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He³ee&JejCe efMe#eCe IejesIejer

~~ DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe ~~ Yeeie ë 12 DebkeÀ ë 2 He=<þmebK³eeë 40 RNI.No. MAHMAR/2004/4361 THC-04/2014-2016

ll aapala paryavaran ll peguew 2015

ceeie&oMe&keÀ ë [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë meew. keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj mebHeeove mene³³e ë meew. meercee efHeleUs meew. efveMee yeJex cegKeHe=ÿ DeeefCe mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

Deeleerue Heeveele ... cegKeHe=ÿ /ceO³eHe=ÿeefJe<e³eer

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mebHeeokeÀer³e ~ KeejHegÀìer®eer iegCeJewefMe<ìîes DeeefCe cenÊJe ~ [e@. efJeveeso OeejieUkeÀj F&-ce@ceue Meeues³e cegueeb®eer keÀceeue ~ DevegJeeo ë Heefjef#ele meg³e&JebMeer jlveekeÀjeb®es Deblejbie ë uesKeebkeÀ 3 ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs He³ee&JejCe peieleele ... ~ efnceebMet ìWYeskeÀj DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ... ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë JeýeJeuueer ~ Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j cegbyeF&peJeUerue He#eer ~ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele pee@ve ve@Me ~ megjefYe JeeueeJeuekeÀj v³etpe uesìj ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

5 6 9 11 14 15 18 23 24 25 26

Celebrating World Environment Day I Prof. Clara Correia

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Threats to Mangroves I Correspondent

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Profile of an NGO I Dr. S.P. Mathew

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Why we should protect

ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer Je Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer Þeer efÒebìme&, S-117, Deceji³eeve Fb[mì^erpe efÒecee³emesme efue. Sme. ìer. JekeÀ&Mee@He meceesj, KeesHeì, þeCes (He) ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, KeejìCe jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. ceeefmekeÀeletve ceeb[u³ee iesuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

mangroves ? I Correspondent

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The `Save Aarey' campaign I Ms. Priya Mishra

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Green Careers I Dr. Prasad Karnik

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Mangroves of Maharashtra Coast I Correspondent

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Birds in and around Mumbai I Avinash Bhagat

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Insect World I Makarand Kulkarni, Yuvraj Gurjar

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ll aapala paryavaran ll

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cegKeHe=ÿe efJe<e³eer ... KeejHegÀìer veJejbie íe³eeef®e$e ë meboerHe OegceeU efþkeÀeCe ë efYelejkeÀefCekeÀe ve@Meveue Heeke&À, Deesefjmee kesÀJeU KeejHegÀìer®³ee pebieueele®e Dee{UCeeje ne He#eer. keÀceer nesle peeCeeN³e KeejHegÀìercegUs veeceMes<e nesle ®eeueuee Deens. ³ee®ee IUCN ®³ee mebHegäele ³esCeeN³ee ÒepeeleeRceO³es meceeJesMe Peeuee³e. keÀeȳee [eske̳eeJej efHeJeUmej leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®ee HeÆe, Heeb{jer nvegJeìer DeeefCe Keeue®³ee yeepetves efHeJeUmej leHeefkeÀjer jbie Je yeg[eMeer ueeuemej DemeCeeje KeejHegÀìer veJejbie HeeþerJej efnjJ³ee jbiee®ee Peiee uesJetve Demelees. ceOes®e efveUmej jbiener [eskeÀeJelees. veT jbieeb®³ee jbiemebieleercegUs yengoe ¿eeuee veJejbie cnCele DemeeJesle. Yeejleeyejesyej®e oef#eCe DeeefMe³eeleerue yeebieueeosMe, Fb[esvesefMe³ee, ceuesefMe³ee, c³eeveceej, efmebieeHetj DeeefCe Lee³eueb[ceO³es ³ee®ee DeefOeJeeme Deens.

ceO³eHe=ÿe efJe<e³eer ... KeejHegÀìer®es pebieue íe³eeef®e$e ë nsceble keÀejKeeefveme efþkeÀeCe ë ieesojspe ce@veûetJnpe, efJe¬eÀesUer mecegêeueiele Je Kee[erueiele Jee{Ceejer efJeefMeä ÒekeÀej®eer pebieues ner KeejHegÀìer®eer pebieues nesle. efomee³euee efve©He³eesieer efomeueer lejer KeejHegÀìer®es ceeveJepeeleerJej Je He³ee&JejCeeJej Òe®eb[ GHekeÀej Deensle. Hetj, JeeoU, Jeeje ³eeb®ee ÒeYeeJe keÀceer keÀªve efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue Jeml³eeb®es mebj#eCe, efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue oueoueerceO³es Jee{CeeN³ee ÒeeC³eebmeeþer SkeÀcesJe JemeleermLeeve Demes DeveskeÀ GHe³eesie KeejHegÀìer pebieuee®es Deensle. þeC³ee-cegbyeF&keÀ[s ³esCeeN³ee npeejes mLeueeblejerle He#³eeb®es SkeÀcesJe keÀejCe cnCepes ner KeejHegÀìer®eer pebieues Deensle. `iueesyeue Jee@efce¥ie' DeeefCe l³ee®³eeMeer efveie[erle yeouel³ee nJeeceeveecegUs GodYeJeCeeN³ee vewmeefie&keÀ DeeHeÊeer®es HeefjCeece keÀceer keÀjC³eeceO³es KeejHegÀìer pebieues KetHe cenÊJee®eer YetefcekeÀe yepeeJeleele. HeCe Demes Demetvener ceeveJeer nmle#esHeecegUs ¿ee pebieuee®es DeefmlelJe Oeeske̳eele Deeues Deens.

About COVER PAGE MANGROVE PITTA Pitta megarhyncha) Photograph by – Sandeep Dhumal Location - Bhitarkanika National Park Orissa The Mangrove Pitta has a black head with a buffcoloured crown, white chin and buff underparts. The shoulders and mantle are greenish and the vent is reddish. It resembles the blue-winged pitta but can be distinguished by its much heavier bill. It is found in subtropical or tropical mangrove forests. Due to scarce species which is restricted to a highly specialised and restricted habitat, it is classified as Near Threatened in the current IUCN Red List. The Mangrove Pitta is native to the countries of: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand.

About CENTRE PAGE MANGROVE FOREST Photograph by - Hemant Karkhanis Location - Godrej Mangroves – Vikhroli Along the Maharashtra coast, estuaries and creeks are the important habitats that harbour mangrove vegetation. Out of total 68 sampling sites identified from Konkan coast, 15 are from Thane and Mumbai districts. Mangroves represent a precious biological resource, which confer a variety of benefits to mankind. Most significant among these benefits are their ability to bring greenery to places where no other species can thrive, the supportive role they play in enriching our coastal biodiversity. Only mangroves can provide a natural control of eroding shoreline and increasing tidal amplitude due to global warming. Coastal biodiversity including the million migratory birds that visit Mumbai are housed by the mangroves. Their proven value in climate change mitigation and their matchless utility in protecting our coastal communities from natural disasters like tsunamis, cyclones and storm surges remains undisputed. Despite of its importance mangroves are under major threats today.


