeJes ueeieleele. lej®e les veeieefjkeÀ GLeU jepekeÀer³e he´®eejeuee yeUer he[le veenerle. l³eemeeþer YetlekeÀeUe®ee efJe®eej keÀceer DeeefCe Jele&ceeve DeeefCe YeefJe<³ee®ee efJe®eej keÀjCeejs he´efleefveOeer efveJe[C³ee®es Yeeve veeieefjkeÀebvee DemeeJes ueeieles. efMeJee³e mceeì& De@he®³ee ceoleerves Menje®³ee he´MeemeveeJej osKejsKe þsJet ueeieleele lesJne®e Ke´³ee DeLee&ves Menjs mceeì& nesleele. veeieefjkeÀ DeeefCe he´Meemeve mceeì& Demesue lej®e Menjs nefjle DeeefCe mceeì& nesT MekeÀleele.


jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie

ns veeJe Deeheu³eemeeþer peje veJeevre®e! veeJeehec´eeCes ³ee evfeoMxekeÀeÜejs oMseeleeure ceeCemee®bee Deeveob ceepseuee peelee.s Deeheu³ee oMseeleeure veeieejfkeÀe®b³ee DeeeL|ekeÀ eJfekeÀemeemeeysele®e ceeveemfekeÀ mJeemL³e, he³eeJ&ejCe meJbeOev&e, GÊece Deejeis³e ³ee meJe& yeeyeer ³eele eJfe®eejele IeCs³eele Deeueus³ee Deenlse. Happy Planet Index

Yeei³eÞeer ûeeceHegjesefnle bhagyashreegrampurohit@gmail.com

nH@eer Huev@eìs - Yelteeve... Deeheuee osMe efJekeÀefmele JneJee Demes meJee¥vee®e Jeeìle Demeles. heCe efJekeÀemee®eer J³eeK³ee cee$e he´l³eskeÀe®eer efvejefvejeUer ! efJekeÀeme cnìu³eeJej keÀener peCeebvee efMe#eCe #es$eeleerue efJekeÀeme cenlJee®ee Jeeìlees lej keÀener peCeebvee Deejesi³e #es$eeleerue . heCe Kejs heenlee ceeCemeeves Deeveboer Dee³eg<³e peieCeb ne Keje efJekeÀeme Demes cnCeC³eeme keÀener®e njkeÀle veener. DeeefCe meJee¥ieerCe ceeveefmekeÀ, MeejerefjkeÀ, YeeweflekeÀ, meeceeefpekeÀ Je Deee|LekeÀ efJekeÀemeeves®e ns meeO³e nesT MekeÀleb. meeceev³eleë osMee®ee eEkeÀJee ceveg<³ee®ee efJekeÀeme l³ee®³ee Deee|LekeÀ he´ieleerJeªve þjJeuee peelees. l³eemeeþer GDP (Gross Domestic Productivity) Deeef C e GNP (Gross National Productivity) ³ee efveoxMekeÀeb®ee Jeehej kesÀuee peelees ns meJe&Þegle Deens®e. hejbleg Happy Planet Index ns veeJe Deeheu³eemeeþer peje veJeerve®e! veeJeehe´ceeCes ³ee efveoxMekeÀeÜejs osMeeleerue ceeCemeeb®ee Deevebo ceespeuee peelees. Deeheu³ee osMeeleerue veeieefjkeÀeb®³ee Deee|LekeÀ ef J ekeÀemeemees y ele®e ceeveef m ekeÀ mJeemL³e , he³eeJ&ejCe meJbeOev&e, GÊece Deejeis³e ³ee meJe& yeeyeer ³eele efJe®eejele IesC³eele Deeuesu³ee Deensle. 1971 meeueeheemetve Yetleeve ³ee osMeeves GDP

ns efJekeÀemee®es SkeÀcesJe SkeÀkeÀ DemeCes Deceev³e kes À ues Deeef C e GNH (Gross National happiness index) ³ee efveoxMeebkeÀe®ee hee³ee j®euee. GNH ceO³es 33 JeiseJeiseȳee hek´eÀej®³ee efvekeÀ<eeb®ee meceeJesMe Deens p³eeletve ceeCemee®es Oeee|cekeÀ, meeceeefpekeÀ, YeeweflekeÀ Je he³ee&JejCeer³e Deejes i ³e cees p eues peeles . ner cees p eCeer he´MveeJeueer®³ee DeeOeejs keÀjC³eele ³esles. Yetleeve ³ee osMee®ee GNH DeeefMe³ee³eer osMeebceO³es meJeex®®e mLeeveer Deens. l³ee®eer keÀener keÀejCes efJe®eejele Ieslee Demes ue#eele ³esles efkeÀ ³ee osMeeves 60 ìkeÌkesÀ YetYeeie Jevejef#ele þsJeC³ee®ee efveOee&j keÀsuee Deen,s ueekeÀ[e®beer evfe³eel&e LeeybeJeueer Deens lemes®e ³esLes ojcene `heeo®eejer efoJeme' meepeje keÀjC³eele ³eslees; p³ee³eesies JeenletkeÀ DeeefCe l³eecegUs nesCeejs he´ot<eCe hetCe&leë Leebyeles. ojJe<eea GNH impact Statement Demee DenJeeue íeheuee peelees. ³ee DenJeeueele GNH ®ee opee& þjJeuee peelees DeeefCe ne opee& megOeejC³eeJej ojJe<eea DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ Yej efouee peelees. Yetleeve®³ee ³ee GNH ceOetve he´sjCee Iesle Happy Planet Index ®eer efvee|celeer peeieeflekeÀ mlejeJej keÀjC³eele Deeueer. New Economic Foundation ³ee UK ³esLeerue mebmLesves Happy Planet Index ³ee efveoxMeebkeÀe®eer ceeb[Ceer


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kesÀueer. ³ee mebmLes®ee GÎsMe mebHetCe& peieemeeþer MeeMJele DeeefCe Ghe³egÊeÀ DeMeer DeLe&J³eJemLee efvecee&Ce keÀjCes Deens. Happy Planet Index ®eej efvekeÀ<eebJejleer DeeOeeefjle Deens . l³eeceO³es peerJeveceeve (life expectancy), he³ee&JejCeer³e heoef®evn (Ecological Footprint), Demeceevelee (Inequality) ns leerve Jemlegefveÿ efvekeÀ<e Je peerJeveekeÀ[tve Demeuesu³ee Dehes#ee (Life expectation) ne Deelceefveÿ efvekeÀ<e ³ee®ee meceeJesMe Deens . l³eecegUs®e Happy Planet Index MeeMJele efJekeÀeme oMe&Jelees . peguew 2011 ceO³es ³egveeFìs[ vesMeve ves peeieeflekeÀ mlejeJej `Deevebo' ³ee efJe<e³eeuee mLeeve osTve World Happiness Report he´keÀeefMele kesÀuee Deens . ³eeceO³es Yeejlee®ee ¬eÀceebkeÀ 118 Jee Deens. 2016 meeue®³ee Happy Planet Index hec´eeCes Yeejlee®ee ¬eÀceekbeÀ 50 Jee ueeielees lej keÀemsìe ejfkeÀe osMee®ee ¬eÀceebkeÀ heefnuee Deens. keÀesmìe efjkeÀe ne ceO³e DecesefjkesÀleerue osMe l³eeves Iesleuesu³ee keÀener he³ee&JejCeer³e efveCe&³e DeeefCe Meeéele efJekeÀeme peerJeveMewueer ³ee keÀejCeebcegUs Deie´mLeeveer Deens . l³eecegUs YeefJe<³eeleerue Deee|LekeÀ efJekeÀeme meeOeCes ³ee osMeeuee megkeÀj Peeues Deens. peieeleerue 0.25 ìkeÌkesÀ YetYeeie Demeuesu³ee ³ee osMeele peieeleerue 5 ìkeÌkesÀ pewJeefJeefJeOelee Deens. osMee®³ee YeewieesefuekeÀ heefjeqmLeleer®ee HeÀe³eoe Iesle 95ìkeÌkesÀ Tpee& efn veJevelgeveekreÀjCe #ece Tpee& ñeelseecbeOevte ecfeUJeC³eele ³esles. he³ee&JejCeer³e he³e&ìve ³ee #es$eele meO³ee osMe he´ieleer keÀjle Deens. Deeheu³ee #es$eHeÀUe®³ee SkeÀ

®elegLee¥Me Yeeie ³ee osMeele mebjef#ele #es$e cnCetve peheues peeles. 2021 meeueehe³e¥le Metv³e keÀeye&ve Glmepe&ve keÀjC³ee®ee Oee[meer efveCe&³e ³ee osMeeves Iesleuesuee Deens. ns Flej efJekeÀmeveMeerue osMeebmeeþer HeÀej®e he´sjCeeoe³eer Deens. meJe& Dehe´l³e#e yeeyeeRcegUs osMeeleerue veeieefjkeÀ Deeveboer Dee³eg<³e peiele Deensle DeeefCe l³ee®ee heefjCeece cnCetve ne osMe Deepe Happy Planet Index ®³ee efvekeÀeueevegmeej Deie´ieC³e mLeeveer Deens. mJeleë®ee Happy Planet Index opee& ceespeC³eemeeþer legcner heg{erue eEuekeÀ Jej peeTve he´Mveeb®eer GÊejs osT MekeÀlee : http://happyplanetindex.herokuapp.com/survey Images : www.greenbhutan.bt


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meOgeeejfle ojt evfe³eeb$fele ³eeveeves cejevree KeobkeÀe®³ee oef#eCe ìeskeÀekeÀ[erue ®e@ueWpej [erHe Yeeieele 10900 efceìj KeesueJej ÒeJeeme keÀ©ve ceeefnleer mebkeÀueve kesÀues Je Keesue mecegêeleerue peerJeeb®³ee GHeefmLeleeryeÎue þesme HegjeJes efoues. Keesue HeeC³eele 1000 efceìj Keeueer ie[o DebOeej Demeu³eeves ³esLeerue ÒeeC³eeb®³ee jbieebvee keÀener®e meboYe& Demele veener HeCe SkebÀojerle ueeue jibe ÒeeOeev³eeves ³ee ÒeeC³eecbeO³es Dee{Ulees keÀejCe ueeue efkeÀjCe keÀceer Gpex®es Je cnCetve®e ÒeekeÀeMe vemeC³ee®³ee yejes y ejer ® es Demeleele. ie[o jbieecegUs ns peerJe DebOeejele menpee efomet MekeÀle veenelre. ceO³eleueHueeJeer #e$see®³ee ueiele HeensCeejs DeJeleueHueeJeer #es$eeleerue ceemes DeekeÀejeves ceesþîee [esȳeeb®es Demeleele. ³eecegUs DebOegkeÀ ÒekeÀeMeele Ye#e MeesOeC³eele l³eebvee ceole nesles. DeefOekeÀ KeesueJej Jeeme keÀjCeeN³ee ÒepeeleeRceO³es [esȳeeb®ee HetCe& Nneme Peeuesuee Dee{Ulees. ¢<ìer SsJepeer ³ee Òepeeleer oeyeeleerue HeÀjkeÀ, Jeeme ³eemeejK³ee ®esleveeb®ee JeeHej Heefjmeje®ee meg³eesi³e De{eJee IesC³eemeeþer keÀjleele. DeveskeÀ Keesue meceg ê eleer u e ceemes pew J eÒeef o Hleer (bioluminescence) ®ee JeeHej keÀjleele. l³eeb®³ee MejerjebJej ³eesi³e efþkeÀeCeer ÒeefoHleerOej (photophores) Demeleele p³eele menpeerJeer peer J eeCet meeþef J eues u es Demeleele Je l³ee peerJeeCetbceO³es u³egefmeHesÀefjve- u³egefmeHeÀjsPe Òe¬eÀer³ee nesJetve pewefJekeÀ ÒekeÀeMe m$eJeuee peelees. ³ee Òe¬eÀer³esuee cee$e ÒeeCeJee³et DeeJeM³ekeÀ Demelees. keÀener ÒepeeleeR®³ee keÀesUbyeer, efMejesHeeo ce=ogkeÀece (Goe. De$eCet/ mesefHe³ee) Je Deemes pewJeÒeefoHleer efvecee&Ce keÀ© MekeÀleele. ÒeefoHleerOejeble DeveskeÀoe efYebies Demetve leer ÒekeÀeMee®eer leerJe´lee Jee{Jeleele. ne pewJeÒeefoHleer®ee ÒekeÀeMe DeefOekeÀ mebJesovee#ece [esUs DemeCeeN³ee Òepeeleer®e lesJn{îee Heent MekeÀleele. ceeCemee®³ee [eÈ s ³ee®b³ee leutevelse ³ee®bes [esUs 100 Heì DeefOekeÀ mebJesovee#ece Demeleele. pewJeÒeefoHleermeeþer SketÀCe Gpee& JeeHeje®³ee kesÀJeU


