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He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®ee Ghe¬eÀce

Yeeie 13 ~ DebkeÀ 10 ~ He=ÿmebK³ee 40 cetu³e ª. 40/1 cee®e& 2017 RNI. NO. MAHMAR/2004/4361 THC-04/2017-2019 Post : Thane Central Division


River Tern

veoer megj³e

Little Grebe

efìyegkeÀueer

Common Coot

®eeboer yeokeÀ

Pic. credit : Avinash Bhagat


mebHeeokeÀer³e.... : cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë

Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer : meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë

[e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe : keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë

keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj Òee. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee ë mebHeeove mene³³e ë

DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë mJeHveerue HeJeej ceO³eHe=ÿ ë mJeHveerue HeJeej De#ejpegUCeer/mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

www.paryavaran.org apalaparyavaran@gmail.com vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

ceeveJeer peerJeveele veÐeebvee Devev³emeeOeejCe cenlJe Deens. meeOeejCeHeCes 5000 les 10,000 Je<ee&HetJeea DeeefMe³ee DeeefCe DeeefÖeÀkeÀe ³ee oesve ceneKeb[ebceOes ceeveJeer mebmke=Àleer®ee Go³e Peeuee lees efmebOet, veeF&ue, ³egÖeÀerìerme, ìe³eûeerme ³ee veÐeeb®³ee KeesN³eebceO³es. FefpeHle, cesmeesHeesìsefce³ee, ceesnWpeesoejes-njHHee ³ee Je DeMee efJeefJeOe Jemeenleer veÐeeb®³ee KeesN³eebceOes ©peu³ee DeeefCe HeÀesHeÀeJeu³ee. l³eeDeeOeer osKeerue Òee®eerve Yeejleer³e keÀLee-HegjeCeebceOes $eÝ<eer-cegveeR®es DeeÞece, l³eeb®³ee Jemeenleer ³ee veÐeeb®³ee keÀeþeJej®e Demeu³ee®eer ceeefnleer Jee®eeJe³eeme efceUles. JeemleefJekeÀ veoer cnCepes YetÒeosMee®³ee He=<þYeeieeJe©ve Jeenle peeCeeje HeeC³ee®ee ÒeJeen. HeCe veoer®eb keÀe³e& ue#eele Iesleueb, lej ceeveJee®³ee DeefmlelJeemeeþer ns HeeC³ee®es ÒeJeen Del³eble cenlJee®es Deensle. kesÀJeU ceeveJe®e veJns, lej Flej meJe& mepeerJeeb®³ee DeefmlelJeemeeþer veÐee Del³eble cenlJee®³ee Deensle. cnCetve®e veÐeebvee He=LJeer®³ee peerJeveJeeefnv³ee Demeb mebyeesOeC³eele ³esleb. Hejbleg DeeHeCe YeeweflekeÀ Je DeeefLe&keÀ efJekeÀeme DeeefCe Òeieleer leb$e%eevee®ee DeeflejskeÀer, DeefJe®eejer JeeHej keÀjC³ee®³ee veeoele ³ee peerJeve Jeeefnv³eebJej DeveefvJele Del³ee®eej keÀjle Deenesle. YeejleemeejK³ee efJekeÀmeveMeerue je<ì^ebceOes veÐeeb®eer Deepe®eer efmLeleer Del³eble efyekeÀì Deens. ceesþeueer OejCes, veoerHee$eebJejerue Deefle¬eÀceCes, veoerHee$eeb®ee keÀ®eje kegbÀ[ermeejKee JeeHej, veoerHee$eeleerue JeeUt®ee GHemee ³ee Je DeMee DeveskeÀ efJeIeelekeÀ ke=ÀleeRcegUs Deepe veÐeeb®eb DeefmlelJe Oeeske̳eele Deeueb Deens. ceneje<ì^eleerue DeveskeÀ MenjebceOes veÐeeb®eb DeefmlelJe Heej ve<ì Peeu³ee®eb efveoMe&veeme ³esleb. peieeleerue efJekeÀmeveMeerue je<ì^ebceOes peJeUHeeme DeMeer®e HeefjefmLeleer Deens. ³ee HeeMJe&YegceerJej cee®e& 1997 ceOes ye´ePeerueceOeerue ke̳egefjìeryee ³ee Menjele SkeÀe Deeblejje<ì^er³e Heefj<eos®eb Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeueb nesleb, ³ee Heefj<eosle ojJe<eea 14 cee®e& ne efoJeme Deeblejje<ì^er³e ke=Àleer efoJeme cnCetve meepeje keÀjC³eele ³eeJee Demes þjues. efJekeÀemee®³ee veeJeeKeeueer Òe®eb[, cenekeÀe³e OejCeb yeebOetve veÐeeb®es ÒeJeen jesKeCes ³ee Je DeMee Flej ÒekeÀuHeebefJe©Oo pevepeeie=leer®eer ®eUJeU GYeejCes ne ³ee efoJemee®ee cegK³e nslet Deens. cegbyeF&leu³ee efceþer, DeesefMeJeje, oefnmej lej HegC³eeleu³ee cegUe-cegþe veÐee peJeUHeeme ce=leÒee³e Peeu³ee Deensle. DeLee&le DeueerkeÀ[®³ee keÀeUele DeveskeÀ J³ekeÌleer, meeceeefpekeÀ mebmLee ³ee veÐee Jee®eJeC³eemeeþer DeefJejle Òe³elve keÀjle Deensle. l³eeb®³ee ³ee Òe³elveebvee DeeHeCe meJee¥veer®e ³eLeeMekeÌleer neleYeej ueeJeuee Heeefnpes. DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe ®³ee DebkeÀele DeeHeu³eeuee DeMee®e keÀe³ee&efJe<e³eer®es uesKe Jee®eeJe³eeme efceUleerue. ³ee efMeJee³e Deece®eer vesnsceer®eer Jee®eveer³e ceeefnleerHetCe& meojb Deensle®e ! ³ee®e ceefnv³eele nesUer Je OegUJe[ osKeerue meepejs keÀjC³eele ³esleerue. OegUJe[ermeeþer HeeCeer efJejefnle, vewmeefie&keÀ jbiee®ee®e JeeHej keÀje DeMeer ceer DeeHeu³eeuee ceveeHeemetve efJevebleer keÀjlees. DebkeÀeyeodoue®es DeeHeues DeefYeÒee³e, Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee pe©j keÀUJee.

esMeer

[e@. mebpe³e pe


veoer mJe®íles®ee O³eeme IesTve efveIeeuesues peueeEo[er ®es JeejkeÀjer...

Yeeie ë 13 ~ DebkeÀ ë 10

Pilgrimage through water to creat awareness of keeping the rivers clean

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

He³ee&JejCeer³e DeefOe<þevee®eer peueefob[er ~ [e@. efJeMJeeme ³esJeues veoermeeþer DeeHeCe meejs... ~ Mewuepee osMeHeeb[s ÒeMve legce®ee... GÊej efJe%eevee®es ~ [e@. megOeerj ceesW[keÀj ieesoeJejer... iejpe Hegve&ppeerJevee®eer! ~ DÌe@[. ÒeJele&keÀ HeeþkeÀ YetJesefäle peueer³e HeefjmebmLee ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs mLeueebleje efJe<e³eer DeeCeKeer keÀener...... ~ efoiebyej iee[ieerU DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë ~ He#³eeb®ee De·e Yejs ... Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j ìe@efkeÌmemeerìer ~ [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer

5 7 8 9 11 14 15 18 23 24

Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

25

Mangroves Plantation - A boon I Dr. A. G. Untawale Nature Toons I Ashlesha Pandit

27 28

Wetlands as Bird Habitat I Clara Correia

29

Ducks I

31

Clara Correia

Biodiversity Hotspots I Shubhda Kushwaha

33

Lessons learnt from nature I Mohnika Ahluwalia

35

Ulhas River

37

I Ashwin Aghor

DebkeÀ oj ceefnv³ee®³ee 1 leejKesuee Heesmìeletve jJeevee neslees. p³ee Jee®ekeÀebvee 10 leejKesHe³e¥le DebkeÀ efceUeuee vemesue l³eebveer l³ee ceefnv³ee®³ee 15 leejKesHe³e¥le þeCes keÀe³ee&ue³eele keÀUJeeJes. (ogjOJeveer ë 022-2541 1633. mekeÀeUer 11 les mee³eb. 6) l³eebvee DebkeÀ HeeþJeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee keÀjC³eele ³esF&ue. l³eeveblej Deeuesu³ee le¬eÀejeR®eer oKeue Ieslee ³esCeej veener. le¬eÀej keÀjleevee veeWoCeer/HeeJeleer ¬eÀceebkeÀ osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. - J³eJemLeeHekeÀ

®es Jeie&Ceeroej Jne Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400

ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800

Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

HejosMeer Jee®ekeÀebmeeþer ë Jeeef<e&keÀ ©. 2500/-

DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.

ke=ÀHe³ee OeveeosMe `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe' (Apala Paryavaran) ³ee veeJeeves keÀe{eJee.

ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer meeF& ieCesMe cegêCeeue³e, keÀUJee ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, Keejìve jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. mebHeke&À ë 022-2541 1633


ceveesiele

$eÝ<eer®es ketÀU DeeefCe veoer®es cetU efJe®eeª ve³es cnCeleele. HeCe Deepe peMee $eÝ<eerletu³e J³ekeÌleer veenerMee nesle Demeleevee®e Jee{l³ee Òeot<eCeecegUs veoer®es veolJener veä nesle ®eeueues Deens. ³eeceeie®eer keÀejCes MeesOeCeejer, omeN³ee®³ee ogmeN³ee efoJemeeHeemetve megª nesCeejer peueefo[b er. cnCepes veoer mJe®í keÀªve HegveëÒeJeeefnle keÀjC³eemeeþer efveefce&uesuee peuemee#ejles®ee SkeÀ ³e%e... peueefo[b er.... ³ee peueefo[b er®es ÒeCesles [e@. efJeMJeeme ³esJeues ³eeb®es ËÐe ceveesiele...

[e@. efJekeÀeme ³esJeues 93733 24216

He³ee&JejCeer³e DeefOeÿevee®eer `peueefo[b er'

meeieje®es peue veener keÀOeer efHelee Deeues yeHeÀe¥®³ee Ke[îeebveer keÀe keÀsJne jebpeCe Yejues? leneve ueeieueer ceie keÀe efJenerj Keesoueer veoerves cee$e ueies®e neleeb®eer DeeWpeU Yejueer. DeeHeu³eeuee HeÀkeÌle veoer®es®e HeeCeer efHelee ³esles. l³ee ¢<ìerves veoer®es mebJeOe&ve nesCes efveleeble iejpes®es Deens. GieceeHeemetve efJeueerveerkeÀjCee He³e¥le®ee ÒeJeeme veoer keÀjles. kegÀþu³eener ÒeMvee®es GÊej MeesOee³e®eb Demesue lej lees ÒeMve veerì keÀUuee Heeefnpes. veoer®esner lemes®e Deens. veoer keÀUC³eemeeþer veoerletve®e ÒeJeeme keÀjCes iejpes®es Deens . ies u ³ee keÀener Je<ee& l e veÐeeb ® ³ee GiecemLeeveepeJeUerue Je=#eJeuueer HeÀej keÀceer Peeu³ee®es efometve ³esles. l³eecegUs Pejs HeÀkeÌle pebieueebceOetve efomeleele. 1960 les 1970 ®³ee ojc³eeve ceeP³ee ueneveHeCeer pesJeu³eeveblej Deecner PeN³ee®es HeeCeer H³ee³e®ees, lemes Deelee Meke̳e veener. Pejs keÀceer Peeues Je l³eeb®ee efPejHe keÀceer Peeuee. GieceeHeemetve KeeueHe³e¥ l e peeleevee yeN³ee®eMee iees < ìer efveoMe&veeme ³esleele. peuecew$eermeeþer Deecner GieceeHe³e¥le peelees. efpeLes efJekeÀemee®³ee ¢<ìerves

jmles Peeuesues Deensle, efleLeueer Pee[s lees[ueer iesueer. cegUe veoer®³ee Gieceeuee peuecew$eer megª kesÀueer lesJne lessLes Ieveoeì pebieue nesles. efJemeeHetjuee 77 Heemetve ì^skeÀeRie meg© kesÀues. les J ne ef l eLes KeeueHe³e¥ l e Pee[s nes l eer . keÀpe&lepeJeUerue YewjJeveeLee®³ee iegns peJeUner Ieveoeì peb i eue nes s l es . HeCe ner Pee[er veä Peeu³eecegUs peefceveer®eer HeeCeer Oe©ve þsJeC³ee®eer #ecelee ve<ì Peeueer . HeeTme He[uee keÀer Gjueermegjueer ceeleer IesTve lees OejCeele ³eslees. l³eecegUs HeeJemeeȳeeveblej Òel³eskeÀ OejCe ®enekeÀe@HeÀermeejKes efomeles. ef[meWyej Deeuee keÀer les HeeCeer ef v eleU Jne³euee ueeieles . pes HeeCeer [eWiejebceO³es De[tve jene³e®eb; les Deelee jnele veener. yeebOe DeeefCe Pee[e®³ee cegȳee HeeCeer Oe©ve Demeleele. Deb[jûeeTb[ [@cecegUs efPejHe keÀceer kesÀuee peelees. HetJeea pesJe{b HeeCeer OejCeele pee³e®eb lesJe{®e HeeCeer peefceveerle pee³e®eb. ceie les®e HeeCeer efPejHetve peefceveerle pee³e®eb. veÐee yeejceener Jene³e®³ee, keÀejCe keÀ@®eceWì Sefj³eele Pee[er Demee³e®eer. Pee[b keÀeHeueer iesu³eecegUs ceeleer, ¿etceme DeeefCe cegUeb®ee mHebpe FHesÀkeÌì ve<ì Peeuee. OejCeb yeebOeueer iesueer. HeeCeer keÀceer He[e³euee


ueeieueb cnCetve Ke[keÀJeemeuee, leevemee, JewlejCee ³esLes Jeentve peeCeejs HeeCeer GHeueyOe kesÀueb iesueb. l³eecegUs SkeÀe efJeefMe<ì peeiesmeeþer veoer efpeJeble jeefnueer. efpeLes HeeCeer Deens efleLes ueeskeÀJemleer Jee{erme ueeieueer. ns ieeJee®es Peeues u es os M eeb l eie& l e mLeueeb l ej Deens . ì^ @ e f H eÀkeÀ Jee{e³eueener OejCeb®e peyeeyeoej Deensle. SkeÀe YetYeeieeJej HeÀej ceesþe He³ee&JejCeer³e HeefjCeece l³eecegUs neslees Deens. HeeC³ee®eer Keesueer Jee{Jeueer lej ne³e[^ems ì@ìerkeÀ ÒesMej Jee{les. l³eecegUs ceOeueer ceeleer efveIetve Jej®es Yeeie He[tve peeleele. megHeerkeÀ peceerve ³eecegUs®e ve<ì nesles. cnCetve®e veoer cnCepes keÀe³e ns ue#eele I³ee³euee nJeb. yeN³ee®e efþkeÀeCeer veÐeeb®eer Keesueer Jee{Jeueer iesueer, Hejbleg lees efveCe&³e veoer®ee HetCe& DeY³eeme ve keÀjlee®e Iesleuee iesuee. HeeCeer De[Jee, HeeCeer Jee®eJee, HeeCeer efpejJee ³eeJej veoer®ee leU KeCetve keÀe{Ces ne Ghee³e veener. l³eecegUs veoer HeefjmebmLee keÀe³ece®eer ve<ì nesT MekeÀles. keÀener Je<ee¥veer yes[tkeÀ, ceemes ³eebmeejKes peue®ej HetCe&HeCes®e veenermes nesleerue. HetJeea HeeC³ee®es peerJeble Pejs nesles. mecegê ogiee¥Jejner iees[îee HeeC³ee®es m$eesle Deensle. l³ee®³eeefMeJee³e peerJeve Meke̳e®e veener. MenjekeÀ[tve ³esCeeN³ee HeeC³eecegUs (DeewÐeesefiekeÀ DeeefCe Iejiegleer meeb[HeeCeer) keÀeþeJej®³ee keÀtHeveefuekeÀe Òeotef<ele Peeu³ee. veoer megobj Deens, Hejbleg veoerleerue HeeCeer Del³eble ieefue®í Deens. HeJevee veoer®es HeeCeer megboj nesles. ueeskeÀJemleer Jee{u³eecegUs Ke[keÀJeemeuee, ÒeJeje veoer , Gpeveer peueeMe³eele meJe&$e HeeCeJevemHeleer YejHetj Jee{u³ee. cegUe, cegþsle meJe& ieeU Jej ³eslees. Deewjbieeyeeo peJeUerue SkeÀe ieeJeeceO³es YeepeerHeeuee efHekeÀefJeuee peelees. l³eele Tmee®es ÒeceeCe 70 ìkeÌkesÀ Deens. ueeskeÀebkeÀ[s ûeeceHeb®ee³eleerves efouesueb [syeerì keÀe[& Deens. HeCe yeBkesÀle Keeles veener. keÀe[& mJeeF&He kesÀues keÀer efHeC³ee®eb HeeCeer efceUleb. ns ogoxJe Deens! meenefpekeÀ®e meJe& ueeskebÀ MenjebkeÀ[s ³esleele. ueiveemeeþerner cegueer DeepekeÀeue Menjeleerue®e cegueiee Heenleele, ceie lees PeesHe[HeÆerle jnele Demeuee lejerner. Hejbleg ieeJeekeÀ[s 4-5 SkeÀj peceerve pejer Demeueer lejer vekeÀes cnCeleele. l³eecegUs ieeJes®³ee ieeJes Deesmee[ Peeueer. mees[uesu³ee ogef<ele HeeC³eeJej Mesleer nesles, YeepeerHeeuee nesslees. cnCepes®e mees[uesueer IeeCe Hegvne Mejerjele ³esles. l³eecegUs Deepe DeveskeÀ efJekeÀejebmeesyele cesue FvHeÀjìeaueerìer meejKes efJekeÀej yeUeJet ueeieues Deensle. De@efme[erìer veener Demee SkeÀner ceeCetme veener. ³eeuee keÀejCe HeeC³eeleerue Jee{uesues vee³eì^espeve. pej HeeC³ee®es ³eesi³e J³eJemLeeHeve kesÀues lej ns meJe& ÒeMve megìleerue. OejCes yeebOee, HeCe íesìer íesìer YejHetj yeebOee. yeN³ee®e JesUe veoer®³ee Jej®³ee yeepetuee jenCeeN³ee ueeskeÀebvee Demes Jeeìles keÀer DeeHeCe veoerle keÀ®eje mees[uee keÀer lees Jeentve iesuee. l³ee®ee DeeHeu³eeuee $eeme veener. Hejbleg Hejleer®³ee HeeJemee®³ee JesUer Keeue®³ee yeepet®es Òeot<eCe Jej®³ee yeepetme ³esles. ceie l³ee®ee $eeme meieȳeebvee®e neslees. ieeJeebceOeerue Mesleer yeoueueer Deens. MeslekeÀjer keÀceer keÀ<ìe®eer veieoer efHekesÀ ueeJeleele. meJe&$e Demes®e Dee{Utve