mebHeeokeÀer³e veJ³ee ªHeeleerue ne ogmeje DebkeÀ, Depetvener DeeHeu³ee Òeefleef¬eÀ³eeb®³ee DeHes#esceO³es Deens. ¿ee DebkeÀe®ee DeekeÀej, mJeªHe Je ³ee DebkeÀeleerue meeefnl³e DeeefCe ceeefnleer®³ee meboYee&le DeeHeu³ee Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee DeHesef#ele Deensle. veJ³ee He×leerÒeceeCes DeeHeu³ee Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee Je met®evee DeeHeCe online HeeþJet MekeÀlee. vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com Jej HeeþJet MekeÀlee. Deece®³ee DebkeÀeleerue Fbûepeer efJeYeeieeves Deelee veJes oeueve GIe[ues Deens. l³ee®ee Deecneuee ®eebieuee Òeeflemeeo efceUlees Deens. Òeieleer®³ee meJee¥ieerCe keÀuHeveeb®³ee Iees[oew[ercegUs efvemeiee&®³ee DeveskeÀefJeOe m$eesleebJej Je pewJeefJeefJeOelesJej mebkeÀìeb®es {ie oeìtve Deeuesues Deensle. JevemHeleeR®ee efþkeÀefþkeÀeCeer nesCeeje efJeveeMe, pebieue#es$eeJej Heefjmejeleerue ceeveJeer Deefle¬eÀceCe ³eecegUs `Dee@eqkeÌmepeve Je HetÀ[ ceefMeve' Demeuesueer Pee[s PeHeeìîeeves De¢<³e nesle Deensle Je He³ee&JejCeer³e ceueceHeÆer cnCetve ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej MeesYes®es njerlekeÀjCe nesle Deens. meeiejer mebHeÊeer, Keejpeefceveer, Kee[îee, veÐee ³eebveener Hegjleer peeiee þsJee³e®eer DeeHeueer ceefve<ee veener. ÒeefleJe<eea megOeejle peeCeeN³ee, KeejHegÀìer Je Jesìue@v[®³ee meboYee&leerue keÀe³eÐeeb®eer ceeveefmekeÀlee ner ¿ee peefceveer®³ee DeefmlelJeeuee DeefOekeÀ OeeskeÀe efvecee&Ce keÀjle Deens. oesvner keÀeþ efmeceWì keÀeB¬eÀerìves yeebOetve `veoer'®³ee peerJeble DeefmlelJeeuee yebOeveele yeboermle keÀjCes Je l³ee veoer®³ee DeefmlelJee®ee DeemJeeo IesCes ner mebkeÀuHevee efkeÀleHele `He³ee&JejCeer³e' Deens ns ueeskeÀebveer þjJeC³ee®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. Heg{®³ee efHe{îeebvee keÀeB¬eÀerìves mepeuesues leueeJe, ce@veûetJn®³ee pebieueeSsJepeer Peeuesueer efmeceWì®eer ®eewHeeìer, SkeÀmeejK³ee Je jbieerle-DeekeÀ<e&keÀ efomeCeeN³ee He³ee&JejCeeuee Je He#³eebvee efve©He³eesieer Demeuesu³ee HeeM®eel³e Je=#eeb®³ee jebiee ³eeceO³es He³ee&JejCeer³e meeQo³e& peeCeJee³euee ueeieues lej GÐee®³ee Òeieleer®es JeenkeÀ Demeuesu³ee efJeÐeeL³ee¥Jej nesCeejs mebmkeÀej ns ®egkeÀer®es þjleerue. keÀoeef®ele GÐee keÀe³e ®egkeÀ, keÀe³e yejesyej þjJee³e®ee DeefOekeÀej pesJne ³ee efHe{eruee ÒeeHle nesF&ue lesJne l³eebvee pebieue, pebieueeleerue pewJeefJeefJeOelee- ÒeeCeer, HegÀues, HeÀUs, efkeÀìkeÀ, HegÀueHeeKejs... ³eeb®es DeefmlelJe l³eeb®³ee mce=efleHeìueele Demeues Heeefnpes. les MeyoªHeele mebieCekeÀe®³ee efJeefkeÀHesef[³eeletve [eske̳eele efMejuesues vekeÀes lej jme-iebOeemen l³ee meJee¥®es DeefmlelJe ³ee efHe{erlener efYevee³euee nJes. cnCetve®e efvemeiee&ves, HeeJemeeves meJe&$e me=äerceO³es ®ewlev³ee®es, me=pevee®es JeeleeJejCe efvecee&Ce kesÀues Deens. ³ee®ee DevegYeJe ®eej efYebleerletve yeensj He[tve I³ee. HeeJemeele efYepee, HeeC³eele ieceble keÀje, veJeer Pee[s, HegÀues, efkeÀìkeÀ DevegYeJee. me®ewue mveeve kesÀuesu³ee Deesuesl³ee me=äer®es efvejer#eCe keÀje DeeefCe DeeHeu³eeuee YeeJeuesuee efvemeie& DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe Deecneuee efuentve HeeþJee. ( V. A. Walavalkar)


ll aapala paryavaran ll efJeMes<e uesKe

KeejHegÀìer®eer iegCe JewefMeäîes DeeefCe cenlJe [e@. efJeveeso keÀe. OeejieUkeÀj, ieesJee

efvemeiee&ves he=LJeerJej JesieJesieȳee peerJeve¬eÀce hetCe& keÀjC³ee®es iegCeOece& efvecee&Ce Jevemheleer, peerJe-peblet lemes®e Flej ieesäeR®eer efvee|celeer kesÀueer DeeefCe l³eeb®eer melele peesheemevee keÀjle Deeuesuee Deens. ¿ee meJe& ieesäeR®ee meceleesue meeOeC³eemeeþer l³eebveer GhepeerefJekeÀ, Ye#ekeÀ lemes®e heeuevehees<eCe keÀjCeeN³eeb®eer efpeJeve®e¬esÀ Deceueele DeeCeueer. lemes heenerues lej, Deveeoer keÀeUeheemetve he=LJeerves Deeheu³ee ¿ee ®e¬eÀeÜejs Deeheues meblegueve efyeIe[t efoues veener. DeepekeÀeue ceeveJe he´ieleer®³ee veeJeeKeeueer yeN³ee®e DeveweflekeÀ G®eeheleer keÀjle Deens. l³ee®es heefjCeece DeeHeCe YetkebÀHe, iueesyeue Jee@efce¥ieceOetve DevegYeJele Deenesle. efvemeiee&ves pesJne ceeveJeef v ee| c eleer kes À ueer les J ne®e l³ee®³ee Gojef v eJee& n e®eer lejlet o ner Jes i eJes i eȳee meeOevemebheÊeer®es meeþs heeC³eele lemes®e YetYeeieele le³eej keÀªve kesÀueer. ³eeHewkeÀer®e SkeÀ meeiejmebheÊeer cnCepes KeejHegÀìer®eer Jeves eEkeÀJee Kepeeve Jeves eEkeÀJee keÀeboU Jeves. KeejHegÀìer Jevemheleer KeeN³ee heeC³eeceO³es

keÀjC³ee®eer #ecelee IesTve efvecee&Ce Peeu³ee. ¿ee Jevemheleer KeeN³ee heeC³eele meJe&meeOeejCeheCes Yejleer®³ee heeleUerheemetve les Deesnesìer®³ee heeleUer ojc³eeve®³ee heìd ì îeele Dee{Uleele. meeiejefkeÀveejer HesÀjHeÀìkeÀe ceejleevee peceerve DeeefCe heeCeer ¿eeceO³es GieJeuesueer efJeefMeä he´keÀej®eer Pee[s p³eeb®eer cegUs heeC³eeJej ³esTve, Jes[erJeekeÀ[er, efJeUKee Ieeleuesueer efomeleele, leer®e ner KeejHegÀìer. Demes ceeveues peeles efkeÀ ¿ee Jevemheleer®eer GlheÊeerr peJeU-peJeU 114 oMeue#e Je<ee¥hetJeea Fb[es-ceuesefMe³eve Yeeieele Peeueer DeeefCe veblej leer Yeejle, hetJe& DeeefHe´ÀkeÀe, DecesefjkeÀe lemes®e ke@ÀjerefyeDeve meer, DeeefHe´ÀkeÀe, v³etPeerueb[, oef#eCe-hetJe& DeeefMe³ee Deeoer Yeeieele hemejueer. KeejHegÀìer®es efJelejCe peieeleerue 123 osMeebceO³es, 1,52,000 ®eew. ceer. #es$eHeÀUele KeejHegÀìer hemejuesueer Demetve l³ee G<CekeÀìeryebOeele Demeuesu³ee Jeveehes#ee 1

ìkeÌke̳eentve keÀceer Deensle. l³eeleerue SketÀCe 90 ìkeÌkesÀ KeejHegÀìer he´ieleerMeerue osMeele Dee{Uleele. ¿ee Jevemheleer 25 DebMe GÊej DeeefCe 25 DebMe oef#eCesceOeerue heìdìîeele, pesLes G<Ce leeheceeve Demeles DeMee peeieer Jee{leele. peieeleerue KeejHegÀìer®es efJelejCe oesve Yetieesueele efJeYeeieuesues Deens - DeìueebefìkeÀ Fmì he@efmeefHeÀkeÀ DeeefCe Fb[es Jesmì he@efmeefHeÀkeÀ. l³eehewkeÀer DeìueebefìkeÀ Fmì he@efmeefHeÀkeÀceO³es KeejHegÀìer®³ee peeleer keÀceer (12) he´ c eeCeele meehe[leele lej Fb [ es Jes m ì he@efmeefHeÀkeÀceO³es (58) leguevesves peemle ÒeceeCeele meehe[leele. peieele KeejHegÀìer®³ee SketÀCe 82 peeleer Demetve l³eeb®eer GlheÊeer oef#eCe hetJe& DeeefMe³ee, DeeefHe´ÀkeÀe DeeefCe oef#eCe DecesefjkeÀe ¿ee efþkeÀeCeer peemle he´ceeCeele Dee{Ules. Yeejleele 4,639 ®eew. efkeÀ. #es$eHeÀUele KeejHegÀìer®eer pebieues hemejueer Demetve l³eeleerue 63 ìkeÌkesÀ KeejHegÀìer hetJexkeÀ[erue Yeeieele lej 27 ìkeÌkesÀ heeq½eceskeÀ[erue Yeeieele Dee{Uleele. Yeejleele KeejHegÀìer®³ee SketÀCe 60 peeleer Demetve l³eehewkeÀer 33 peeleer heeq½ece efkeÀveeN³eeJej DeeefCe 47 peeleer hetJe& efkeÀveeN³eeJej Deensle. l³eehewkeÀer 25 peeleer HeÀÊeÀ hetJe& efkeÀveeN³eeJej®e Dee{Uleele. Yeejlee®³ee hetJe& efkeÀveeN³eeJej meJee&le ceesþer KeejHegÀìer®eer pebieues Deensle. Goe. ie´sì megbojyeve (HeefM®ece yebieeue) ns pebieue `³egvesmkeÀes Jeu[& nsjerìspe meeF&ì’ cnCetve ieCeues peeles. megbojyeve®es JewefMe<ìîe cnCepes ns peieeleerue SkeÀcesJe pebieue Deens p³eele je@³eue yebieeue JeeIee®es (Royal Benagal Tiger) DeeqmlelJe Deens. og m ejs cees þ s KeejHeg À ìer ® es peb i eue YeerlejkeÀefCekeÀe (Deesef[Mee). ns oesve veÐeeb®³ee [suìeceO³es Jemeues Demetve les jecemej JesìueB[ meeF&ì cnCetve he´efme× Deens. eflemejs ceesþs