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1 ìkeÌkesÀ Gpee& JeeHejueer peeles Je ÒeefoHleer®ee JeeHej Devve MeesOeCes, Ye#eeuee DeekeÀef<e&le keÀjC³eemeeþer, ÒepeveveekeÀefjlee peesef[oej MeesOeC³eemeeþer Je HejmHejebMeer mebJeeo meeOeC³eemeeþer kesÀuee peelees. efoHeve Keb[veemeeþer (counter illumination) osKeerue keÀener Òepeeleer pewJeÒeefoHleer®ee ³eMemJeer JeeHej keÀjleele. Del³ebeflekeÀ oeyeecegUs ceO³eleueHueeJeer ceeMeebÒeceeCes DeJeleueHueeJeer ceemes JeeleeMe³ee®³ee (air-bladder) JeeHej GlHueJekeÀlesmeeþer (buoyancy) keÀ© MekeÀle veenerle. l³eecegUs l³eeb®es mvee³et efcelem³ebomece (jelly like) Demeleele p³eecegUs l³eeb®eer Ievelee keÀceer nesles. keÀener Keesue mecegêer peerJeebceO³es lej keÀesìjs (floatation chambers) Dee{Uleele p³eele Deceesefve³ece keÌueesjeF[ meejK³ee #eejebveer ³egkeÌle Gojiegefn³e êJe Demelees pees HeeC³eentve nuekeÀe Demeu³eeves DeMee peerJeebvee GlHueJekeÀ yeveefJelees. DeMee ÒepeeleeR®eer j®evee peueHeCeea (hydrofoil ) meejKeer Demeu³eevesner l³eebvee menpelesves þjeefJekeÀ KeesueerJej efmLej neslee ³esles. Keesue, DebOeeN³ee HeeC³eele ³eesi³e JesUer ³eesi³e peesef[oej efceUtve Òepeveve ³eMemJeer neCses keÀþeCre DeLeJee DeMeke³Ìe Demeu³eeves DevekseÀ Keeuse HeeC³eeleeure celm³e ÒepeeleeRceO³es vej Del³eble ueneve nesTve keÀe³ecemJe©Heer ceeoer®³ee Mejerjeuee pees[uesuee Hej yevetve jenlees. peJeUHeeme meJe&®e Keesue HeeC³eeleerue ÒepeeleeR®eer Deb[er/ef[bYe/efHeueeJee DeefOeleueHueeJeer Demelees. l³eeb®³ee HesMeerêJ³eele ceso efkebÀJee lewue HeoeLee¥®es ÒeceeCe DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeves les menpeer mecegêe®³ee He=<þYeeieekeÀ[s meb¬eÀefcele nesleele. ³ee DeJemLee HueJekeÀer³e (Plank

tonic) jentve ueeìebyejesyej DeHeJeefnle nesle meJe&otj Hemejleele. l³eeb®³ee

Òeew{eJemLeebceO³es HesMeerêJ³ee®eer Ievelee Jee{tve leer HeeC³ee®³ee GlÒeCeesoveeuee (upthrust) Yesotve l³eebvee Keesue HeeC³eele efmLejeJeC³eeme ceole keÀjles. met³e&ÒekeÀeMee®³ee DebvegHeefmLeleerle ÒeeLeefcekeÀ GlHeeove nesJet MekeÀle veener l³eecegUs keÀener jmee³eve-mJe³ebHeesMeer (chemo autotrophic) peerJeebvee mees[tve keÀesCelesner mJe³ebHees<eer peerJe Keesue mecegêele Dee{Ule veenerle ns #es$e kesÀJeU HejHees<eer peerJeebveer®e ³egkeÌle Demes efHebieì #es$e (brown zone) mecepeues peeles. yenlgekseÀ HejHee<seer peuemleYbeeleeure He<=þYeeieekeÀ[s Demeueus³ee DeeOfeleueHueeJeer Je ceO³eleueHueeJeer #es$eeletve yejmeCeeN³ee pewefJekeÀ HeoeLee¥Jej efJemebyetve Demeleele. DeefOeleueHueeJeer #es$eele peerJeeb®ee ce=l³egoj DeefOekeÀ Demeuee lejer MeskeÀ[es ceerìj KeesueerHe³e¥le Hees®eC³eeHegJeea ce=leosneb®es pewefJekeÀ efJeIeìve HetCe& nesle Demeu³eeves kesÀJeU ceO³eleueHueeJeer #es$eeleerue ce=le osn Devvee®ee HegjJeþe keÀjleele. pesJne, kesÀJne Je pesJe{s Devve efceUsue lesJn{s HetCe&HeCes efceUC³ee®eer #ecelee Keesue mecegêeleerue ÒepeeleeRceO³es Demeles. ³ee keÀefjlee l³eeb®es peye[s SkeÀceskeÀebMeer DeMee leNnsves pees[uesues Demeleele keÀer Òemebieer peye[îeeb®ee efJemleej 1500 Hes#eener DeefOekeÀ nesT MekeÀlees. l³eeb®es oele Deeleerue yeepetme Je¬eÀ Demeleele. l³eeb®³ee ¢ef<ìHeìueele ob[ HesMeeR®eer mebK³ee (rod cells) DeefleMe³e DeefOekeÀ Demeles. l³eeb®es [esUs Jejerue yeepetme keWÀefêle Peeuesues Demetve DeveskeÀoe les ob[ieesueekeÀej (cylindrical) Demeleele l³eebleerue efYebie MeeqkeÌleMeeueer Demetve l³eele keÀceer Gpes[ele HeenC³eemeeþer DeHeieeceer HejeJele&keÀs (retro reflectors) Demeleele. DeMee ves$eebcegUs ³ee


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ceeMeebvee MeskeÀ[es efceìj He=<þYeeieekeÀ[erue Ye#ee®ee yee¿eebkeÀej menpelesves efomet MekeÀlees. Keesue mecegêer peerJeeb®ee ®e³eeHe®e³ee®ee Jesie Del³eble keÀceer Demelees Je les keÀesCelesner Ye#e mJeerkeÀejleele. Devve MeesOele Flemlele: peeC³eeSsJepeer SkeÀe efþkeÀeCeer efmLejeJetve Devvee®eer Òeefle#ee keÀjC³eekeÀ[s l³eeb®ee keÀue DeefOekeÀ Demelees. DeJeleueHueeJeer ceeMeebceO³es MetKecegKeer (bristle mouth) Deef[Me ceerve (angler fish), megUeobleer (fang tooth), HegÀjmes ceerve (viper fish), Kebpeerj obleer (dagger tooth) ye@jekegÀ[ervee ³eebmeejKes ceemes DeefOekeÀ ÒeceeCeele Demeleele. ³eeleerue Heg<keÀUmes 10 les 25 mes.ceer. SJe{s®e ueebye Demetve pewefJekeÀ ieeU (detritus), cewuee (faucal material) Je ce=le Mejerjeb®es legkeÀ[s ³eeJej efveJee&n keÀjleele. l³eeb®³ee MejerjeJej Del³eble ueneve KeJeues Demeleele efkebÀJee les KeJeue-seJfenevre Demeleele. eofmee³euee Ye³eevekeÀ DemeCeejs ns ceemes Òel³e#eele Deieoer DeMekeÌle Demetve l³eeb®³ee Heemetve ceeCemeeme keÀesCeleener OeeskeÀe Demele veener. l³eeb®es Deebleke&ÀCe& Je HeeMJe&jsKee (enternal ears & laternal lines) Del³elbe meJbeosvee#ece Demeleele. Iee´CeêWe³res ÒeeceKg³eeves Òepeveveemeeþer peees[ f oej MeeOseC³ee®³ee keÀeceer ³elseele. HeesufekeÀve Fu&e meejKee ceemee l³ee®³ee MeHseìe®³ee ìeskeÀeJej Demeuesu³ee pewJeÒeefoHleerkeÀj Fbefê³ee®³ee ceoleerves Ye#e MeesOetve KetHe ceeþ s îee GIe[CeeN³ee peye[îee®b³ee mene³³eeves l³eeme eifeUkbeÀ=le keÀjlee.s keÀeUe efieUkeÀ ceemee l³ee®³ee HegÀieg MekeÀCeeN³ee peþjele mJele:ntvener ceesþîee DeekeÀeje®³ee Ye#eeuee efieUtve meeþJet MekeÀlees. Demes ígHee nuuee keÀjCeejs kegÀype Deef[Me (humpback angler), LegueLegefuele ceemee (habber fish), mueesve®ee HegÀjmes ceemee, Kebefpej oble ceemee DeeefCe pewJeÒeefoHleerkeÀj kebÀefoue

ceemee (lantern fish) DeJeleueHueeJeer #es$eele JeeJejleevee efomeleele. jkeÌleÒekeÀeMeer efouee peye[e (stoplight loose jaw) ceemee DeeHeu³ee peye[îeeletve ueeue jbiee®ee pewJeÒeefoHleer ÒekeÀeMe mees[le leUnerle Keeue®ee peye[e Je ©HeYesefole (modified) peerYes®³ee mene³³eeves Devve efceUefJelees. ueeue ÒekeÀeMe Flej peerJeebvee efomet MekeÀle vemeu³eeves ne ceemee l³eeves®e HesÀkeÀuesu³ee ueeue ÒekeÀeMeele efMekeÀej keÀjlees. uebyelegb[ Yeeueeceemee (long snouted lance fish) l³ee®ee yeje®emee JesU ceO³eleueHueeJeer #es$eele Ye#e efceUJeerle IeeueJelees HeCe efveJeeme cee$e DeJeleueHueeJeer / DeþeJeHueeJeer #es$eele keÀjlees. ns meejs ígHes-Ye#ekeÀ ceemes Flej Keesue mecegêer ceeMeeb®³ee letuevesle DeefOekeÀ ®eHeU Je mHetÀleeaues Demetve ceO³eleueHueeJeer #es$eele efMekeÀej keÀjleele. ³eeleerue keÀener cee$e oerIe&keÀeU DeeHeu³ee meeJepeemeeþer ìHetve jenleele Je les efceUlee®e l³eeJej leeJe cee©ve Hegvne HebOejJe[e- ceefnveeYej Heg{erue Ye#eemeeþer Jeeì Heenleele. Keesue mecegêe®³ee leUebMeer peueDeesef<CekeÀer Jeeìs®³ee (hydrothurmal vent) YeesJeleeueer Hee@cHesF& ke=Àceer (pompeil worms ) Depem$e veeufekeÀe keÀ=ceer ³eemeejKes peerJe Dee{Uleele. mecegêleUer®³ee ®ejebletve mHebpe, efcelem³ebo ceemes (jelly fish), JeeuegkeÀe veeCeer (sand dollars), veefuekeÀe ke=Àceer (tube warms) meeiejer keÀekeÀ[îee DeLeJee JeeUgkesÀ (sea cucumbers), HegÀjmes ceerve (viper fish) ³eemeejKes peerJe Dee{Uues Deensle. ³eeb®eer Mejerjs FlekeÀer efJemeefJeMeerle Demeleele Je l³eeb®³ee HesMeeRceOeerue oeye FlekeÀe peemle Demelees keÀer HeeC³eeJej keÀe{lee®e l³eeb®eer Mejerjs efívveefYevve nesleele. l³eecegUs l³eeb®³ee peerJevee®eer iegefHeles HetCe&HeCes keÀUt MekeÀuesueer veenerle.


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efJeMes<e uesKe

[e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs 98696 12531 nstekale@gmail.com

ceuee Demes Jeeìles! legcneuee? ceeP³ee Meeues ³ e peer J eveeceO³es Je¿ee HegmlekeÀeHes#eener efJeefJeOe He#eebveer ceePes yeeueHeCe peemle meceO=o keÀsue.s ner meceO=oe®reer þJse ceer ceeP³ee veblej®³ee mebMeesOeve keÀeueKeb[ele keÀOeerner Deeìt efoueer veener, Gueì l³eeceO³es meelel³eeves Yej®e ìekeÀle jeefnuees. ceeP³ee He#eer Þeercebleer %eevee®³ee HeemeyegkeÀeceOeerue meJe& veeWoer Fefleneme Yetieesue ne efJe<e³e efMekeÀefJeCeeN³ee Deece®³ee Dee. Þeer. keÀeskeÀeìs ieg©peer les kesÀu³ee. Meeues³e HeJee&le efjkeÀecee leeme Deecneme keÀOeerner ceeefnle veJnlee. ®etketÀve SKeeoe Demeuee lej keÀeskeÀeìs ieg©peer Jeiee&Jej ³esTve Heefjmej efJe%eeve, ÒeeCeer, He#eer ³eeb®³ee íeve iees<ìer meebiele DeeefCe Òel³e#e l³ee menefpeJevee®ee DevegYeJemeg×e Deecneme osle Demele. 62-63 ceO³es veJeJeer ceO³es Demeleevee®ee SkeÀ efkeÀmmee Depetvener ceuee DeeþJelees. DeMee®e SkeÀe efjkeÀec³ee leemeeceO³es Deecner ieg©peerb®eer Deeletjlesves Jeeì Henele neslees DeeefCe les Deeues®e. HeÀUe mJe®í Hegmeu³eeJej l³eebveer Deecneuee ÒeMve keÀsuee. keÀeFì (Kite) cnCepes Heleibe DeeeCfe keÀeFì (Kite) cnCepes Ieej ³ee oesvnerceO³es keÀe³e HeÀjkeÀ Deen? s ceePee nele Jej Peeuee. ``Heleibe ne evfeepfeJ&e DeeefCe Ieej ner mepeerJe.'' ``þerkeÀ Deens!'' ieg©peer GÊejues. ``HeCe ³ee oesvnerceO³es meec³e keÀe³e?'' ³eeJesUer keÀesHeN³ee ceOeerue yeeyet GYee jeefnuee, ``ieg©peer ! ceebp³ee ®eebieuee Demeuesuee Helebie DeekeÀeMeele Gb®e G[efJelee ³eslees DeeefCe lees ef þ HekeÌ ³ eeÒeceeCes ef o melees ! Ieej meg O oe DeekeÀeMeele Gb ® e ef m Lej, ef þ HekeÌ ³ eeÒeceeCes efomeles!'' ieg©peeRvee yeeyet®³ee GÊejeves KetHe®e Deevebo Peeuee. Helebiee®es Kite ns veeJe IeejercegUs®e He[ues ns l³eebveer Deecneme meebefieleues. yeeyet®eer ceePeer cew$eer ³eeveblej peemle ¢{ Peeueer. Deece®³ee ieeJeeceOeerue iegjeKeer keÀekeÀeb®ee lees cegueiee DeveskeÀoe lees MeeUe yeg[Jetve ceeUjeveeJej iegjs jeKeC³eemeeþer peele Demes. ``efMeketÀve keÀe³e GHe³eesie? MesJeìer ceer iegjs®e jeKeCeej Deens !'' ³ee l³ee®³ee vesnceer®³ee Jeeke̳eeJej Deecner efce$e nmele Demet. ³ee Òemebieeveblej ceer l³ee®³eeyejesyej DeveskeÀJesUe ceeUjeveeJej iesuees. efkeÀleerlejer He#eer yeefIeleues. l³eeleerue®e SkeÀ cnCepes Ieejer®³ee

©HeeceOeerue efþHekeÀe. ceeUjeveeJej l³eeves ceuee DeekeÀeMeele Gb®e G[CeeN³ee efkeÀleer lejer Ieejer oeKeJeu³ee. G®beer Je©ve l³ee eufeue³ee Keeueer ³else, Gb®e ieJeleeuee vekeÀUle mHeMe& keÀ©ve Hejle Gb®e peeTve ot j SKeeÐee Pee[eJej yemele. `ûeemeneHsej' ns l³ee®bes DeeJe[les KeeÐe. ns yeeyevte®se ceuee veblej meebefieleues. ceeP³ee Meeues³e efpeJeveele ceer keÀeȳee, leebyetme jbiee®³ee DeveskeÀ Ieejer Heeenfu³ee, cee$e meHbeCte& [ekseÀs DeeeCfe íelee®ree Yeeie Heeb{je MegYe´ Demeuesueer ye´ecnCeer Ieej SkeÀoe®e SkeÀe osJeUe®³ee Heefjmejele Gb®e efMeKejeJej yemeuesueer Heeefnueer. Ieej ne DeefleMe³e megboj He#eer Deens. Meefjj keÀeUmej, HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie leebyetme, Mejerj leekeÀoJeeve, ueebyeer efo[-oesve HetÀì, HebKe GIe[tve DeekeÀeMeeceOeerue mebLe Yejejer men ®eej HetÀì, ®ee®We yeekeÀoej, [eU s s ceeþ s ,s ieeuseekeÀej, leeybemte, l³eeceOeerue keÀeUs ieesue yegyetU SkeÀoce Gþtve efomeles. Ieejer®eer efle#Ce vepej efle®³ee ³ee [eÈ s ³ee®b³ee j®evecseO³e®se Deen.s DeekeÀeMeele G®be G[le Demeleevee efle®eer vepej peefceveer®³ee He= < þYeeieeJejer u e neue®eeueer J ej Demeles . #eCeeOee&le Keeueer ³esTve leer les nueCeejs meeJepe DeeHeu³ee yeekeÀoej keÀeUer veKes Demeuesu³ee HebpeeceO³es HekeÀ[tve lesJe{îee®e Jesieele Jej peeles. Ye#³e HekeÀ[C³ee®ee Ieejer®ee ne Gueìe ef$ekeÀesCe DeeM®e³e&keÀejkeÀ Deens. Ieejer®es Kejs meeQo³e& efle®³ee HebKeele DeeefCe MesHeìerceO³es®e Deens. MeefjjeHes#ee ogHHeì ueebyeer®es megboj HebKe DeeefCed HebKee®³ee DeekeÀeje®eer ogYeeieuesueer MesHeìer ³eeb®es evfeȳee DeekeÀeMeeceOeeure meeoQ³e& DevekseÀ He#eeÒrecseer íe³eeef®e$ekeÀejebvee Jes[eJetve ìekeÀles. Ieej DeekeÀeMeele G[leevee efle®es Hee³e HeesìeMeer Iesles. cee$e peefceveerJejerue Ye#³e Hebpeeves®e G®eueles. efJeceevee®es ueBef[ie DeMee®e ÒekeÀejs nesles. Ieej ne ceemeenejer He#eer Deens. HeeC³ee®³ee He=<þYeeieeJej PesHe IesCeejs ceemes, MesleeceOeerue Gboerj, IegMeer Flej ueneve He#eer, JeìJeeIeUe®eer G[Ceejer yeeUs, keÀeWye[îee®eer efHeuues, ueneve memes, meeHe, yes[tkeÀ, mej[s ns l³eeb®es cegK³e Devve. YetkesÀueer Ieej Gb®e Fceejleer ® ³ee ie®®eer J ejer u e GHeueyOe