³esles. lemes®e MesleceeuekeÀ Mesleer keÀjle veenerle. Meslecepetj Mesleer keÀjleele. MesleceeuekeÀ efceUCeeN³ee HewMeebletve cepee keÀjleele Je 40 J³ee Je<eea Deepeejele cejleele. keÀ DeefmceJegb YeiiJees efYe%eles meJe&efceob efJe%eeve YeJeleg? keÀe³e peeCeu³eeves ceuee meieȳee®eb %eeve keÀUsue? veoerleuee ÒeJeeme kesÀu³eeves veoeruee keÀe³e cnCee³e®e³e ns efle®es yeesue SskeÀu³eeefMeJee³e DeeHeu³eeuee keÀmes keÀUsue? veoerMeer ieHHee ceeje³euee Heeefnpesle. peMee DeeHeCe DeeHeu³ee DeeF&Meer ieHHee ceejlees. keÀejCe veoer DeeHeueer DeeF& Deens. DeefJeOeejerle DeKeb[ efvece&U Oeeje cnCepes®e veoer. ueneve cegueebveer veoerJej ³ee³euee Heeefnpes. veoer ns l³eeb®³eemeeþer KesUe®es HeìebieCe JneJeb. l³eeb®ee MeeefjefjkeÀ, ceeveefmekeÀ efJekeÀeme nesF&ue. ve KesUu³eecegUs HeeþogKeer meejKes Deepeej yeUeJeleele. efJekeÀeme cnCepes keÀe³e? ceesþîee Fceejleer yeebOeCes cnCepes efJekeÀeme keÀe? l³eebvee mebHetCe& mJeemL³e Òeoeve keÀ©ve Deeveboe®³ee þsJ³eeHe³e¥le vesCes ne efJekeÀeme Deens. l³eecegUs efJekeÀemee®eer J³eeK³ee yeouee³euee nJeer. ieesue Heesmì yeoueuee lej ®eW[t ³eesi³e efþkeÀeCeer ceejuee peeF&ue, ns efMe#eCe DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens DeeefCe les veoer osT MekeÀles. DecesefjkesÀceO³es efHeC³ee®³ee HeeC³ee®³ee meeþîee®es mebj#eCe mewv³eekeÀ[s Deens DeeefCe DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s cee$e jepekeÀejC³eebkeÀ[s ! Je=#eejesHeCe, ®eejeyeboer, íesìs yeebOeejs Òel³eskeÀ IeUerJej Del³eeJeM³ekeÀ Deensle. veoerkeÀeþeJej vees [sJnueHeceWì Peesve Jne³euee nJesle. HegC³eele HetJeea mee³ekeÀueer nesl³ee Deelee Hegvne l³ee JeeHeje³euee meg© kesÀu³ee lej yejs®e ÒeMve megìleerue. ³ee keÀeceeuee Òeefle<þe Ðee³euee Heeefnpes. veoeryeÎue®ee ceePee ne meJe& ÒeJeeme DeeF&®³ee efveOeveeveblej®ee Deens, efle®³eeMeer legìuesueer veeU Hegvne pees[C³eemeeþer. JeejkeÀN³eeb®³ee efo[ b er®eer HejbHeje 800 Je<ex ®eeuet Deens. Heg{ns er 1000 Je<e& ®eeuesue. Hejbleg l³ee HejbHejsuee He³ee&JejCee®eb DeefOeÿeve ueeJeCes Del³eble iejpes®es Deens. peueefob[er ns veeJe Deelee Heefj®eerle Peeue³e. ne efJe®eejÒeOeeve ÒeJeeme Deens, J³eefkeÌleÒeOeeve veener. veoer GÐee efvece&U pejer Peeueer lejer peueefob[er DeKeb[erle ®eeuet®e jeefnue.


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veoer®eb ®eebieueb DemeCeb, mJe®í, ÒeJeeefnle DemeCeb ne veoer Hegve©ppeerJevee®ee ieeYee Deens. l³eemeeþer ueeskeÀebvee Deeeflce³elee Jeeìueer Heeefnpes. DeeHeu³ee Oecee&le veoeruee DeeF& mLeeveer ceeveueb peeleb. ceie DeeF&®eer DeJemLee megOeeje³euee cegueebveer DeeF&peJeU Deeueb Heeefnpes. ³ee mebkeÀuHevesletve `cegþeF& GlmeJe' iesu³ee oesve Je<ee¥Heemetve meepeje neslees.

Mewuepee osMeHeeb[s 9822 391941

veoermeeþer DeeHeCe meejs...

iesu³ee 50-60 Je<ee&le Yeejleeleerue meJe&®e veÐeebveer Òeot<eCee®eer Heefjmeercee ieeþueer Deens ns meJee¥vee ceeefnle Deens®e. `keÀesCe nesleerme let ! keÀe³e Peeueerme let!'Demes meJe&®e veÐeebyeÎue cnCelee ³esF&ue. keÀMeecegUs Peeues ns meJe&? ³eeuee mejkeÀej, jepekeÀejCeer, keÀejKeeves, Mesleer ns keÀejCeerYetle Deensle keÀer DeeCeKeer keÀener? ³ee meJee¥®ee GneHeesn lep%eebkeÀ[tve nesle Deens®e DeeefCe nesle jeneruener. HeCe SkeÀ ÒeMve DevegÊejerle jenlees®e. DeeHeu³ee peerJeveoeef³eveer Demeuesu³ee ³ee veÐee ceueJeeefnveer Peeu³ee Deensle. l³eebvee Hegvne peerJeveoeef³eveer keÀjCes Meke̳e Deens keÀe? ¿ee®e ÒeMvee®eer GÊejs SkeÀ mebmLee MeesOee³e®ee Òe³elve keÀjles³e. HegC³eeleu³ee cegþs®eb Hegve©ppeerJeve keÀjC³ee®ee ³ee mebmLes®³ee meYeemeoeb®ee efveM®e³e Deens. HegCesefmLele ³ee mebmLes®eb veeJe Deens `peerefJele veoer - Living River Foundation '. veoer Hegve©ppeerefJele keÀje³e®eer lej keÀMeecegUs ner veÐeeb®eer DeJemLee Peeueer DemeeJeer ³ee®ee meJe&ÒeLece ceeieesJee Iesleuee lej keÀe³e ue#eele Deeues? meom³eebveer veoer®³ee pevceeHeemetve®e DeY³eemeeuee megjJeele kesÀueer.

Heg C ³ee®eer Yeew i ees e f u ekeÀ j®evee SKeeÐee Keesueieì yeMeermeejKeer Deens. DeOetveceOetve meJe& MenjYej ìskeÀ[îee Deensle. ³ee ìskeÀ[îeebJe©ve JeenCeejs Dees{s, veeues cegþsuee®e efceUleele. HetJeea ns HeeJemee®eb HeeCeer IesTve Jeene³e®es, Deelee ceuecet $ e Ies T ve Jeenleele Deeef C e ceg þ s u ee efceUleele. ³ee Dees{îee-veeu³eeb®eb ceuecet$e Menje®³ee ceO³eYeeieeletve JeenCeejer cegþe ieesUe keÀjles. l³eele MenjJeeefme³eeb®³ee IeeCeer®eer Yej He[les. ns meJe& IesTve leer cegUsuee efceUles. Heg{s peeTve Yeercesuee DeeefCe efleLetve Heg{s ke=À<Cesuee. mejlesMesJeìer yebieeue®³ee GHemeeiejeuee. 11001200 efkeÀ.ceer ®ee ne ÒeJeeme HegC³eeHeemetve®e Òeote<f ele nes l ees . cnCepes ® e ceg þ e mJe®í nes C es ner HegCesJeeefme³eeb®eer®e veweflekeÀ peyeeyeoejer nesles. ³eeceO³es Òel³eskeÀ J³ekeÌleer®ee Keejer®ee Jeeìe Demee³euee®e nJee. vescekesÀ ns®e DeesUKetve `peerefJele veoer Living River Foundation' ³ee mebmLesves keÀener cenÊJeekeÀeb#eer GHe¬eÀce meg© kesÀues. l³eeb®ee Òemeej Je Òe®eejner meg© kesÀuee. keÀe³e Deensle ns GHe¬eÀce?


8 - efJe<ecegkeÌle peerJeve Mewueer ë Iejiegleer JeeHejeleues meeyeCe, HeeJe[j, ef[ìpe¥ì, ìtLeHesmì F. ³eeb®³ee ceeHe&Àle DeveskeÀ jmee³eves veoer®³ee HeeC³eele efcemeUleele. keÀesCelesner Òeef¬eÀ³ee ÒekeÀuHe ³ee jmee³eveeb®es efJeIeìve keÀ© MekeÀle veener. Iejiegleer jmee³eveeb®es veoerleerue Òeot<eCe 70-80 ìkeÌkesÀ Deens. ³ee®ee®e DeLe& Òel³eskeÀ J³ekeÌleerves þjJeues lej veoer 70 -80 ìkeÌkesÀ meeHeÀ nesT MekeÀles. DeeHeu³ee®e Heefjmejele vewmeefie&keÀ DeeefCe efJeIeìve nesT MekeÀCeeN³ee meeOeveeb®eer efveefce&leer ³ee mebmLesves kesÀueer Deens. l³ee®ee Òe®eej Je Òemeej mebmLes®es meom³e keÀjleele. efJe<eêJ³ejefnle DeMee meeOeveeb®eer ceeefnleer mebmLes®³ee www.jeevitnadi.wordpress.com ³ee Jesye meeF&ìJej GHeueyOe Deens. - veoerMeer veeleb pees[e ë veoer ® eb ®eeb i eueb DemeCeb , mJe®í, ÒeJeeef n le DemeCeb ne veoer Hegve©ppeerJevee®ee ieeYee Deens. l³eemeeþer ueeskeÀebvee Deeeflce³elee Jeeìueer Heeefnpes. DeeHeu³ee Oecee&le veoeruee DeeF&mLeeveer ceeveueb peeleb. ceie DeeF&®eer DeJemLee megOeeje³euee cegueebveer DeeF&peJeU Deeueb Heeefnpes. ³ee mebkeÀuHevesletve `cegþeF& GlmeJe' iesu³ee oesve Je<ee¥Heemetve meepeje neslees. ³eele `ueeue Hetjjs<es®ee Deeoj', `cegþs®es ieleJewYeJe', `ceuee nJeer Demeuesueer cegþe' Demes DeveskeÀ GHe¬eÀce Iesleues peeleele. ³ee GlmeJee®eer meg©Jeele `28 veesJnWyej - Yeejleer³e veoer efoJemee'Heemetve Peeueer. Deelee oj jefJeJeejer mekeÀeUer mebmLes®es meom³e cegþ®s ee HesÀjHeÀìkeÀe Ie[Jeleele. HetJe& veeWoCeer keÀ©ve keÀesCeerner ³ee HesÀjHeÀìke̳eele meeceerue nesT MekeÀleele.

mebmLes®es meom³e `SkeÀe veoer®eer keÀneCeer' ns efHeÀjles ÒeoMe&ve MeeUe, keÀe@uespe, keÀe³ee&ue³eebceOes IesTve peeleele. veoer®eer HeefjmebmLee, efJe<eêJ³ejefnle peerJeve Mewueer ³ee mebyebOeer®eer J³eeK³eeves, keÀe³e&MeeUe nesle Demeleele. ³ee meJe& GHe¬eÀceebcegUs pevepeeie=leer®es keÀece melele ®eeuet Deens. - He³ee&JejCe HetjkeÀ J³eJemLee ë DeeHeu³ee peJeUerue veeuee, Dees{e efkebÀJee veoer®ee SkeÀ HeÆe oÊekeÀ IesC³eemeeþer mebmLes®es meom³e DeeJeenve keÀjleele. HeeC³ee®³ee m$eeslee®eer meHeÀeF&, l³eeuee Jeenles keÀjC³eemeeþer ueeieCeeN³ee HetjkeÀ JevemHeleer DeeefCe Flej DeeJeM³ekeÀ yeeyeeRmeeþer meom³e meJe& ceole keÀjleele. HeÀkeÌle l³ee l³ee Yeeieeleerue veeieefjkeÀebveer SkeÀ$e ³esTve DeeþJe[îeeleuee Lees[e JesU veoermeeþer osC³ee®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. He³ee&JejCeHetjkeÀ meeb[HeeCeer J³eJemLee ë ³eemeeþer megOoe ³ee #es$eeleerue lep%e mebmLesMeer pees[uesues Deensle. l³eeb®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves DeMeer keÀeces Heej Hee[lee ³esleerue. pevepeeie=leer DeeefCe ke=Àleer ³eeJej mebmLesves Yej efouee Deens. HegCeskeÀjeb®es HeeþyeU efceUeues lej cegþs®ee 40 efkeÀ.ceer ueebyeer®ee HegC³eeletve JeenCeeje ÒeJeen Hegvne mJe®í,megboj, efvece&U nesF&ue ner Kee$eer Deens. ®euee lej ceie cegþsuee peerJeveoeef³eveer®es HetJe&ªHe DeeCet³ee. veoermeeþer DeeHeCe meejs keÀeceeuee ueeiet³ee DeeefCe DeeHeu³ee Heg{®³ee efHe{îeebmeeþer mJe®í, megboj, Jeenleer veoer osT³ee.

ÒeMve legce®ee... GÊej efJe%eevee®es... - ceWotleerue keÀj[s êJ³e Je MJesle êJ³e ³eeb®³eele Yeso keÀesCelee Deens ? ceWolt eerue ceO³eJeleea ceppeemebmLes®es keÀj[s êJ³e Je MJesle êJ³e Demes oesve Yeeie He[leele. keÀj[s êJ³e (ûes ce@ìj) ns keÀj[îee-leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®es Demeles. l³eele v³egje@veue mesue yee@[erpe DeefOekeÀ Je cee³esueerve (®ejyeer³egkeÌle ÒeefLeve) keÀceer ÒeceeCeele Demeleele. lemes®e [svì^eFìdme Je mee³eve@Hmesme Demeleele. les mebkesÀle le³eej keÀ©ve Òeef¬eÀ³ee keÀjC³ee®es keÀece keÀjles. l³eeme meJee&efOekeÀ Gpee& ueeieles. lemes®e ceWotuee ueeieCeeN³ee ÒeeCeJee³egHewkeÀer 95 ìkeÌkesÀ ÒeeCeJee³eg ueeieles. MJesleêJ³e (JneFì ce@ìj)ns meHesÀo jbieer Demetve ceWolt e les 60ìkeÌkesÀ Demeles. les keÀj[îee êJ³ee®³ee efJeefJeOe Yeeieebvee ceWot Je ceppeejppetMeer pees[les. l³eele efJeHegue ÒeceeCeele ®ejyeer³egkeÌle ÒeefLeves Demeleele. les efJeÐegleogJee&nkeÀ Deens, les mebkesÀle Jesieeves HeeþJeles. keÀj[îee êJ³ee®³ee leguevesves MJesleêJ³eeuee keÀceer Gpee& ueeieles. - ³eb$eceeveJe ne ceeveJeer peceele peieeletve ve<ì keÀjsue keÀe ? peesHe³e¥le ceeveJeekeÀ[s efJe®eejMekeÌleer, MeesOeMekeÌleer Je mJeHve

yeIeC³ee®eer #ecelee Deens, leesHe³e¥le jesyees ceeCemeeJej ceele keÀ© MekeÀCeej veener. keÀejCe jesyees®ee cesbot cnCepes SkeÀ mebieCekeÀ. mebieCekeÀe®³ee Dee%esÒeceeCes lees keÀece keÀjCeej. ³eeDeLeea jesyees ne meebiekeÀec³ee Demelees. cnCetve ³eb$eceeveJe ne mJele:ntve veJeer iees<ì MeesOet Jee MekeÌleerMeeueer nesT MekeÀle veener. l³eecegUs ³eb$eceeveJe ceeCemeeuee Jej®e{ þ© MekeÀle veener Je ve<ì keÀ© MekeÀCeej veener. - HeÀe@mHeÀjme®ee MeesOe keÀmee ueeieuee ? 1669 meeueer, pece&ve jmee³eveMeem$e%e nsefveie ye´@v[ ne ueesne®es meesv³eele ©Heeblej keÀjCeeN³ee Heefjmee®ee MeesOe Iesle Demeleevee l³eeves keÀe®eHee$eele ceeveJeer cet$e YeÆerle leeHeJeues. DekeÀmceele l³ee Yeeb[îeeletve Oetj ³esTve êeJe ieUt ueeieuee DeeefCe l³eeletve pJeeUe yeensj Deeu³ee. lees êeJ³e Yeeb[îeele IesTve PeekeÀu³eeJej lees IeÆ nesTve efnjJeì Je ®ecekeÀoej efomet ueeieuee. les®e Heefnues cetueêJ³e HeÀe@mHeÀjme. ne ûeerkeÀ Meyo Demetve l³ee®ee DeLe& GpeUCeeje cejeþerle l³eeme mHegÀjo cnCeleele. [e@. megOeerj ceeW[keÀj 9869575594


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10 Deeheu³eeuee $³ebyekesÀéejele yeIee³euee efceUlees. efpeLes heeF&he-ueeF&veceOetve veoer yeensj he[les efleLetve heg{®es veoer®es hee$e hetCe&leë efmeceWìves ce{efJeuesues Deens! mejkeÀejer Yee<esle veoer®³ee hee$ee®ee `efJekeÀeme' kesÀuesuee Deens! Oeee|cekeÀ efJeOeeRveblej ceesþîee he´ceeCeele pecee nesCeejs efvecee&u³e DeeefCe Flej Ieve-keÀ®eje l³ee `efJekeÀefmele' hee$eele ìekeÀu³eekeÀejCeeves heefjmejele ceesþîee he´ceeCeele ogie¥Oeer hemejles. ³ee efJeª× nefjle ueJeeo v³ee³eeue³eele oeo ceeieC³eele Deeueer. 1992 - 93 ®³ee ojc³eeve kesÀuesu³ee leLeekeÀefLele efJekeÀemekeÀeceebvee lelkeÀeueerve keWÀê Meemeveeves jerlemej hejJeeveieer efoueer nesleer. ogozJeeves 2014 he³e¥le ³ee he³ee&JejCeeme IeelekeÀ DeMee efJekeÀemekeÀeceeb®³ee efJejesOeele keÀesCeer®e DeeJeepe GþJeuesuee veJnlee. nefjle ueJeeo v³ee³eeue³e, hegCes Keb[heerþeves ³ee meJe& he´keÀjCee®eer iebYeerj oKeue Ies l e `ces j er ' (Maharashtra Engineering Research Institute) ³ee mebmLesme ³eesi³elees DeY³eeme keÀªve met®evee osC³eeme meebefieleues. lemes®e IevekeÀ®eje J³eJemleeHevee®ee ÒeMve osKeerue ceeieea ueeJeuee. $ebyekesÀéej veblej veoer®es heeCeer iebieehetj OejCeele Dee[Jeues peeles. ³ee OejCeeletve®e veeefMekeÀ Menjeuee heeC³ee®ee hegjJeþe keÀjC³eele ³eslees. Oeee|cekeÀ he³e&ìvee®es Menj FlekeÀer®e veeefMekeÀ Menje®eer DeesUKe meerefcele vemetve Peheeìîeeves nesCeeje Menje®³ee efJekeÀemeeves veeefMekeÀ Menje®ee JeeF&ve ke@Àheerìue, Dee@ìes-ceesyeeF&ue F¥[mì^er, lemes®e keÀeboe, êe#e DeeefCe efJeefJeOe DeewÐeesefiekeÀ Glheeoveebmeeþer ueewefkeÀkeÀ Deens. Oeee|cekeÀ he³e&ìve, Mesleer DeeefCe Flej yengleebMeer GÐeesie ns ieesoeJejer veoer®³ee Jeenl³ee he´JeeneJej DeJeuebyetve Deensle. OejCeeletve mJe®í heeCeer G®eueu³eeveblej l³ee yeou³eele Jeehejuesues meeb[heeCeer he´ef¬eÀ³ee keÀªve hegvne veoer®³ee hee$eele mees[C³ee®eer peyeeyeoejerner mLeeefvekeÀ he´Meemevee®eer Demeles. l³eemeeþer ceneveiejheeefuekeÀe DeefOeefve³eceele ³eesi³e lejletoner Deens. mLeeefvekeÀ he´Meemeve meeb[heeCeer veoerle keÀesCel³eener he´ef¬eÀ³esefJevee®e veoerle mees[les. efkeÀl³eskeÀoe, heeJemeeȳeeveblej veoer®³ee hee$eeletve kesÀJeU meeb[heeCeer®e Jenele Demeles. ns®e Menje®es meeb[heeCeer jecekegbÀ[ele ³esles lesJne ueeskeÀ les Þe×sheesìer leerLe& cnCetve Iesleele. Deefveye¥Oeerle meeb[heeCeer DeeefCe veoerefkeÀveej®ee Devewmee|iekeÀ efJekeÀemeeefJejesOeele oeo ceeieC³eemeeþer, lemes®e veoer hegve&ppeerefJele keÀjC³eemeeþer jepesMe heb[erle DeeefCe Flejeb®³ee ceeHe&Àle ef[meWye 2012 ceO³es cegbyeF& G®®e v³ee³eeue³eele peveefnle ³eeef®ekeÀe oeKeue kesÀueer. ³eeef®ekesÀ®³ee heefnu³ee megveeJeCeerle®e G®®e v³ee³eeue³ee®³ee cegK³e v³ee³eOeerMeebveer veoer®eer DeJemLee yeIetve `³eeuee veoer cnCeeJeb keÀe?' Demee Ke[e meJeeue kesÀuee. ³eeef®ekesÀme GÊej osleebvee mLeeefvekeÀ he´Meemeveeves veoer