KeejHegÀìer®es pebieue ieesoeJejer-ke=À<Cee [suìe, DeebOe´ he´osMeeceO³es meehe[les. efhe®eeJejece KeejHegÀìer nsner SkeÀ ceesþs pebieue leefceUvee[tceO³es Demetve les he#³eeb®³ee JesieJesieȳee peeleerbmeeþer he´efme× Deens. ie´sì Deboceeve DeeefCe efvekeÀesyeej Üerhe mecegneleerue yeejlebie ÜerheceO³es ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele KeejHegÀìer meehe[les. l³eele he#eer, ceiej, JesieJesieUs Flej he´eCeer ceesþîee he´ceeCeele Jemeleer keÀªve jenleele. Yeejlee®³ee heeq½ece efkeÀveeN³eeJej ceesþîee veÐee vemeu³eeves KeejHegÀìer veoer®³ee efkeÀveeN³eeueiele®³ee ceeleerle / ef®eKeueele Jee{leele. iegpejele, cenejeä^, ieesJee, keÀvee&ìkeÀ Je Lees[îeeHeÀej he´ceeCeele kesÀjUceO³es ®eebieu³ee he´ceeCeele KeejHegÀìer®eer pebieues Deensle. iegpejeleceO³es keÀ®í®es jCe, keÀeb[uee, cegbêe, ieuHeÀ Dee@HeÀ Keeb y eele ³eeleer u e KeejHeg À ìer ® eer peb i eues DeewÐeesieerkeÀjCeecegUs veä Peeueer. lemes®e cenejeä^eleerue KeejHegÀìer DeewÐeesieerkeÀjCe, Iejs yeebOeC³eemeeþer, jmles Je he´ot<eCe ³eecegUs veä Peeueer Demetve keÀener pebieues þeCes, ceenerce, efJe¬eÀesUer, cegbye´e, JeeMeer ¿ee efþkeÀeCeer Depetve DeeqmlelJeele Deensle. lejerner Jee{l³ee ueeskeÀmebK³escegUs DeeefCe DeewÐeesefiekeÀ he´ot<eCeecegUs l³eeb®es DeeqmlelJe Oeeske̳eele Deeues Deens. kesÀjU, ieesJee DeeefCe keÀvee&ìkeÀeleerue KeejHegÀìerner ³eeuee DeheJeeo veenerle. KeejHegÀìer®es cegK³e iegCeOece& KeejHeg À ìer G<Ce-meceMeer l ees < Ce Deeef C e oueoueer®³ee #es$eele Jee{le Demeu³eeves l³eeb®³ee MeejerefjkeÀ yee¿ej®evee, Deblej&®evee Je Flej ef¬eÀ³esle yeoue DeeefCe JesieJesieȳee Ghee³e³eespevee kesÀu³ee Deensle. KeejHegÀìeruee #eej, ceerþ ³eeb®eer iejpe vemeles. heCe l³ee KeeN³ee heeC³eele ®eebieu³ee ÒekeÀejs Jee{leele. oueoueerle Je heeC³eeceO³es he´eCeJee³et keÀceer Demeu³eeves ¿ee Jevemheleer cegUeb®eer efJeefMeä j®evee keÀªve MJemeve keÀjleele. Pee[e®eer cegUs peefceveerle Keesue ve peelee peefceveer®³ee Deeleu³ee yeepetme Yetmleje®³ee meceeve DeblejeJej Jee{leele DeeefCe DeMee Jee{uesu³ee

Dee[J³ee cegUebvee HesvmeeruemeejKes GYes HeÀeìs HegÀìtve peefceveerletve Jej ³esleele. DeMee cegUebvee éemeve cegUs (pneumatophores) Demes cnCeleele. l³ee cegUebJej ueneve ueneve efíês Demeleele. l³eeletve les MJemeve keÀjleele. Goe. jerPeesHeÀesje (keÀeboU) ceO³es Òee@he/mìeruìcegUs, DeefJeefmeefVe³ee (leerJej) ceOeerue MJemeve cegUs, ye´tiesje (keÀeboU) ceOeerue veer (knee) cegUs, Pee³ueeske@Àjhetme (Yesueeb[) ceOeerue ye$esmme Deeoer cegUebÜejs MJemeve kesÀues peeles. Pee[eJej Demeleevee efye³ee®es DebkegÀjCe (vivipary) heeJeCes ns KeejHegÀìer®³ee Pee[eb®es efJeefMeä Demes DevegketÀueve Deens. heefjhekeÌJe Peeuesu³ee MeWiee/HeÀUs Pee[eJej Demeleevee®e l³eeb®³eele yeerpe ©peles, DebkegÀjles DeeefCe Jee{les. DebkegÀjuesues yeerpe lemes®e keÀener keÀeU Pee[eJej ueìkeÀle jentve ³eesi³eJesUer legìtve ceeleerle he[les. ceeleerle les ©letve yemeles Je ©petve veJeerve Pee[ le³eej nesles. yeerpeebkegÀj Jee{C³ee®eer Je legìtve he[C³ee®eer ef¬eÀ³ee JesieJesieȳee Pee[eb®³ee peeleerJej DeJeuebyetve Demeles. ner Pee[s KeeN³ee heeC³eele Jee{le Demeu³eeves leer heeC³eeyejesyej ceerþner Mees<etve Iesleele. peemle Peeuesues ceerþ, #eej les heeveeb®³ee osþele Demeuesu³ee ie´bLeerceOetve lemes®e heeveebJejerue lJe®esJej Demeuesu³ee ueneve efíêebletve yeensj ìekeÀleele. keÀener he´peeleeR®³ee heeveeJej meHesÀo efceþe®ee Lej Gceìuesuee Demelees. meWefê³e DeVemeeKeUer (detrirus food chain)

KeejHegÀìerleerue ceeleerceO³es keÀeye&veer êJ³ee®es he´ceeCe peemle Demeles. keÀejCe ns keÀeye&veer êJ³e KeejHegÀìer®eer heeves, HegÀues, HeÀebÐee Je Flej Yeeieeheemetve le³eej Peeuesues Demeles. pesJne ne heeueehee®ees U e heeC³eele he[lees les J ne KeskeÀ[îeemeejKes he´eCeer l³eeb®es ueneveueneve legkeÀ[s keÀjleele. les kegÀpeleele Je l³eeJej ye@keÌìsefj³ee, keÀerìkeÀ, Deȳee iegpejeCe keÀjleele. ³eeletve le³eej Peeuesues KeeÐe ueneve-ceesþs ceemes,

he#eer lemes®e Flej he´eCeer Keeleele. Yejhetj KeeÐe GheueyOe Demeu³eeves keÀener ceeMeeb®³ee he´peeleer DeMee peeiesle Deb[er Ieeueleele. mecegêele jenCeejs keÀener ceemes he´peveveemeeþer KeejHegÀìerle ³esleele. l³eecegUs l³eeb®eer GlheÊeer ®eebieu³ee ÒekeÀejs nesles. keÀener ceemes Goe. ceguuesle, keÀeUgbês, ®eesvekeÀ, mvehesj, js³me keÀener keÀeUemeeþer lej keÀener Dee³eg<³eYej KeejHegÀìerle Deeheues peerJeve IeeueefJeleele. cnCetve KeejHegÀìeruee ceeM³eeb®eer pevcemLeUs Je heeUCeeIej Demes cnCeleele. Meem$e%eeb®es Demes cnCeCes Deens keÀer, pesJne KeejHegÀìer®es 10 ìkeÌkesÀ #es$e keÀceer nesles lesJne ef k eÀveeN³eepeJeU®³ee celm³e Glheeoveele peJeUpeJeU 40 ìkeÌkesÀ Ieì nesles. meWefê³e DeVemeeKeUerceO³es KeskeÀ[s HeÀej cenÊJee®eer YetefcekeÀe yepeeJeleele. SkeÀ lej heeves KeeTve meseqvê³e Kele nesC³eeme ceole keÀjleele Je ogmejs peefceveerle efíês hee[tve peefceveerKeeue®eer ceeleer Jej DeeCetve ef{ieeje keÀjleele. ¿ee ef¬eÀ³esuee bioteRation Demes cnCeleele. KeskeÀ[s ner efíês JemeleermLeeves cnCetve Jeehejleele DeeefCe ³esleepeelee ceeleer Ghemeleele. ³ee ef¬eÀ³escegUs peefceveerle efJejIeUuesuee heeueehee®eesUe lemes®e l³eeceOeerue DeVeêJ³es Jejleer ³esleele. ¿ee efíêecegUs nJes®ee meb®eej peefceveerle neslees. peieeleerue KeejHegÀìer®³ee pebieueele KeskeÀ[îeeb®eer ceesþîee he´ceeCeele hewoeme kesÀueer peele Deens. nuueer cenejeä^ Je ieesJ³eeceO³es KeskeÀ[îeeb®eer GlheÊeer keÀjC³ee®ee he´keÀuhe ceesþîee he´ceeCeele megª nesCeej Deens. ¿ee he´keÀuheecegUs oesve ieesäer meeO³e nesCeej Deensle, SkeÀ cnCepes ce®íerceejebvee jespeieej DeeefCe ogmejs cnCepes KeejHegÀìer®es j#eCe DeeefCe mebJeOe&ve. KeejHegÀìer®ee Ghe³eesie KeejHegÀìer®ee he´l³eskeÀ IeìkeÀ keÀener ve keÀener keÀejCeemeeþer Ghe³eesieele ³eslees. SkeÀ he´keÀejs KeejHegÀìer ner `keÀeceOesvet' þjles. KeejHegÀìerle pewefJekeÀ efJeefJeOelee HeÀej ceesþîee he´ceeCeele Dee{Ules. ¿ee pewefJekeÀ efJeefJeOesles®ee Ghe³eesie DeVe, jmee³eve ¿eemeeþer nesle Demetve meeceeefpekeÀ lemes®e