15 MeekeÀenejmegOoe Iesles. JeeIe-efmebneves kesÀuesu³ee efMekeÀejerJej keÀesuns, ueeb[ies, lejme JeeìskeÀjer nesleele. DeMee JesUer DeekeÀeMeeceOetve efJeue#eCe Jesieeves Ieej Keeueer ³esTve oesve Hee³eeb®³ee HebpeeceOetve les DeKKes Ye#³e G®euetve IesTve peeles. pebieueeceOeerue GIe[îee Yeeieeleerue ner DevvemeeKeUer HeenCes ne efvemeie& Òesceerbmeeþer JesieUe Deevebo Deens. pebieueeceOetve peeCeeN³ee jmles DeHeIeeleele DeveskeÀ ÒeeCeer cejleele. l³eebvee G®euetve vesleeveener DeveskeÀ IeejeR®ee DeHeIeeleer cel=³eg nelsee.s DeekeÀeMeele G®be G[leevee eJfeceevee®b³ee He<=þYeeieeJe©ve HejeJeleelae nesCeeN³ee met³e&efkeÀjCeebcegUs Ieejer®eer vepej #eCeYej efceìles DeeefCe l³ee HebK³eele De[keÀleele. DeveskeÀ efJeceeve DeHeIeeleeme Gb®e G[Ceejer Ieej peyeeyeoej Deens. efJeceeveeuee efle®eer yemeCeejer Oe[keÀ efle®ee ÒeeCe lej Iesles®e HeCe efJeceevee®esner vegkeÀmeeve nesles. efJeceeveleUeb®³ee DeemeHeeme DemeCeejer ceeveJeer Jemleer, PeesHe[HeÆer ³eeuee peyeeyeoej Deens. Ieej ne He#eer MenjerJemleerme ueeietve Demeuesu³ee ceeskeÀȳee cewoeveer Yeeieele DeekeÀeMeele efomelees. efJejU pebieue l³eeme efÒe³e cee$e Ieveoeì pebieue cee$e l³eebvee efMekeÀejercegUs Jepe& Demeles. pebieueeme ueeieCeeN³ee Deeieer, yeensj He[Ceeje Oetj Ieejervee peemle DeekeÀef<e&le keÀjlees keÀejCe Deiveer Òeue³eecegUs pebieueeceOeerue ueneve peerJe ÒeeCe Jee®eJeC³eemeeþer yeens j He[leele Deeef C e IeejeR ® es Ye#e þjleele.Deemì^sefue³eeceOeerue DeeefoJeemeer IeejeR®eer efMekeÀej keÀjleele. keÀejCe l³ee pebieueeme cegÎece Deeieer ueeJeleele ne l³eeb®ee mecepe Deens. ³ee osMeeceOeerue `Ieej mebj#eCe mebmLee' meO³ee ³ee®e #es$eele keÀece keÀjle Deens. IeejerceO³es vej, ceeoer meejKes®e efomeleele. pescelesce SkeÀ efkeÀuees Jepeve Demeuesu³ee ³ee He#³eeceO³es ceeoer DeekeÀejeves efkebÀ®eerle ceesþer Demeles. ne He#eer ueneveMee mecegnele jenlees. je$eer®ee efveJeeme Pee[eJej SkeÀ$eerle Demelees. cee$e lees efMekeÀej mJeleb$e keÀjlees. ³ee He#³ee®es efveȳee Debyejer®es meenme Jes[ ueeJeCeejs Demeles. DeekeÀeMeele efmLej jenCes, #eCeeceO³es efoMee yeoueCes, HebKe ve nueJelee Keeueer ³esCes, Hejle Jej peeCes, ns meJe& HeenC³eemeejKes Demeles, efveȳee DeekeÀeMeeceOeerue Deeþ one Ieejerb®³ee keÀJee³eleer Jee³egoueeceOeerue ue{eJet efJeceeveeb®³ee lees[erme lees[ Demeleele. Ieejer®³ee efJeCeer®³ee jbieeceO³es ³ee G[C³ee®³ee keÀues®ee HeÀej ceesþe efnmmee Deens. vej-ceeoer DeekeÀeMeele SkeÀ$e ³eT s ve l³ee®b³ee meLbe, Meelbe HeCe Jeiseeves G[C³ee®e,s Keeueer ³eCse,s PeìkeÀve JeUCes, mejU Gb®e peeCes ³eeb®eer megjsKe Òeel³eef#ekesÀ keÀ©ve SkeÀceskeÀeme Hemebleer osleele. oesIes efceUgve Pee[eJej Iejìs yeebOeleele. Iejìîee®eer peeiee Meke̳elees Gb®eeJej, oesve HeÀeboer®³ee yes®eke̳eele Demeles. pee[ keÀe[îee, JeeUuesueer Heeves, MesJejer®ee keÀeHetme ³ee meeefnl³ee®ee JeeHej keÀ©ve keÀHeeb®³ee DeekeÀeje®es Iejìs le³eej nesles. Deele oesve-leerve Heeb{jì leebyetme Deb[er Demeleele. ceeoer SkeÀ ceefnv³eele Deb[er GyeJeles, efHeuues oesve ceefnves Iejìîeele Demeleele. veblej HeeJemeeȳeeHetJeer& G[tve peeleele. peevesJeejer HesÀye´gJeejer ne ³ee He#³ee®ee efJeCeer®ee keÀeU Deens. ceeoer SkeÀ ceefnvee Iejìîeele Demeleevee efleuee vej Devve HegjefJelees. efHeuues SkeÀ ceenfv³ee®eer DemeHse³el¥ener ns keÀece lee®se keÀjlees cee$e SKeeos yeeU DeMekelÌe Demesue lej Flej oesve meMekeÌle efHeuues Dee¬eÀcekeÀ nesTve l³eeuee peemle kegÀHeesef<ele keÀjleele. DeMee JesUer ³ee yeeUe®³ee Devveemeeþer DeeF& mJele: yeensj He[les cee$e efle®es ue#e l³ee efHeuueeHeeMeer®e Demeles. `Ieej Gb®e G[s DeekeÀeMeer, ue#e efle®es efHeuueeHeeMeer' ³ee keÀeJ³e HebkeÌleer®eer efveefce&leer ³ee®e cegUs Deens. ³ee He#³ee®ee DeeJeepe ueneveMeer MeerU Ieeleu³eemeejKee Demelees.

mJele:®es DeefmlelJe oeKeJeleevee l³eeb®eer MeerU letìle peeles. leer SskeÀC³ee®ee Deevebo HeÀej®e JesieUe. cegbyeF&, HegCes, meesueeHetj, veiej, cejeþJee[e, efJeoYe& Heefjmejele ne He#eer DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer Dee{Ulees. DeekeÀeMeele Gb®e G[Ceeje Demeu³eeceU g s l³eeuee mJele:®³ee peeleYeeF& He#see Flej Me$et veenelre. HekeÀ[ueuses Ye#³e ÒeeHle keÀjleevee DeekeÀeMeeceOeerue l³eeb®es peìe³et ³egOo SkeÀe®ee ÒeeCe DeeefCe ogmeN³eeme peKeceer keÀ©ve peeles. Oetj ne ³ee He#³eeme efÒe³e. cnCetve HetJeea ueeueyeeie Heefjmejele YejHetj keÀeHe[ efiejC³ee Demeu³eecegUs lesLes Ieejer KetHe nesl³ee. l³eeb®³ee efYeleerves ueneve cegues Fceejleer®³ee ie®®eerJej peele vemele. ceeCemeeme $eeme ve osCeeje ne He#eer pesJne ceeCetme $eemeoe³ekeÀ þjlees leWJne®e Dee¬eÀcekeÀ neslees. ueeueyeeie, HejUceOeerue Gb®e Pee[eJej HetJeea l³eeb®eer DeveskeÀ Iejìer nesleer. DeeHeues mJele:®es Iejìs Deens, l³eele DeeHeueer®e yeeUs Deensle ns DeesUKeC³eemeeþer ne He#eer ceeCemeeb®eer JeeUle Ieeleuesues íesìer keÀeHe[s HeUJetve IejìîeeJej l³ee®ee letkeÀ[e þsJele Demes. ceekeÀ[ keÀHe[s HeUJeles HeCe Ieej megOoe ueneve keÀHe[e IesTve peeles ns peWJne ceeP³ee efce$eeves leerme-Hemleerme Je<ee&HetJeea ceuee meebefieleues leWJne ceer l³eeme Jes[îeele keÀe{ues nesles. Gb®e Pee[eJej®ee l³ee®ee Heeb{je ©ceeue DeeefCe l³eeKeeueer Ieejer®es Iejìs Heeefnu³eeJej cee$e Kee$eer Heìueer. Deepe ueeueyeeieceO³es ueeueyeeie®³ee jepee eMfeJee³e keÀe³e Deens ? eifejC³ee ieus³ee, Oejge[ b er Leeybeuee,r megKeemeceeOeeveele jenCeejer npeejes kegÀìgbyes GodOJemle Peeueer. Pee[s iesueer DeeefCe meesyele IeejmegOoe. ceeCemeeb®ee, MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee efce$e He#eer Demeuesuee ne peerJe IUCN ®³ee ³eeoerle ogue&ef#ele Demeuee lejer keÀeUpeer keÀjC³eeFleHele l³ee®es DeefmlelJe Deepener oeKeJele Deens. ieJeleeU kegÀjCeeJej G[Ceejs ceesþs efkeÀìkeÀ ns l³ee®es Devve, iee³ejeves, ieJeleeU kegÀjCes Deelee DeefmlelJeele Deensle keÀe ? jemee³eefvekeÀ Keles, efkeÀìkeÀveeMekeÀecegUs Ieejer®es Devve efJe<eejer Peeues Deens. ³ee Devvee®ee l³eeb®³ee G[C³ee®³ee DeeefCe ÒepeeslHeeove #ecelesJej HeejfCeece nelse Deen.s Menj DeeeCfe Heejfmejele G®be Demeueus³ee eJfeÐelge leejeJbej ne He#eer Devvee®³ee MeesOeele yemeuesuee Dee{Ulees. DeveskeÀ JesUe ³ee®e leejsceOeerue efJeÐegleÒeJeen l³ee®ee ÒeeCe Ieslees. ceeskeÀUer cewoeves, [eWiej, ìskeÀ[îeeJej JemeJeuesueer JeeN³ee®³ee HebKeeb®eer ³eb$eCee (efJeb[efceue) DeeefCe l³eeb®eer Yeueer ceesþer Heeleer Ieejer®³ee cegUeJej Gþuesueer Deensle. Jee{leer Menjs, l³eemeeþer ueeieCeeN³ee megKemegefJeOee, ceeCemee®es Deejeceoe³eer peerJeve ³ee He#³ee®³ee pewefJekeÀ Devve meeKeUerceOeerue cenlJee®³ee menYeeieeKeeueer ueeue jsIe Dees{le Deens. ner ueeue MeeF& efnjJeer keÀjlee ³esCeej veener keÀe ? Denceoeyeeo, pe³eHetjmeejK³ee ceesþceesþîee Menjele ÒeefleJe<eea cekeÀj meb¬eÀebleeruee Kite cnCepes Helebie GlmeJe meepeje neslees. Demee®e SKeeoe GlmeJe ³ee Kite He#³eebmeeþer nesT MekeÀlees keÀe ? ³ee®ee efJe®eej nesCes iejpes®es Deens. ceeP³ee ieg©peeRveer ³ee oesve meejK³ee MeyoebceOeerue HeÀjkeÀ Deecneme mecepeeTve efouee. ne®e pewefJekeÀ, DepewefJekeÀ HeÀjkeÀ HeCe l³eeb®³eeceOeerue meceevelee DeeefCe oesIeeb®ee SkeÀceskeÀeMeer Demeuesuee mebyebOe ns meJe& ns meJe& SKeeÐee ef®e$e©Heer ÒeoMe&veeletve meJe& Helebie Òesefcebvee He³ee&JejCe Òesceer mebmLesveer oeKeJeeJeer Demes ceuee Jeeìles ! legcneuee ?