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11

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mees[u³ee peeCeeN³ee meeb[HeeC³ee®³ee Jeeìe ísovt e, l³eebvee JeUJetve DeLeJee DeMee meeb[HeeC³eeJej meg³eesi³e DeefYe¬eÀer³ee keÀ©ve ceie®e l³eeb®ee efve®eje peuem$eesleeble nesJet osC³eeJej Yej efouee iesuee. Deepe je<ì^er³e peue DeefOe#eCe keÀe³e&¬eÀceebleie&le megceejs 30 veÐeeb®³ee ceeiee&leerue efkeÀceeve 160 Menjebletve ner keÀe³e&Jeener nesle Deens. De[îeej, keÀewce, yesìJee, Yeêe, ye´ecnCeer, keÀeJesjer, ®ebyeU, oeceesoj, iebiee, ieesoeJejer, ieesceleer, Keve, ke=À<Cee, ef#eÒee, ceneveoer, ceeb[Jeer,vece&oe, Hesvvej, meeyejceleer, meleuepe, megJeCe&jsKee, leeHeer, legbiee, legbieYeêe, JesCCeej, Jewie³eer, JeUiebiee, ³ecegvee Je cegMeer ³ee veoer KeesN³eeceO³es ner keÀe³e&Jeener nesle Deens. je<ì^er³e peue DeefOe#eCe keÀe³e&¬eÀceeleerue ³eespevesvegmeej Òel³eskeÀ jep³e Òeot<eCe efve³eb$eCe keWÀêeves DeeHeeHeu³ee jep³eeleerue veeiejer lemes®e DeewÐeesefiekeÀ meeb[HeeC³ee®es Òeot<ekeÀ m$eesle MeesOetve ûeeceHeb ® ee³eleer , veiejHeeef u ekeÀe Jee veiejHeefj<eoeb®³ee menYeeieeletve ³ee meeb[HeeC³eeJej Òe¬eÀer³ee keÀjC³eemeeþer ³eb$eCee GYeejCes DeHesef#ele Deens. jep³eeleerue meeb[HeeC³ee®³ee m$eesleeb®eer veeWo þsJetve ³ee HeeC³ee®³ee metjef#ele efve®eN³eemeeþer keÀeueyeOo keÀe³e&¬eÀce yeveefJeCes Je l³ee®eer DeceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjCes ns osKeerue jep³e Òeot<eCe efve³eb$eCe ceb[Uebveer keÀjCes DeefveJee³e& Deens. GYeejuesu³ee meeb[HeeCeer Òe¬eÀer³ee ³eb$eCeeb®eer


12 JesUesJesUer #ecelee Je HeefjCeecekeÀejkeÀlee leHeemeCeer keÀjCes ns ner ceb[Ueb®³ee DeKel³eeefjle Deens. pewJeefJeefJeOelee DeefOeJesMevee®³ee (Convention or Biological Diversity ) þjeJeeb v eg m eej veÐee Je Flej peuem$ees l eeb ® eer ÒeleJeejer megOeejC³eemeeþer HeefjmebmLee ¢ef<ìkeÀesve (Ecosystem Approach) yeeUieCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. peceerve, peue Je pewefJekeÀ meeOeve mebHeÊeer®³ee mebJeOe&ve, v³ee³³e JeeìHe DeeefCe MeeMJele JeeHej ³eebmeeþer DeeblejMeem$eer³e, Deeblej#es$eer³e Je DeeblejmebmLeer³e GHe¬eÀce jeyeJeCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. ns GHe¬eÀce yeveefJeleebvee veoer HeefjmebmLes®ee efJe®eej Goj-efveJee&ne®es meeOeve, DeLe&-J³eJeneje®ee m$eesle lemes®e veÐeeb®³ee HeefjmebmLescegUs ÒeeHle nesCeeN³ee HeeCeer HegjJeþe, Yetpeue YejCeer, #ejCe efve³eb$eCe Je peue MegOoerkeÀjCe ³eebmeejK³ee HeefjmebmLeer³e mesJeeb®ee efJe®eej kesÀuee peeJee. menm$ekeÀ HeefjmebmLee efveOee&jCe (Millenium Ecosytem Assessment) ³ee mebmLes®³ee 2005 meeue®³ee DenJeeueele ³ee HeefjmebmLee ¢ef<ìkeÀesvee®ee meppe[ HeeþHegjeJee keÀjC³eele Deeuee Deens. HeefjmebmLeer³e mesJeeb®ee ceesyeou³ee®³ee ©Heele efJe®eej keÀjleevee yeepeejHesþer³e veJns lej meeceeefpekeÀ ¢ef<ìkeÀesve mJeerkeÀejeJee Demesner ÒeefleHeeove ³ee DenJeeueele kesÀuesues Deens. veÐeeb®es HeefjmebmLeer³e ¢ef<ìkeÀesveeletve J³eJemLeeHeve : ogowJeeves Yeejleele (Je Flej DeveskeÀ osMeeblener) veÐeebkeÀ[s kesÀJeU Hes³e DeLeJee Dev³e JeeHejemeeþer®³ee HeeC³ee®ee m$eesle lemes®e ceue Je Flej DeJeebeí f le HeoeLe& otj Jeentve vesCeeje mebJeenkeÀ cnCetve®e Heeefnues peeles, HeefjmebmLee cnCetve veener. je<ì^er³e peue veerleerves (National Water Policy) veoer®³ee HeefjmebmLee ¢ef<ìkeÀesveeuee ÒeeOeev³e¬eÀceele ®eewLes mLeeve efoues Deens. ³ee veerleervegmeej HeeCeer ns veoer³e HeefjmebmLes®ee kesÀJeU SkeÀ IeìkeÀ Demetve He³ee&JejCeer³e lemes®e meeceeefpekeÀ ¢ef<ìkeÀesveeletve veÐeebleerue HeeCeer peue®ejeb®ee DeefOeJeeme

jeKeC³eemeeþer Je efJeefJeOe iejpeebmeeþer®³ee HeeCeer HegjJeþîeemeeþer Jeenles jenCes iejpes®es Deens. Hejblet peue veerleer vegmeej HeeC³ee®³ee v³ee³³e JeeìHeekeÀefjlee veÐeeb®es HeeCeer, pesLes les cegyeuekeÀ Deens lesLetve pesLes les otefce&U Deens DeMee efþkeÀeCeer vesCesner efvekeÀ[er®es Deens. ³ee efJejesOeeYeemeecegUs veÐeeb®es HeefjmebmLee ¢ef<ìkeÀesveeletve J³eJemLeeHeve ns keÀsJeU mJeHvejbpeve®e yevele ®eeueues Deens. peue-veerleer®³ee ceeO³eceeletve DeepeJej keÀesþsner veoerleerue HeeC³ee®ee efkeÀceeve DeesIe jeKeC³ee®ee Òe³elvener Peeuesuee Dee{Ule veener. efMeJee³e J³e³e Je ueeYe ³eeb®³ee íeveveerle veoer HeefjmebmLeeb®³ee mesJeeb®ee veeMe keÀesCeer efJe®eejelener Iesleuesuee efomele veener. HeefjmebmLeer³e DeeJneves : keWÀêer³e Òeot<eCe efve³eb$eCe ceb[Ue®³ee DenJeeueevegmeej Heefnu³ee Je ogmeN³ee Jeiee&leerue MenjebkeÀ[tve oj efoJeMeer 3300 keÀesìer efueìme& meeb[HeeCeer veÐeeble mees[ues peeles. l³eeleerue kesÀJeU 1200 keÀesìer efueìme& (36 ìkeÌkesÀ) meeb[HeeC³eeJej ÒeeLeefcekeÀ Òeef¬eÀ³es®eer mees³e GHeueyOe Deens HeCe ³eeleerue 40ìkeÌkesÀ meb³eb$es He³ee&JejCe (mebj#eCe) keÀe³eÐee®³ee efvemmeejCe HeeC³ee®³ee efvekeÀ<eeb®eer yejesyejer keÀ© MekeÀle veenerle. Hegvne ner meb³eb$es ÒeecegK³eeves ceneveiejebceOetve®e Deensle Je leer SketÀCe iejpesHes#ee HeÀej keÀceer HeeC³eeJej Òeef¬eÀ³ee keÀ© MekeÀleele. ueneve Menjs Je ieebJes ³eeble ner mees³e GHeueyOe veener. keWÀêer³e ceneuesKeeHeefj#ekeÀeb®³ee (CAG) 201 1 meeue®³ee DenJeeuee vegmeej veÐeebletve mees[u³ee peeCeeN³ee meeb[HeeC³eeHewkeÀer pescelesce 10ìkeÌkesÀ HeeC³eeJej ÒeeLeefcekeÀ Òeef¬eÀ³ee Peeuesueer Demeles. veeiejer Je DeewÐeesefiekeÀ meeb[HeeC³ee®³ee melele Jee{l³ee Glmeiee&cegUs veÐeebceOeerue pewJeefJeefJeOelesJej peerJeIesCee DeeIeele nesle Deens. DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer veÐeebletve ceemes HetCe&HeCes uegHle Peeuesues Deensle lej Flej DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer JesUes JesUer ceemes ce=le nesJetve veoer®³ee HeeC³eeJej lejbieleevee


13

Dee{Ule Deensle. ceneje<ì^eleerue efkeÀveejHeÆer ÒeosMeeleerue jemee³eefvekeÀ GÐeesieeb®³ee meeb[HeeC³ee®³ee Glmeiee&cegUs Kee[îeebceOetve nesCeejer ceemesceejer þHHe Peeueer Deens. ueesìs HejMegjece #es$eele lej Deieoer ceeveJeer ogOeelener ¬eÀesecf e³ece, De@u³etecf eefve³ece ³eebmeejKes Oeelet ceeveJeer menveMekeÌleerHes#ee DeefOekeÀ ÒeceeCeele Demeu³ee®es oeKeJetve efouesues Deens. veÐeebleerue Òeog<eCeecegUs Heesìe®es Je He®evemebmLes®es efJekeÀej; DemLecee Je Flej MJemeve mebmLes®es efJekeÀej; jesieÒeeflekeÀej mebmLesMeer efveieef[le efJekeÀej DeMee veevee efJekeÀejeb®ee ÒeeogYee&Je veoerefkeÀveeN³eebJejerue jefnJeeMeeble Jee{le ®eeueuee Deens. Òel³eskeÀ Gvneȳeele veÐeeb®es ÒeJeen Deeìues keÀer efJeefJeOe meeLeer®³ee jesieebvee yeUer He[C³ee®es ÒeceeCe Jee{leevee efomeles Deens. jep³eeleerue DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer DeewÐeesefiekeÀ #es$eebleerue meeceeef³ekeÀ meeb[HeeCeer Òeef¬eÀ³ee meb³e$es DekeÀe³e&#ece DeLeJee yebo He[uesueer efomele Deensle. keÀeUpeer®es keÀejCe cnCepes HeefM®eceer IeeìemeejK³ee He³ee&JejCe o=<ìîee Del³eble mebJesoveeMeerue #es$eeble ns Ie[le Deens. JeefMe<þer Kee[er®³ee efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue oeYeesU yebojeleu³ee ceemesceejebveer GHeemeceejeruee kebÀìeUtve Flej$e mLeueeblej kesÀues Deens Je l³eeb®³ee HeejbHeefjkeÀ Jemeenleer Gpee[ He[u³ee Deensle. Lees[îee HeÀej HeÀjkeÀeves Yeejleeleerue Flej jep³eeblener DeMeer®e efkebÀJee ³eentvener Ye³ebkeÀj efmLeleer Hene³euee efceUle Deens. peue (Òeot<eCe ÒeefleyebOe Je efve³eb$eCe ) keÀe³eoe (1974) pejer Òeot<eCee®³ee efJejesOeer Deens, lejer l³eele HeefjmebmLeer³e HegvemLee&Hevee efkebÀJee HeefjmebmLeer³e J³eJemLeeHeve ³eemeejK³ee efJe<e³eer keÀesCel³eener lejlegoer DeLeJee met®evee veenerle. meeceev³eebvee keWÀêer³e DeLeJee jep³e Òeot<eCe ceb[Uebveer Òeme=le kesÀuesu³ee ceeefnleer J³eefleefjkeÌle He³ee&JejCeer³e efmLeleer efveoMe&keÀ Òepeeleer DeLeJee He³ee&JejCeer³e Deejesi³e efvekeÀ<e Fl³eeoeR®eer Lesì ceeefnleer efceUC³ee®es keÀesCelesner %eele m$eesle veenerle. yengleskeÀ efþkeÀeCee®³ee efyeiej-mejkeÀejer mebmLee He³ee&JejCe mecem³eebyeÎue HeÀejMee peeie©keÀ veenerle efkebÀJee l³eeb®³eekeÀ[s He³ee&JejCeer³e efmLeleer þjefJeC³eemeeþer mebmeeOeves veenerle. je<ì^er³e meefjlee mebJeOe&ve keÀe³e&¬eÀceebleie&le cebpetj Peeuesues peJeUHeeme meJe&®e ÒekeÀuHe ceneveiejebceOetve®e jeyeefJeues peeleele DeeefCe l³eeleerue yejs®emes meeb[HeeCeer Òe¬eÀer³ee DeLeJee

megMeesYeerkeÀjCe DeMee mJe©Hee®es®e Demeleele p³eecegUs HeefjmebmLes®³ee meboYee&le keÀener®e neue®eeueer nesle veenerle. Òeot<eCe efve³eb$eCe ceb[Ueb®³ee mLeeHevesuee 40 Je<ex nesle Deeueer lejer DeepeJej SkeÀner meefjlee HegvemLee&Hevee®es ³eMemJeer GoenjCe efvecee&Ce keÀjC³eele l³eebvee ³eMe Deeuesues veener. ceneuesKeeHeefj#ekeÀebveerner 1985 meeueeHeemetve Òeot<eCe efve³eb$eCee®es Òe³elve keÀ©vener ³ee ceb[Uebvee Demes GoenjCe osJet ve MekeÀu³eeyeÎue®eer Keble J³ekeÌle kesÀueer Deens. efJeÐegle Jeeefnv³eeb®eer mLeeHevee, mJemle mJe®ílee ³eespevee, meeb[HeeCeer Òe¬eÀer³ee meb³eb$eeb®eer GYeejCeer ³eemeejKes ÒekeÀuHe neleer IesTvener osMeeleerue veÐee DemJe®í Je Òeot e f < ele DemeCeb ner Del³eb l e ueeefpejJeeCeer iees<ì Deens. DeMee veÐeeb®es HeeCeer HeerC³eemeeþer lej veener®e Hejblet DebIeesU Je Flej meHeÀeF&meeþerner JeeHejC³ee®³ee uee³ekeÀer®es vemeeJes ner HeÀej®e og:Keo yeeye Deens. veÐee MegeOf okeÀjCee®es Ghee³e : ûeecemeYeebceO³es veoer mJe®í keÀjC³eeefJe<e³eer®es þjeJe ÒeeOeev³eeves cebpetj keÀ©ve IesJetve efveOeer®es GÊece efve³eespeve keÀ©ve mLeeveer³e ueeskeÀÒeMeemeveeÜejs DeMeer keÀeces keÀjJetve IesCes ÒeYeeJeer þ© MekeÀles. efJekeWÀefêle mJe©Heele efþkeÀefþkeÀeCeer veoer®³ee Hee$eele pewefJekeÀ Òe¬eÀer³esÜeje HeeC³ee®es MegOoerkeÀjCe; SkeÀef$ele Jee Hemejuesu³ee Òeot<eCe m$eesleeb®es meeceeefpekeÀ efve³eb$eCe; keÀeueJes keÀe{tve Hetj efve³eb$eCe; ieeUe®es efve<keÀemeve; GHeêJeer JevemHeleeR®es efve<keÀemeve DeMee ÒekeÀuHeebvee mLeeveerkeÀ ueeskeÀÒeMeemeveeves jeyeJee³euee nJes. jep³e Je keWÀê mejkeÀejebveer DeMee ÒekeÀuHeebveer je<ì^er³e veoer mebJeOe&ve meb®eeueveeue³ee®³ee ceeO³eceebletve Òeeslmeenve, leb$e%eeve Je efveOeer HegjefJeuee Heeefnpes.Òeot<eCe efve³eb$eCee®³ee MeeMJelelesmeeþer ueeskeÀ efMe#eCe ÒeYeeJeerHeCes nesCes pe©jer®es Deens. DeMee ueeskeÀpeeie=leerletve®e meJe&meeceev³e pevelee veÐee mJe®í jeKeC³eele peyeeyeoejerves Je Glmeeneves Yeeefieoej nesleerue. mLeeefvekeÀ ueeskeÀ ceb[Us Je efyeiej-mejkeÀejer mebmLeebveer ³eemeeþer Heg{ekeÀej IesCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. kesÀJeU HeeC³ee®eer Òele Jee MegOolee Jee{Jetve Hetjsmes þjCeej veener lej HeeC³ee®eer cee$ee Jee{JeC³ee®es Ghee³e nesCesner efvekeÀ[er®es Deens. ³eemeeþer HeeC³ee®³ee Oeejsuee Dee[LeUs ve ³esJet osCes (yeebOe DeLeJee OejCes ve yeebOeCes); HeeCeueesì #es$eele Je veÐeeb®³ee keÀeþebJej Je=#e ueeieJe[ Je Je=#e mebJeOe&ve keÀjCes; peveeJejs Jeenves Deeefo veÐeebceO³es ve OetCes; veoer keÀeþeJej DebIeesU keÀjCes DeLeJee keÀHe[s DeLeJee Yeeb[er OegCes yebo keÀjCes DeMee pevemenYeeieeves menve Meke̳e DemeCeeN³ee Ghee³e ³eespevee ieeJekeÀN³eebveer Deceueele DeeCeu³ee lej veÐeebvee l³eeb®es ieleJewYeJe lej ÒeeHle nesFue®e HeCe veoerKeesN³eeleerue pevepeerJevener mece=Oo nesF&ue. J³ekeÌleer HeeleUerJejerue HeÀe³eos ve Heenlee meeceeefpekeÀ efnleeuee ÒeeOeev³e efoues lej peuem$eesle®e veJns lej meejs®e He³ee&JejCe megKekeÀejkeÀ efjleerves yeouet MekesÀue ³eele Jeeo veener.