ll aapala paryavaran ll

Deee|LekeÀ¢äîee efkeÀveeN³eekeÀ[erue ueeskeÀeb®³ee peerJeveele HeÀej ceesþs ³eesieoeve keÀjles. ¿ee efMeJee³e Flej keÀener Ghe³eesie Keeueer efouesues Deensle ë KeejHegÀìerleerue ceT, mewue, ef®eKeue³egÊeÀ ceeleer Deeheu³ee peeȳeehe´ceeCes efJeCeuesu³ee cegUebceO³es Oeªve þsJeleele. l³eecegUs ceeleer veoer®³ee heeC³ee®³ee he´Jeenele Je mecegêe®³ee YejleercegUs Jeentve peele veener. DeMeehe´ceeCes KeejHegÀìer Yet#eejCeeJej efve³eb$eCe þsJeC³eeme Del³eble cenlJee®eer YetefcekeÀe yepeeJeles. DeepekeÀeue yeouel³ee JeeleeJejCeele Yet#eejCe ner HeÀej iebYeerj mecem³ee Demetve l³eeJej KeejHegÀìer®eer ueeieJe[ ne SkeÀ Ghee³e Deens. mecegêeletve ³esCeejs Jeejs, ®e¬eÀerJeeoU, lmegveeceer meejK³ee vewmee|iekeÀ DeeheÊeeRvee leeW[ osC³eemeeþer ner Pee[s HeÀej Ghe³eesieer Deensle. Demes ceeveues peeles keÀer, KeejHegÀìercegUs JeeoUe®ee peesj 70 les 80 ìkeÌkesÀ keÀceer neslees. 2004 ceO³es Deeuesu³ee lmegveeceerle pesLes KeejHegÀìer nesleer lesLes ceveg<³e Je ceeueceÊes®eer neveer HeÀej keÀceer he´ceeCeele Peeueer. keÀeþeJejerue ueeskeÀ KeejHegÀìer®ee DeVe, ceemes, Deew<eOe, FbOeve, iee³eer-cnMeermeeþer ®eeje, yeesìer Je Iejemeeþer ueeketÀ[ Je Flej keÀeceemeeþer Ghe³eesie

keÀjleele. keÀeþeJejerue ueeskeÀeb®eer peJeU peJeU 70 les 80 ìkeÌkesÀ iejpe KeejHegÀìer YeeieJeerle Demeles. KeejHegÀìer®ee heefjmej ceemes Je Flej he´eC³eebmeeþer heeUCeeIej, JemeleermLeeve lemes®e Me$etheemetve ye®eeJe keÀjC³eemeeþer HeÀej Ghe³eesieer Deens. KeejHegÀìer®³ee cegUebceO³es ceemes, keÀjhes, Kegyes, KeskeÀ[s, eEPeies Deeoerb®es JeemleJ³e Demeles. les Deeheuee GojefveJee&n DeeefCe Deeheues peerJeve®e¬eÀ ³esLes hetCe& keÀjleele. celm³eMesleermeeþer KeejHegÀìer Del³eble DevegkeÀgue DeMeer peeiee Deens hejbleg ns keÀjlesJesUer he³ee&JejCee®es lemes®e KeejHegÀìer®es vegkeÀmeeve nesle veener ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer IesCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. KeejHegÀìer Jesieȳee JeeleeJejCeele Jee{u³ee lejer l³ee Flej hejermebmLeeb®³ee mebieleerle jentve l³eeb ® ³eeyejes y ej yee³ees k es À ef c ekeÀue lemes ® e yee³eesueespeerkeÀue osJeeCeIesJeeCeerves pees[uesues Demeu³eeves l³eeb®³eeceO³es DeVe Je meWefê³ee®ee hegjJeþe keÀªve l³ee®eer pewefJekeÀ efJeefJeOelee keÀe³e&jle jeKeC³eeme ceole keÀjle Demeles. KeejHegÀìer Deeheu³ee cegUeb®ee Ghe³eesie keÀªve he´otef<ele heeCeer, l³eeleerue efJe<eejer heoeLe&, nsJeer

ces ì ued m e DeeoeR ® ee je³ePees ef H eÀuìjs M eve (rhizofiltration) ¿ee he´esmesme DevJe³es Mees<eCe keÀªve heeCeer mJeí þsJeles. KeejHegÀìer nJesletve keÀeye&ve [e³eDee@keÌmeeF[ Mees<etve IesTve Deeheu³ee heeveebceO³es lemes®e Flej DeJe³eJeele meeþJetve þsJeC³eemeeþer he´efme× Deens. pesJne ner heeves, HeÀebÐee ieUtve he[leele lesJne l³eeb®³eeleerue keÀeye&ve ef®eKeueele meeþJetve iueesyeue Jee@e\ceie keÀceer keÀjC³eeme ceole keÀjleele. Meem$eer³e DeY³eemeevegmeej Demes Dee{Utve Deeues Deens keÀer, KeejHegÀìer®eer Jeves Deeheu³ee ceeleerle Flej G<Ce keÀìeryebOeeleerue Jeveebhes#ee 4 heìerves peemle keÀeye&ve meeþJetve þsJeleele. peieeleerue mejmejerle KeejHegÀìer keÀeye&ve®ee meeþe peJeUpeJeU 1000 ìve he´leer nskeÌìj Yejlees. KeejHegÀìerle pewefJekeÀ efJeefJeOelee ceesþîee he´ceeCele Dee{Ule Demeu³eeves, l³eele JesieJesieUs he#eer (200 peeleer), ceemes, Mesue ceemes, meehe, ueerPesodme&, ceiej, keÀemeJe, keÀener memleve he´eCeer ³eeb®ee YejCee Demelees. keÀeþeJejerue veeieefjkeÀebvee meeceeefpekeÀ, Deee|LekeÀ mLew³e& DeeefCe he³ee&JejCee®es meblegueve meebYeeUtve Devve lemes®e Flej peerJeveeJeM³ekeÀ Jemlet osTve, Oece&, pegveer he´Lee-hejbheje, peieC³ee®es meeOeve osC³ee®es keÀece KeejHegÀìer keÀjles. keÀeþeJejerue meeceeefpekeÀ mebmLee KeejHegÀìerJej JesieJesieȳee he´keÀejs DeJeuebyetve Demeleele. keÀener jespeieej GlheVe keÀjC³eemeeþer lej keÀener GhepeerefJekesÀ®es meeOeve cnCetve. KeejHegÀìer®eer J³eJemLee keÀjleevee GhepeerefJekesÀ®es meeOeve ue#eele þsJeCes pe©jer®es Deens. keÀejCe ner mebheÊeer iejerye Je iejpet ueeskeÀeb®³ee keÀu³eeCeemeeþer Jeehejlee ³esT MekeÀles.

uesKekeÀ `ce@veûeesJn meesmee³eìer Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee'®es menmeef®eJe Deensle


efJeMes<e uesKe

F&-ce@ceue ë Meeues³e cegueeb®eer keÀceeue! DeejsHeÀe peesnjer

ë DevegJeeo - Heefjef#ele met³e&JebMeer

F& ce@ceue ÒekeÀuHee®es GefÎä pebieue Yeeieele jenCeeN³ee Meeues³e efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ke@Àcesje ì^@HmeÜejs mLeeefvekeÀ ÒeeC³eeb®ee DeY³eeme keÀje³euee efMekeÀJeCes Deens. ³ee ÒekeÀuHeeletve Jev³epeerJeeb®eer ceve ceesntve ìekeÀCeejer DeveskeÀ DeeM®e³e&keÀejkeÀ íe³eeef®e$es efceUeueer. ceneje<ì^eleu³ee efmebOegogie& efpeunîeeleerue Deebyeesueer ieeJe®³ee jefnJeeMeebvee ns ceeefnle nesles keÀer, Deebyeesueer®³ee pebieueele JeeIe DeeefCe efyeyeìs jenleele. Hejbleg pesJne mLeeefvekeÀ MeeUsleerue cegueebveer l³eeb®³ee Deepetyeepet®³ee Heefjmejele ke@Àcesje ì^@Hme yemeJeues lesJne ns efyeyeìs mLeeefvekeÀeb®ee JeeJej Demeuesu³ee jml³eebJeªvener efHeÀjleele Demes íe³eeef®e$eeb®³ee ªHeeves mecepeues. Yeejleele FvÖeÀejs[ DeeefCe ceesMeve mesvmej³egkeÌle ke@Àcesje ì^@Hme cegK³elJes mebkeÀìûemle JeeIeeb®³ee mebK³esJej vepej þsJeC³eemeeþer JeeHejues peeleele. Hejbleg Deebyeesueer®es ieeJekeÀjer l³eeb®ee JeeHej jeve[gkeÌkeÀj, Goceebpej, ieJee, mLeeefvekeÀ njerCe, pes menmee vepejsme He[le veenerle, ³ee ÒeeC³eeb®eer ef®eÊeekeÀ<e&keÀ íe³eeef®e$es keÀe{C³eemeeþer keÀjle Deensle. ueneve cegues DeeefCe meeceev³e veeieefjkeÀebveer íe³eeef®e$es - eqJn[erDeesÜejs DeeHeu³ee Heefjmejeleerue Jev³epeer J eeb ® es DeO³e³eve keÀjeJes ³eemeeþer Deeblejjeä^er³e mlejeJej SkeÀ GHe¬eÀce DeeKeC³eele Deeuee - F& ce@ceue. ³ee ÒekeÀuHee®ee SkeÀ Yeeie cnCetve HeefM®ece Ieeìeleerue [eWiejeU, efvemeie&jc³e DeeefCe pewJeefJeefJeOelesves veìuesu³ee efþkeÀeCeer ke@Àcesje ì^@Hme yemeJeC³eele Deeues. ner íe³eeef®e$es DeeefCe eqJn[erDees F& ce@ceue®³ee JesyemeeF&ìJej DeeefCe HesÀmeyetkeÀ HespeJej DeHeuees[ kesÀueer peeleele. leerve Je<ee¥HetdJeea vee@Le& ke@ÀjesueeF&vee c³egefPeDece Dee@HeÀ ve@®ejue mee³evmesme ves ne ÒekeÀuHe DecesefjkesÀle megª kesÀuee DeeefCe iesu³ee Je<eea ceseqkeÌmekeÀes DeeefCe