íe³eeef®e$e ë Deeefcej MesKe


16

DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee mee³eueWì efmÒebie uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

keÀke&Àjesiee®ee GodYeJe nesC³eeme (c³egìsMeve) peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoue keÀejCeeYrelte Deenlse. ³ee emfeOoelbee ÒeceeCes SKeeoer HeMseer keÀoe®fele ekfeÀjCeelsmeiee®&³ee ÒeYeeJeeKeeueer ³elses ekfeÀbJee jmee³evee®³ee meHbekeÀel&e ³else,s leJsne elfe®³eele peeJreMeem$ee³re yeoue (c³eìgMseve) nelsee.s SjJeer Mejejre®ee HeMseeerJfeYeepevee®³ee keÀe³eeJ&ej pees leeyee Demelees lees ³ee HeMseeJrej jent MekeÀle veene.r

Òel³ekseÀ ®eejeme SkeÀ!... ®eH@ìj 14 ë Yeeie 4 HesMeeR®³ee iegCemet$eeletvemeg×e Mejerjele keÀke&Àjesiee®eer megªJeele nesT MekeÀles. ³ee #es$eele keÀece keÀjCeejs DeveskeÀ ÒeefLele³eMe mebMeesOekeÀ keÀesCel³eener jmee³eveekeÀ[s meeMebkeÀHeCes Heenleele, keÀejCe leer iegCemet$eeb®eer neveer vegkeÀmeeve keÀjleele, HesMeer efJeYeepeveele De[LeUe DeeCeleele efkebÀJee peer J eMeem$eer ³ e yeoue (c³eg ì s M eve) Ie[Jet v e DeeCeleele. ³ee DeY³eemekeÀeb®³ee celeeÒeceeCes c³egìsMeve ns keÀke&Àjesiee®es cetueYetle keÀejCe Deens. pejer c³egìsMeve meboYee&leerue ®e®exle vesnceer yeerpeHesMeeR®ee (pece& mesue) GuuesKe neslees. yeerpeHesMeeRcegUs YeefJe<³eeleerue efHe{îeebJej Heef j Ceece nes T MekeÀlees . lejer HeCe Mejejreleeure Flej HeMseecReO³enser peeJreMeem$ee³re yeoue (c³egìsMeve) Peeuesuee Demet MekeÀlees. keÀke& À jes i ee®ee God Y eJe nes C ³eeme (c³eìgMseve) peeJreMeem$ee³re yeoue keÀejCeeYrelte Deensle. ³ee efmeOoeblee ÒeceeCes SKeeoer HesMeer keÀoef®ele efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®³ee ÒeYeeJeeKeeueer ³elses ekfeÀbJee jmee³evee®³ee meHbekeÀel&e ³else,s leJsne efle®³eele peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoue (c³egìsMeve) neslees. SjJeer Mejerje®ee HesMeerefJeYeepevee®³ee keÀe³ee&Jej pees leeyee Demelees lees ³ee HesMeerJej jent MekeÀle veener. l³ee keÀejCeeves®e leer HesMeer Deefve³ebef$ele HeOoleerves Deieoer yesmegceejHeCes HesMeer efJeYeepevee®es keÀe³e& keÀª MekeÀles. ³ee leNnsves le³eej Peeuesu³ee HesMeeRceO³esner Mejerje®³ee leey³eeletve megìC³ee®eer #ecelee Demeles. Deieoer keÀener keÀeUele®e DeMee DemebK³e HesMeer ieesUe nesleele, p³eeb®³eecegUs keÀke&Àjesie le³eej neslees. Flej mebMeesOekeÀeves Demes efveoMe&veeme DeeCetve eofues keÀer keÀkeÀ&jeiseer HeMseecreOeeure ieCgeme$tes DeemfLej Demeleele. leer iegCemet$es cees[t MekeÀleele efkebÀJee l³eeb®es vegkeÀmeeve nesT MekeÀles. l³eeb®³ee mebK³es®ee keÀener YejJemee veener. keÀoeef®ele iegCemet$eeb®ee ognsjer meb®ener Demet MekeÀlees. iegCemet$eeleerue ³ee Deefve³eefceleHeCeecegUs l³eeb®³eele Heg{s peeTve Òel³e#eHeCes IeelekeÀHeCee ³eslees. ³ee®ee ÒeLece MeesOe ueeJeuee lees v³et³ee@ke&À ³eLseeure mueeD s eeve keÀsìjeiRe Fvmìeìrîeìt ³eLses keÀece keÀjCeeN³ee Deuyeì& uesJneve DeeefCe pee@ve pes.

ef y emes u e ³ee meb M ees O ekeÀeb v eer . pes J ne ÒeLece iegCemet$ee®³ee keÀe³ee&le De[LeUe DeeOeer ³eslees keÀer ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ DeJemLee DeeOeer ³esles, ³eeyeÎue ns mebMeesOekeÀ Deefpeyeele efJeuebye ve ueeJelee efJeOeeve keÀjleele keÀer, ‘ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ yeveC³ee Deieesoj iegCemet$eele Deefve³eefceleHeCee ³eslees.’ keÀoeef®ele l³eeb®ee leke&À Demee Demesue keÀer, iegCemet$eebvee Peeuesu³ee ÒeeLeefcekeÀ FpescegUs DeefmLejlee ³esles. l³eeceU g s yeN³ee®e keÀeUHe³el¥e HeMsee®R³ee DevekseÀJeej

HegveªlHeÊeer ojæc³eeve ne Òe³elve Hegvne Hegvne ®eeuet jnelees. (p³eeuee DeeHeCe IeelekeÀHeCeeHe³e¥le Heesnes®eC³ee®ee ueebyeue®ekeÀ megHle keÀeU cnCet MekeÀlee.s) ³ee keÀeUele yej®se peeJreMeem$ee³re yeoue (c³egìsMevemed) SkeÀ$e ³esle ³esle MesJeìer HesMeeRJej®es Mejerje®es efve³eb$eCe megìles. ³ee HesMeer Deefve³ebef$ele efJeYeepeveeme megªJeele keÀjleele, p³eeletve keÀke&Àjesiee®ee GoYeJe neslees. Dees p e ef J e[ ef J eb i e ns ieg C emet $ ee®³ee DeefmLejles®³ee efmeOovlee®es HegjmkeÀlex nesle. l³eebvee peeCeJeues iegCemet$ee®es ogHHeì nesCes ns HeÀej®e cenlJeHetjdCe Deens. ne ³eesiee³eesie Deens keÀer, JevemHeleerJej kesÀuesu³ee Òe³eesieele pesJne yesvPeerve nskeÌmeekeÌueesjeF&[ Je l³eemeejKes®e efueb[sve ³eeb®ee GHe³eesie keÀªve DeveskeÀ JesUe efvejer#eCe kesÀues lesJne iegCemet$es ogHHeì Peeu³ee®es efometve Deeues. DeeefCe jkeÌle#e³eeves yeeefOele Demeuesu³ee yeN³ee®e jesi³eeb®³ee meboYee&le veerì þsJeuesu³ee veeWoerceO³es l³ee jesi³eeb®ee ¿ee®e jmee³eveebMeer mebyebOe Deeuesuee efomeuee! ceie Deelee Flej keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®es keÀe³e, peer Hes M eer ef J eYeepeveele De[LeUe


17 DeeCeleele, iegCemet$es Yeive keÀjleele DeeefCe peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoue Ie[Jetve DeeCeleele? ns Deelee mHeäHeCes efomeles Deens keÀer efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&Meer mebHeke&À Je l³ee®ee mebmeie& efkebÀJee efkeÀjCeeslmeejer HeoeLe& me¢M³e jmee³eves ³eeb®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve meeceev³eHeCes jkelÌee®ee keÀkeÀ&jeise nelsee.s p³ee HeMseer ÒeeceKg³eeves HeMseeerJfeYeepevee®es Òel³e#e keÀe³e& keÀjerle Demeleele l³ee®e peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoue keÀjCeeN³ee (c³egìepesefvekeÀ) vewmeefie&keÀ Je jemee³eefvekeÀ ÒeefleefveOeeR®es cegK³e ue#³e Demeles. ³ee ue#³eeceO³es eJfeeJfeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee HeMseemreOgoe ³elseele. eJfeMe<se keÀªve jkelÌee®eer efveefce&leer keÀjCeeN³ee HesMeer. mebHetCe& Dee³eg<³eYej DeefmLeceppee®e ueeue jkeÌleHesMeeR®es GlHeeove keÀjleele. oj meskebÀoeuee one oMeue#e veJeerve HesMeer ceeCemee®³ee jkeÌleÒeJeenele mees[u³ee peeleele. Heeb{js jkeÌleieesuekeÀ ns ueefmekeÀe ûebLeerle (efuecHeÀ iue@C[med) DeeefCe keÀener efþkeÀeCe®³ee ne[e®³ee ®ejyeerle le³eej nesleele. l³eeb®eer mebK³ee þjeefJekeÀ vemeueer lejer l³eener DeHeÀeì ÒeceeCeele le³eej nesleele. efkeÀjCeeslmeejer DeMee keÀener jmee³evebe®³ee ³eeoerle DeeHeu³eeuee DeeþJeles les Deens mì^esveefMe³ece 90. ¿ee jmee³eveeuee DeefmLeceppesefJe<e³eer SkeÀ ®ecelkeÀejerkeÀ Dees{ Demeles. keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀele êeJekeÀ (mee@uJnvì) cnCetve JeejbJeej JeeHejuee peeCeeje IeìkeÀ Deens ‘yesvPeerve’. yesvPeerve ueies®e®e DeefmLeceppesle Jemeleerme peeles DeeefCe lesLes®e les meeOeejCe 20 ceefnv³eeHe³e¥le pecee nesTve jneles. JewÐekeÀer³e meeefnl³eeletve iesueer. DeveskeÀ Je<ex yesvPeerve KegÎ jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®es keÀejCe cnCetve DeesUKeues peeles.

He³ee&JejCe peieleele... DeeOeer yeeleceer Deeblejjeä^er³e mlejeJejerue Heent ³ee! heeb[e ne he´eCeer DeeheCe heefnuee Demesue. DemJeue Jeieel&e cee[ s Ceeje ne hee´Ceer ®eerveceO³es Dee{Ulees. ne he´eCeer peeieeflekeÀ he´eC³eeb®³ee ³eeoerle `OeekseÀeiem´le' Jeieel&e cee[ s uee peele neslee. 1980 meeueer heeb[e®eer mebK³ee SkeÀ npeeje®³ee Iejele Deeueer nesleer. ³ee®es he´cegKe keÀejCe cnCepes JeeleeJejCe yeoueecegUs veä Peeuesueer yeebyet®eer Jeves,35 ìkeÌkesÀ FlekeÀer ner Jeves keÀceer Peeueer DeeefCe HeÀÊeÀ yeebyetJej DeJeuebyetve jenCeeje ne he´eCeer osKeerue OeeskeÀeie´mle Peeuee. hejbleg Deelee l³ee®³ee mebJeOe&ve keÀe³ee&uee yeU Deeueb Deens. keÀejCe heeb[eb®eer mebK³ee Deelee 1596 FlekeÀer Peeueer Deens. ³eeceO³es

ueneve cegueeb®³ee YejeYej Jee{CeeN³ee HesMeer ner megOoe ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ HesMeer efJekeÀmeefle nesC³eemeeþer Hegjsmee JeeJe osCeejer meJee&le ³eesi³e DeMeer HeefjefmLeleer Demet MekeÀles. mej ce@keÀHeÀuee&ve yevexì ³eebveer ns efveoMe&veeme DeeCetve efoues Deens keÀer jkeÌlee®ee keÀke&Àjesie lej peieele meJe&$e Hemejlees Deens. HeCe lees yenOgee 3 les 4 Je<ee®&³ee Je³eecseeveele®e eofmelee.s ³ee Je³eele omgeN³ee keÀeCsel³eener jesiee®ee ÒeeogYee&Je efomele veener. ³ee le%eeb®³ee celes, 3 les 4 Je<ee&®³ee Je³eesle pesJne Demee ìeskeÀe®ee Deepeej neslees lesJne l³ee®ee ogmeje keÀesCeleener DeLe& ueeJelee ³esCes Meke̳e veener. lej pevcee®³ee JesUs®³ee DeemeHeeme peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoueebvee (c³egìspeefvekeÀ) yeoueebvee GÊespevee osCeeN³ee HeefjefmLeleerMeer ³ee íesìîee peerJeeb®ee mebHeke&À Deeuee DemeeJee. ogmeje peerJeMeem$eer³e yeoue keÀªve keÀke&Àjesiee®ee GodYeJe keÀjCeeje HeoeLe& Deens, ³egjsLeeve. pesJne ieYe&Jeleer GbojerJej ne Òe³eesie kesÀuee iesuee, lesJne l³eebvee HegÀHHegÀmeele keÀke&Àjesiee®eer ueeieCe Peeueer. HeCe kesÀJeU l³eebvee®e veener lej l³eeb®³ee efHeuueebveener keÀke&Àjesie Peeuee. ³ee Òe³eesieele Gboje®³ee ³ee efHeueeb®ee ³egjsLeeveMeer mebHeke&À kesÀJeU ÒemetleerHegJe& DeJemLesle®e ³esT MekeÀlees. ³eeves ns efmeOo nesles keÀer ieYe&Jesäveeletve efkebÀJee veeUsletve ns jmee³eve Deele efPejHeles. [e@. ÔîetHej meeJeOe keÀjleele keÀer ceeCemeeb®³ee oeì ueeskeÀJemleerle pesLes ³egjsLeeve Jee lelmece jmee³eveeb®³ee mebHekeÀe&le ueeskeÀ ³esleele l³eeb®³eeceO³es lesLes leev¿ee yeeUebvee ieYee&JemLesle Demeleevee®e jesieeb®eer ieeþ (ìîetcej) nesC³ee®eer Meke̳elee Demeles.

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heeb[e®³ee efMekeÀejerJej ®eerve ceO³es ueeJeuesuee yebo lesJn{e®e keÀejCeerYetle Deens. jlveeefiejer efpeu¿eeceO³es hegvne SkeÀoe mecegê ekfeÀveeN³eeJej peieeleeure meJeel&e ceeþse memleve hee´Ceer cnpbes oJseceemee (Blue Whale) ne Jeenvte Deeuee. 47 HeÀtì ueeb y eer ® ee ne ceemee ce[yeve ieeJeepeJeUerue mecegê efkeÀveejerJej Dee{Utve Deeuee.l³ee®eer Jepeve 20 ìve Flekes À nes l es . l³eeuee 50 mLeeefvekeÀ ce®íer ceeje®³ee ceoleerves mecegêele hegvne mees[C³eele Deeues.lep%eeb®³ee veìs l³ee ceem³eeuee Deb l eie& l e peKecee Peeu³eecegUs efoMeeoMe&vee®eer #ecelee l³eeves ieceeJeueer nesleer heCe Keesue meceêgele l³eeuee mee[ s u³eeJej l³eeves heg{s he´mLeeve kesÀues. kes À ve yes ì Jee veoer p ees [ he´keÀuheeuee jeä^er³e Jev³epeerJe

efve³eecekeÀ ceb[Ueves efnjJee kebÀoerue oeKeJeuee Deens. ne hek´eÀuhe ¿ee®³ee hek´eÀej®ee heenfuee®e Deen.s9393 keÀesìeR®ee ne hetCe& he´keÀuhe Deens,ne he´keÀuhe GÊej heo´Mseeleeure o<gkeÀeUiem´le yeobguseKe[ b ¿ee Yeeieemeeþer Jejoeve þjsue. hejbleg ceO³ehe´osMeeleerue heVee J³eeIe´he´keÀuhee®eer ¿ee cegUs ceesþer neveer nesCeej Deens.heVee J³eeIe´ he´keÀuhee®ee 4141 nskeÌìj SJe{e Yeeie heeC³eeKeeueer peeCeej Deens l³eecegUs 105 ®eew ekfeÀceer SJe{e J³eeIe´ DeeOfeJeeme veä neCseej Deen.shejlbeg ¿ee he´keÀuheecegUs Mesleer®³ee heefjmejeuee eEme®eveemeeþer Yejhejt ueeYe ecfeUCeej Deen.sDemekseÀ®e Depevte DevekseÀ hek´eÀuhe ¿ee velbej jeyeJeues peeC³ee®eer Meke³Ìelee Deen.s cenejeä^ mejkeÀejves vegkeÀl³ee®e Iesleuesu³ee Je=#eejesheCe keÀe³e&¬eÀceeveblej Deelee SkeÀ veJeerve mebkeÀuhevee Deceueele DeeCee³e®es þjJeues Deens. Je=#e jesheb DeeefCe Je=#e mebJeOee&meeþer Je=#e otle vesceues peeCeej Deens. jep³eeceO³es 1 keÀesìer Je=#e efce$eeb®eer efve³egÊeÀer keÀsueer peeCeej Demeu³eeves pevepeeiel=eer evfeceeC&e neFsu&e DeeeCfe Je#=elee[ s euree DeeUe IeeueC³eeme ceole neFsu&e.