14

efJeMes<e uesKe

oesvner GHepeeleer p³ee ceeiee&ves ÒeJeeme keÀjleele l³eeHes#ee mebkeÀefjle Òepes®ee mLeueebleje®ee ceeie& legueveelcekeÀefjl³ee keÀceer KeeÐe GHeueyOeer®ee Demelees. l³eecegUs Jeeìsleerue GHeemeceejercegUs ³ee He#³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀceer nesles. l³eeb®³ee celes mebkeÀefjle Òepes®eer Heg{erue Jeeì®eeue nesCeej®e veener. les meO³ee®³ee oesve GHepeeleeR®³ee Jesieȳee®e Òepeeleer nesleerue. l³eemeeþer DeLee&le®e ÒeoerIe& keÀeU peeJee ueeiesue.

efoiebyej iee[ieerU

mLeueebleje efJe<e³eer DeeCeKeer keÀener... mLeueebleje®eer J³eeK³ee ueB[mevejes Lee@cemeve ³eebveer DeMeer kesÀuesueer Deens; keÀeueeblejeves nesCeejs jefnJeemeeveeble yeoue pes Hegve:Hegvne efoMeeblejeves Ie[le Demeleele p³eecegUs DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ meg³eesi³e DeMeer HeefjefmLeleer meowJe efceUle jenles. ogmejer SkeÀ J³eeK³ee DeMeerner Deens keÀer SKeeÐee mepeerJee®ee SkeÀe efþkeÀeCeentve ogmeN³ee efþkeÀeCeer nesCeeje ÒeJeeme pees l³eeuee keÀeueeblejeves cetU efþkeÀeCeeJej IesTve peelees. He#eer mLeueeblej keÀjleele ns ceeCemeeuee HeÀej HetJeeaHeemetve %eele nesles. HeCe Demes mLeueeblej keÀmes Ie[les ns mecepele veJnles. Meem$e%eebveer les iet{ GIe[C³ee®ee Òe³elve kesÀuee. (lemes Òe³elve Depetvener ®eeuet Deensle) l³eeletve He#eebvee He=LJeer®³ee ®egyb ekeÀer³e #es$ee®es %eeve nesle Demeles, l³eeb®³ee [esȳeeleerue keÀener jbieêJ³eebcegUs l³eebvee He=LJeer®³ee ®egbyekeÀer³e js<ee Òel³e³e efomeleele, efoJemee G[levee les efoMee%eeveemeeþer met³ee&®ee GHe³eesie keÀ©ve Iesleele, je$eer G[levee les Oe´gJeleeje, ve#e$e ³eeb®³ee mene³³eeves efoMee þjJeleele. peefceveerJejerue veÐee, peueeMe³e, keÀeueJes, [eWiejjebiee DeMee KegCeeb®ee ceeieesJee Iesleele. DeMee keÀuHevee Heg{s Deeu³ee. He#³eeb®³ee Hee³eele keÀ[er De[keÀJetve l³eebvee mees [ t v e ef o u³eeJej keÀeueeb l ejeves les ceUt efþkeÀeCeeJej keÀOeer Hejle ³esleele ns Heentve l³eeb®³ee mLeueebleje®ee DeY³eeme kesÀuee iesuee. DeeOegefvekeÀ leb$e%eeveevegmeej He#³eeb®³ee MejerjeJej uenevemes jsef[Dees ì^evmeceerìj yemeJetve l³ee®ee JesOe IesTve l³eeb®³ee mLeueebje®eer ceeefnleer efceUJelee Deeueer. Depetvener ne DeY³eeme ®eeuet Deens. efye´efìMe keÀesuebefye³ee efJeÐeeHeerþeleerue [@jsve Dee³eefJe&ve ³ee He#eer Meem$e%eeves ke@Àve[eleerue mJesvemevme (Le´Me) ³ee íesìîee He#³eeJej mebMeesOeve kesÀues. l³ee®es ³ee He#³ee®³ee MejerjeJej íesìsmes ³eb$e yemeJetve lesLeerue efnJeeȳeele l³eeuee cegkeÌle kesÀu³eeJej Heg{®³ee Jemeble $eÝletle lees®e He#eer l³ee®e peeieer Hejleuee. lesJne l³eeves 8000 cewueeb®ee ÒeJeeme kesÀuesuee neslee.

He#eer mLeueeblej keÀjleele les l³eeb®³ee GHepele yegOoerves keÀer mJepeeleer³e He#³eeb®³ee keÀUHeeletve G[le Demeleele les keÀOeer ue#eele þsJeleele ³eeyeÎue DevekesÀ Meem$e%eebveer efuentve þsJeuesues Deens , HeCe [s u ecees j Deeef C e l³eeb ® ³ee menkeÀeN³eeb®³ee celes mLeueeblej keÀmes keÀje³e®es ns %eeve He#³eeb®³ee pevegkeÀebceO³es®e veeWoJeuesues Demeles. GHepele %eeve les ns®e. [sueceesj ³eebvee ef v e<keÀ<ee& Ò ele ³es C ³eeme Dee³eef J e& v e ³eeb ® ³ee mebMeesOevee®ee GHe³eesie Peeuee. mJesvemevme Le´Me He#³ee®³ee oesve GHepeeleer oesve Jesieȳee ceeiee&ves mLeueeblej keÀjleele. efye´efìMe keÀesuebefye³eeletve oef#eCeskeÀ[s peeleele. SkeÀ GHepeele keÀ@efueHeÀesefve&³ee efkeÀveeN³eeuee Oe©ve cesefkeÌmekeÀeskeÀ[s peeles lej ogmejer GHepeele DeueeyeeceeJe©ve keÀesuebefye³eekeÀ[s peeles. oessvner ieì Jemeb l e $eÝlet l e ke@ À ve[euee Hejleleele. keÀOeerkeÀOeer ³ee GHepeeleerle JeCe&mebkeÀj Ie[lees. JeCe&mebkeÀjeletve le³eej Peeuesueer Òepee mLeueeblej keÀjleevee eflemeje®e ceOeuee ceeie& Oejles. ³ee®es keÀejCe oesvner GHepeeleeRleerue ceeleeefHel³eebkeÀ[tve Deeuesu³ee pevegkeÀer³e mebj®evesletve ns Ie[le DemeeJes. ³ee Deboepee®eer Kee$eer keÀ©ve IesC³eemeeþer l³eebveer ceeleeefHelee He#eer Je mebkeÀefjle efHe{er ³eeb®³ee [erSveS®eer leguevee kesÀueer. ³ee mebMeesOeveeletve Gl¬eÀebleer yee¿e JesieUer®e ceeefnleer neleer Deeueer. oesvner GHepeeleer p³ee ceeiee&ves ÒeJeeme keÀjleele l³eeHes#ee mebkeÀefjle Òepes®ee mLeueebleje®ee ceeie& legueveelcekeÀefjl³ee keÀceer KeeÐe GHeueyOeer®ee Demelees. l³eecegUs Jeeìsleerue GHeemeceejercegUs ³ee He#³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀceer nesles. l³eeb®³ee celes mebkeÀefjle Òepes®eer Heg{erue Jeeì®eeue nesCeej®e veener. les meO³ee®³ee oesve GHepeeleeR®³ee Jesieȳee®e Òepeeleer nesleerue. l³eemeeþer DeLee&le®e ÒeoerIe& keÀeU peeJee ueeiesue.


15

DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee

Òel³eskeÀ ®eejeme SkeÀ...

®e@Hìj 14 ë Yeeie 5

mee³eueWì efmÒebie uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

keÀHe[s Yeeb[er OegC³ee®eer HeeJe[j ([erìpe¥ì) HeÀej DeJeIe[ mecem³ee yeveueer Deens DeeefCe l³eecegUs De#ejMe: meeJe&peefvekeÀ HeeCeer HegjJeþîeele Òeot<eCe nesles Deens. HeeC³eeletve ns Òeot<eCe JesieUs keÀjC³eemeeþer keÀesCeleerner meg³eesi³e Òeef¬eÀ³ee GHeueyOe veener. keÀener [erìpe&vì keÀke&Àjesiepev³e Demeu³ee®es ceeefnle Deens. DeÒel³e#eefjl³ee l³eeb®³eecegUs He®evemebmLes®³ee Deble:mlejeJej HeefjCeece neslees. lesLeerue HesMeerle yeoue neslees DeeefCe keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀebmen keÀke&Àjesiepev³e ner IeelekeÀ jmee³eves l³ee HesMeer jmee³eve s ner ceeCemeeb ® ³ee meb H ekeÀe& l e Mees<etve Iesleele. Deefve³ebef$eleHeCes ³esleele DeeefCe ner jmee³eves

meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

DeveskeÀefJeOe Deensle. SKeeÐee ceeCemee®ee SkeÀe®e jmee³eveeMeer DeveskeÀ leNnsves mebHeke&À ³esT MekeÀlees. DeemexefvekeÀ ns ³ee®es GoenjCe Deens. les Òel³eskeÀ J³ekeÌ l eer ® ³ee DeemeHeeme®³ee JeeleeJejCeele JesieJesieȳee ªHeeves DeefmlelJeele Demeles. GoenjCeeLe& - nJesleerue Òeot<eCeele, HeeC³eeleerue Òeot < ekeÀele, DeVeeJej jW i eeUCeeN³ee keÀer ì keÀveeMekeÀele, Deew < eOeele, meeQ o ³e& ÒemeeOeveele, ueekeÀ[e®eer peesHeemevee keÀjCeeN³ee jmee³eveele efkebÀJee jbie ®e{efJeCeejs - pemes, MeeF& efkebÀJee jbie. Jemlegle: Demes Deens keÀer Fleke̳ee lJejsves le³eej nesCeejer ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ ÒeJe=Êeer nesCeemeeþer ³eeHewkeÀer kesÀJeU SkeÀe®³ee®e mebHekeÀe&le ³esCes Hegjsmes veener. lejer megOoe ³ee®ee SkeÀ [esme (Yeeie), p³eeuee DeeHeCe megjef#ele cee$ee cnCet leesner Mejerjele Flej keÀejCeeves Deeuesu³ee ogmeN³ee megjef#ele cee$eeb®³ee HeefjCeecee®es ÒeceeCe Jee{efJeC³eeme Hegjsmee Demelees.

Dev³eLee oesve Jee DeefOekeÀ keÀke&Àjesiepev³e jmee³eveeb®es SkeÀceskeÀemen keÀe³e& megª Peeues lej l³eeb®³ee SkeÀef$ele HeefjCeeceeves Fpee nesT MekeÀles, cnCepes l³ee HeefjCeeceeb®ee meejebMe Demet MekeÀlees. GoenjCeeLe& SKeeÐee J³ekeÌleer®ee [er[erìerMeer mebyebOe Deeuee lej ns ner eflelekesÀ®e Kee$eerves cnCelee ³esF&ue keÀer l³ee®ee efueJnj efyeIe[efJeCeeN³ee Flej ne³e[^eskeÀeye&vmeMeermegOoe mebyebOe ³esT MekeÀlees. ner ne³e[^eskeÀeye&vme menpeHeCes êeJekeÀ cnCetve efkebÀJee jbie GlejJeC³eemeeþer IeÆ lesuekeÀìer keÀe{Ceejer jmee³eves, keÀesj[îeeves (HeeC³eeefMeJee³e) mJe®ílee ([^e³eeqkeÌueefvebie) keÀjCeejer jmee³eves efkebÀJee yeOeerjlee osCeejer jmee³eves JeeHejueer peeleele. ceie [er[erìer®eer megjef#ele ([esme) cee$ee efkeÀleer? SkeÀ jmee³eve ogmeN³ee jmee³evee®es HeefjCeece yeouet MekeÀles. l³eecegUs HeefjefmLeleer DeefOekeÀ®e keÌueerä nesles Deens. keÀke&Àjesiee®ee GodYeJe nesC³eemeeþer keÀOeerkeÀOeer oesve jmee³eveeb®eer SkeÀceskeÀeMeer HetjkeÀ ef¬eÀ³ee nesCes peªjer®es Demeles. SkeÀ jmee³eve HesMeer efkebÀJee HesMeer mecetnebvee


16 mebJesoveMeerue keÀjles, lej ogmeN³ee mene³³eYetle ÒeefleefveOeer®³ee (jmee³evee®³ee) ef¬eÀ³escegUs KejesKejer®e IeelekeÀHeCee efJekeÀefmele nesle peelees. DeMee leNnsves Dee³e Heer meer Je meer Dee³e Heer meer leCeveeMekesÀ ®eece[er®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®eer/ ìîetcej®eer megªJeele keÀjC³eeme keÀejCeerYetle nesleele. ns IeelekeÀ yeerpe Òel³e#eele ogmeN³ee®e keÀesCel³eelejer ieesäercegUs Deeues Demet MekeÀles - keÀoeef®ele meeceev³e DeMeer keÀHe[s/Yeeb[er OegC³ee®eer HeeJe[j ([erìpe&vì) ! keÀoeef®ele SKeeÐee HeoeLee&le Je jmee³eveele Peeuesueer HejmHej ef¬eÀ³eener Demet MekeÀles. #e- efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®³ee IeelekeÀ DeMee oesve ìHH³eeleerue Òeef¬eÀ³escegUs jkeÌlee®ee keÀke&Àjesie nesT MekeÀlees. ³eele SKeeÐee jmee³evee®eer HetjkeÀ ef¬eÀ³eener mene³³eYetle nesT MekeÀles. Goe. ³egjsLeeve. efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀejs efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&Meer ueeskeÀeb®ee nesCeeje Jee{lee mebHeke&À, efMeJee³e jmee³eveeb®³ee mewv³eeMeer melele ³esCeeje mebyebOe ne DeeOegefvekeÀ peieeleerue veJeerve mecem³ee®e metef®ele keÀjlees Deens. efkeÀjCeeslmeieea HeoeLe&³egkeÌle Òeot<eCe Demeuesu³ee HeeCeerHegjJeþîeeves JesieUer®e mecem³ee GYeer kesÀueer Deens. Demes HeoeLe& Demeuesu³ee Òeotef<ele HeeC³eele jmee³evesmegOoe Demeleele. HeeC³eeleerue FueskeÌì^e@ve JesieUs keÀjCeejs efkeÀjCeeslmepe&ve (Dee³eesvee³eefPebie js[erSMeve) ns l³ee jmee³evee®es iegCeOece& yeoueles. l³ee jmee³eveeb®eer DeCegj®evee yeoueles DeeefCe DeeHeu³eeuee Deboepener ³esCeej veener DeMee efjleerves veJeerve jmee³eves le³eej nesleele. mebHetCe& ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmedceOeerue le%eeb®³ee ef®ebles®es keÀejCe ns Deens keÀer, keÀHe[s Yeeb[er OegC³ee®eer HeeJe[j ([erìpe¥ì) HeÀej DeJeIe[ mecem³ee yeveueer Deens DeeefCe l³eecegUs De#ejMe: meeJe&peefvekeÀ HeeCeer HegjJeþîeele Òeot<eCe nesles Deens. HeeC³eeletve ns Òeot<eCe JesieUs keÀjC³eemeeþer keÀesCeleerner meg³eesi³e Òeef¬eÀ³ee GHeueyOe veener. keÀener [erìpe&vì keÀke&Àjesiepev³e Demeu³ee®es ceeefnle Deens. DeÒel³e#eefjl³ee l³eeb®³eecegUs He®evemebmLes®³ee Deble:mlejeJej HeefjCeece neslees. lesLeerue HesMeerle yeoue neslees DeeefCe ner IeelekeÀ jmee³eves l³ee HesMeer Mees<etve Iesleele. ceie l³ee®es HeefjCeece DeefOekeÀ efJekeÀesHeeme peeleele. Hejbleg Heg{s keÀe³e nesCeej ns keÀesCeer Heeefnues Deens DeeefCe ¿eeJej efve³eb$eCe keÀesCe þsJet Mekes À ue? Mees Y eeoMe& k eÀ ³eb $ eeleer u e (ke@ À ues e f [ Dees m keÀes H e) ef H eÀjl³ee Deeke=ÀleermeejKeer melele HeefjefmLeleer yeoueles Deens. DeMee JesUsme keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLee¥®eer &Metv³e cee$ee & ns®e megjef#ele ÒeceeCe Demet MekesÀue vee? vegkeÀl³ee®e Peeuesu³ee IeìveebJeªve ns mHeäHeCes ¢äeslHeÊeerme Deeues Deens keÀer, DeeHeu³ee Dee³eg<³ee®eer peesKeerce HelkeÀªve DeeHeCe DeeHeu³ee JeeleeJejCeeleerue keÀke&Àjesiepev³e jmee³eves efyevele¬eÀej menve keÀjlees Deenesle. 1961 meeue®³ee Jemeble$eÝletle efkeÀl³eskeÀ mebIejep³es, jep³es Jee KeepeieerHeCes ì^eTì ceeMeeb®³ee Deb[er GyeefJeC³ee®³ee peeieebceO³es l³ee ceeMeeble efueJnj®³ee (³eke=Àlee®³ee) keÀke&Àjesiee®eer meeLe GodYeJeueer. ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìme®³ee HetJe& Heef½ece oesvner Yeeieeleerue ì^eTì ceeMeebJej HeefjCeece Peeuee neslee. keÀener Heefjmejele lej leerve Je<ee¥Hes#ee ceesþîee DeMee 100ìkeÌkesÀ ì^eTìceO³es keÀke&Àjesie Peeuesuee efometve Deeuee. ³ee meJee&®ee MeesOe ueeieuee keÀejCe HeeC³eeleerue Òeot<eCeeletve ceeCemeebvee OeeskeÀe Demeu³eeme l³ee®eer HetJe&met®evee efceUeJeer ³ee nsletves ve@Meveue ke@Àvmej Fvmìerìîet쮳ee SveJne³eve&ceWìue ke@Àvmej meskeÌMeve