Yeejle ³ee oesve osMeeble l³ee®ee efJemleej keÀjC³eele Deeuee. Yeejleele F& ce@ceue ne ÒekeÀuHe yee@cyes ve@®ejue efnmì^er meesmee³eìer®³ee ceoleerves jeyeJeuee peele Deens. ³eele cenejeä^eleerue eEmeOegogie&, HeeueIej DeeefCe veeieHetjceOeerue leerve MeeUeb®eer efveJe[ kesÀueer Deens. Deebyeesueer ³esLes ceueyeej ves®ej keÀe@vPeJexMeve keÌueyeves ³ee ÒekeÀuHee®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer kesÀueer. ³eemeeþer ueeieCeejer meeOeves jeä^er³e mlejeJej mecevJe³eve keÀjCeeN³ee `yeerSveS®eSme' ves HegjJeueer. ³ee ÒekeÀuHee®es GefÎä ÒeeC³eeb®³ee meJe³eer, DeefOeJeeme DeeefCe Jele&vee®³ee DeY³eemeeletve cegueebvee l³eeb®³ee Heefjmejeleerue ÒeeCeer mecepetve IesC³eeme ceole keÀjCes ne Deens, Demes yeerSveS®eSme®es DeefYej#ekeÀ DeeefCe F& ce@ceue®es Yeejleeleerue DeO³e#e jengue Keesle cnCeeues. les Heg{s cnCeeues, ne SkeÀ veeieefjkeÀ Jew%eeefvekeÀ ÒekeÀuHe Demeu³eecegUs keÀOeerkeÀOeer Deecneuee mLeeefvekeÀ ÒeeC³eebyeÎue J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ mebMeesOekeÀebHes#eener DeefOekeÀ ceeefnleer efceUles. Yeejleeleerue keÀener #eCeef®e$es ë 2014 ®³ee ceO³eele, Keesle DeeefCe vee@Le& ke@ÀjesueeF&vee ³esLeerue lep%eeb®³ee SkeÀe ìerceves

GHejeskeÌle leerve MeeUebleerue efMe#ekeÀ DeeefCe efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ ke@Àcesje ì^@Hme keÀmes ueeJeeJesle, l³eeb®ee JeeHej keÀmee keÀjeJee ³ee®es ÒeefMe#eCe efoues. ³eecegUs ueJekeÀj®e memleve ÒeeC³eeb®³ee jnm³ece³e efJeMJee®es oMe&ve, efJeMes<eleë je$eer®³ee JesU®es, Jne³euee ueeiesue. iesu³ee mene ceefnv³eele Deece®³ee cegueebveer ke@Àcesje ì^@HmeÜejs memleve ÒeeC³eeb®³ee keÀceerlekeÀceer 10 les 12 ÒepeeleeR®eer íe³eeef®e$es Iesleueer Deensle. p³eeleerue keÀener l³eebveer HetJeea keÀOeer®e Heeefnu³ee veJnl³ee, Demes Deebyeesueer ³esLeerue ³egefve³eve HeeqyuekeÀ mketÀue®es efMe#ekeÀ Òemeeo ieeJe[s cnCeeues. MeeUsleerue meneJeer les DeeþJeer®eer cegues oj jefJeJeejer F& ce@ceue ÒekeÀuHeebleie&le pebieueYesìerJej peeleele. ³ee MeeUsuee leerve ke@Àcesje ì^@Hme osC³eele Deeuesues Deensle. les ns ì^@Hme JesieJesieȳee efþkeÀeCeer SkeÀe JesUer, SkeÀe DeeþJe[îeemeeþer þsJeleele. iesu³ee keÀener ceefnv³eebceO³es l³eebveer DeeHeu³ee ieeJeeleerue DeeefCe Deepetyeepet®³ee Heefjmejeleerue 16 efþkeÀeCeer ke@Àcesje ì^@Hme ueeJeues. lemes®e Heg{®³ee mene ceefnv³eele DeeCeKeer yeN³ee®e efþkeÀeCeer les ueeJeC³ee®eer l³eeb®eer ³eespevee Deens.


ll aapala paryavaran ll

10

ieeJe[s ³eeb®³ee efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee Dee{Utve Deeuesueer meJee&le cepesMeerj ieesä cnCepes pebieuee®³ee Deepetyeepet®es les®e jmles ÒeeCeer JeeHejleele, pes ceeCemes JeeHejleele. l³eeb®³ee JesUe JesieJesieȳee Demeleele SJe{s®e. veeieHetjceOeerue HeJeveer ³esLeerue pe³e mesJee DeeoMe& MeeUs®³ee efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer JeeIeebyeÎue ne®e Heeþ efMekeÀuee. l³eeb®es ieeJe mebjef#ele J³eeIe´ #es$eebleie&le ³esle veener. lejerner l³eeb®³ee ke@Àcesje ì^@HmeceO³es oesve HeÆsjer JeeIe je$eer®³ee JesUer l³ee®e jml³eeJeªve efHeÀjleevee efomeues, p³eeJeªve efoJemee mLeeefvekeÀ ueeskeÀ ³es-pee keÀjle Demeleele. vee@Le& ke@ÀjesueeF&vee c³egefPe³ece Dee@HeÀ ve@®ejue mee³evmesme ®³ee yee³ees[e³eJnefme&ìer ue@ye®es meb®eeuekeÀ je@ueW[ kesÀHme cnCeeues, oesve J³eeIe´ GÐeeveebojc³eeve ³es-pee keÀjC³eemeeþer JeeIe keÀesCel³ee Demebjef#ele pees[ceeiee&®ee JeeHej keÀjleele ³ee®ee MeesOe ueeJeCes Del³eble cenÊJee®es Deens. ³ee Meeues³e cegueebveer ner ceeefnleer efceUJeC³eemeeþer ceole kesÀueer ns Heentve Kejb®e DeeM®e³e& Jeeìles. cegueebvee efvemeie& DeeefCe Jev³epeerJe mebJeOe&vee®es cenÊJe mecepeeJetve meebieC³eemeeþer F& ce@ceue ne ÒekeÀuHe Del³eble HeefjCeecekeÀejkeÀ þju³ee®es ieeJe[s cnCeeues. les cnCeleele, cegueebvee Deelee pebieue veä

Peeu³eeme GodYeJeCeeN³ee Ieeske̳ee®eer peeCeerJe Peeueer Deens. keÀejCe ³eecegUs keÀesCeles ÒeeCeer yesIej nesleerue ns l³eebveer Òel³e#e Heeefnues Deens. DecesefjkeÀe DeeefCe ceseqkeÌmekeÀesle cenejeä^e®³ee MeeUsleerue efJeÐeeLeea DeeHeu³ee DecesefjkeÀe DeeefCe ceseqkeÌmekeÀesleerue mecekeÀ#e efce$eebMeer DeOetveceOetve mebJeeo meeOeleele. ³eele les SkeÀceskeÀebvee DeeHeeHeu³ee Heefjmejele Iesleuesueer memleve ÒeeC³eeb®eer íe³eeef®e$es oeKeJeleele DeeefCe l³eeb®³eeyeÎue ceeefnle Peeuesu³ee ieesäer meebieleele.