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HeÀgueJee Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 9324565060 JevemHeleer peieleele KetHe Ie[ecees[er Ie[le Demeleele. l³eeleu³ee keÀener Del³eble veeìîece³e Demeleele. l³eeleueer®e SkeÀ nuueer®e DeeHeu³ee HeefM®ece Ieeìele Ie[ueer. p³eebveer leer Heeefnueer l³eeb®es [esUs, ceve le=Hle Peeues. p³eebveer veener yeefIeleueer l³eebvee 2024 meeue®eer Jeeì yeIeeJeer ueeiesue. keÀejCe, keÀejJeer Deelee Heg{u³ee Deeþ Je<ee¥veer®e HegÀuesue. ³eboe ceneyeUsMJej, Hee®eieCeer, Debpevesjer, legbieejsMJej, ceeUMespe, Keb[eUe DeMee DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer [eWiej GleejebJej keÀejJeer®ee Heg<HeeslmeJe Peeuee. ¿ee®eer Pee[b mecegneves SkeÀ$e Jee{le Demeu³eecegUs meyebOe [eWiej keÀ[e SkeÀe®e JesUsme ¿ee®³ee efveȳee-peebYeȳee HegÀueebveer Ye©ve iesuee. [eWiej De#ejMe: efveueefiejer®e Peeues. DeeHeu³ee peJeU ³esTj®³ee pebieueele, mebpe³e ieebOeer je<ì^er³e GÐeeveelener ne meesnUe DevegYeJelee Deeuee. efvemeiee&leuee ne ®ecelkeÀej yeIeC³eemeeþer ¿ee Je<eea Hee®eieCeer DeeefCe mebpe³e ieebOeer jeä^er³e GÐeeve ³esLes keÀejJeer ceneslmeJee®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. keÀejJeer®es HegÀueCes ne efvemeiee&®ee ®ecelkeÀej®e Deens, keÀejJeer®es Peg[gHe meele Je<e& Jee{leb, oj Je<eea HeeJemeeȳeele Peg[gHe efnjJesieej nesTve Jee{leb, efnJeeȳeele JeeUtve peeleb, Deieoer cesu³eemeejKeb. Hejle HeeJemeeȳeele efnjJesieej. ne ¬eÀce meele Je<e& ®eeuelees. DeeþJ³ee Je<eea cee$e ®ecelkeÀej Ie[lees. HeÀebo³eeb®³ee MeW[îeeuee yeeW[ ueeieleele. iegueeyeer- peebYeUì keÀȳee l³eelegve [eskeÀeJeleele DeeefCe Heg{s ®egìgkeÀ peebYeȳee jbieeb®eer HegÀues ³esleele. HegÀueb Deeueer keÀer ceie l³eeuee HeÀUs ueeieleele DeeefCe Peg[tHe ce©ve peeleb. peuge-w Deei@emì ceenfv³eele HeÀgueb ³elseele. HeÀgueC³ee®ee keÀeU 15-20 eofJemee®bee Demelees. HeÀUb cnCepes Meeefm$e³e Yee<else Capsules Pee[eJej Heg{u³ee HeeJemeeȳee He³e¥le jenleele. me¿eeêelre eJfeHeuge ÒeceeCeele Dee{UCeejer keÀejJeer 5-6 HeÀgìeHbe³el¥e Jee{le.s l³ee®³ee yegbO³ee®eer pee[er SkeÀmeejKeer 2.5 Fb®ee®eer Demeles. Heeveb KejKejerle, ceeþ s er Demeleele. HeÀgueb ³eFsmleeJsej meJem&eeceev³e eofmeCeejs Pe[ g Hge ! ¿ee Pee[e®b³ee peerJeve®e¬eÀe®eer SkeÀ DeeCeKeer iebcele cnCepes ¿eebvee HegÀueb Deeu³eeJej HeÀUb le³eej Peeu³ee velbej les ce©ve peeleele. Masting cnCepes SKeeÐee Òepeelee®r³ee Pee[ebvee SkeÀe®e JesUer efye³ee ueeieCes. keÀejJeer®³ee yeeyeleerlener lemes®e nesles. ceie ³esTj Demees Jee ceneyeUsMJej, Deblej MeskeÀ[es efkeÀ.uees efceìj®es Demeues lejer HegÀueb cee$e SkeÀe®e Je<eea ³esleele, 2000, 2008 DeeefCe Deelee 2016. ³eeuee Monocarpic efkebÀJee Semelparous Demes cnCeleele keÀejCe ¿ee Òepeeleer l³eeb®³ee Dee³eg<³eele SkeÀoe®e efye³eeb®eer efveefce&leer keÀ©ve ce©ve peeleele. keÀeme HeþejeJej®ee yeng®eef®e&le Heg<HeeslmeJe ®eeueg Demeleevee DeeHeu³ee Hejmeoejer oKseeure Demee®e GlmeJe me©g Peeuee. evfemeiee®&ee DeoYdelge ®ecelkeÀej cnCeeJee Demee. Deeþ Je<ee¥®³ee Òeefle#esveblej mebpe³e ieebOeer je<ì^er³e GÐeeveele

keÀejJeer®ee Heg<HeeslmeJe... efveȳee-peebYeȳee jbieeb®eer keÀejJeer®eer HegÀues yenjueer. l³ee®³eeb®e efJe<e³eer keÀener : keÌJeef®ele SKeeÐee Peg[gHeeuee Jesieȳee®e Je<eea HegÀueb ³esleele, cnCepes ve HegÀueC³ee®³ee Je<eea l³ee®es keÀejCe efvemeiee&ves He³ee&³eer j®evee yeveJeuesu³ee Deens. mecepee cegK³e HegÀueC³ee®³ee Je<eea pej keÀe ÒeeflekegÀue HeefjefmLeleer efvecee&Ce Peeueer lej mebHetCe& Òepeeleer Hegmeu³ee pee³euee vekeÀes. HeÀUeb®eer osefKeue iebcele Deens HeÀUb Peg[gHeeJej Heg{u³ee Je<eea He³e¥le jenleele. l³eeb®³eeJej Heefnu³ee HeeJemee®es LeWye He[ues keÀer JeeUuesueer HeÀUb HeeCeer efHeTve HegÀieleele DeeefCe HegÀìleele. l³ee megceejeme legcner efleLes Demeuee lej ®ekeÌkeÀ HeÀUb HegÀìC³ee®ee HeÀìçHeÀì DeeJeepe ³eslees. ¿ee HegÀìC³eelegve efye³ee ueebyeJej HesÀkeÀu³ee peeleele DeeefCe HeeJemee®³ee HeeC³eeJej keÀejJeer Hejle DeeHeues meece´ep³e ÒemLeeefHele keÀjles. Fbûepeebvee pebieueb meeHeÀ keÀ©ve l³eeJej meeie Je Flej J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ efHekebÀ I³ee³e®eer nesleer. keÀejJeer®eer Peg[gHeb l³eebvee leCe Jeeìle DeeefCe efle®es efveceg&ueve keÀjC³ee®es ÒekeÀej les MeesOele nesles. 1910 meeueer meeoj kesÀuesu³ee SkeÀe Report ceOes keÀejJeer®es efveceg&ueve keÀjC³eemeeþer leer vescekeÀer leer keÀOeer íeìeJeer, keÀOeer peeUeJeer ¿ee®es HeOoleMeerj Ghee³e efoues Deensle. Kejblej keÀejJeer®es KegHe Ecological HeÀe³eos Deensle. [eWiej GleejeJej ceeleer®eer OetHe ve nesT osCes DeeefCe HeeCeer cegjJeCes ne meJee&le ceesþe HeÀe³eoe. keÀejJeer HegÀueC³ee®³ee keÀeUele DeveskeÀ efkeÀìkeÀ, ceeM³ee, ceOeceeM³ee ¿ee®³ee Heg<He jmeeJej le=Hle nesleele. keÀejJeer®³ee keÀeþîee SkeÀmeejK³ee Demeleele. Jepeveeves nueke̳ee Demeu³ee lejer Del³eble efìkeÀeT. kegÀ[e®es Iej yeveJee³euee ¿ee®³ee®e keÀeþîee JeeHeju³ee peeleele. SkeÀoe Ieje®³ee efYebleer yeebOegve ceeleerves efuebHeu³ee keÀer l³ee oesve les leerve Je<e& menpe efìkeÀleele. DeeefoJeemeer ueeskeÀ keÀejJeer®ee ceOe ieesUe keÀjleele DeeefCe l³eelegve ®eebieues Hewmes keÀceJeleele. ne ceOe peemle ie[o DeeeCfe oeì Demelee.s Dee<weOeenrer Demelees Demeb cnCeleele HeCe l³eeJej efJeMes<e mebMeesOeve Peeuesues veener. ¿ee®eer Heeveb efJe<eejer Demeueer lejer Deew<eOeer Demeleele. l³eele Lupeol DeeefCe 19 H lapeol Demes êJe Dee{Uleele. megpe keÀceer keÀjCes, mebOeer Jeele, ieeue iegb[ DeMee DeveskeÀ J³eeOeeRJej les yee¿e GHe®eej cnCegve JeeHejues peeleele. DeeCeefKeve SkeÀ GHe³eesie Demee keÀer lees DeeHeu³ee jespe®³ee DeenejeMeer efveie[erle Deens. DeeHeCe pes ìesce@ìes Keelees, l³eebvee Mesleele DeeOeej Ðee³euee peer keÀeþer JeeHejueer peeles leer n³ee keÀejJeer®eer®e. DeveskeÀ þskesÀoej mejUieeJe cegjyee[®³ee yeepeejele ¿ee®³ee keÀeþîeeb®ee J³eeHeej keÀjleele. MeslekeÀjer l³ee keÀeþîee JeeHejC³eeuee ÒeeOeev³e osleele, keÀejCe l³ee SkeÀmeejK³ee DeeefCe efìkeÀeT Demeleele. keÀejJeer®es kegÀU Acanthaceae. ¿ee kegÀUeleuee Strobilanthes Callosa cnCepes DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s Dee{UCeejer keÀejJeer. oef#eCesleueer efveueefiejer keÀjCeejer yeeje Je<ee&b veer HegÀueCeejer kegÀefjbpeer Strobilanthes kunthiana keÀeme HeþejeJej Dee{Ule.s leer ìeHseueer keÀejJeer osefKeue strobilanthes ®eer®e Òepeeleer.


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ekfeÀìkeÀe®b³ee eJfeMJeele ³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338 Deeþ Hee³ee®beer ceibgeer efvemeiee&le meJe&$e®e Dee{UCeeN³ee cegbi³ee, efJe®eer$e ®eJe, Dee¬eÀcekeÀ mJeYeeJe, keÀ[keÀ[tve ®eeJeCes, leerJe´ Jesoves®ee [bKe DeeefCe mecegneves nuuee keÀje³e®eer He×le ³eecegUs menmee Ye#³e cnCetve Keeuu³ee peele veenerle. pes He#eer JejJej yeIetve efMekeÀej keÀjleele les cegbi³ee efomeu³eeJej l³eeb®³eekeÀ[s {gbketÀvener yeIele veenerle. ³ee®e keÀejCeemeeþer yejs®emes efkeÀìkeÀ DeeefCe keÀesUer ¿ee cegbi³eeb®eer vekeÌkeÀue keÀjleele. meeOeejCe cegbieer meejK³ee®e efomeCeeN³ee ³ee efkeÀìkeÀebvee (cegbi³eebvee) Hee³eeb®³ee leerve pees[îee Demeleele. ne cegbieerme¢<³e keÀesUer, keÀesȳeeb®³ee meeuìerefme[er Jeiee&leerue Deens. ³ee Jeiee&le peieele Depegve meeOeejCele: 2800 peeleer®es keÀesUer veeWoues iesues Deensle. ns keÀesUer cegbi³eeb®eer ®eeue DeeefCe Mejerje®eer þsJeCe, yemeC³ee®eer HeOole ¿ee®eer vekeÌkeÀue keÀjleele. ns keÀesUer peWJne cegbi³eeb®eer vekeÌkeÀue keÀjleele l³ee cegbi³eeb®³ee peeleer Ye³ebkeÀj ®eeJeN³ee, Dee¬eÀcekeÀ DeeefCe ceesþîee mebK³esves jnCeeN³ee Demeleele. keÀeskeÀCeele Deeby³ee®³ee Pee[eJej Heeves pegUJetve Iejìs keÀjCeeN³ee keÀe[ cegbieer efkebÀJee DeeWyeerue ®eer vekeÌkeÀue Demes®e keÀener keÀesUer keÀjleele. ns keÀesUer ³ee cegbi³eeb®³ee mecegneceOes®e o[tve yemeleele DeeefCe l³eeb®es KeeCesmegOoe HeUJeleele. l³eeb®es Heg{®es Hee³e Deieoer l³ee cegbi³eeb®³ee mHe=MeebmeejKes nueJeleele. cee$e pej keÀe HeUe³e®eer JesU Deeueer lej les megmeeì HeU keÀe{leele efkebÀJee vesnsceerÒeceeCes ueebye G[îee ceejle mJele:®ee ye®eeJe keÀjleele. ³ee keÀesȳeeb®³ee ceeÐee peemle ®eebieueer DeeefCe ngyesngye vekeÌkeÀue keÀjleele Demes efometve Deeues Deens. DeLee&le®e l³ee peeleer®es vej DeeefCe ceeoer ns efomee³euee JesieJesieUs Demeleele.

Spider with Ant’s appearance On first sight it looks like an ant but unlike most insects which have three pairs of legs, it has four. It is an ‘ant mimicking’ spider - a male spider. It belongs to the Family Salticidae, Order Araneae, Class Arachnida, Species Myrmarachne to which scorpions, spiders, ticks and mites belong. The family contains nearly 2800 species with widest variety of forms. This slender ant-like spider lives together with ants whose shape it copies with amazing likeness. The jaws of this male spider, are enormously enlarged and project in front making the spider appear like a soldier ant. When the spider catches its prey, or if it senses danger, it splits the ‘nose’ and unfolds the halves into jaws with unsheathed fangs at each tip. It then uses these long, sharp extensions like swords. The spider is physically completely different from the ant. For the spider it is not enough for it to stick its legs up in the air but also has to copy the ants’ walk and body position. They hide among ants without being detected. They wave their front legs just like the ant’s antenna. However, when disturbed, it can run very fast and jump as a typical Jumping Spider. However the females are better mimics than the males.