(efJeYeeie) DeeefCe celm³e Je JevemesJee efJeYeeie ³eebveer ìîetcej Demeuesues ceemes ceespeCeermeeþer DeeOeer®e J³eJemLee kesÀueer nesleer. SJe{îee efJemle=le Heefjmejele Hemejuesueer ì^eTì ceeMee®³ee ueerJnj®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®³ee meeLeer®es efveef½ele keÀejCe keÀe³e Deens, ³eeefJe<e³eer Depetve DeY³eeme pejer ®eeuet Demeuee lejer SkeÀ YekeÌkeÀce HegjeJee Demes oMe&efJelees keÀer celm³eHeeueveele ceeMeebmeeþer®³ee le³eej KeeÐeele DeMeer keÀener jmee³eves Deensle. ³ee celm³eKeeÐeele cetU KeeÐeeyejesyej efJeéeeme þsJelee ³esCeej veener FlekeÀer efJeefJeOe jmee³eveeb®eer Yej Ieeleuesueer Demeles DeeefCe keÀener Deew<eOeer HeoeLe&ner Demeleele. ì^eTì ceeMeeb®eer ner keÀLee DeveskeÀ keÀejCeebmeeþer cenlJeHetCe& Deens. cegK³ele: ns GÊece GoenjCe Deens keÀer, SKeeÐee Òepeeleer®³ee DeVeele me#ece Demes keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLe& efcemeUues lej keÀe³e nesT MekeÀles. ¿ee Jesieeves Jee{CeeN³ee meeLeeryeÎue [e@ ¿etHejveer iebYeerj FMeeje efouee Deens keÀer JeeleeJejCeele DeveskeÀ mebK³esves Je DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®es keÀke&Àjesiepev³e jmee³eves efve³eb$eCeele DeeeCeC³eekeÀ[s ue#e efoues Heeefnpes. [e@ ÔîetHej cnCeleele, `pej keÀener ÒeefleyebOekeÀ GHee³e DeeHeCe kesÀues veenerle lej HeefjefmLeleer DeMeer efvecee&Ce nesF&ue keÀer Jee{l³ee keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLee&cegUs YeefJe<³eele Demes®e Deefjä ceveg<³ecee$eeJej keÀesmeUsue.' SkeÀe mebMeesOekeÀeves Demes cnìues Deens, `DeeHeCe peCet keÀener keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLee¥®³ee meeiejele®e jnele Deenesle' DeeefCe Yeerleer³egkeÌle Dee½e³e& efvecee&Ce keÀjCeeje ne MeesOe Deieoer menpeHeCes DeeMeeYebie DeeefCe HejeYeJee®³ee YeeJeveebkeÀ[s IesTve peeF&ue. ner Del³eble efvejeMeepevekeÀ HeefjefmLeleer veener keÀe? keÀke&Àjesie le³eej keÀjCeejs ÒeefleefveOeer, keÀerìkeÀ Jee jmee³eves DeeHeu³ee peieeletve keÀe{tve ìekeÀC³ee®ee efveoeve Òe³elvenerr keÀjCes DeMeke̳e veener keÀe? keÀke&ÀjesieeefJeªOo vegmeles®e Òe³elve keÀjC³eele JesU IeeueJeC³eeHes#ee DeeHeu³ee mebHetCe& MekeÌleermen keÀke&ÀjesieeJej GHee³e MeesOeC³ee®es HeefjÞece keÀjCes DeefOekeÀ ®eebieues veener keÀe? [e@ ¿egHej p³eebveer keÀke&ÀjesieeJej JeweMf eÿ³eHetCe& mebMeesOevekeÀe³e& kesÀues Deens. l³eebvee ne ÒeMve efJe®eejuee Demelee l³eebveer efJe®eejHetJe&keÀ efouesu³ee GÊejeceeies l³eeb®es Dee³eg<³eYeje®es mebMeesOeve, oerIe&ef®ebleve DeeefCe DevegYeJeeletve Deeuesuee met%e efveCe&³e neslee. [e@ ¿etHej ¿eeb®ee Demee efJeéeeme dDeens keÀer, 19J³ee MelekeÀe®³ee DeKesjerme DeveskeÀ mebmeie&pev³e jesieebcegUs ceeveJepeeleeruee pes YeesieeJes ueeieues, Deieoer leMeer®e efmLeleer Deepe keÀke&ÀjesieemeboYee&le efvecee&Ce Peeueer Deens. uegF& Hee½ej dDeeefCe keÀes®e ³eeb®³ee YeJ³eefoJ³e mebMeesOeve keÀe³ee&letve ns lej ÒemLeeefHele Peeues Deens keÀer, jesie efvecee&Ce keÀjCeejs peerJe DeeefCe DeveskeÀ jesie ³eeb®ee keÀe³e&keÀejCe mebyebOe Deens. JewÐekeÀer³e #es$eeleerue efkebÀJee meeceev³e peveueeskeÀebveemegOoe peeefCeJe nesle nesleer keÀer DeeHeu³ee JeeleeJejCeele Òe®eæ[ mebK³esves met#ce peerJe Demetve les®e jesiee®es keÀejCe Demet MekeÀleele. Deepe Deieoer lemes®e keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLe&ebveer DeeHeuee Heefjmej Yeªve iesuee Deens. DeeOeer®es yejs®emes mebmeie&pev³e jesie Deelee jemle ÒeceeCeele efve³eb$eCeele Deeues Deensle DeeefCe keÀener jesie lej le[erHeej Peeues Deensle. ns YeJ³e Demes JewÐekeÀer³e #es$eeleerue ³eMe ueeYeues keÀejCe jesiepebletbJej oesvner yeepetbveer nuuee keÀjC³eele Deeuee -peesjoej ÒeefleyebOe lemes®e jesieefveJeejCe. meeceev³e peveeb®³ee ceveele þmeu³ee l³ee `peeogF& ieesȳee'


17 DeeefCe efJemce³ekeÀejkeÀ Deew<eOes. Hejbleg mebmeie&pev³e jesieebyejesyej Kejer efveCee&³ekeÀ ue{eF& Peeueer leer JeeleeJejCeeleerue ³ee met#ce jesiepebletbvee veenermes keÀjC³eemeeþer peer GHee³e³eespevee kesÀueer lesJne. FLes Feflenemeeleerue SkeÀ GoenjCe oslee ³esFu& e, pesJne meeOeejCe 100 Je<ee&HetJeea ueb[veceO³es keÀe@ueje®eer meeLe Hemejueer nesleer. ueb[veceOeerue pe@eve mvees ³ee [e@keÌìjves keÀe@uej pesLes Je pesJne efometve Deeuee l³ee®ee SkeÀ lekeÌlee yeveefJeuee. l³ee®³ee ue#eele Deeues keÀer, ne jesie SkeÀe®e Heefjmejeletve GoYeJelees Deens. lesLes jenCeejer meJe& ceeCemes p³eeJesUsme ye´e@[ mì^erì ³esLeerue HebHeeletve HeeCeer keÀe{leele l³ee JesUsme mebmeie& neslees. [@e mvees ³eebveer leeye[leesye efveCe&³e IesTve jesieeme ÒeefleyebOe keÀjC³eemeeþer l³ee HebHee®ee oeb[e®e (n@v[ue) keÀe{tve ìekeÀuee. DeeefCe keÀe@ueje®eer meeLe efve³eb$eCeele Deeueer. keÀe@ueje®es peblet ceejCeeN³ee SKeeÐee peeogF& ieesUercegUs veener lej JeeleeJejCeeleerue pebletb®ee mebmeie& keÀceer kesÀu³eecegUs. jesieefveJeejkeÀ GHee³eebcegUsner cenlJeHetCe& HeefjCeece Peeuee Deens. l³eeves jesieer yejs nesC³eeme ceole nesles®e Hejbleg mebmeiee&®es ÒeceeCener keÀceer nesles. meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes nuueer #e³ejesie ogecf e&UHeCes®e Peeuesuee efomelees. Jemlegemf Leleer DeMeer Deens keÀer, meeceev³e ceeCetme DeepekeÀeue #e³ee®³ee met#cepebletb®³ee mebHekeÀe&le keÌJeef®ele®e ³eslees. Deepe DeeHeues peie keÀke&Àjesie efvecee&Ce keÀjCeeN³ee HeoeLee¥veer Yejuesues efomeles. DeepekeÀeue HetCe&le: efkebÀJee DeefOekeÀlej peesj osC³eele ³esle Deens lees keÀke&Àjesie efveJeejkeÀ GHee³e MeesOeC³eeJej. [e@ ¿etHej®³ee celeeÒeceeCes keÀoeef®ele GHee³e meeHe[suener, HeCe l³ee®ee HeÀejmee GHe³eesie nesCeej veener. keÀejCe DeeHeu³ee YeesJeleeue®ee keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLee&®ee Òe®eb[ meeþe jespe veJeveJeerve yeUerJej DeefOekeÀej ieepeJesue. Fleke̳ee lJejerle keÀer jesie MeceefJeC³eemeeþer ®eeueuesues HeÀmeJes GHee³e leeskeÀ[s He[eJesle. meeceev³e J³eJenej%eeveeves ner keÀke&Àjesiee®eer mecem³ee mJeerkeÀejC³eeme DeeHeu³eeuee FlekeÀe JesU keÀe ueeielees Deens? [e@ ¿etHej cnCeleele keÀoeef®ele keÀke&ÀjesieeJej ÒeefleyebOe DeeCeCes ³eenerHes#ee keÀke&Àjesiee®ee yeUer þjuesu³eeuee yejs keÀjCes peemle GlmeenJeOe&keÀ, peemle mHeä Je efveef½ele Deens, peemle DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Deens DeeefCe peemle ceesyeouee osCeejs Deens. Hejbleg keÀke&Àjesiee®ee GoYeJe nesC³eeDeeOeer®e l³eeJej ÒeefleyebOe DeeCeCes , ns ef v eef ½ ele®e Deef O ekeÀ ceeveJeleeJeeoer Deens . lemes ® e keÀke&ÀjesieefveJeejkeÀ GHee³eebHes#ee DeefOekeÀ HeefjCeecekeÀejkeÀ Deens. [e@ ¿etHejvee Deelee Oeerj efveIele veener, l³eeb®eer meefo®íe Deens keÀer Deelee SkeÀ peeogF& ieesUer Demesue, peer jespe mekeÀeUer v³eenejer®³ee DeeOeer Iesleueer lej keÀke&ÀjesieeHeemetve DeeHeCe megjef#ele jent. ³ee meJee&®ee DeKesj HeefjCeece neslees Deens lees Demee keÀer meeceev³e peveeleerue keÀener peCeebvee iewjmecepeeves Demee efJeéeeme Jeeìlees keÀer keÀke&Àjesie ne SkeÀcesJe Deens. pejer lees jnm³ece³e jesie Demeuee lejer l³ee®es keÀejCe kesÀJeU SkeÀ®e Deens DeeefCe l³eebvee DeeMee Deens keÀer l³eeJej SkeÀ®e GHee³e Deens. ns DeLee&le®e KeN³ee mel³eeuee otjevJe³eevesner mHeMe& keÀjerle veener. keÀejCe He³ee&JejCeer³e keÀke&Àjesie ne DeveskeÀefJeOe jmee³eveebcegUs Jee HeoeLee¥cegUs GlHeVe neslees DeeefCe peerJeMeem$eevegmeej JesieJesieȳee HeOoleerves ner IeelekeÀ HeefjefmLeleer GIe[HeCes mHeä efomeles Deens. KetHe efoJemeeHeemetve Deeéeemeve efouesuee cenlJee®ee MeesOe pesJne keÀOeer ueeiesue lesJne, HeCe les meieȳee IeelekeÀ jesieebJej®es jeceyeeCe Deew<eOe Demesue DeMeer DeHes#ee þsJelee ³esCeej veener. keÀke&Àjesiee®es

pes DeeOeer®e yeUer þjues Deensle, l³eebvee yejs keÀjC³eemeeþer jesieefveJeejkeÀ GHee³eeb®es mebMeesOeve nesCes peªjer®es Deens. leLeeefHe De®eevekeÀ SkeÀe HeÀìke̳eele GHee³e meeHe[sue DeMeer DeeMee OejCes cnCepes ceeveJepeeleer®eer SkeÀ leNns®eer HeÀmeJeCetkeÀ®e Deens. nUtnUt Hee³ejer Hee³ejerves les nesCeej®e Deens. lees He³e¥le DeeHeCe p³ee JesUsme ue#eeJeOeer ªHe³es DeeefCe DeeHeu³ee meieȳee DeeMee keÀke&Àjesieeves efHe[erle DemeCeeN³eebmeeþer GHee³e³eespevee MeesOeC³eemeeþer HeCeeme ueeJeerle Deenesle, l³ee®e JesUsme jesie ÒeefleyebOekeÀ GHee³e MeesOeC³ee®eer megJeCe&mebOeer DeeHeCe ieceeJelees Deenesle. ns keÀe³e& Kee$eerves efvejeMeepevekeÀ veener. SkeÀe cenlJee®³ee meboYee&le ³ee MelekeÀeDeKesjer®³ee mebmeie&pev³e jesieebmebyebefOele HeefjefmLeleerHes#ee Deepe®ee jesieekeÀ[s HeenC³ee®ee ¢äerkeÀesve GlmeenJeOe&keÀ Deens. lesJne peieele meJe&$e jesieeb®es peblet nesles DeeefCe Deepe ns peie keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLee¥veer Yejues Deens. Hejbleg l³ee keÀeUer He³ee&JejCeele peblet ceeCemeeves mees[ues veJnles. l³eeb®³ee mebmeiee&leerue ceeCemee®ee menYeeie Deveweq®íkeÀ neslee. ³ee efJeªOo Deepe yengleebMe meJe& keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLe& ceeCemeeves He³ee&JejCeele mees[ues Deensle. l³eeves þjefJeues lej les otj meeª MekeÀlees. keÀke&Àjesiee®³ee jemee³eefvekeÀ ÒeefleefveOeeRveer DeeHeu³ee peieeuee oesvner yeepetbveer Jes{ues Deens. Heefnueer DeeefCe efJe<eCCe keÀjCeejer yeepet cnCepes, ceeveJeeuee GÊece Je megKemees³eer®es Dee³eg<³e peielee ³eeJes cnCetve ns HeoeLe& He³ee&JejCeele mees[ues peeleele. ogmejer yeepet DeMeer keÀer DeMee jmee³eveeb®es GlHeeove Je efJelejCe efkebÀJee efJe¬eÀer ³ee®ee meceeJesMe DeeHeu³ee DeLe&J³eJemLesle DeeefCe DeeHeu³ee peerJeveMewueerle kesÀuee iesuee Deens. meieUs keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLe& DeeOegefvekeÀ peieeletve veä nesleerue DeMee Meke̳eles®ee efJe®eej keÀjCes DeJeemleJe®e þjsue. Hejbleg l³eeleerue yejer®e jmee³eves peerJeveemeeþer KejesKej®e DeeJeM³ekeÀ veenerle. lesJe{er pejer veä kesÀueer lejer keÀke&Àjespev³e HeoeLee¥®ee He³ee&JejCeeJejerue Yeej KetHeMee ÒeceeCeele nuekeÀe nesF&ue. DeeefCe ne ‘Òel³eskeÀ ®eejeme SkeÀ’ keÀke&Àjesieer DemeC³ee®ee pees OeeskeÀe Deens lees cegK³ele: keÀceer nesF&ue. Deelee peemle ¢{HeCes Òe³elve kesÀuee Heeefnpes lees keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLe& otj keÀjC³ee®ee, pes DeeHeues DeVe otef<ele keÀjleele, DeeHeues HeeCeer, DeeHeues JeeleeJejCe efyeIe[Jeleele. keÀejCe ³eeletve®e meJee&le peemle OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ mebHeke&À ³eslees. Demee met#ce ÒeceeCeeleerue mebHeke&À Hegvne Hegvne Je<ee&vegJe<ex ®eeuet jenlees Deens. keÀke&ÀjesieeJej mebMeesOeve keÀjCeejs yengOee meJe& K³eeleveece mebMeesOekeÀ [e@ ¿etHej®³ee celeeMeer mencele Deensle. ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ jesie ue#eCeer³e jerl³ee keÀceer keÀjCes Meke̳e Deens. cee$e l³eekeÀjerlee He³ee&JejCeeleerue keÀejCes ng[ketÀve leer veenerMeer keÀjC³eemeeþer Jee l³eeb®ee HeefjCeece keÀceer keÀjC³eemeeþer ¢{ Òe³elve kesÀues Heeefnpesle. p³eebvee keÀke&Àjesiee®eer ueeieCe Peeu³ee®eer ue#eCes efomele Deensle DeeefCe pes keÀke&Àjesieer Deensle, l³eeb®³eekeÀjerlee GHee³e MeesOeC³ee®es Òe³elve ®eeuet®e jne³euee nJesle. Hejbleg p³eebvee Depetve ³ee jesiee®ee mHeMe& Peeuesuee veener DeeefCe p³eeb®ee Depetve pevce Peeuesuee veener DeMee Heg{u³ee efHe{ermeeþer jesieÒeefleyebOekeÀ GHee³e³eespevee keÀjCes Del³eeJeM³ekeÀHeCes peªjer®es Deens. ¬eÀceMe:


18

HegÀueJee Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 9324565060

jeveeJeveele- pebieueele YeìkeÀleevee keÀOeerlejer efkeÀjCe HegjbojWveer HeUme, meeJej DeeefCe Heebieeje ¿ee Je=#eeb®eer DeesUKe keÀ©ve efoueer. keÀejCe, ns HegÀueues keÀer DemebK³e He#eer FLes jmeûenCe keÀje³euee ³esleele. ³eesiee³eesieeves Deece®³ee ieeJe®³ee Iejeyeensj vescekesÀ ns®e Je=#e Deensle. ceie keÀe³e, [esȳeebvee DeeefCe keÀeveebvee ceesþer HejJeCeer®e. ³ee Pee[ebJej Yej Heneìs He#³eeb®eer kegÀpeyegpe meg© nesles.One tree bird sanctuary cnCeeJeb Demeb ¢<³e. p³ee Je=#eebkeÀ[s Je<e&Yej kegÀCeer {gbkegÀvener Heeefnueb vemesue l³ee®³eekeÀ[s DeeHeesDeeHe ue#e JesOeueb peeleb. efvejefvejeȳee ÒekeÀej®³ee MeerU, keÀuekeÀueeì, ef®eJeef®eJeeì, kegÀpeyegpe. DeveskeÀoe meowJe Yeeb[CeeN³ee meeUgbke̳ee HeÀkeÌle efvece&U Deeveboele SkeÀceskeÀebvee meeo Ieeueleevee SskeÀueb keÀer yejb Jeeìleb. Jemeble Deeuee, HeUme-Heebieej-meeJej HegÀueues keÀer He#³eeb®es `De®ís efove' Deeu³eemeejKeb Jeeìleb! JevemHeleeRvee l³eeb®eer Òepee Jee{Jee³euee efye³ee efvecee&Ce keÀjCes Del³eble cenlJee®eb Demeleb. l³eemeeþer les DeekeÀ<e&keÀ jbieele veìleele, megJeemee®eer YegjU Ieeueleele DeeefCe ceOegj jmee®es Deeefce<ener oeKeJeleele. ¿ee meieȳee ÒeueesYeveebvee Yeguetve efkeÀìkeÀ DeeefCe HegÀueHeeKejb®e veJns, lej He#eerosefKeue HegÀueebkeÀ[s Kes®eues peeleele. jmeûenCe keÀjC³ee®³ee veeoele les HeÀgueeb®³ee HejeiekeÀCeebveer ceeKeues peeleele. ¿ee HegÀueeb®es HejeiekeÀCe ogmejerkeÀ[s vesTve HegÀueeuee ieeYeCe keÀje³e®eer ceesþer keÀeceefiejer yepeeJeleele. He#³eebvee DeekeÀef<e&le keÀjC³eemeeþer HegÀueeb®es jbie ueeue, kesÀMejer, YeieJes Demeleele. l³eebvee megJeemee®ee iebOener vemeu³eecegUs ¿ee HegÀueebvee menmee megJeeme vemelees. jme cee$e Deesmeb[gve JeeneJee Demee Yejuesuee Demelees. yejb, HegÀueele jme Yeje³euee Pee[ebvee mJele: meeþJetve þsJeuesueb Devve DeeefCe HeeCeer Ke®e& keÀjeJee ueeielebb. keÀejCe Heg<Hejme ns De#ejMe: mejyele®e Demeleb. (ueneveHeCeer pej legcner keÀOeer IeeCesjer®eer FJeueer-FJeueer HegÀueb ®eesKeueer Demeleerue lej l³ee®eer DevegYegleer legcner Iesleueer Demesue). ³ee HegÀueeb®ee DeekeÀej DeeefCe j®evee Yeejer iebceleer®eer. HejeieerYeJeve kegÀCeeceeHe&Àle nesleb l³eevegmeej HegÀueeb®³ee jbieele®e veJns lej j®eveslener HesÀjHeÀej nesleele. HegbkesÀmej DeeefCe m$eerkesÀmej Demes j®euesues Demeleele keÀer HejeiekeÀCe HemejJeu³eeefMeJee³e He#eer peeT®e MekeÀle veener. He#eer jme ®eesKee³euee ³ee®e HegÀueele De#ej#e: [eskebÀ Ieeuegve êeefJe[er ÒeeCee³eece keÀjleele. efveJJeU jmeHeeve keÀ©ve GojYejCe keÀjCeeN³ee He#³eeb®³ee ®ees®eeR®eer j®eveeosefKeue HegÀueeb®³ee DeekeÀejevegmeej Ie[uesueer Demeles oef#eCe DecesefjkesÀleues Humming birds l³ee®ee DeJJeue vecegvee DeeefCe DeeHeu³eekeÀ[®ee HegÀue®eesK³ee efMebefpej He#eer! HeÀkeÌle ®ees®e veJns lej ¿eeb®³ee efpeYeeosefKeue keÀceeueer®³ee ueebye Demeleele.