`cenejeä^ efvemeie& GÐeevee'®³ee DeeqmlelJee®eer ue{eF& cegbyeF& cnCepes iepeyepeuesues SkeÀ ceneveiej. DeMee MenjeceO³es keÀener®e DeMeer efþkeÀeCes Deens efpeLes pevelesuee efvemeiee&®³ee meeefveO³ee®ee DevegYeJe I³eeJe³eeme efceUlees DeeefCe l³eehewkeÀer®e cnCepes `cenejeä^ efvemeie& GÐeeve'. OeejeJeerceOeerue ns GÐeeve kegÀuee& DeeefCe mee³eveojc³eeve 37 SkeÀj heefjmejeceO³es hemejuesues Deens. efJeMes<e cnCepes ¿ee GÐeevee®es DeeÞe³eoeles KegÎ cegK³eceb$eer DeeefCe DeO³e#e cegK³e meef®eJe Deensle. efceþer veoerkeÀeþer GY³ee Demeuesu³ee ¿ee Menjeleerue ke=Àef$ece Jeveeuee Deelee DeeqmlelJeemeeþer ue{eF& keÀjC³ee®eer JesU ³esCeej Deens. keÀejCe cegbyeF& ceneveiej efJekeÀeme he´eefOekeÀjCe ³eebveer

Deebyeesueerleerue DeeþJ³ee Jeiee&le efMekeÀCeeje HeeLe& efYemes cnCelees, ogmeN³ee osMeeleerue ÒeeCeer HeenCes ner KejesKej KetHe cepesoej ieesä Deens. DecesefjkesÀleerue yee@yekeÀ@ì ne ceePee DeeJe[lee ÒeeCeer Deens. ³ee ÒekeÀuHeeyeeyele DeefOekeÀ peeCetve IesC³eemeeþer Heg{erue ceefnv³eele DeeHeu³ee efMe#ekeÀebmeesyele vee@Le& ke@ÀjesueeF&veuee peeC³eemeeþer HeeLe&®eer efveJe[ Peeueer Deens.

DeesyPeJe& efjme®e& HeÀeGb[sMeve ¿ee mJe³ebmesJeer mebmLesMeer iegUheerþ keÀªve GÐeevee®ee efJekeÀeme keÀjC³ee®ee [eJe j®euee Deens. ¿ee Debleie&le GÐeeveele yengcepeueer JeenveleU, DeÐe³eeJele KesUCeer,

KeeÐeJemletb®eer ogkeÀeves ¿eeb®ee meceeJesMe Demesue. mJe³ebmesJeer mebmLee DeeefCe efjuee³ebme HeÀeGb[sMeve ¿eebveer heenCeer keÀªve SkeÀ DenJeeue efJekeÀeme he´eefOekeÀjCe meefceleeruee efouee Deens. l³eele ns mLeU peeieeflekeÀ opee&®es he³e&ìve mLeU yeveJeC³eeJej Yej efouee Deens. ¿ee meieȳee he´keÀjCee®³ee yeeyeleerle DeO³e#eebvee DebOeejele þsJeues iesues Deens. heCe he³ee&JejCehe´sceeRveer ¿eeuee keÀ[e[tve efJejesOe oMe&Jeuee Deens. pej hegvee|JekeÀeme Peeuee lej cenejeä^ efvemeie& GÐeeveeleerue efvemeie& cee$e ueeshe heeJesue SJe{s vekeÌkeÀer !!!


~~ DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe ~~ jlveekeÀjeb®es Deblejbie

cenemeeiejebveer He=LJeeruee Jes{ueb Deens ner peieYejeleerue HegjeCeebceOeerue mebkeÀuHevee Deepe®³ee Jew%eeefvekeÀ ³egieelener ceev³eleeÒeeHle Deens. ceeieerue uesKeele DeeHeCe Heeefnueb keÀer, peieeleerue Hee®e cenemeeiej, Deeþ GHemeeiej, mel³eeCCeJe mecegê, Hee®e mecegêOegv³ee, meele DeeKeeles DeeefCe efkeÀl³eskeÀ Kee[îee-HegUC³ee, Fl³eeoer SkeÀceskeÀebvee Òel³e#e eEkeÀJee DeÒel³e#eHeCes pees[uesues Deensle. ³ee DeeOeer®³ee uesKeebkeÀele cenemeeiej ceeveJeer Dee³eg<³eeuee keÀesCekeÀesCel³ee ÒekeÀejs mece=× keÀjleele ns DeeHeCe Lees[ke̳eele Heeefnueb. meÐe uesKeebkeÀele Òeeke=ÀeflekeÀ cenemeeiejefJe%eeve (physical oceanography) ³ee efJe<e³eer ceeefnleer IesT³ee. peieeleerue mebHetCe& HeeCeermeeþîeeHewkeÀer 97 ìkeÌkesÀ meeþe cenemeeiejele Demelees Je l³eeb®³eecegUs nJesleerue yee<He, efnceJe<ee&, HeeTme ³eeb®esner efve³eceve nesles. cenemeeiejeb®³ee DeHeÀeì G<CeleeOeejkeÀ #ecelescegUs He=LJeerJejerue meJe&®e ÒeosMeeb®³ee nJeeceevee®es efve³eb$eCe nesles. meeiejer HeeC³ee®es Òeeke=ÀeflekeÀ Je jemee³eefvekeÀ iegCeOece&, HeeC³ee®eer l³eeceOeerue Deeboesueves, ÒeJeen, ueeìe, leHeceeve, Ievelee Fl³eeoeR®ee DeY³eeme Òeke=ÀeflekeÀ cenemeeiej efJe%eeveele DebleYe&tle neslees. cenemeeiej keÀMeeÒekeÀejs G<Celee meeþJeleele Je Glmee|pele keÀjleele; l³eeb®³ee efkeÀveeN³eeb®es ieleerMeem$e (coastal dynamics), l³eeleerue HeeC³ee®³ee efJeefJeOe neue®eeueer ³eeb®³ee He×leMeerj DeY³eemeemeeþer veemee (NASA) ³ee mebmLesves meeiejHe=ÿe®es Òeos M eJeCe& v e (topography of ocean surface), meeiejHe=ÿe®es leHeceeve, meeiejebJej JeenCeeN³ee JeeN³eeb®es Jesie Je efoMee, meeiejHe=ÿe®eer #eejlee, Fl³eeoeR®es ceeHeve (measurement) keÀjC³ee®eer DeeOegefvekeÀ leb$es efJekeÀefmele kesÀueer Deensle. Debleefj#eele ÒemLeeefHele GHeûenebceeHe&Àle kesÀues peeCeejs ceeHeve ns o³ee&Jeoea penepeebJeªve kesÀu³ee peeCeeN³ee ceeheveeb®³ee leguevesle DeefOekeÀ me#ece Je De®etkeÀ Demeles. cenemeeiejeb®³ee

11

Òeeke=ÀeflekeÀ cenemeeiej efJe%eeve

He=ÿYeeieebJejerue melele nesCeejs yeoue Je meb¬eÀceCe, ns GHeûen peueo lemes®e menpe efìHet MekeÀleele. ³ee GHeûenebveer kesÀuesu³ee ceeefnleer mebkeÀueveeJej DeeOeeefjle meeiejer yeoueeb®es Deejesn-DeJejesn Meem$e%eebvee DeekeÀUg ueeieues Deensle. ³eecegUs nJeeceeveeleerue yeoue, og<keÀeU, Hetj, mecegêer JeeoUs, JeeJeìUer ³eemeejK³ee vewmeefie&keÀ DeeHeÊeeR®es HetJee&vegceeve DeefOekeÀ efJeMJeemeen&efjl³ee keÀjlee ³esT ueeieue³e. cenemeeiejHe=ÿe®es ÒeosMeJeCe&ve (topography of ocean floor)

ieg©lJeekeÀ<e&Ce (He=LJeer, met³e& DeeefCe ®ebê ³eeb®es) DeeefCe cenemeeiejeb®es ieleerceeve DeefYemejCe (dynamic ocean circulation) ³eebveer meeieje®eer `Gb®eer' (height of relief) efve³ebef$ele nesles. ³ee Gb®eer®³ee DeeuesKeveecegUs nJeeceeve, veewkeÀeve³eve, o³ee&Jeoea ceesefncee, ceemesceejer ³eemeejK³eeb®es efve³eceve keÀjCes megueYe nesles. YetHe=ÿ lemes®e meeiejHe=ÿ oesneW®³ee ÒeosMeJeCe&vee®eer J³eeK³ee `meeiejer ÒeJeen Je GOeeCe vemeleevee DemeCeeN³ee mecegê-HeeleUer (geoild) heemetve Gb®eer' DeMeer kesÀueer peeles. meenefpekeÀ®e GOeeCe Je