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901 yue@keÀ jepee Meem$eer³e veeJe- ke@ÀjskeÌmesme meesueesve kegÀue - uee³eefmeveer[er GHekegÀue - ke@ÀjsefkeÌmeveer yue@keÀ jepee ns ceO³ece DeekeÀeje®es, jepesMeener ieìeleues SkeÀ HegÀueHeeKe© Deens. HebKeeb®ee efJemleej 70 les 80 ceer.ceer. Jej®es HebKe keÀeUmej ie[o leHeefkeÀjer lej Keeue®es HebKe ®ebosjer íìs®³ee jeKee[er jbiee®es Demetve l³eeJej keÀeȳee ueneve js<ee Demeleele. vej-ceeoer meejK³ee jbiee®es Demeleele. HebKeeb®eer Jej®eer yeepet keÀeUmej les ie[o leHeefkeÀjer, oesvner HebKe efceUtve ceOeesceOe efHeJeUmej efnjJeì íìs®³ee efþHeke̳eeb®ee GYee HeÆe. yeepet®³ee keÀ[ebJej ueneve DeekeÀeje®es efHeJeUì efþHekesÀ Demeleele. yeensjerue keÀ[ebJej DeveskeÀ efþHekesÀ Je kebÀmeeke=Àleer keÀesjer Demeleele. l³ee®³ee Keeueer Heeb{jì jbiee®³ee efþHeke̳eeb®ee Je ceeefieue HebKeeJej þmeþmeMeerle HeCe Heg{erue HebKeeJej DemHe<ì nesCeeje HeÆe Demelees. ceeieerue HebKeeJej Keeue®³ee ìeskeÀekeÀ[s Deblej þsJetve oesve MesHeìîee Demeleele. ceeoerle ³ee MesHeìîee ueebye Demeleele lej vejele l³ee ìeskeÀoej Demeleele. ns HegÀueHeeKeª Yeejle (F&Meev³e JeieUlee), vesHeeU, Yetleeve, yeebiueeosMe, c³eeveceej ³esLes Dee{Ules. HeeJemeeȳeeHetJeea Je veblej®³ee keÀeUele ³ee®es oMe&ve nesles. HegÀueHeeKe© 1950 ceerìj Gb®eerJej ìskeÀ[îeebceOes, ceeskeÀȳee peeiee leLee meHeeìerJej®³ee pebieueYeeieele Dee{Ules. l³eebvee peemle efHekeÀuesueer HeÀUs, He#eeb®eer efJe<þe, Je=#ejme DeeJe[lees. keÀOeerner ceOegÒeeMeve keÀjle veener. pebieueeleues veeues, Deesuemej peeiee ³eLses ns JeeJejle Demele.s DeeHeìe, MejsU,e®fe®be ³ee Pee[eJbej yuek@eÀ jepee HeÀgueHeeKe© Deb[er Ieeueles.

Black Rajah Sc Name - Charaxes solon Family – Nymphalidae Sub-family - Charazinae A medium size ‘Noble’ butterfly having wing span of 79 to 80 mm. Upper wing is blackish to dark brown, underside is silvery grey. Both sexes show same colouration. Upper wing distinctly marked with a row of closely spaced yellowish green spots which get separated towards the tip of forewing. The edges of both wings are lined with tiny yellow spots. The underside shows narrow wavy black lines. The outer edge has a series of spots and crescents. Whitish spots are prominent on hind wing and gets fainter on the fore wing. The hind wing has two similar-sized tails at veins. Tails are longer in the females and more pointed in the males. It is found throughout India but it is not a common butterfly. It is found in Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Generally a low-elevation butterfly, found at altitudes up to 1950 m, in open areas as well as in forests on plain and hills. Flight is strong. It is not a nectaring butterfly, it comes on overripe fruits, bird droppings and tree sap. They lay eggs on Bidi leaf tree ( Bauhinia racemosa ), Candy corn plant (Moullava spicata), Tamarind tree ( Tamarindus indica ).


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ìee@kfemÌemeeìrer [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer 98200 37224

[e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer 98200 37224

HeÀìekesÀ... DeeHeueer cepee, He³ee&JejCeeuee mepee heeJemeeves vneTve efveIeeuesueer efnjJeerkebÀ®e lejlejerle OejCeer, ceveeuee GYeejer osCeejer JeeleeJejCeeleerue nJes®eer MegOolee. ³ee he´meVe JeeleeJejCeele heeJemeeUer menueeR®es Dee³eespeve keÀjerle efvemeiee&le yeeie[le, peemleerle - peemle Meg× nJee DeehemekteÀ Meejfjele Mee<seueer peele.s hejlbeg ³ee heeJemee veblej megª nesleele SkeÀe ceeieesceeie SkeÀ GlmeJe. Deelfe Glmeene®³ee Yejele DeeheCe evfejevfejeUs HeÀìekeÀs G[Jele, Jeepele- ieepele ns meejs GlmeJe meepejs keÀjC³eele Oev³elee ceevelees DeeeCfe heeJemeeceU g s mJe®í, megboj, Meg× Peeuesues JeeleeJejCe kewÀkeÀ heìerves hegvne DemJe®í, DeMeg× keÀjlees. iesu³ee keÀener Je<ee¥heemetve DeeJeepee®es heo´<geCe ìeUC³eemeeþer DeeJeepe keÀjCee³ee& HeÀìeke³ÌeeJbej þjeeJfekeÀ JeU s lse yeober IeeueC³eele Deeueer Deens. hejbleg jes<eCeeF&®³ee HeÀìke̳eebJej kegÀþu³eener hek´eÀej®ee evfeyeO¥e veener l³eeceU g s yeosjkeÀejheCes DeeheCe Deeefle<eyeepeer keÀªve Deevebo meepeje keÀjlees. Deeefle<eyeepeer ojc³eeve DeeheCe keÀeieo eEkeÀJee hue@eqmìkeÀ ceO³es iegb[eUuesueer HeÀìeke̳eebleerue oeª peeUlees. ner oeª meJe& meeceev³eheCes ' ieve heeG[j ' cnCetve DeesUKeueer peeles. ³eele DeveskeÀ he´keÀej®³ee jmee³eveeb®ee meceeJesMe Demelees. DeeheCe Deeefle<eyeepeer keÀjleevee ner jmee³eves®e hesìJele Demelees, ³ee jmee³eveecbeO³es ìee@kqemÌekeÀ DeCe-t jCse®btee me× g e meceeJeMse Demelee.s De@u³egefceefve³ece, yesefj³ece, keÀe@hej, efueefLe³ece, mì^e@veefMe³ece, heesì@efMe³ece, meesef[³ece, DeejmeefvekeÀ, De@eqvìceveer ³eeb®³ee meb³egieebcegUs ¬eÀceMeë ®ecekeÀoej heeb{je, efnjJee, efveUe, ueeue, iegueeyeer, meesvesjer he´keÀeMeeb®eer, ®ecekeÀoej ®eeboC³eeb®eer GOeUCe nesles. ues[ vee³eì^sì, Deceesefve³ece vee³eì^sì, heesì@efMe³ece vee³eììs^ ns "Deee@kqemÌe[e³ePej" cnCevte lej cejke³Ìejgme keÌueesjeF[ ns "keÌueesjerve [esvej" cnCetve Jeehejues peeleele. ner jmee³eves nJesle peeUu³ee veblej je$eer®³ee DebOeejele efomeCeejer, [esUs efoheJeCeejer, ve³evejc³e ¢M³es Deeheu³eeuee ceesntve ìekeÀleele; hejbleg l³ee®e yejeysej he³eeJ&ejCeeuee IeelekeÀ Demeueuses meuHeÀj [e³e Dee@keÌmeeF&[, vee³eì^espeve Dee@keÌmeeF&[, keÀeye&ve [e³e Dee@keÌmeeF&[, keÌueesjerve Fl³eeoer Jee³etb yejesyej®e

efvejefvejeȳee Oeelet- DeOeeletb®es Sjesmeesuemed ( nJesle lejibeCeejs Deelfeme#gce Ieve keÀCe, [eÈs³eevbee eofmeCeeje Oejt) ves DeeheCe DepeeCelehseCes JeeleeJejCe oet<fele keÀjlee.s he=LJeerYeesJeleeue®³ee DeesPeesve®³ee DeeJejCeeJej meg×e ³ee meJe& Jee³etb®ee heefjCeece neslees. nJesleerue ner YemseU ueneve-Leejs, meMeÊeÀ - DeMeÊeÀ, YelteueeJejeure meJe&®e mepeerJeebvee IeelekeÀ Deens. éeemeeÜejs ner oeg<fele nJee Meejfjele ieus³ee velbej éemevee®es eJfekeÀej GoYdeJet MekeÀleele. Oeele-t DeOeelet heemevte evfeceeC&e neCseeje Oetj éeemee Üejs Meefjjele he´JesMe efceUJelees Je meg#ce Ieve keÀCe Meefjjeleerue DeJe³eJeebJej mee®et ueeieleele. p³ee cegUs IeM³ee®es efJekeÀej nesTve mJej³eb$eCee megOoe efyeIe[t MekeÀles. keÀke&À jesiee meejKes efJekeÀej nesT MekeÀleele. melele HeÀìekeÀs neleeUu³eeme lJe®e®ses eJfekeÀej meYbeeJeleele. keÀsJeU ceeveJeeJej®e veJns lej heejfmejeleeure

heMeg, he#eer, JevemheleeRJej meg×e ³ee®ee ogëMhejerCeece nesT MekeÀlees. DeOeJ&eì peUueus³ee HeÀìeke³Ìeevbee ³eeleeure IeelekeÀ jmee³eves ef®ekeÀìuesueer Demeleele. ne keÀ®eje veoerveeu³eeb ceOeerue heeC³eele iesu³eeme, heeCeer otef<ele nesles. ³ee he´ot<eCee cegUs heeCeJevemheefle Je peue®ej he´eC³eeb®³ee peerJeeuee OeeskeÀe GÓJet MekeÀlees. ne®e keÀ®eje Keles yeveefJeC³eemeeþer Jeehejuee iesu³eeme peefceveer®ee keÀme KeeueeJeC³ee®eer oeì Meke³Ìelee Demele,s ³ee®ee eJfeheejfle heefjCeece Mesleer GlheeoveeJej nesC³ee®eer Meke̳elee veekeÀejlee ³esle veener. ³esJe{s meJe& leesìs henelee, he³ee&JeCee®eer nesCeejer neveer ue#eele Ieslee, #eCeerkeÀ Deeveboemeeþer Deeefle<eyeepeer keÀjeJeer keÀer keÀª ve³es ne cenlJee®ee efveCe&³e DeeheCe®e IesCes ³eesi³e.


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Jeelee& He$e / News Letter NIRMALYA COLLECTION AND SEGREGATION : 250 NSS Students from 5 different colleges, 50 volunteers of Dnyanprabodhini and Jagadguru Narendra Maharaj Sanstha, from Dombivli took part in Nirmalya collection and segregation activity. It was organized by KDMC and Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal. Rupali Shaiwale and Ankita Kulkarni conducted this Program. Bharat Godambe helped them.

efvecee&u³e mebkeÀueve DeeefCe efJeIeìve ë keÀu³eeCe [eWefyeJeueer ceneHeeefuekeÀe DeeefCe He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee Jeleerves efvecee&u³e mebkeÀueve DeeefCe l³ee®es efJeIeìve ³ee keÀe³ee&le 5 ceneefJeÐeeue³eebceOeerue 250 SveSveSme efJeÐeeLeea, %eeve ÒeyeesefOeveer DeeefCe vejWê cenejepe mebmLes®³ee keÀe³e&keÀl³ee¥veer Yeeie Iesleuee. He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues DeeefCe DebefkeÀlee kegÀuekeÀCeea ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Yejle iees[ebyes ³eebveer l³eebvee menkeÀe³e& kesÀues.

IevekeÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 9 meHìWyej jespeer keÀu³eeCe ³esLeerue ìe³ekeÀe@ve meesmee³eìer ³esLes IevekeÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer ce@efpekeÀ yekesÀ쮳ee mene³³eeves keÀ®eN³ee®es efJeIeìve keÀmes keÀjeJes ³ee®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ oeKeefJeC³eele Deeues. ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues, mebieerlee peesMeer ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. WASTE MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP : On 9th September, at Tycon Society , Kalyan Waste Management Workshop and demonstration of Magic Bucket was organized by Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal. Rupali Shaiwale and Sangita Joshi guided the participants.

He³ee&JejCeHegjkeÀ meCe ë efo. 17 meHìWyej jespeer keÀu³eeCe ³esLeerue vetleve %eevecebefoj MeeUsceO³es He³ee&JejCeHegjkeÀ meCe keÀmes meepejs keÀjeJesle ³eeefJe<e³eer HeerHeerìer Üejs ceeie&oMe&ve keÀjC³eele Deeues. 250 efJeÐeeLeea ³eeJesUer GHeefmLele nesles. He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee efveÿe jeTle DeeefCe DebefkeÀlee kegÀuekeÀCeea ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. ECO-FRIENDLY FESTIVAL : On 17th September, PPT presentation on ecofriendly festival was conducted at Nutan Dnyanmandir, Kalyan. 250 Students were present. Nishtha Raut and Ankita Kulkarni guided the students on why we need to celebrate eco-friendly festival, preparation of compost from Nirmalya, eco-friendly decoration, pollution, Nirmalya Sankalan project etc.

efvemeie&Ye´cebleer - keÀemeHeþejë efo. 1 DeeefCe 2 Dee@keÌìesyej jespeer keÀeme Heþej, JeeIeeHetj DeeefCe HeeìsMJej ³esLes efvemeie&Ye´cebleer®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer keÀejJeer, [^esmesje Fbef[keÀe, mesjesHesefpe³ee, efveueebyejer ³eemeejK³ee HegÀueeb®³ee 80 Òepeeleer yeIee³euee efceUeu³ee. lemes®e JeeIeeHejt ³eLseeure eJfe[ b ecfeue ÒekeÀuHeeuee Yeìs eofuee.r DeefJeveeMe Yeiele DeeefCe ÒeefJeCe efJeMes ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

KAAS NATURE TRAIL : On 1st and 2nd Oct. Nature trial to Kaas Plateau, Pateshwar, Sada Waghapur, Windmills project was arranged. Participants saw more than 80 species of flowers like Ceropegia, Karvi, Drosera indica, Drosera burmani, Nilambari and many others. They also visited Windmills project at Waghapur. Avinash Bhagat and Pravin Vishe were the resource persons.


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Jeelee& He$e / News Letter OUR FRUIT GARDEN : PDM's Gramin Paryavaran Shala conducted Our Scholol's Fruit Garden programme at ZP schools of Navgav, Chavare, Rohan, Kelani and Bangarwadi. Rotary Club of Young Dombiwali and Dombiwali Premium assisted the programme. Subhash Tiwari, Mangal Tiwari, Sanjay Tiwari, Mr. Rasal, Mr. Aiyyar were present. Bharat Godambe and Subhash Isame guided the participants.