He#³eeb®ee De·e Yejs ... keÀeìsmeeJejer®es HeCe&jeefnle GIe[byees[Keb Pee[ peWJne HegÀueleb leWJne l³eeJej HeÀkeÌle SkeÀ®e jbie Gþtve efomelees, lees cnCepes ueeuemej - iegueeyeer. ner HegÀueb Yeueer ceesþer ceebmeue HeekeÀȳeeb®eer. HegÀueebceOegve DemebK³e HegbkesÀmej [eskeÀeJeleele. Keeueer pee[ yee¿ekeÀes<e. HeUmee®eb Fbûepeer veeJe, Flame of the forest. efoJemee JeCeJee ueeieuee keÀer Gb®e-Gb®e peeCeeN³ee Deeieer®³ee pJeeUe efomeeJ³ee Demes ueebyegve yeefIeleu³eeJej Yeemeles. HeesHeìe®³ee ®ees®eer®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee, Ye[keÀ kesÀMejer jbieeb®ee, ueJe³egkeÌle Hee®e HeekeÀȳee DeeefCe l³eebveeb Oe©ve þsJeCeejs keÀeUs yee¿ekeÀes<e. HeebieeN³ee®eer HegÀueb HeUmeemeejKeer®e. HeCe veepetkeÀ DeeefCe keÀenerMeer MeWojer. ¿ee eflevner HegÀueeb®ee yee¿ekeÀes<e cnCepes HegÀueeb®ee ceOegj jme meeþJegve þsJeCeejer Jeeìer®e peCeg. keÀeìsmeeJejer®eer HegÀueb je$eerlegve®e Gceuele DemeeJeer. Gpes[e³e®³ee Deele l³ee®³ee Keeueer iesues lej efkeÀìkeÀeb®eer YegCeYegCe SsketÀ ³esles DeeefCe pemepeme Gpes[e³euee ueeieleb lemelemes He#eer npesjer ueeJeleele. Pee[eJej Heeveb vemeu³eeves Deieoer ueneveeleuee ueneve He#eer mHe<ì efomelees. FlejJesUsme GefkeÀj[îeeJej leeJe ceejCeejs keÀeJeUs meeJejer®³ee Pee[eJej efoJemeYej yeeie[le Demeleele. ieeJeeleu³ee DeeefCe Menjeleu³ee keÀeJeȳeeb®ee jbie JesieUe Demelees. Deece®³ee meeJejerJej ³esCeeN³ee [escekeÀeJeȳeeb®³ee keÀeȳee jbiee®ee DeeefCe meeJejer®³ee iegueeyeer jbiee®ee efJejesOeeYeeme cemle MeesYetve efomelees. cewveeb®³ee JesieJesieȳee leNne FLes efoJemeYejele ³esleele. meeO³ee meeUgkb e̳ee, Heeb{N³ee keÀeȳee jbiee®³ee Bank Myna, peCet lesue ueeJetve ®eeHegve -®eesHegve Yeebie keÀe{uesu³ee pebieue cewvee. menpee Yeeb[Cee®³ee mJejele keÀ®ekeÀ®e keÀjCeeN³ee cewvee meeJejer®ee jme efHeleevee, l³eeJej®es efkeÀ[s Keeleevee cee$e Meeble Demeleele. keÀeȳee jbiee®ee ueebye MesHeìer®ee keÀesleJeeue meeJejerJej ³esCeeN³ee efkeÀìkeÀeb®ee HeÀ[Mee Hee[lees. iegueeyeer HegÀueebJej HeesHeìer HeesHeìeb®ee jbie HeeveebmeejKee Gþtve efomelees. HeesHeìeb®eer ®ees®e cegUele jmeûenCe keÀjC³eemeeþer yeveuesueer®e vemeles. HeCe jmee®ee ceesn megìle veener. ceie les HegÀueeb®es yee¿ekeÀes<e HeÀes[gve efvecceer HegÀueb Keeueer Hee[leele. He[uesueer HegÀueb Kee³euee Deece®³ee iee³eeR®ee keÀUHe melele efleLes®e jJebLe keÀjle yemeele. nUÐee He#eer yeIeC³ee®ee Deeveboner meeJej®e ceuee oslees. [esȳeebYeesJeleer oeì keÀepeU ueeJeuesuee meesvesner efHeJeUe ueepeje He#eer HeÀej JesU keÀener Leebyele veener. Deeuee jme H³ee³euee DeeefCe efveIeeuee! ceuee meJee&le DeeJe[lees cnCepes HegÀueìes®ee. íesìerMeer peebYeUì PeekeÀ Demeuesuee keÀeUe He#eer. ®ekeÀ®ekeÀerle Demeu³eecegUs Sunbird. l³ee®eer ®ees®e cegUele jme efHeC³eemeeþer®e Demeu³eecegUs l³ee®es Devve lees cevemeeskeÌle HeCes cevecegjeo efHeleele. SJe{s He#eer ³esleele. HeCe, DeeHeeHemeele Yeeb[Ce-lebìe veener. l³ee®e keÀejCe Deens HegÀuebner ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Demeleele, ue#eeJeOeer ! Meem$e%eebvee veJeue Jeeìleb keÀer He#eer SJe{e jme ®eesKeleele, cnCepes®e SJe{er meeKej l³eeb®ee Meefjjele peeles, l³eebvee ceOegcesn nesle veener keÀe ?


Pic. credit : Avinash Bhagat


HeeC³eeJej OeeJeCeeje keÀerìkeÀ íe³eeef®e$e ë ³egJejepe iegpe&j

[eke&À ûeeme yu³et íe³eeef®e$e ë ve³eve pewve


23

³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338

efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele

HeeC³eeJej OeeJeCeeje efkeÀìkeÀ DeekeÀeMeele G[Ceejs He#eer efkebÀJee HeeC³eele HeesnesCeejs ceemes DeeHeCe vesnsceer®e yeIelees. HeCe Jee@ìj mkesÀìj DeLeJee Jee@ìj mì^e³e[j cnCepes SkeÀ DeoYetle ®ecelkeÀej Deens. ne ®ekeÌkeÀ HeeC³eeJej ®eeuelees, OeeJelees. ne HeeC³eeJej SkeÀoce efmLej Demelees. HeCe pesJne SKeeos Ye#³e l³ee®³ee vepejs®³ee ìHH³eele ³esles lesJne [esȳeeb®eer HeeHeCeer ueJeles ve ueJeles lees®e ne legìtve He[lees. HeeC³eeJej mebLe lejbieC³eele SJe{s lejyespe keÀer, l³eeb®eer HeeC³eeJej®eer OeeJeHeU HeeC³eeJej HeÀejmes lejbiener GceìJet MekeÀle veenerle. HeCe HeeC³eemeeþer Deeuesu³ee Ye#³ee®ee cee$e les leesHe³e&ble HeÀvvee G[Jeleele. ¿ee efkeÀìkeÀe®³ee DebieeJej Deeflemeg#ce Demes Heeb{js kesÀme Demeleele pes l³eeuee HeeC³eeHeemetve Deesues nesC³eeme DeLeJee yeg[C³eeHeemegve Jee®eJeleele. les HeeC³eeJej ueebye ueebye G[îeeHeCe ceejleele. DeMee ueebye G[îee ceeªve les HeeC³eeJej pesJne Glejleele leWJne HeeC³eeJej®ee He=<þYeeie ogYebieuesuee vemelees. Demes HeeC³eeJej efueue³ee lejbieC³eemeeþer l³eebvee l³eeb®es ceeie®es ®eej Hee³e GHe³eesieer þjleele. ne HeeC³eeJej lejbieC³ee®ee l³eeb®ee Jesie peueo cnCepes 30 Fb®e ÒeeflemeskebÀo Demelees. ³ee efkeÀìkeÀe®es Jepeve SJe{s keÀceer Demeles keÀer l³eeuee HeeC³eeJej lejbieC³eemeeþer HeeC³ee®³ee He=<þYeeiee®ee leCeeJe DeLeJee leeþjlee GHe³eesieer He[les. l³eelemegOoe l³ee®es les pescelesce Jepeve l³eeb®³ee Mejerje®³ee mene Hee³eebJej efJeYeeieuesues Demeles l³eecegUs les HeeC³eele ve yeg[lee, HeeC³eeJej ®ekeÌkeÀ ®eeuet MekeÀleele. l³eeveblej les Jeuner JeunJeu³eemeejKes DeeHeues ceeie®es Hee³e nueJeleele DeeefCe l³eebvee lejUC³eemeeþer Òe®eb[ ieleer efceUles. Demes®e HeeC³eeJej lejUleevee l³eebvee HeeC³eeJej Gþuesu³ee lejbieebcegUs HeeC³eeceOes keÀesCelejer efkeÀìkeÀ, Ye#³e Deeues Deens ns mecepeles DeeefCe ceie lJejsves l³ee efoMesves peeGve l³ee®³eeJej nuuee keÀjleele. DeLee&le ns Demes pejer HeÆer®es efMekeÀejer Demeues lejer l³eebvee Men osCeeje keÀesCeerlejer DeMelees®e.

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901 [eke&À ûeeme yu³et Dark Grass Blue

Sc Name - Zizeeria karsandra Family- Lycaenidae Sub-family – Polymmatinae [eke&À ûeeme yu³et ns DeekeÀejeves ueneve HegÀueHeeKe©. HebKeeb®³ee ìeskeÀeHe³e¥le®eer ueebyeer 18 les 24 efce.efce FlekeÀer Demetve Keeue®eer yeepet efHeÀkeÀì keÀj[îee-leHeefkeÀjer lej Jej®eer yeepet vej-ceeoerle JesieJesieȳee jbiee®eer Demeles. veje®³ee HebKee®ee Jej®ee jbie ie[o efveUe lej ceeoerle ie[o leHeefkeÀjer Demelees.ceeieerue HebKeeb®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepetJej DeOe&Jeleg&UekeÀej þmeþMeerle keÀeUs efþHekesÀ Demeleele. ns efþHekesÀ Flej ûeeme yu³et HegÀueHeeKejeb®³ee ceeveeves SkeÀceskeÀebueiele Demeleele. HebKee®³ee yeg[ekeÀ[®es Dee[Jes efþHekesÀ peje kebÀmeeke=Àleer Demeleele. ner l³eebvee DeesUKeC³ee®eer KetCe Deens. Heg{erue HebKeeb®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepetJej Jej®³ee keÀ[speJeU Heeb{N³ee jbieeves Jes<ìerle keÀeȳee efþHeke̳eeb®eer meeKeUer Demeles. oesvner HebKeeb®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepetJej Jej®³ee keÀ[suee efHeÀkeÀì leHeefkeÀjer efþHeke̳eeb®eer ve#eer Demeles. HebKeeb®³ee Jej®³ee þUkeÀ leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®³ee keÀ[e l³eeJej Demeuesu³ee Heeb{N³ee kesÀmeebcegUs GþeJeoej Peeuesu³ee Demeleele. ceeieerue HebKeeuee MesHeìer vemeles.ns HegÀueHeeKe© Yeejleemen HeeefkeÀmleeve, DeHeÀieeCeermleeve, vesHeeU, yeebiueeosMe, Yetleeve, ÞeeruebkeÀe, c³eeveceej ³ee osMeele Dee{Ules. Je<e&Yej efomeCeejs Je mLeeefvekeÀjerl³ee Dee{UCeejs ns HegÀueHeeKe© Deens. Flej ûeeme yu³et HegÀueHeeKejebÒeceeCes ³eeuee ceeskeÀȳee peeiee Hemeble Demeleele, G[C³ee®ee Jesie nUtJeej Demelees. meHeeìerHeemetve les 2,430 efceìj Gb®eerHe³e¥le ns Dee{Utve ³esles. peefceveerueiele DemeCeeN³ee ueneve DeekeÀeje®³ee HegÀueebJej leer ceOegÒeeMeve keÀjleele.(Amaranthus spinosus) keÀeìs ceeþ, (Zornia gibbosa) ueeb[ieg, (Polygonum plebeium) iegueeyeer ieesOe[er, (Tribulus terrestris) mejeìe ³eebJej ner HegÀueHeeKejs Deb[er Ieeueleele.

Dark Grass Blue Pond Skaters Pond Skaters appear to be resting on the still surface of pond water. Suitable prey that wander by are pounced upon by the predators. Pond Skaters are so quick on their feet as they skim the surface of the water that these carnivores can easily catch an unwary insect. The bodies of Pond Skaters are covered with silver water-repellent hairs that prevent them from becoming damp. They frequently jump considerable distance but never break water’s surface. Their hind legs steer them along the stream of water very freely and smoothly. Pond Skaters are so confident and stable on the surface of the water that they can even mate there easily. SeaSkaters, meanwhile, though possibly hundred of miles from the nearest land mass, move in the same way as Pond Skaters but over the deep ocean surfaces.

Sc Name - Zizeeria karsandra Family - Lycaenidae Sub-family -Polymmatinae Dark Grass Blue is a small butterfly. The wing span is 18 to 24 mm. Underwings are faint greyish brown colour whereas the upper wings are dark blue in male and dark brown in female. The hind wing has small prominent black spots arranged in a compact semi-circle.The linear spots at the base are a little arched. The upper wing chain of black spots is encircled by white. The edge on both wings is faint brown. The outer upper edge is prominent dark brown with white cilia. The hind wing is tailless. The upperwing of male is dark blue with brown tapering edge and female is predominantly dark brown. Occasionally blue scattering is seen at the base of the upper wings in females. This butterfly is found all over India. It is common and seen throughout the year. It prefers open spaces. Found at low elevations. Prefers small nectaring flowers. It lay eggs on Spiny pigweed, Zornia, Small knotweed, Caltrop Vine.


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ìe@ekf eÌmemeerìer [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer 98200 37224

Meem$e%eeb®³ee celes he´otef<ele veoer®³ee heeC³eele cegK³elJes Meermes, pemle, ce@ivesefMe³ece, ueesn, leebyes, ¬eÀesefce³ece , efvekesÀue, ke@À[efce³ece, heeje, ke@ÀequMe³ece, ce@ivesefMe³ece meejKes Oeelet ceesþîee he´ceeCeele DeeheCe ìekeÀuesu³ee keÀ®e³ee& cegUs®e Dee{Utve ³esleele. Oeelet ns heeC³eehes#ee pe[ Demeu³eeves veoer®³ee hee$eeleerue ieeUele efJemeeJeleele, nUtnUt efJeIeìveeveblej les heeC³eele efcemeUleele. ns meJe& Oeelet mepeerJeeb®³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ®e Deensle.

[e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer 98200 37224

Òeotef<ele HeeCeer... OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ! he=LJeerleueeJejerue kegÀþu³eener mepeerJe he´eC³eeuee peerefJele jneC³eemeeþer Devve, heeCeer, efveJeeje ³eeb®eer efveleeble iejpe Demeles, hewkeÀer heeCeer (peue) ns heb®eceneYetleebleerue SkeÀ Deens. efvemeiee&keÀ[tve heeJemeeÜejs mepeerJeebvee nesCeeje heeC³ee®ee hegjJeþe Del³eble MegOo Demelees. ns®e heeJemee®es heeCeer veoer, veeues, leueeJe, DeesnU, Pejs, efJenerjer ³eeletve mepeerJeebvee he´ehle nesles. DeeheCe meJe&®e peeCelees keÀer Deeheu³ee Mejerjele meÊej ìkeÌkesÀ heeC³ee®eer J³eehleer Deens . cnCepes®e peieC³eemeeþer kesÀJeU heeC³ee®eer veJns lej MegOo heeC³ee®eer DeeheCeeme efveleeble iejpe Deens. vewmee|iekeÀ heeJemee®³ee ªheeves efceUCeejs heeCeer pejer MegOo Demeues lejer {ieeletve JeeleeJejCeele he´JesMe keÀjlee®e #eCeer ns ceeveJe efvee|cele he´ot<eCeebcegUs DeMeg× nesles. JeeleeJejCeeletve MegOo heeCeer peme pemes he= L Jeer ® ³ee ef o Mes v es he´ J eeme keÀjles , keÀejKeev³eeb®³ee Oegje[îeeletve efveIeeuesu³ee nJesleerue keÀeye&ve -[e³e Dee@keÌmeeF&[, keÌueesjerve, meuHeÀj[e³e Dee@keÌmeeF&[, meuHeÀj-ì^e³e Dee@keÌmeeF&[, efceLesve Fl³eeoer Jee³etbcegUs Deecue Oee|ce³e nesles. he=LJeerJej he[u³ee veblej ³ee®ee mebheke&À ceeleerMeer neslees. ceeleerle efcemeUuesueer jemee³eefvekeÀ Keles, ce=le he´eCeer -he#eer ³eeb®es kegÀpeuesues ceebme, efJeÿe, ìekeÀeT keÀ®eje ³eeb®³eeMeer neslees; les otef<ele nesles. ns®e otef<ele heeCeer veoer, veeues, peueeMe³eele efcemeUles, peefceveerle cegjles. Pee[e-Peg[heebvee, heMet-he#eebvee ³ee®e heeC³eeJej DeJeuebyetve jeneJes ueeieles. peue®ej he´eCeer lemes®e heeCeJevemheefle meg×e ³ee®e he´otef<ele heeC³eele DeOe&cesu³ee DeJemLesle peiele Demeleele. cegbyeF&le megOoe ceerþer veoer, oefnmej veoer, DeesefMeJeje veoer,eEkeÀJee hees³emej veoer keÀeþer Demeuesu³ee Jeml³eeb ceOetve, íesìîee ceesþîee keÀejKeev³eeb ceOetve meeb[heeCeer, ceue- cet$e Deeoer he´e¬f eÀ³ee ve keÀjlee®e hejmhej veoerle mees[uesues Deens, l³eecegUs ³ee veÐeeb®ee jbiemeg×e oj hevveeme HegÀìebJej JesieUe efomelees. keÀener efþkeÀeCeer lej ³ee veÐeebJej hue@eqmìkeÀ efheMeJ³eeb®eer ieesOe[er heebIeju³ee®es ¢<³e efomeles. ceeveJee®³ee nueiepeeaheCee cegUs ³eeb®es ieefue®í veeu³eele ªheeblej Peeues Deens.

meJee&le OekeÌkeÀeoe³ekeÀ cnCepes p³eebvee veiej heeefuekesÀkeÀ[tve heeCeer hegjJeþe GheueyOe vemelees les ³ee otef<ele heeC³ee®ee®e Jeehej GhepeerefJekesÀmeeþer keÀjleele, efheC³eemeeþer, KeeÐeeVe le³eej keÀjC³eemeeþer ³ee®ee Jeehej keÀjleele. veoerleerue ns®e otef<ele heeCeer Yeepeer h eeuee GieJeC³eemeeþer , HeÀUs - Yeep³ee OegC³eemeeþer Jeehejues peeles. Meem$e%eeb®³ee celes he´otef<ele veoer®³ee heeC³eele cegK³elJes Meermes, pemle, ce@ivesefMe³ece, ueesn, leebyes, ¬eÀesefce³ece , efvekesÀue, ke@À[efce³ece, heeje, ke@ÀequMe³ece, ce@ivesefMe³ece meejKes Oeelet ceesþîee he´ceeCeele DeeheCe ìekeÀuesu³ee keÀ®e³ee& cegUs®e Dee{Utve ³esleele. Oeelet ns heeC³eehes#ee pe[ Demeu³eeves veoer®³ee hee$eeleerue ieeUele efJemeeJeleele, nUtnUt efJeIeìveeveblej les heeC³eele efcemeUleele. ns meJe& Oeelet mepeerJeeb®³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ®e Deensle. heeCeJevemheleer Je peue®ej he´eC³eeb®³ee peerJeveeme leebyes OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ lej Deens®e, hejbleg l³eeb®³ee he´peveveeJej meg×e leeby³ee cegUs efJehejerle hejerCeece neslees. efvekesÀue cegUs he´eCeercee$eebvee keÀke&Àjesiee meejKee peerJeIesCee Deepeej nesT MekeÀlees. ke@À[efce³ece Oeelet Yeepeerheeuee eEkeÀJee HeÀUs Fl³eeoer ceeO³eceeletve Mejerjele Iegmeu³eeme l³ee®eer meeþJeCetkeÀ ceg$eeMe³e, ³eke=Àle, HegÀHegÀmes, ne[s Fl³eeoeRve ceO³es nesTve les Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀles. ¬eÀesefce³ece cegUs ÊJe®eejesie GÓJet MekeÀleele, Mejerje Debleie&le lJe®esuee Fpee nesTve Jesovee jnerle Deumej meg×e nesT MekeÀleele. heeje, Meermes Je pemle lej meJe&®e mepeerJeeb®³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ Deensle. ³ee meJe& Oeelet®b ee he³ee&JejCeeJej efJehejerle heefjCeece nesT MekeÀlees. cnCetve®e ìekeÀeT Jemletb®es ³eesi³e JeieeakeÀjCe keÀªve l³eeb®eer efJeunsJeeì mejkeÀejer ³eb$eCes®³ee mene³³eeves keÀje. ceveceeveer keÀjle hue@eqmìkeÀ efheMeJ³eeb ceO³es yeebOeuesuee keÀ®eje FLes efleLes GOeUt vekeÀe, ogme³ee¥vee GOeUt osT vekeÀe. Meke̳elees Kejeye Peeuesu³ee ye@ìjer, mesue, FueseqkeÌì^keÀ - FueskeÌìe^ v@ eerkeÀ Jemlet-KesUCeer keÀ®e³eele ìeketÀ vekeÀe. he³ee&JejCee®es j#eCe keÀjC³eemeeþer mepeie jne. mJe®í he³ee&JejCe Demes megKeer mece=Oo peerJevee®es jnm³e.