( uesKeebkeÀ ë 3)

meeiejer ÒeJeen ³eeb®³ee ieefleceeveles®ee (dynamics) HeefjCeece ÒeosMeJeCe&veeJej Je l³ee³eesies nJeeceeveeJej neslees. meeiejer GOeeCe (tide) met³e&, ®ebê Je He=LJeer ³eeb®³ee meeHes#e mLeeveeJej DeJeuebyetve Demeles lej meeiejer ÒeJeen ns HeeC³ee®eer yeoueleer Ievelee, leHeceeveeeleerue HeÀjkeÀ, meeiejHe=ÿeueiele®³ee JeeN³eeb®eer efoMee lemes®e Jesie Je He=LJeer®³ee mJeleëYeesJeleer®es DeYe´ceCe (spinning) ³eeJej þjleele. meeiejHe=ÿe®eer Gb®eer pejer keÀener meWefìceerìj les SkeÀ ceerìj He³e¥le keÀceer-peemle nesle Demeueer lejer ³ee®es HeefjCeece peeieeflekeÀ nJeeceeveeJej nesle Demeleele. veemee®es pesmeve -1 Je pesmeve -2 ns GHeûen He=LJeerHeemetve 1400 efkeÀueesceerìj DeblejeJej meg³eesi³e efþkeÀeCeer efmLele kesÀues Demetve l³eebJejerue peeieeflekeÀ mebmLeeHeve He×leer (GPS) ®³ee ûeefnlee (receivers) Je [esefjme ue#³e DevegmejCe He×leer (tracking system) ³eeb ® ³ee mene³³eeves DeeHeeHeu³ee ìHH³eeleerue mecegêe®eer Gb®eer 3 meWìerceerìj®³ee De®egkeÀlesves ceespele Deensle. Gb®eerceeHekeÀebveer (altimeter) ieesUe kesÀuesueer ner ceeefnleer DeveskeÀ Jew%eeefvekeÀ DevegÒe³eesieebceO³es


ll aapala paryavaran ll (scientific applications) JeeHejueer peeles. Sue

veervees-uee veervee ÒeYeeJe, He@efmeefHeÀkeÀ (ÒeMeeble cenemeeiej) ceOeerue oMeJe<eea³e Deeboesueves, cenemeeiejele meeþCeejer G<Celee, mecegê HeeleUerle nesCeejer Jee{, cenemeeiejer HeeC³ee®es DeefYemejCe ³eemeejK³ee ieesäeR®³ee Devegceeve Je efve³eb$eCeemeeþer ner ceeefnleer GHe³egkeÌle þjles. penepeeb®eer ceeie& DeeKeCeer, o³ee&Jeleea lesue efJeefnjeR®es keÀe³e&, celm³eeslHeeove, peue¬eÀer[e ³eeb®es efve³eceve, lesue leJebiee®es J³eJemLeeHeve, mecegêeJejerue MeesOe Je ye®eeJe ceesefnceeb®es efve³eespeveosKeerue ³ee ceeefnleercegUs ÒeYeeJeer nesles. efJeefJeOe mecegêer ÒeeC³eeb®es mLeueeblej, ÒeJeeU ÒeefMejeb®es (coral reefs) ieefleMeem$e (dynamics), leebye[er GOeeCes (red tiedes) ³eemeejK³ee peerJeMeem$eer³e yeeyeeR®³ee DeY³eeme Je J³eJemLeeHeveemeeþer osKeerue cenemeeiejHe=ÿ ÒeosMeJeCe&ve GHe³egkeÌle þjles. peeieeflekeÀ cenemeeiejHe=ÿ leHeceeve (global sea surface temperature)

Je Jeejs ë met³e&ÒekeÀeMeeleerue Tpex®es Mees<eCe nesTve meeiejHe=ÿe®es leHeceeve efoJemeYejele Jee{les lej HeeC³ee®es DeefYemejCe lemes®e G<Celee Glmepe&ve ³eecegUs je$eer ns leHeceeve keÀceer nesles. DeefOekeÀ leHeceevee®³ee HeeC³ee®eer Ievelee keÀceer Demeu³eeves les Leb[, DeefOekeÀ Ieve HeeC³eeJej lejbieles. Deeweq<CekeÀ Jenve-ÒekeÀceCeeves (conduction-convection) G<Ce HeeCeer Oe´gJee®³ee efoMesves meb¬eÀefcele nesles Je Leb[ HeeCeer Oe´gJeebJeªve Keesue peele efJe<eJe=ÊeekeÀ[s mejkeÀle peeTve GOJe&IegmeUCeerves (up welling) Hejle He=ÿeJej ³essles. G<Celes®es efJelejCe cee$e #esef$e³e Demeles Je jsKeebMeeMeer Deueive Demeles. Sue-efvevees -uee veervee HeefjCeeceebcegUs leHeceeve efJelejCe Demebiele nesles. cenemeeiejeleerue HeeCeer Je nJee ³eeb®³ee mebueivelescegUs nJeeceeve efveOee&efjle nesles. ³ee G<Celesves HeeC³ee®es yee<HeerYeJeve nesTve nJes®eer Deeê&lee, efnceJe<ee& Je HeeTme ³eeb®esosKeerue efve³eceve nesles. veemee®³ee Del³eeOegefvekeÀ met#celejbie ¬eÀceefJe#eCe ÒeejCeceeHekeÀeÜejs (advance microwave scanning radiometer)

meeiejHe=ÿe®es leHeceeve meelel³eeves ceespeues peeT MekeÀles.

GÊej ieesueeOee&le DeìueebefìkeÀ cenemeeiejeleerue ke@Àjsefye³eve les efJe<eJe=Êe ³ee HeÆîeele GvneUe Je HeeveieU (fall ) $eÝlegleerue leHeceeve ¬eÀebeflekeÀ (critical) leHeceeveeHes#ee DeefOekeÀ nesles Je JeeJeìUer le³eej nesleele. DeKeeleer ÒeJeen (gulf stream or North Atlantic Drift) ne veoer®³ee iees[ Je G<Ce HeeC³ee®ee ÒeJeen meb³egkeÌle os M eeb ® ³ee ( u n i t e d n a t i o n s ) Het J e& efkeÀveeN³eepeJeUtve ³egjesHekeÀ[s peeCeeje ÒeJeen, ne meJee&efOekeÀ peueo ÒeJeen Deens. uee veervee ÒeYeeJeeKeeueer JeenCeeN³ee Leb[ ÒeJeene®³ee keÀ[ebJej DeefmLejlee ueeìe (instability waves) le³eej nesleevee Dee{Uleele. G<Celes®³ee nJesleerue meb ¬ eÀceCeeceg U s le³eej nes C eejs Jeejs meeiejHe=<þeJejerue HeeC³ee®³ee ÒeJeenebvee peyeeyeoej Demeleele. ³ee®e JeeN³eebcegUs G<Celee, yee<He, Jee³et DeeefCe OetU ³eeb®es DeblejCe (transfer) nesles. ³eeleerue yeoueebcegUs®e peeieeflekeÀ lemes®e ÒeeosefMekeÀ $eÝlegceeve mebmLeeefHele nesles. veemee®es GHeûen meeiejer JeeN³eebmeeþer HeebieceeHekeÀebveer (scatterometers) efme× Demeleele. HeebieceeHekeÀ ns meg#celejbie GHekeÀjCe meeiejHe= < þeJeªve JeeN³eeb c eg U s Heeb i eCeeN³ee met#celejbiee®es ceeHeve keÀjle JeeN³ee®eer efoMee Je Jesie ³eeb®es {ieeU JeeleeJejCeelener efveoeve keÀª MekeÀles. ns GHekeÀjCe megceejs 1800 efkeÀceer ©boer®³ee HeÆîeeceOeerue JeeN³eeb®eer ®eej ueeKe ceeHeves ojjespe Iesle He=LJeer®³ee 90 ìkeÌkesÀ YetYeeieeleerue JeeN³eeb®es Jesie Je efoMee megefveefM®ele keÀjles. ³eebveer pecee kesÀuesueer ceeefnleer nJee Je mecegê ³eeceOeerue Dev³eesv³e ¬eÀer³ee (interaction), cenemeeiejer HeeC³ee®es DeefYemejCe, $eÝlegceeve, nJeeceeve Je l³eeleerue yeoue mecepetve IesC³eeme GHe³eesieer He[les. nJeeceeve GHeûeneb®³ee Deveg³eespevescegUs Deepe ceesþer JeeoUs, JeeJeìUer, Deue veervees-uee veervee ÒeYeeJe, peeieeflekeÀ $eÝlegceeve yeoue Fl³eeoeR®es Devegceeve Je efve³eb$eCe megueYe Peeues Deens. peue®e¬eÀeceO³es JeeN³eeb®ee ceesþe nele Demeu³eeves Hepe&v³eceevee®ee Deboepener ³ee ceeefnleerJeªve yeje®e De®etkeÀ Ieslee ³eslees. HetJe&Jeele (easterlies) efJe<eJe=ÊeeJej nesCeeN³ee GmeUCeer®es (upwelling) HegJee&vegceeve ueeJeC³eeme ceole keÀjleele. ³ee Leb[ HeeC³ee®³ee

GmeUCeer meeiejHe=ÿeleerue HeeC³ee®³ee leHeceevee®es efJelejCe efve³ebef$ele keÀjleele Je HetJe&Jeelee®es yeUner þjefJeleele p³eecegUs ns ®e¬eÀ megª jenleb. meeiejHe=ÿe®³ee leeHeceevee®³ee Je JeeN³ee®eer efoMee lemes®e Jesie ³eeb®³ee ceeHeveeÜejs o³ee&Jeoea ceeveJeer keÀe³ee&®es megefve³eespeve keÀjlee ³esles. cenemeeiejer ÒeJeen (ocean currents)