Deece®³ee MeeUs ® eer HeÀUyeeie ë He.o. ceb[Ue®eer ûeeceerCe He³ee&JejCe MeeUs®³ee Jeleerves jesìjer keÌueye Dee@HeÀ ³ebie [eWefyeJeueer DeeefCe jesìjer keÌueye Dee@HeÀ [eWefyeJeueer efÒeceer³ece ³eeb®³eeyejesyej Deece®³ee MeeUs®eer HeÀUyeeie ne keÀe³e&¬eÀce peer.He.MeeUe veJeieeJe, ®eJejs, jesnve, kesÀUCeer DeeefCe yebieejJee[er ³esLes Dee³eesefpele kesÀuee neslee. ³eeJesUer cebieue efleJeejer, megjsMe efleJeejer, mebpe³e efleJeejer, Þeer. jmeeU, De³³ej ³eebveer kesÀues. Yejle iees[ebyes DeeefCe megYee<e Fmeeces ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. efvemeie&cesUe ë efo. 2 Dee@keÌìesyej jespeer þeCes ³esLeerue Þeerjbie meesmee³eìer Sp³egkesÀMeve MeeUsle Debyeesueer ìes[ - efvemeie& cesȳee®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ³ee cesȳeele 42 MeeUe DeeefCe 9 keÀefveÿ ceneefJeÐeeue³eebletve 1100 efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer menYeeie Iesleuee. efvemeie& íe³eeef®e$eCe, ef®e$ekeÀuee, HeerHeerìer, HeLeveeìîe, ì^spej nbì DeMee efJeefJeOe mHeOee& Dee³eesefpele kesÀu³ee nesl³ee. Jeve efJeYeeie, efHeleebyejer, levJeer nye&ue, uee³evme keÌueye Dee@HeÀ þeCes vee@Le& DeeoeR®es menkeÀe³e& ueeYeues. NISARGA MELA : This Year Nisarga Mela - Amboli Toad festival was conducted on 2nd Oct at Shrirang Society Education School. Nearly 1100 students from 42 schools and 9 Jr. Colleges participated. Competitions like nature photography, treasure hunt, drawing, sreet play, PPT, etc were conducted. Forest Dept., Lions Club of Thane North, Pitambari and Tanvi Herbal supported Nisarg Mela.

keÀ[Oeev³e ceneslmeJe ë efo. 5 Dee@keÌìesyej jespeer efpe. He. MeeUe HeesF&, lee. keÀu³eeCe ³esLes ûeeceerCe He³ee&JejCe MeeUs®³ee Jeleerves keÀ[Oeev³e ceneslmeJee®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. l³eeefveefceÊeeves keÀ[Oeev³eeb®eer Meem$eMeg× ceeefnleer, ÒeoMe&ve Je HeekeÀkeÀuee mHeOee& Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer nesleer. ³eele 22 ceefnueebveer menYeeie Iesleuee. mejHeb®e o³eevebo Peeìs, cegK³eeO³eeHekeÀ Deefveue efMejesmes, He¨eekeÀj nj[, De@[. mebHeoe kegÀuekeÀCeea Deeoer ceev³eJej GHeefmLele nesles. PULSES FESTIVAL : On 5th Oct., Gramin Paryavaran Shala organised Pulses Exhibition and recipe competition at ZP School Poi, Tal. Kalyan. 22 women took part in the competition. Sarpach of Poi Dayanand Zate, Headmaster Anil Shirose and Padmakar Harad, Adv. Sampada Kulkarni were present.

DeekeÀeMekebÀoerue keÀe³e&MeeUe ë He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee Jeleerves þeCes, [eWefyeJeueer, keÀu³eeCe ³esLes He³ee&JejCe mvesner DeekeÀeMe kebÀefoue yeveefJeC³ee®³ee DeveskeÀ keÀe³e&MeeUeb®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eele efJeÐeeL³ee¥Heemetve p³esÿ veeieefjkeÀebHe³e¥le DeveskeÀebveer GlmHegÀle& menYeeie Iesleuee. ÒeepekeÌlee jneìs, efveÿe jeTle, eMfeuHee eMfejJee[keÀj, meJgeCee& yeibes ³eevbeer ceeieo&Mev&e kesÀues.

ECO-FRIENDLY LANTERN : Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal conducted Eco-Friendly Lantern workshops at Thane, Dombivali and Kalyan. Number of students, senior citizens prepared their own ecofriendly lanterns. Nishtha Raut, Prajakta Rahate, Shilpa Shirwadkar, Suvarna Bange guided the participants


27

URBANIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

There are various definitions of the word Urbanization, some say it’s a process which involves transformation of a place to be more city like and the growth and shift of its population. In simpler terms when the population residing in urban areas increases it’s called urbanization. But that’s just the definition, as earlier said it’s a process which has many more angles to it than just the population increase. It is believed that urbanization began in the early 4300 BCE and that certain villages that were prosperous attracted the nearby tribes and formed a densely populated city. So in this article we will focus more on the impacts both positive and negative leading to where we are right now. Urbanization has made life easier for the people residing in the urban areas. It seems unfair but at the same time very convenient and so nobody tries to think about how a certain population is exploiting the resources available. The selfish attitude and the

Shilpa Nair M.Sc. (Second Year), Environmental Science, K. J. Somaiya College of Science and Commerce

greed for wanting more has led to the over usage of resources. It’s like we are using up the resources that belongs to somebody else.It is surprising to know how self-reliant and sustainable the life of people living in villages is compared to the city people. The city people have high dependency on fossil fuels for transport and energy. Also the lifestyle of the urban dwellers makes us an unfair consumer for example staying up all night for parties consumes more electricity. The current lifestyle is so far away from being sustainable and self-reliant. When we compare the urban and rural lifestyle we realize how different it is in terms of being more self-sufficient with the resources. Urbanization has led to theover use of resources but at the same time created opportunities for masses. It has led to economic development, better facilities on all sectors of life from transport to health. This luxury that a city provides makes us careless and


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negligent towards others who have the same needs and wants but unfortunately do not belong to the urban place. Urbanization has led to the growth and development and created opportunities for people to explore their talents and skills. It has made the education system better. The access to resources and availability of things has changed entire lifestyle of the urban people and has completely modernized cities. Technology which has evolved as a result of urbanization plays a very crucial role in the lives of urbanites. Another problem is that as things are easily available the value for it decreases and so wastage and inefficient use of resources makes the city dwellers, highly unsustainable users. If you see there are huge impacts of urbanization when it comes to the environment. Overexploitation of resources, pollution, and generation of waste, high dependency on nonrenewable forms of energy, all of this leads to the global issue i.e. global warming. Pollution leads to irreversible health effects and increase in the amount of greenhouse gases. The cities have a huge carbon footprint as compared to the villages. The large amount of waste generated by the urban population has led to grave problems of groundwater contamination and hygiene issues. Why do we compromise on all of this? The rate at which we are exploiting the resources will make us handicap very soon, then what? Looking at the various opportunities a city provides villagers migrate into

the city making it more populated and people settle in slums which creates a lot more issues. If in the first place the urbanitesstopped overusingresources the rural population would neverend up in cities. So then why do we still choose to live in a city? Can’t we think of ways to make cities sustainable? If we want the facilities that a city provides can’t we think of ways to make it livable for both the city dwellers and the ones living around it, why can’t we for once become less selfish and think of others who too have an equal right on the resources that our earth provides? All the above questions can be answered and these problems that we arefacing can be solved if we start thinking about how to become more sustainable and in fact people have already taken baby steps towards it. Now all we need to do is come together to bring about the change. It’s high time that we bring about transformation in the way people think and that we realize how the way we live affects the lives of many. We are fortunate to have been born in the cities with all facilities but now is the right time to choose the right way of living. It doesn’t mean that we stop development and growth and run away from cities to rural areas. Urbanization happened because it was the need of that time, now we need to balance it out and become more sustainable by all means and share the available resources equally amongst all.


29

WILDLIFE AND DEVELOPMENT

Vishwatej Pawar

Photocredit :Ashwin Vaidya

Talking of wildlife, the more popular and decently conserved habitats from India are its forests, where beautiful tigers dwell. All other habitats are considered inferior for no rational reason. One such vast habitat from India are the open grasslands where great amounts of wildlife is suffering due to the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;waste-landâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; status given to this habitat. Ignorance towards grass can be seen easily in this country, whether you walk the human dominated and illogically grazed massive grasslands of the Deccan Plateau, or if you climb up and stroll through the tall Terai grasslands at the foothills of Himalayas or even if you go see the beautiful tea estates which have killed a large amount of high altitude Shola grasslands in South India. Many wild species in each of these types of grasslands have been given a globally threatened status in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Ground-dwelling birds like bustards, larks, pipits, coursers, sandgrouse, quails and francolins are seen in the open grasslands. Some of these canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even perch on trees due to their specially adapted feet for ground dwelling. Birds of prey like a number of eagle, falcon, buzzard, harrier and hawk species are dependent on prey species like quails, francolins, monitor lizards, geckos, lizards, snakes, insects and rodents. Vultures have become very rare on the plains of Maharashtra. Most of the vulture species found in India have undergone a

rapid population decline of more than 90% of their previous population estimates. The main reason being the use of diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug used for treating livestock. When vultures eat flesh which has traces of diclofenac they suffer renal failure. Mass mortalities have been recorded throughout India and the dreaded scene still goes on even though the use of diclofenac is banned by the government. Locals still use the killer drug. The story of the Great Indian Bustard, a unique bird which is on the brink of extinction due to hunting and habitat loss, is not a joyous one. The face of Indian grasslands is the Great Indian Bustard because what is happening to this one species is


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actually happening to all other wildlife which dares to live on these so called waste lands. The once named Rehekuri Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary where there should be no trees and only open grasslands, has now been over planted with trees by the Maharashtra Forest Department, completely erasing the chance of any bustard to be found inside the sanctuary ever again! Such unscientific tree plantations in grasslands should not be done. Not only is this seen in Rehekuri Blackbuck Sanctuary, but trees have been planted in almost all grassland areas which are under the control of forest department. Many enigmatic mammals are also seen near Pune on the Deccan Plateau. Herbivores like the Blackbuck, Indian Gazelle and Black-naped Hare in good numbers form a wide prey base for one of the most clever apex predators, the Indian Wolf. Other predators like the Indian Fox, Jungle Cat, Rusty-spotted Cat prefer smaller prey like scorpions, small rodents and birds. Four-horned Antelope, an unusual sight in Maharashtra are usually seen not on grasslands but in adjacent scrub forests, which is yet another ignored habitat. The wolf has long been portrayed negatively in the human society, credits to the loads of stories in which wolves play only negative roles. Why haven’t we ever portrayed the true and important role of the wolf in maintaining balance of our ecosystem. Like the tiger, the wolf is also an apex predator of a food chain which loses balance if the population of predators dwindles down. Still think the wolf is not very interesting? Most of us know that wolves are seen in packs. A wolf pack is a group of wolves which live and hunt together. In a pack there is hierarchy which is

similar to the one which is observed in most human families. In Indian Wolf packs there usually is an eldest pair who are the leaders and the most dominant members of the pack. No one from the pack apart from the leaders are allowed to breed. The average pack size of this sub-species of the Grey Wolf is two to four wolves. But when there’s plenty of food around, larger packs can sustain well. We’ve seen packs of 9 and even 12 wolves. The young ones usually disperse after they become mature and once they start hunting on their own. They can travel extensively in search of food, water and breeding. Aren’t these facts fascinating! Being the extremely smart animals, which they are, wolves without hesitation attack sizeable livestock like sheep, which to take down is clearly an easier task than chasing the extremely agile Indian Gazelle or the super fast Blackbuck. Through the numerous interviews we’ve taken of the local and migratory sheep herders, we’ve found out that most of the herders consider the wolf as an animal given to the land by god and hence they have a fairly neutral stand about the sheep which they lose to wolves every month. But not all herders share the same views. Many of them take the wolf attacks extremely negatively and poison the carcasses of their dead livestock and leave them out in the open for the wolves to scavenge upon. Wolves or any animal, even Hyenas which feed on the carcasses get poisoned. Wolves and Hyenas both actively scavenge. There are a good number of poultry farms in Maharashtra. Poultry waste, i.e. dead poultry is usually thrown off in remote areas and this forms a major part of the diet of carnivorous mammals and


31 birds. No one yet knows whether this dead poultry which is disposed off regularly in great amounts can spread diseases or cause any sort of harm to wild animals who consume it. Stray dogs are a threat to wildlife everywhere. They’re seen hunting down gazelles, hares and basically almost anything wild which they can chase. They kill pups of wolves and foxes. They even impose the risk of spreading diseases to wolves like rabies through bites which occur during frequent fights between the wild ones and the otherwise humandependant stray ones. What’s worse is that breeding between wolves and dogs is easily possible and the already weak gene pool of wolves will further get hampered if this keeps happening, as dogs are more susceptible to diseases than wolves. We must take a lesson from the story of the Yellowstone National Park in Canada, where wolves had gone locally extinct. This extinction of an apex predator lead to an uncontrolled burst in the population of herbivores which ate up all the grass and soil eroded, which caused changes to the flow of rivers in the national park and the ecosystem collapsed. Then they reintroduced some wolves to the park and slowly the population of herbivores was being kept in check by the predator, which allowed grass to grow properly and hold on to the soil under it and the rivers too soon started flowing in full force. Such is the magic of nature. In recent times, the wildlife rich grassland patches near Pune have got some recognition through social media among photographers and have started attracting lots of tourists. At the moment, tourism here is unregulated and to be true, sometimes the scene turns ugly. Different photographers on different days of a week are seen chasing wolves, foxes and hyenas on foot just for that ‘wow’ shot. The amount of upcoming photographers cannot be controlled in this modern

digital photography world, but what can be controlled and regulated is tourism. We have given a management plan to the Maharashtra Forest Department which includes limiting the number of cars entering the protected grasslands, constructing watchtowers with hides near waterholes which will allow photographers to monitor activity without disturbing wildlife, displaying boards of basic do’s and don’t’s like, “No off-roading” and “No walking ahead of the hides” and generating employment for local village people in the form of making them guides and drivers with jeeps on rent and also making available paid homestays in the village. This will give a reason to the local people to support the protection the wildlife which struggles to thrive on their land. Yes, these grasses are home to amazing wildlife but then why are they ignored by almost all of us? One of the reasons could be, that the creatures which dwell in these open lands aren’t as colourful as those which live in the forests because there are not many hiding places on the plains and hence camouflage is very important. But this purely aesthetic reason can’t be the only one of course! We’ve been taught the importance of trees throughout our school and college life, but do you remember even one chapter from your books which states why grasslands are important? What wildlife exists there? Since forests are well protected and everyone knows their importance, the only other part of land which is left to be used and destructed are the open grasslands. Hence, most of these open lands are used for farming, setting up industries, factories and now with the news of a new international airport proposed at one of the prime grasslands near Pune, we are expecting to see mass human development there and wildlife being disturbed or to put it straight, indirectly or directly killed.