25

Jeelee& He$e / News Letter efvemeie& Ye´cebleer ë efYeceeMebkeÀj DeYe³eejC³e - efoveebkeÀ 21 -22 peevesJeejer jespeer He.o.ceb[UeleHexÀ efYeceeMebkeÀj DeYe³eejC³eele efvemeie& Ye´cebleer Dee³eespeerle keÀjC³eele Deeueer nesleer. ³eeJesUer 80 ÒekeÀej®es He#eer efomeues. lej efJeefJeOe ÒeeCeer, efkeÀìkeÀ, JevemHeleer ³eeb®eer DeesUKe DeeefCe ceeefnleer keÀªve osC³eele Deeueer. DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ³eebveer Ye´cebleer ojc³eeve ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Nature Trail to Bhimashankar : On 21st - 22nd January, PDM arranged a nature trail to Bhimashankar Sanctuary. The participants saw 88 birds, various mammals and many insects and plant species. during the trail. Avinash Bhagat was the resource person.

efvemeie& Ye´cebleer ë oeb[sueer DebMeer J³eeIe´ ÒekeÀuHe - efoveebkeÀ 26 les 29 peevesJeejer jespeer He.o.ceb[UeleHexÀ keÀvee&ìkeÀ ³esLes efvemeie& Ye´cebleer®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer HeefM®ece Ieeìeleerue DeveskeÀ ÒeosMeefveÿ He#eer lemes®e G[Ceejer Keej, keÀesune, Goceebpej, ef®eleU Je meebyej DeMee ÒeeC³eebveer meg×e oMe&ve efoues. DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ³eebveer Ye´cebleer ojc³eeve ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Nature Trail to Dandeli Anshi Tiger Reserve :On 26th to 29th January, PDM arranged a nature trail to Karnataka. Many Western Ghat endemic birds were sighted during the trail. Some intresting mammals like Flying Squirrel, Malabar Giant Squirrel, Indian Small Civet, Golden Jackal, Spotted Deer, Sambar. Avinash Bhagat guided the trail.

efvemeie& Ye´cebleer ë Yeeb[tHe HebefHebie mìsMeve - efo. 1 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer peeieeflekeÀ HeeCeLeU efoveeefveefceÊe Yeeb[tHe ³esLes efvemeie&Ye´cebleer®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. uees{e Jeu[& mketÀue®es 88 efJeÐeeLeea DeeefCe 6 efMe#ekeÀ menYeeieer Peeues nesles. ³eeJesUer KeejHegÀìeR®es cenÊJe Je lesLeerue He#eer ³eeb®eer ceeefnleer osC³eele Deeueer. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee, DeefJeveeMe Yeiele, Þes³ee YeeveHe, jefJebê meeþs ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Nature Trail to Bhandup Pumping Station : On 1st February, on the occassion of Wetland Day, PDM arranged a nature trail for Lodha World School. 88 students and 6 teachers attended this nature trail. Experts explained about the importance of mangroves and birds. The trail was guided by Ms Clara Correia, Avinash Bhagat, Shreya Bhanap and Ravindra Sathaye.

íe³eeef®e$e ÒeoMe&ve ë peeieeflekeÀ HeeCeLeU efoveeefveefceÊe efo. 3 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer keÀu³eeCe ³esLeerue Sce.pes.yeer.kesÀ, MeeUsle íe³eeef®e$e ÒeoMe&vee®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ÒeoMe&veele mLeeefvekeÀ 108 He#³eeb®eer íe³eeef®e$e l³eeb®³ee ceeefnleermen þsJeC³eele Deeueer. ³eeJesUer 172 efJeÐeeLeea GHeefmLele nesles. efveÿe jeTle, efMeleue Heeìerue ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. PHOTOGRAPHY EXHIBITION : On 3rd February on the occasion of Wetland day, PDM arranged a photography exhibition at M.J.B.K School, Kalyan. 108 different photos of local birds with the information were displayed at the school. 172 students attended. Nishtha Raut and Sheetal Patil explained the details.


26

met³e&kegbÀYe keÀe³e&MeeUe - efoveebkeÀ 3 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer, [eWefyeJeueer ³esLeerue ®ebêMesKej meeves efJeÐeeue³eele met³e&kegbÀYe keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³ee keÀe³e&MeeUsle 40 efJeÐeeLeea DeeefCe 4 efMe#ekeÀ menYeeieer Peeues nesles. ³eeJesUer Heesn,s efMeje, GHecee, Keerj Deeoer HeoeLe& efMepeJetve oeKeJeC³eele Deeues. efveÿe jeTle, DebefkeÀlee kegÀuekeÀCeea, efMeleue Heeìerue ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Suryakumbh Workshop : On 3rd February, PDM has arranged a solar cooker workshop at Chandrashekhar Sane Vidyalaya, Gharivli Dombivli. 40 Students and 4 Teachers saw the demo of making poha, upma, sabudana khichadi, kheer, rice khichadi, sheera. Nishtha Raut, Ankita Kulkarni, Sheetal Patil explained the details.

efvemeie& Ye´cebleer ë efoveebkeÀ 3 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer þeCes ³esLeerue oÊeepeer meeUJeer GÐeeve ³esLes efvemeie& Ye´cebleer®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. Jele&keÀveiej efMe#eCe ceb[U MeeUsleerue 23 efJeÐeeLeea DeeefCe 2 efMe#ekeÀ ³eebveer menYeeie Iesleuee. ³eeJesUer GÐeeveeleerue JevemHeleer, He#eer, HeÀUs, keÀerìkeÀ ³eeb®eer ceeefnleer osC³eele Deeueer. cegkegÀue cegPetceoej, ieewjer iegjJe, Þes³ee YeeveHe ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Nature Trail : On 6th February, PDM arranged a nature trail to Dattaji Salvi Garden. 23 students and 2 teachers of Vartak Nagar Shikshan Mandal participated in this trail. The students were explained about the medicinal plants, importance of insects and birds. Mukul Muzumdar, Gauri Gurav and Shreya Bhanap guided the participants.

keÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 8 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer [eWefyeJeueer ³esLeerue peeryeerSme MeeUsle keÀ®eje J³eJemLeeHeve keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. MeeUsleerue 600 efJeÐeeLeea GHeefmLele nesles. keÀ®eN³ee®es JeieeakeÀjCe DeeefCe efJeIeìve ³eeefJe<e³eer ueIegef®e$eHeìeÜejs ceeie&oMe&ve keÀjC³eele Deeues. ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues DeeefCe efMeleue Heeìerue ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Waste Management Awareness : On 8th February, PDM conducted Waste Management Awareness workshop at GSB Mandal School, Dombivli. 600 students took part. They were guided about the separation and segregation of waste with help of short films. Rupali Shaiwale, Sheetal Patil guided the students.

He#eer efvejer#eCe keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 8 HesÀye´Jg eejer jespeer cegjyee[-efMeJeUs ³esLeerue pevemesJee efMe#eCe ceb[Ue®³ee efJe%eeve ceneefJeÐeeue³eele He#eer efvejer#eCe DeeefCe ceeefnleer keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer 60 efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer menYeeie Iesleuee. DeefJeveeMe Yeiele, ÒeefJeCe efJeMes, Meeefno MesKe, efJeMeeue Yeebies DeeefCe efJeveeso ieesues& ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Bird Awareness Programme : On 8th February, PDM arranged an awareness program at Janseva Shikshan Mandal's Science College, Shivle, Murbad on birds. Total 60 Zoology students benefited.Avinash Bhagat, Pravin Vishe, Shahid Shaikh, Vishal Bhange and Vinod Gorle guided the paricipants.


27

MANGROVE PLANTATION – A BOON

To overcome the problems of the forestation and reclamation, man has evolved various techniques of agriculture, horticulture and silviculture.

Dr. A G Untawale Executive Secretary Mangrove Society of India

During the human evolution, not only man but other related and essential systems like agriculture, horticulture and silviculture were also evolved by the man. For the perfection of this techniques, other aspects like conservation and management were also developed. Side by side the human greed and development rate also rapidly increased. Deforestation and reclamation of the coastal ecosystems rapidly degraded and huge low lying areas remained vacant as well as unproductive. Normally there are natural corrections to such type of abiotic and/or biotic changes. However, it depends on the rate of destruction. To overcome these problems the man has evolved various techniques of agriculture, horticulture and silviculture. In coastal region there are wetlands.The sediments come in contact with salt water and as a result of “flocculation” process, settle down

at the bottom, either in the intertidal region or develop open ‘ mud bank’. Such unstable muddy areas in the coastal region may be stabilized with mangrove as per their availability and distribution of propagules or seeds. These seedlings grow and prosper in some areas in patches or continuous manner. This distribution also depends on the hard or soft substratum. Sometimes it also results into ‘discontinuous distribution’ of mangroves along the Indian coast. To supplement the damages, abiotic or biotic in origin, new techniques were developed by the scientists throughout the tropical world to develop the mangrove nursery and plantation techniques for high tidal amplitude, saline blanks, low precipitation and low tidal amplitudes were developed. In India also scientific efforts have been made since 1970 to take up mangrove plantations. Different models and designs for


28 mangrove nurseries and plantation under different conditions as well as objectives were considered. Several options for coastal stability, for erosion, floods, strong currents, tsunamis and cyclones were considered. The process still continues which involves coastal stability, productivity and engineering science. At some places bio- engineering models have been successfully used. The mangrove plantations have proved successful in Ratnagiri and Achra of Maharashtra coast, where the coastal productivity in terms of plant biomass, availability of prawns, crab, fish, oysters, shells have increased many times. The fishermenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population is very happy about this change. In Gulf of Khambat, huge amount of sediment load is received which flows to and fro as per the tidal currents or â&#x20AC;&#x153;BOREâ&#x20AC;?. After the mangrove plantation along the Sabarmati estuary (about 600Ha), the huge sediment load seems to be settled in this area. The Gulf of Kutch model is different and works on the basis of local needs. The region is known for high solar radiation, high salinity, low rainfall and strong tidal currents with heavy sediment load. As a result of such climatological and edaphic factors, the local population faces extreme conditions. There is no large scale forest cover for fodder or fuel. Hence the entire

pressure of green fodder or fire wood comes on coastal mangroves forest which grew naturally. These forests therefore, are compulsorily over exploited and denuded.There is no other way than to undertaken large scale high density mangrove plantation. On the contrary in Mumbai and Kerala, there are different problems. Due to the high human population; coastal land is becoming extremely precious and rare. Even an inch of land is deforested, reclaimed and used for human settlement. This creates several problems like deforestation, reclamation, floods, water stagnation pollution, population pressure, public hygiene, epidemics etc. Although rules and regulations are on the paper, like Forest Protection, CRZ, EPA, Pollution, Town Planning, Urban Development, but nothing is perfect and do not work. As a result one can see several coastal violations, several developments of major and minor nature by the state and central authorities by violating environmental rules. Taking into consideration the above mentioned facts in the coastal areas along the west coast, the best way to protect and stabilize the coast is to develop mangroves wherever it is possible. Hence, all efforts are necessary to conserve the natural mangroves, grow more mangroves and finally. Protect Mangroves, Mangroves Protect Pic. source - Internet

Nature Toons... Ashlesha Pandit


29

WETLANDS AS BIRD HABITAT

Wetlands are important bird habitats, and birds use them for breeding, nesting, and rearing young. Birds also use wetlands as a source of drinking water and for feeding, resting, shelter, and social interactions.

Prof. Clara Correia clarac_02@yahoo.com

One of the best known functions of wetlands is to provide a habitat for birds. Humans have known of the link between birds and wetlands for thousands of years. Prehistoric people drew pictures of birds and wetlands on cave walls, scratched them onto rocks, and used them in the design of artefacts. Folklore provides accounts of bird hunts in wetlands. Wetlands are important bird habitats, and birds use them for breeding, nesting, and rearing young. Birds also use wetlands as a source of drinking water and for feeding, resting, shelter, and social interactions. Some waterfowl, such as grebes, have adapted to wetlands to such an extent that their survival as individual species depends on the availability of certain types of wetlands within their geographic range. Other species, such as the northern pintail or theEurasian widgeon, use wetlands only during some parts of their lives. Wetlands occupy only a small part of the landscape, nonetheless, they are important to birds. During the past 20 years policies and programs that encourage altering, draining or filling of wetlands have increased despite policies that encourage wetland conservation and restoration. Among

the wetland attributes society seeks to protect and conserve are those that benefit wildlife, particularly migratory birds. This article discusses the benefits that wetlands provide for birds and the effects of wetland losses on birds. The relation between wetlands and birds is shaped by many factors. These include the availability, depth, and quality of water; the availability of food and shelter; and the presence or absence of predators. Birds that use wetlands for breeding depend on the physical and biological attributes of the wetland. Birds have daily and seasonal dependencies on wetlands for food and other life-support systems. The value of a wetland to a specific bird species is affected by the presence of surface water or moist soils and the duration and timing of flooding. Water might be present during the entire year, during only one or more seasons, during tidal inundation, or only temporarily during and after rainfall or snowmelt. At times water might not be present at the land surface, but might be close enough to the land surface to maintain the vegetation and foods that are needed by birds. Birds may use wetlands located in depressions


30 in an otherwise dry landscape, along streams, or in tidally influenced areas near shorelines.The availability or influence of water is a very important wetland feature to birds. It is not, however, the only feature that determines if birds will be present, how birds use the wetland, or how many kinds or numbers of birds may use the wetland. Other determining physical or biological factors include water depth and temperature, presence or absence of vegetation, patchiness or openness of vegetation, type of vegetation, foods, water chemistry, type of soils, and geographic or topographic location. Any variations in any of these wetland features will cause subtle, but distinct, differences in bird use. Wetlands provide food for birds in the form of plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. Some feeders forage for food in the wetland soils, some find food in the water column, and some feed on the vertebrates and invertebrates that live on submersed and emergent plants. Vegetarian birds eat the fruits, tubers, and leaves of wetland plants. Water temperatures influence food production. Invertebrate production in the water column may ultimately depend on water temperature and the ability of a wetland to produce algae. Cold water might not be a hospitable environment for small animals and plants that some wetland birds eat. However, water that is too warm also might not produce foods that some birds prefer. Wetland vegetation provides shelter from predators and from the weather. The presence or absence of shelter may influence whether birds will inhabit a wetland or a nearby upland area. Predators are likely to abound where birds concentrate, breed, or raise their young. Wetlands form an important buffer or barrier to land-based predators and reduce the risk of predation to nesting or young birds. Other animals, such as the turtle, the alligator are effective water-based predators of young birds, particularly young waterfowl. Snakes take their toll as well. Many bird species that are highly adapted to feeding in a wetlandenvironment also have genetic adaptations that lower their risk of becoming prey. One such example is the bittern, which has excellent protective coloration. The same vegetation that hides birds from predators also provides some shelter from severe weather. During cold and stormy weather, waterfowl such as

ducks protect their young in the shelter of a marsh that is almost impenetrable to wind. The geographic location of a wetland may determine how and when birds will use it or use adjacent habitat. In the northern latitudes or at high altitudes, some wetlands are covered with ice in the winter and are temporarily ‘out of service’ for birds adapted to a water environment, but emergent vegetation might still offer shelter and food for some species. Birds that eat fish, aquatic invertebrates, or submersed vegetation cannot forage for food because of the ice cover. Some wetlands are on the migration path of waterfowl and other migratory birds and provide stopover locations for traveling birds. These birds might feed in agricultural fields during the day and return to the shelter of wetlands during the night. The ‘prairie potholes’ are a special type of wetland, found in the north-central part of the United States. These potholes are an example of a wetland type that is important to migrating waterfowl. Here the timing and duration of inundation and the salinity of the water are important factors in the production of plants and invertebrates used by birds. These, and many other wetland characteristics, are influenced by a number of things: · Water-level fluctuations throughout the year, in response to rainfall and snowmelt, that maintain wetland zones such as wet meadows and marshes · Short-term (years) and long-term (decades) climatic trends that cycle wetlands between a wet and dry state · Interaction of surface and ground water · Interaction of ground water with rocks and soils that influence salinity and other wetland water chemistry Pic. credit : Avinash Bhagat


31

DUCKS

Ducks are sometimes confused with several types of unrelated water birds with similar forms

Prof. Clara Correia clarac_02@yahoo.com

Ducks are birds. Ducks are also called ‘Waterfowl’ because they are normally found in places where there is water like ponds, streams and rivers. Ducks are related to Geese and Swans. Ducks are sometimes confused with several types of unrelated water birds with similar forms, such as loons (an aquatic bird found in many parts of North America and northern Europe) or grebes (freshwater diving birds) and coots (medium-sized water birds which are members of the Rail Bird family). CHARACTERISTICS Ducks are smaller than their relatives (swans and geese). Ducks also have shorter necks and wings and a stout body.A female duck is called a ‘hen’, they are identified by their verydull, brown feathers. The females have dull-brown feathers so that they can hide from enemies and predators. They can also camouflage themselves in their nests and also protect their young.A male duck is called a ‘drake’, you can identify the male duck by its brightly coloured feathers. They use these coloured feathers to attract the female ducks for mating. Here is a beautifully coloured Drake with a purple plumage, shiny green head colouring, silvery white body and grey wings with blue markings. The males use their colourful plumage to attract females. However,

they will lose or moult their colourful feathers when the females are busy hatching the eggs. The males will now look like the female in colour and will be unable to fly temporarily. They will moult again in early autumn and get back their colourful feathers and be able to fly again. The females also moult. They replace all their feathers and get new ones after their ducklings are hatched. Ducks have webbed feet, which are designed for swimming. Their webbed feet act like paddles for the ducks. The reason ducks can swim in cold water is their amazing circulatory system. Their blood vessels are laid out very close to each other in their legs and feet in a network that allows the warm and cool blood to exchange heat. This allows the warm blood going from the body into the feet to warm the cooler blood reentering the body from the feet, and the blood going to the feet is cooled enough that the cold does not bother the duck. Thus the duck’s feet are able to tolerate the cold and not bother them. All birds have this circulatory system in their legs and feet. A duck has water-proof feathers. There is a special gland called the ‘Preen Gland’ near the ducks tail. This tiny gland produces oil which the duck uses to coat its feathers.The duck