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SAY YES TO # NO PLAY BACK POLICY

Sarvesh Abhyankar

With the increasing popularity of bird-watching as a hobby and growing number ofphotography enthusiasts, there is dramatic increase in the number of people visitingprotected areas like bird sanctuaries, tiger reserves etc. Unfortunately, this growing number of birdwatchers and photographers has given riseto a potentially-harmful practice. It is the practice of using ‘PLAYBACKS’while birding. This practice is being very commonly and widely used in the recentpast. It is rapidly becoming popular in the birders fraternity as it ensures good sightingand great photo opportunities. Birds that are usually shy and therefore very difficult tosight on field are lured by these playbacks and are forced to come out in the open. However, playbacks can disturb birds and cause considerable nuisance to them.

Potential harm caused by playbacks to birds : · Playbacks cause undue stress to birds, especially to territorial males.Playbacks confuse birds, due to which they exhaust a lot of their energy in responding to these ‘fake calls’. · Playbacks lure birds to come out in the open, which makes them vulnerable to their predators. · Playbacks distract birds, which disrupts their daily routine activities (e.g.: foraging, feeding young ones, preening or even resting) · Playbacks can affect the energy levels of a bird, cause stress, disturb social systems, and sometimes, even cause pairbreakups. In short, usage of playbacks is harmful to birds. Moreover, it isnot good for a birder too.


33 Disadvantages of playbacks to birders : • Serious birders often identify the electronic playbacks used by any other group in the same area and thus, get distracted • Serious birders can face disappointment if a birdcall, which they were following, turns out to be an electronic recording • By getting habituated to using playbacks, the budding birders and photographers will never develop good field skills. Other than being ‘unethical’, using playbacks is also ‘illegal’ according to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. Briefing about few laws in WPA 1972 a. Section 2(35)Definition of weapon: weapon includes ammunition, bow and arrows, explosives, firearms, hooks, knives, nets, poison, snare and traps and any instrument or apparatus capable of anesthetizing, decoying, destroying, injuring, or killing an animal.

Nature Toons... Ashlesha Pandit

b. Section 2(16): Definition of hunting: Hunting with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions includes(a) killing or poisoning any wild animal or captive animal and every attempt to do so; (b) capturing, coursing, snaring, trapping, driving or baiting any wild animal and every attempt to do so;(c)injuring or destroying or taking any part of body of any such animal or in case of wild birds or reptiles damaging the eggs of such birds or reptiles or disturbing the eggs or nests of such birds or reptiles c. Section 31: Prohibition of entry into sanctuary with weapon: No person shall enter a sanctuary with any weapon except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorized officer Uttarakhand govt. which has banned the use of playbacks inNaina Devi Himalayan Bird Conservation Reserve and Jim Corbett national park can be a good example towards ethical birding. We, hereby, request you to discourage this practice and follow the‘NO PLAYBACK POLICY. Together, we can set an example of ethical birding to other states, as well.


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ECO-VOLUN TOURISM - THE POWER OF GIVING BACK

Shubhda Kushwaha

Photo Credit : SaurabhThakekar

Do you want to record the different species in your area? Have you ever tried visiting a zoo and taking care of some captive animal? How about studying the effect of encroachment in your nearby wetland? Guiding newly hatched sea turtles to the oceans? Become a part of eco-voluntourism. Popularly regarded as Volunteer Travel, eco-voluntourism is a recent form of tourism which involves volunteering for charitable causes by travellers to help communities or the environment in the places they are visiting. Volunteering activitiesinvolvesenjoying unique travel experiences and enriching your trip with authentic and rewarding memories.You don’t need to be affluent or be able to afford months of free time, to be part of something meaningful and rewarding that helps empower local people, support communities, and enhance skills, capacity and knowledge through travel.It is about connecting, connecting with earth and all living things. In fact, it’s hard to define ecovoluntourism as a single type of travel experience. It is different than volunteer vacation. A volunteervacationfocuses

on creating genuine, personal cultural exchanges between a tourist and his destination while eco-voluntourism gives tourists the chance to positively contribute to the environment and to their local destination as well. As one travels to different places, he/she encounters new cultures and gains memorable experiences. The individuals must be ready to go on nonpaid working holidays. There should also be a common desire of “giving back to the world”.The best ecovoluntourism trips will not only allow you to provide much needed help to your host country, but also teach you a valuable skill at the same time. Eco-voluntourism is a far more sustainable as well as equitable kind of tourism for the 21 st Century. As population pressures leaves behind garbage and pollution, it is the need of hour to preserve the natural resources of our motherland. Causes range from wetland-restoration and beach cleanups to helping kids or spending time interacting with local community. To get the most out of an eco-voluntourism, find an experience that matches your interests. You can find an area that you are passionate about and research from there.Eco-voluntourism is therefore the next generation of conscientious and earth-friendly travel. Next time you’re on vacation, forget the old holiday packages and skip the tourist traps. Give eco-voluntourism a chance, invest your time and talent – you never know when a unique nature encounter will change your life.


35

‘SMART HOMES’ OF THE FEATHERED KIND

Prof. Clara Correia

While man is busy transforming cities into smart cities, the avian species have been far ahead of our times. Changing scenarios of habitat thanks to the human species have made them adapt to these situations very comfortably. Birds have been building nests from time immemorial, the locations have undergone changes with changing times however the nesting material has not undergone radical changes. Not all birds build nests, some use different niches to live in harmony, so we have birds which lay their eggs on the ground or in rocky patches eg. Red Wattled Lapwing. There are birds termed as brood parasites which do not even do that, they simply lay their eggs in another birds nest! eg. Cuckoos. Some passerine birds build their nest in shrubs and grass, while some chisel away neat holes in the branches and tree trunks eg. Barbets and Woodpeckers. There are others who are not to finicky and use readymade holes eg. Parakeets. There some who are particular and build their homes with twigs and hay and line the inside with downy feathers and cotton eg Sparrows, Bulbuls. However to make sure to keep their identity, their shapes are different. Some are cup shaped, conical, triangular or round. Some who are artistic also use spider web to decorate them. There are those who are so used to hard work that they mould their home with mud eg Swallows. There are some who are so classy they do elaborate stitching of

leaves eg Tailor birds. Some like to have it cascading and swinging eg Sunbirds, Monarchs. There are some that go to the extreme of weaving their homes which put the architects to shame eg Baya weavers. While the basic structure of nests has not changed, most birds too have not made changes to their nesting material they still prefer using natural material. Some birds have adapted and experiment with new materials like wires, plastic, hangers, cloth pieces, broken vases, discarded mugs, pots and pans. There are cases where lampshades are cleverly used to makes their homes. The appearances of electric poles and high tension towers and mobile towers have been used by them to have ‘high rise’ nests. There are some birds who are not open to such extreme change, have used discarded houses and wells to build their nests. While you are wondering I have not mentioned trees it’s because their number is dwindling at such fast rate or the trees that we see are ‘non native’ and ‘exotic’ species that the urban birds do not use them for nesting! If we have to classify these nests they are of the following types- Cup nests - probably the most common bird nest . Adherent nests - stick to buildings, trees, cliffs. Platform nests mostly by raptors . They are usually huge and very, very high up. Earth-hole nests, Ground and mound nests carving out a little hole, ground and mound nesters line the nest with grass or other materials.


36

A JOURNEY THROUGH OUR OWN LITTLE WASTE WORLD - Part 1

Dr. Sanjay Joshi

It is a general belief that the prosperity and richness of a city or a town can be determined by looking at its roads and roadside dustbins. Greater the amount and the diversity of the so called ‘Waste’ material collected in these dustbins, greater the prosperity. Contents of such roadside refuse collectors are indicative of the life style and socio-economic status of the community. Having said this, come on now… lets peep into a dustbin that is close to your house and locality!!! Hey… what are you doing? Don’t cover your noses with handkerchiefs. If you do so, how would you recognize what you had thrown in your house dustbin this morning? And yes, keep your eyes wide open! Ok ready? Recognize this? It’s a bunch of plastic bags that you had thrown in your dustbin along with cardboard boxes thorough which, pizza was delivered the previous night! And

look at this…it’s the batteries of your video game set. You decided to throw away these batteries as those had been completely discharged. Oh. it looks like you got quite a few gifts last night, because we can see these gift wraps lying in this dustbin. And see these tobe-thrown-away plates and dishes and bowls and glasses.You probably got a new tyre for your bicycle as this old, worn out tyre is lying here! Your mom seems to have prepared several dishes for a party last night! We can see left over food, cut vegetables and this and that! Don’t be disappointed dear. Its not just from your house..all this waste from several hundred houses in this locality has found its way in here! You also see the leather, paper, rubber, plastic and many other such articles in this dustbin, don’t you? Lets search some more. Hey look at this! Oh! My god…! ... Page 38


37

THE PLANT LIFE : FLOWERS : PART 1

The famous Buddhist Mantra Om mani padme hum literally translates as ‘the jewel is in the lotus’. Lotus has special place in our cultural as well religious world. It is a national flower of India. The chant is a testimony of the importance of flowers in human lives.

Sweedle Cerejo-Shivkar

With monsoon long gone.... temperatures rising and sunny weather.... the Plant life in our deciduous forests is all geared up to bloom... The shrubs are flowering already, trees are ready to do so..... Flowers are celebration of colours. They breathe life into the otherwise monotonous, drab atmosphere. These are unique to the group of flowering plants also called as Angiosperms. They get names like Dancing dolls, Flamingo flower, Peacock flower, Cupn-saucer, Bee orchid and so on.... Some are attractive, some inconspicuous…some foul-smelling, some with blissful fragrance… some with peculiar shapes, some mimicking other life-forms… some bloom in the canopy, some at eye level while a few below the ground not to see the daylight. Wherever they bloom, flowers are the beginning of the next generation in plants. The world of flowers is mystical and as you dwell deeper into it, you get more fascinated. Over the years of evolution, epochs and eras have witnessed - the plants at work to bring evolution in the design of the flowers. Generations have observed these wonderful creations and have bedazzled by these mesmerising gems. No wonder, some extraordinary blooms have caused mania among mankind aptly called Tulipomania and Orchidelirium. Floral parts The flower is made up of bracts, sepals, petals, androecium (male

reproductive organ) and gynoecium – the female counterpart. Not necessary that the flower is always bisexual (consisting of both sexes) but in some it’s unisexual – either male or female flower. The most familiar example is the papaya and the cucurbits – melons, cucumber and gourds have separate male and female flowers. The bracts are the outermost organs which protect the buds. They are green like the leaves and are not always present. The sepals are placed inner to the bracts and are the outermost part of the flower. They can be green or colourful. The collective term for sepals is calyx. The petals are second in rank and most attractive part of the flower. They can be 3, 4 and 5 numbers and multiples of the same displaying extensive variety. The petals may be similar or dissimilar in size. The male organ is called the androecium. It is made up of filament and anther. The pollen grains are developed inside the anther and are responsible for fertilising the ovary. The female counterpart is called as the gynoecium made up of style, stigma and the ovary. It’s the innermost component of a flower. Flowers are either solitary or in groups. They have learnt the power of numbers and hence aggregate in groups called as the inflorescence. Aaboli, rajnigandha, gladiolus develop stalks which are quite obvious. The Sunflower isn’t a flower but a group of flowers. The fruit of a fig is a closed inflorescence which encloses numerous male and female flowers.


38 They are hidden from the outside world. Diversity The arrangement of floral members especially the petals is a characteristic of flowering plant families and makes easy to recognise them. We will peek into few to get an insight into the beautiful world of flowers. As in Fabaceae (Pea) family, 5 petals are of different shapes and sizes. 1 very large, other 2 next to it smaller while the remaining 2 smallest. The arrangement resembles a butterfly. The family was earlier called as Papilionaceae (Papillon means a butterfly). Moong (green gram), Peas, Tur (Pigeon pea), Smithias are examples of Pea family. The next family has inconspicuous not very attractive flowers. The floral blooms are aplenty and ubiquitous. Important cereals, bamboo belong to the Grass family called as Poaceae. The flowers in Morning glory (Convolvulaceae) family have united petals with pleats. They are tube-shaped or funnelshaped. The morning glories (Ipomoeas) are fairly common in urban habitat. The other members include the Datura, Besharam, Raatrani and most favoured tuber – the potato.

A JOURNEY THROUGH OUR OWN LITTLE WASTE WORLD This is an injection syringe with sharply pointed needle..and you can see little blood also that is stuck to it. And see a bag full of blood soaked cotton, gloves, dressing materials, small knives and eeekkk..there is some fleshy thing in here too. How terrible and horrific! And see these bottles and plastic bags smeared with blood from inside! Now ought to be damn sure, that this kind of waste material has certainly not originated in your or your neighbour’s or anybody else’s house from your locality or, for that matter, from the entire city! So where has it come from? Who uses all this kind of stuff? Why it has blood all over it? Lots of questions are popping up in my mind as well as yours! Yes dear, you got it right! Only the doctors would be using such things so obviously these have come from the hospitals situated around in your locality! An old saying says “Cleanliness is next to Godliness”. The essence of this was aptly captured by Dravidians, who, in 5000 BC lay due emphasis on immaculating town planning and safe and effective sewerage systems to get rid of all solid and liquid wastes generated by the population. They were indeed the pioneers as far as scientific waste

The sunflower (Asteraceae) family is unique because of its ray florets. The ray florets are placed at the periphery of the inflorescence resembling the rays of the sun. Most of the members of this largest family among flowering plants exhibit this wonderful feature. Sonki (Senecio sp.),Gerbera, Dahlia belong to the sunflower family. Sizes, shapes and colours Flowers are an inspiration to the art world... They reveal array of shapes, sizes and colours... The flowers may be regular or irregular in shape. Regular flowers are symmetrical while irregular flowers are bi-lipped as in Tulsi. Tube, urn, bell, funnel are some of the shapes seen. The size can be as tiny as few millimetres to as large as Rafflesia flowers growing up to 3ft in diameter. Flowers can be as abundant as grass flowers or rare like Lady’s slipper orchid. The colours fuchsia pink, amaranth purple, lavender, violet and many others are taken from nature’s bounty. These attract insects that feed on flowers and their product or take a refuge inside them waiting for the prey. With all these qualities, the flowers never fail to mesmerise the world around.

management is concerned which is borne out from excavation of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The modern hospitals and health care institutions including research centers use a wide variety of drugs including antibiotics, cytotoxics, corrosive chemicals, radioactive substances, which ultimately become part of hospital waste. The advent of disposables in the hospitals has brought in its wake, many ills i.e. inappropriate recycling, unauthorized and illegal reuse and increase in the quantum of waste. All round technological progress has lead to increased availability of health related consumer goods, which have the propensity for production of increased wastes. The issue of improper Hospital Waste Management in India was first highlighted in a writ petition in the Supreme Court, which then gave directives to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. Accordingly, the Ministry notified the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handlings) Rules on 27th July 98, under the provisions of Environment Act, 1986. These rules have been framed to regulate the disposal of various categories of Bio-Medical Waste as envisaged therein; so as to ensure the safety of the staff, patients, public and the environment.


November 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine November 2016

November 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine November 2016

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