32 picks up the oil with its head and beak, and then smears it all over its body to make the outer feathers waterproof. Without this protective barrier, a ducks feathers would become water-logged and because they spend their whole lives around and in water, this water-proof barrier is extremely important. Beneath the water-proof coat are fluffy and soft feathers which keep the duck warm. The ducks mouth is called a beak or bill. It is usually broad and flat and has rows of fine notches along the edge called ‘lamellae’. The lamellae helps the duck to grip its food so that it will not slip off.However, ducks beak comes in different shapes and sizes. The shape of the beak and body determines how the duck will hunt for its food. DUCK BEHAVIOUR Ducks keep clean by preening themselves. Ducks do this by putting their heads in funny positions and putting their beaks into their body. Ducks preen themselves very often. Preening also removes parasites, removes scales which cover newly sprouting feathers and also involves the removal of spreading oil over clean feathers. DUCK HABITATS Many species of duck are temporarily flightless while moulting. Ducks seek out protected habitats with a good food supply during this period. They usually moult before migrating.Ducks are found in wetlands, marshes, ponds, rivers, lakes and oceans. This is because ducks love the water. Some species of ducks migrate or travel longs distances every year to breed. Ducks usually travel to warmer areas or where the water does not freeze so that they can rest and raise their young. The distance may be thousands of miles away. Ducks are found everywhere in the world except the Antartica which is too cold for them. DUCK LIFE SPAN Ducks can live from 2 – 20 years, depending on species and whether they are wild ducks or ducks in captivity. It’s a fact that a wild duck can live 20 years or more. Domestic ducks typically live 10 – 15 years in captivity. The world

record is a Mallard Drake that lived to a ripe old age of 27 years. DUCKS AND THEIR FEEDING HABITS Shovelers – these ducks have broad beaks and sift their food for insects, nails and seed from the mud. Diving ducks and Sea ducks forage deep underwater. To be able to submerge more easily, the diving ducks are heavier than dabbling ducks and therefore have more difficulty taking off to fly. These ducks have long and narrow beaks. Their narrow beaks are also covered will saw-like edges which help them to grab fish. Dabbling ducks feed on the surface of water or on land, or as deep as they can reach by up-ending without completely submerging. Their beaks are broad and short. Dabbling ducks have tiny rows of plates along the inside of the beak called ‘lamellae’ like a whale’s baleen. These let them filter water out of the side of their beaks and keep food inside. Dabbling ducks eat plants, seeds, grasses and other small insects and animals that they find on or under the water. Usually they stick their tails in the air and stretch their heads into the water to reach their food.Dabblers usually have shiny coloured patches on their wings. The domestic ducks are dabblers too. They are descendants of the Mallards. Dabbling ducks take off from the water in quick jumps. Ducks with longer necks dive with their head down into the shallow water and pick up their food. DUCK REPRODUCTION Ducks usually look for a mate or partner in winter. Male ducks will attract the female ducks with their colourful plumage or feathers. The female ducks will then lead the male ducks to their breeding ground in spring. The breeding ground will usually be the place where the female duck was hatched. The female duck builds her nest with grass or reeds or even in a hole in a tree.The male duck will guard their territory by chasing away other couples. Once the female lays 5 – 12 eggs, she will sit on her eggs to keep them warm so that they can hatch into ducklings. The male ducks on the other hand, will be with the other male ducks. .... On Page 34


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BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS

“Without species, there would be no air to breathe, no food to eat, no water to drink. There would be no human society at all. Species are the building blocks of Earth’s life-support systems. We all depend on them.”

Shubhda Kushwaha shubhda.shubhs@yahoo.com

Biodiversity hotspots are regions with very high levels of species richness and high degree of endemism. The hotspots are also regions of accelerated habitat loss. It is an in-situ method of conserving the rich biological diversity by identifying those regions of the world where attention is needed to address biodiversity loss and to guide investments in conservation. Based primarily on the degree of endemism in species composition, 35 biodiversity hotspots have been identified in the world. These sites support nearly 60% of the world’s plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of endemic species. Biodiversity hotspots once covered 15.7 % of the Earth’s land surface. 86% of the hotspots habitat has already been destroyed. The intact remnants of the hotspots now cover only 2.3 % of the Earth’s land surface. To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500

species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation. India is blessed with remarkably diverse biodiversity. The natural variation in life is reflected in the demography of the land. India lies in the Indomalaya ecozone. This zone extends fromAfghanistan and Pakistan through the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to lowland southern China, and through Indonesia as far as Java, Bali, and Borneo. It also includes the Philippines, lowland Taiwan, and Japan’s Ryukyu Islands. India’s biodiversity hotspots cover a significant proportion (16.86%) of the total global area under biodiversity hotspots. Among the hotspots under India’s political boundaries, the Western Ghats account for 64.95%, the Eastern Himalaya 44.37%, Indo-Burma 5.13% and Sundaland 1.28%. However the protected areas in most of them is less than 17%, which is minimal as per the Aichi targets of the Convention of Biological Diversity, 2010. The Western Ghat harbors nearly


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77% of the amphibians and 62% of the reptile species found here are found nowhere else. However the vegetation in this hotspot originally extended over 190,000 sq. km. And has been today reduced to just 43,000 sq. km. As recently as 30 years ago, most of the regions in these biodiversity hotspots were inaccessible and remote. Analysis of global human population data shows higher human population density in hotspots located in the tropics, where the Western Ghats accommodate the highest human population density among all global hotspots — more than 300 persons/ km 2. Hotspots are not formally recognised or governed areas. Thus increasing population pressure and overexploitation of the biotic resources is taking their toll on biodiversity leading to losses. The major threats to biodiversity decline are land use changes, pollution, changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, changes in the nitrogen cycle and acid rain, climate alterations, and the introduction of exotic species, all coincident to human population growth. Increased tourism without proper management and regulation has led to pollution and environmental degradation posing threat to these hotspots. Inspite of the efforts taken by conservationists, poaching of large mammals such as the tiger, rhinoceros and the elephant for tiger hides, tiger teeth, rhinoceros horn and elephant tusks still continues. Adding to the misfortune is global warming. The migratory patterns of some birds living in tropical and temperate regions during the year seem to be shifting, which is dangerous for these species, as they may arrive at their breeding or wintering grounds at an inappropriate time. An increase in infectious diseases is another consequence of climate change, since the causative agents are affected by humidity, temperature change, and rainfall. Many species of frogs and lizards have declined or disappeared, perhaps because of the increase in parasites occasioned by higher temperatures. In addition, natural calamities like floods, droughts, cyclones, volcanoes, fires, etc. also cause severe biodiversity loss from time-to-time. Luckily, India has a long history of conservation and a reverence for nature, with a number of government institutions and non-governmental organizations actively involved in wildlife conservation. Due to the high vulnerability of habitats and high irreplaceability of species found within biodiversity hotspots, the primary goal of biodiversity conservation is the management of biodiversity for the sustainable use by humans. This will, in one way help in protecting and preserving our natural heritage before the species run out of our universe. Pic. credit : Shubhda Kushwaha

DUCKS.... contd... The eggs will hatch within 28 days normally, except for the Muscovy duck which takes about 35 days to hatch.The mother duck will keep her brood of ducklings together to protect them from predators.Animals like the racoon, turtles, hawks, large fish and snakes are a ducks main predators and they will eat the ducklings. Ducklings are able to fly within 5 – 8 weeks. Their feathers develop very fast. When the young are ready to fly, all the ducks will gather in flocks on large lakes, marshes or the ocean to migrate to their wintering home. When the ducks fly, they usually do so in a ‘V-shaped’ or a long line. INTERESTING DUCK FACTS · A hen makes a loud QUACK sound while the drake has a raspy, muffled call. · Touching a duckling does not prevent the mother duck from taking care of it. It is however best to leave ducklings alone so as not to scare the mother duck away or accidentally injure them. · Ducks sleep with half their brains awake. Ducks are more likely to sleep with one eye open when they are located on the edge of sleeping groups. Ducks can detect predators in less than a second. · Duck eggshells have tiny holes (pores) that allow it to breathe. A hen’s eggs can have 7500 pores, most found at the blunt end of the egg. Respiratory gases as well as water vapour travel through these pores allowing the egg to breathe. - Baby ducks are precocial meaning they are born with their eyes wide open, with a warm layer of down and are not fully dependant on their parents for food. Ducklings are ready to leave the nest within hours of hatching. - A ‘clutch’ is the total number of eggs laid by one bird during one nesting session. Clutch size affected by hereditary and environmental factors. When food is abundant, birds lay more eggs. - A brood is the total number of hatchlings, or ducklings in a clutch. - Ducks have very good vision and they see in colour.


35

LESSONS LEARNT FROM NATURE

Harsingar also refered as Kalp Vriksh or wish fulfilling tree which was found in heaven and It was brought to earth by Lord Krishna. Its official flower of West Bengal of India.

Mohnika Ahluwalia

Well all of us like to write or talk about something which we dream of ,something which we aspire for or something which we have accomplished in our lifetime. For me its my friendship with the natural world and in that process the creation of my small garden which is my biggest and to say the only accomplishment. It was my wish and childhood dream. So let me take you through this journey of mine. Nature is our best teacher they say and so I share with you the innumerable blessings I got and various lessons I learnt in this whole process. As a child I can still remember how I sat in my small garden in front of my house, besides the big tree which is the Harsinghar tree . Every morning there was a windfall of small lovely white and orange flowers which spread on the garden floor .They looked so

beautiful and smelt so divine. I collected all of them in my palms . Intially I tried making few mehendi designs with the orange juice which came out of the ones pressed but soon realized that it was better to offer the same to God. While the elders always insisted that we should not offer the flowers that fall on the ground to God but this flower seems to be an exception in this regard. Although the reason for the same l found out later life but at that young age I sensed there was something special about this tree and hence so dear to God. Although there were many trees and plants around which have flowers all day long but still the pride of my heart was Harsinghar. At night as I slept they awakened and spread their sweet smell around and in morning they fell on the ground to die soon with the


36

early rays of the sun. What a short life indeed but so much to desire and so much to give. These flowers defined my day and night . My first and true love. As a child I also collected the seeds of various trees but the seed of the Harsinghar is very unique.Its outer shape is like a small coin .The actual seed rests safely inside this coin shaped cover with a thin paper lining. Many of us always wonder why such lovely flowers have such short life which lose their shape and form with the early sunlight. Although there are mythological stories supporting the same, I learnt my biggest lesson of life which was very clear and bright, that dreams do not remain for ever. They take form in reality and once it reaches its peak they disappear and vanish for new dreams to emerge. As time passed, we moved out form our place. For many years I got busy in this material world but again a time came when I got an opportunity to have my dream back. So I made my new garden in my new house and I knew the tree I wanted to plant first was my Harsinghar tree. I wanted to spread the same happiness around . Suddenly a abrupt thought came to my mind to that why we, human beings are not like flowers. Is it because we always believe that we will live long and hence forget our true essence and get lost in this world, by the time we realize its too late? Flowers seem to know that they will wither soon and so they spread their happiness around the very moment they bloom. So my request to all don’t wait for a second chance, grab the moment and let your emotions flow and let your wishes come true. As I progressed in my journey I learnt something more from this tree that inspite of being divine and so dear to God and also known as wish fulfilling tree it is also known as “The sad tree” as its all flowers fall early morning and the tree appears to look sad but inspite of that what a positive atmosphere it spreads around. So its important that we should try to spread happiness around even if we may be sad, deep down inside. Others happiness will certainly make us happy one day. Well its time to say goodbye to my Harsinghar tree again as I will be soon moving to a new place but I know deep in my heart that it would be there, waiting in the corner of the garden for me. Some known facts, highlights and my personal observations : Indigenous (native to India) The tree is known by different names in different regions of India. They are as follows

Sanskrit: Parijata, Shephali, Shephalika, Mandara Hindi: Harsingar Bengali: Harsingar, Shephalika, Siuli Malayalam: Parijatakam Marathi: Parijathak Gujarati: Jayaparvati Oriya: Gangasiuli Kannada: Parijatha Tamil: Parijata, Paghala Siddha: Pavazha mattigai. - It bears the botanical name of Nycatanthes arbortristis. Nyctanthes which means ‘night flowering’ and arbortristis means ‘The sad tree’ or ‘The tree of sorrow’ as in the early morning when it drops its flowers and the tree appears to look sad. The flower is also known as Night-flowering Jasmine,Coral Jasmine. Its also refered as Kalp Vriksh or wish fulfilling tree which was found in heaven and it was brought to earth by Lord Krishna. It is the official flower of West Bengal of India. It has high medicinal value. The juice of its leaves is bitter and saline in taste and provides effective relief in the treatment of several types of inflammation and fever including malaria, the intermittent fever, common cough and cold. It also provides an assured remedy for various body disorders ranging from common cough and cold to arthritis and sciatica. The juice of its leaves when mixed with little sugar is a good medicine for treatment of stomach ailments of children. Its flowers, though bitter in taste act as appetizer and soothe the stomach. In the treatment of skin diseases and constipation, the seeds of the Parijat tree are used. Harsinghar is also used in making different ‘face pack’, as it procures a shine to the face and gives guaranteed remedy to a variety of skin ailments. The scent of the flower is so fresh that its aroma is captured for making ‘agarbati’ and ‘attar’. In Asia, the orange colour of the flower is often used to dye the silk and cotton clothing for Buddhist monks. In North East India especially in Assam these flowers are sold in the vegetable markets and people buy them for its medicinal values. They make a soup of these flowers and take it the morning for robust health. Although it grows wild and tall ,but can be managed as a shrub in a big pot.. The leaves of the tree have a very rough texture .During winter most of its leaves curl turn brown and fall. The tree looks dull and barren at that time but soon new leaves emerge, It does not require too much of water and cannot bear water clogging .Best flowering season is between August to December It is better to grow the plant in the shaded area of the garden which receives a few hours of direct sunlight. .... On Page 38


37

ULHAS RIVER - A REALITY CHECK

Ulhas River, the longest river in Konkan Region is perennial source of potable water for millions of people living in thousands of villages, towns and cities along its banks.

Ashwin Aghor

Rivers play a vital role in evolution and growth of civilisations. They have, historically been supporting human civilisations across the world. They were worshiped. They were revered. In India, there is a history of river worship. Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna and Godavari are testimony to the holy status accorded to the rivers. Even today, despite irreversible pollution, Ganga is Holy River. Mother Nature has showered lot of blessings on India when it comes to natural resources. There are ample water bodies and rivers which can sustain our country. However, human greed and gross disrespect for Nature is killing the rich resources. While the river like Ganga has fallen prey to the greed and mindless development, one can imagine the condition of other rivers in the country. They too are being abused to meet human greed. The mindless development and highly irresponsible industries have killed the water resources in the country. Like in almost the country, rivers and water bodies in Mumbai Metropolitan Region too are being abused and destroyed. Ulhas River, the longest river in Konkan Region is perennial source of potable water for millions of people living in thousands of villages, towns and cities along its banks. Ulhas River is the real lifeline of millions of people in Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Not only for potable water, thousands of fisher folk depend on Ulhas River for their livelihood. Highly pristine and crystal clear waters of Ulhas River turn murky, brown as it passes through Badlapur.

The crystal clear and pure water, source of life for millions of humans and rich marine ecosystem, becomes death trap for both humans and marine life. It is after Badlapur barrage, end of the Ulhas River begins. Untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents are released in the river. Unplanned growth of Badlapur is killing Ulhas River. Hundreds of residential buildings and townships coming up in the town are projecting the river as their USP, and at the same time, they are abusing the river. Untreated domestic sewage from these housing societies is released in Ulhas River has rendered the water non potable. And untreated industrial effluents have killed the marine life. There are 32 Textile and 91 Chemical processing units at Badlapur MIDC which generate 8 MLD effluents, and 541 210 Chemical processing units and 157 Textile processing units at Dombivli MIDC produce 17.5 MLD effluents. Ideally, these effluents should undergo several stages of treatment, at the units as well as at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP). But neither the individual units nor the CETPs treat the effluents as per the norms. In most of the cases completely untreated effluents are released in the surrounding areas. The effluents from Badlapur MIDC are released in a nullah along the railway track on the outskirts of the town, while the effluents from Dombivli MIDC are released in nullah near Thakurli station. The industries irresponsibly release the effluents in the surrounding


38 area which pose grave threat to the health of people living there. The situation in Dombivali is so grave that the entire ground water resources in the town have been contaminated due to the effluents. The industries release the untreated effluents in adjoining water streams and nullahs, which percolate to the aquifer. Once there used to be dug wells and bore wells in almost every housing society in various localities of Dombivli. But today, almost all of them have been contaminated and water has been rendered unfit for human consumption. The hazardous untreated effluents released in the nullahs have posed grave health problems for residents of Dombivli. The doctors practicing there have noticed alarming increase in the number of patients suffering from cancer and other serious ailments. The greed and irresponsible behaviour of handful of people is virtually killing millions of innocent people. The industries are least bothered about the environment, and the government agencies such as Maharashtra Pollution Control Board and Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation are not doing their duties. It has not only killed the Ulhas River and Estuary but also several people including fisher folk. Residents of Dombivli are fighting against industrial pollution for more than two and a half decade. NGO Vanashakti took up the issue in 2012. Scientific analysis of effluent and water samples collected at strategic locations in Dombivli and Badlapur Industrial areas and Ulhas River. When nothing

moved despite reporting the heavy pollution to the authorities concerned, a case was filed against the state government at Western Zone Bench of National Green Tribunal, Pune in 2013.After hearing the matter for two years, examining several evidences and facts brought to the notice, The Tribunal delivered judgment on July 2, 2015, imposed heavy penalty on the industries responsible for pollution of Ulhas River. The industriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; association challenged the judgement at Bombay High Court. The matter is now pending at the Supreme Court as Vanashakti has challenged the maintainability of the writ petition at Bombay High Court. While there is marginal improvement in the situation, it is far from satisfactory. The industries need to be more responsible. The effluent treatment infrastructure needs an overhaul so that pollution is completely stopped. The aim of the project, as the title suggests, was to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Save Ulhas Riverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. It does not mean shut down industries. On the contrary it means, industries should grow, but not at the cost of environment and lives of innocent people. No one should have objection to industrial growth since it drives the nation. But in a blind race for industrial growth one needs to ponder over the thought When all the trees have been cut down, when all the animals have been hunted, when all the waters are polluted, when all the air is unsafe to breathe, only then will you discover you cannot eat money. ~ Cree Prophecy

LESSONS LEARNT FROM NATURE ... contd...

These days we can see many housing societies, office buildings and malls that have planted these beautiful flowering trees.And its not just Harsinghar but many trees like Champa, Sonchaffa, Raat Rani which have beautiful frangrance.There is a Bengali friend of mine who always wanted to plant a harsinghar tree and talked about how it grew in her home town and rightly so because Harsinghar flowers mark the arrival of Goddess Durga. Rabindra Nath Tagore in his poems has mentioned about Harsinghar flowers and its importance in Durga Puja. So, next time if you come across a Harsinghar tree, stand for a while and try to capture not only its beauty and graciousness but also the divine love that it holds within. While you admire its beauty, take a vow to plant a Harsinghar tree in your garden, pot or empty place around. When you wake up in the morning collect them and offer to God to thank him for his mercy and also put in a flat dish filled with water so that house also reflects positivity around.

While growing this tree I did not come across any serious insect or disease problems which deters us from growing plants and trees. Although one can propagate them from seed or cutting but it is easier by seeds as cuttings are very hard to root. The plant seems to be pretty cold hardy, mature plants survive light freeze for a few hours without significant damage. TIPS FOR PROPOGATION Propagation Methods : From seed; Seed Collecting : Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds. Remove fleshy coating on seeds and then sow. You can also store them and use later on. There was a belief in olden days that snakes appear and live near any fragrant plant. I do not know how far this legend is true. Although I had many encounter with snakes in my garden in my old house house as well as new one but that could be because of barren empty forest land around.

Pic. source - Internet


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River Lapwing

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