He=LJeer®³ee DeefOekeÀlej Yeeieeleerue peerJeeOeej (sustaince of life) cenemeeiej Je JeeleeJejCe ³eeleerue Dev³eesv³e¬eÀer³ee ne®e Demelees. JeeN³eebveer Debleefjle kesÀuesu³ee mebJesieecegUs meeiejHe=ÿeJejerue HeeC³eele Jee³eg®eefuele ÒeJeen efvecee&Ce nesleele. He=LJeer®³ee mJeDeemeeYeesJeleer®³ee DeeYe´ceCeecegUs mecegêe®³ee HeeC³eele mebJesie efvecee&Ce neslees p³eeuee `keÀesefjDee@ueerme yeue' cnCeleele Je ³eeves Debleie&le ÒeJeen yeveleele DeeefCe / DeLeJee ÒemLeeefHele ÒeJeeneb®eer efoMee yeoueles. ³ee Kesjerpe Leb[ HeeC³ee®eer efJe<eJe=Êeer³e GmeUCe, #eejlee Je He³ee&³eeves Ievelee ³eeb®³ee HeÀjkeÀecegUs lemes®e YetKeb[ Je mecegê leUer DemeCeeN³ee IeUer Je Gb®eJeìs ³eeb®³ee j®evescegUs Debleie&le ÒeJeeneb®ee Jesie lemes®e efoMee efve³ebef$ele nesles. DeeKeeleer ÒeJeenemeejKes HeefM®ece HeefjIeerÒeJeen Deeflepeueo ÒeJeenebceO³es cees[leele Je mebyebefOele Oe´gJee®³ee efoMesves Jeenleele. ns ÒeJeen G<Ce keÀìeryebOeeHeemetve ceO³e De#eebMeeHe³e¥le yejer®e G<Celee meb¬eÀefcele keÀjleele. ke@ÀefueHeÀesefve&³ee ÒeJeenebmeejKes HetJeea³e HeefjIeer ÒeJeen Oeerces, GLeU Je HeefM®eceer HeefjIeer ÒeJeeneb®³ee leguevesle ©bo Demetve les G<Ce keÀefìyebOeele Leb[ HeeCeer DeeCetve les G<Ce neslee®e HeefM®eceer HeefjIeer ÒeJeenebceOetve mebyebefOele Oe´gJeekeÀ[s Hejle Hees®eJeleele. meeiejHe=ÿer³e ÒeJeen He=LJeer®³ee ûen HeeleUerJejerue efoIe&keÀeueerve JeeN³eeb®³ee Deeke=ÀleeryebOeeÒeceeCes Demetve njskeÀ cenemeeieje®³ee êesCeer®³ee ceO³eebefkeÀle Iegceleele. {esyeU ceeveeves GÊej ieesueeOee&le ns ÒeJeenIesjs oef#eCeeJeleea lej oef#eCe ieesueeOee&le GÊejeJeleea Demeleele. meg©Jeeleeruee lejbiel³ee ieesäeR®³ee ue#eDevegkeÀjCeeves meeiejHe=ÿ ÒeJeeneb®ee ceeieesJee Iesleuee peele Demes. DeeOegefvekeÀ He×leerceO³es T®®ekebÀHemebK³ee j[ej (high frequaency radar) Je GHeûen GHekeÀjCes ³eeb®ee JeeHej


~~ DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe ~~ ÒeJeeneb®eer efoMee Je Jesie ceeHeveemeeþer kesÀuee peelees. ³ee GHekeÀjCeeble ìesHeskeÌme / Hee@efPe[e@ve (Topex / Poseidon) Je pesmeve 1 ®ee DebleYee&Je neslees. eqkeÌJekeÀmke@Àì ns penepeebJej JeeHejlee ³esCeejs GHekeÀjCener JeeHejues peeles. ìsje®es cees[erme (Terra's MODIS) GHekeÀjCe ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej peerJeeJejCeele (biosphere) nesCeejs yeoue veeWoJeles p³eecegUs peeieeflekeÀ keÀye&®e¬eÀ, leHeceeve, HeefjJenve Fl³eeoeRJej ÒekeÀeMe ìekeÀlee ³eslees. cenemeeiejer ueeìe (oceanic waves)

êJee®³ee ieleer M eem$eeÒeceeCes (fluid dynamics), JeeN³eebcegUs mecegêe®³ee, veoerkeÀeueJ³eeb®³ee leUer [yeke̳eeb®³ee ceeskeÀȳee He=ÿYeeieeJej le³eej nesCeeN³ee ueeìebvee `Jeeleueeìe' eEkeÀJee `Jeele ®eefuele ueeìe' cnìues peeles. meeiejer ueeìe efkeÀveeN³eeJej Heesn®esHe³e¥le npeejes cewueeb®ee ÒeJeeme keÀjleele. ueeìe íesìîee lejbieeHeemetve les 30 ceerìj Gb®eer®³ee Demet MekeÀleele. Òel³e#e ÒeeosefMekeÀ JeeN³eebcegUs le³eej nesCeeN³ee ueeìeb®³ee ÒeJe=Êeeruee Jee³eg-meeiej (wind sea) cnCeleele. JeeN³ee®ee peesj Deesmeju³eeJej osKeerue HeeCeer eEnokeÀUle jenles l³eeuee G®ebyeU (swell) cnìues peeles. G®ebyeU Flej$e Je keÀener JesUeHetJeea le³eej Peeuesu³ee ueeìebcegUs DeLeJee HeeC³eeletve Jesieeves peeCeeN³ee penepe - veewkeÀeb®³ee ceeies Je yeepet b m e le³eej nes l es . ueeìe meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes Deefve³ele (random) Demetve l³eeb®eer Gb®eer, DeJeOeer lemes®e DeekeÀeje®ee Deboepe DeYeeJeeves®e ueeJelee ³eslees. ueeìeb®³ee iegCeOece& DeLeJee ceeHeveeceO³es l³eeb®eer Gb®eer (height) l³eeb®³ee êesCeer (trough) Heemetve les legN³ee (crest) He³e¥le; ueebyeer (length) peer ueeìs®³ee legN³eeHeemetve Heg{erue ueeìs®³ee legN³eeceOeerue Deblej Demeleb; De³egkeÀeue pees efve³ele efvejer#eCe mLeUeJej oesve ueeìe Hees®eC³eeceOeerue keÀeU Demelees; DeeJele&lee (frequency) peer efve³ele efvejer#eCe mLeUeJej efJeefMeä keÀeUele Hees®eCeeN³ee ueeìeb®eer mebK³ee Demeles; Òemeej (propagation) pees ueeìe HemejC³ee®eer efoMee ³ee mJeªHeele Demelees; DeMee Hejecegu³eeb®ee (parameters) DebleYee&Je Demelees. iesu³ee MelekeÀeHe³e¥le penepes (ships) Je HueJe

13 (buoy)

³eeJejerue lJejCeceeHekesÀ (accelerometers) DeeefCe GLeU HeeC³eele GYeejuesu³ee ®eewLeN³eebJej mLeeefHele ÒeceeHeer (gages) ³eeb®³ee mene³³eeves ner ceeHeves kesÀueer peele nesleer. Deelee ÒeecegK³eeves Debleefj#eele efJeefMeä keÀ#eebceO³es efmLejeJeuesu³ee GHeûenebJejerue Gb®eerceeHekeÀ (altimeters) ÒeYeeJeerHeCes Je melele ner ceeHes Iesle Demeleele. Jeele ueeìeb®es DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej Deensle. ³eeleerue kesÀMeJeener ueeìe (capillary waves) DeLeJee lejbie (ripples) peueHe=ÿeJej cebo Jeeje Demes H e³e¥ l e ef o meleele Je ³eeb ® ee Òemeej (propagation) HeeC³ee®³ee He=ÿleeCeecegUs (surface tension) neslees. peueOeer ueeìe (sea waves) ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej, meblele, ÒeyeU Jeeje Demeleevee yeveleele Je JeeN³ee®ee Jesie HetCe&HeCes keÀceer Peeu³eeJejner yeje®e keÀeU jenleele. Fle$e le³eej nesTve Òemeejeojc³eeve ieìebceO³es efJeKeªve efJeefMeÿ efoMesves SkeÀe®e lejbieueebyeerves HemejCeeN³ee ueeìebvee G®ebyeU (swells) cnìueb peeleb. Yeg k eb À Heeceg U s , Yet m Keueveeceg U s DeLeJee pJeeueecegKeer®³ee GêskeÀecegUs le³eej nesCeeN³ee Depem$e ueeìebvee De[oeb[ (rouge), DeJekeÀeUer (freak), efJe¬eÀeU (monster), mebnejkeÀ (killer) DeMee DeveskeÀ veeJeebveer mebyeesOeueb peeleb. jepemeer mebMeesOeve penepe (Royal Research Ship) `ef[mkeÀJnjer'ves DeeHeu³ee SsefleneefmekeÀ ceesefncesceO³es 29.1 ceerìj Gb®eer®³ee, lewJeeve peJeU 2007 meeueer keÀesmee& legHeÀeveeleerue 32.3 ceerìj, lej vee@JexpeJeUerue GÊejer mecegêele 1995 uee veeWo Peeuesu³ee `[^eHevej' ueeìe 25 ceerìj Gb®eer®³ee nesl³ee. pesJne ueeìeb®ee Hee³ee l³eeJejerue [esueeje meebYeeUt MekeÀle veener lesJne l³ee HegÀìleele Je keÀesmeUleele. meeceev³eHeCes ueeìe GLeU HeeC³eeHe³e¥le Heesn®eu³eeJej HegÀìleele. Hejbleg ceeskeÀȳee mecegêeJejner JeeN³eeves DeefOekeÀ Jesie OeejCe kesÀu³eeJej ueeìeb®es legjs efJeueietvel³ee HegÀìleele. efkeÀveeN³eeJej DeeoUtve HegÀìCeeN³ee ueeìeb®³ee le[eK³eebcegUs (beating surf) efkeÀveejHeÆer®es mJeªHe þjles. ueeìebJej mJeej nesCeeN³ee KesU KesUCeejs (surfers) ueeìeb®es leerve ÒekeÀej

ceeveleele. DeefOeHueJe/[esue (spilling / rolling), ÒeHeeleer / PeeskeÀ (plunging / dumping) Je DeJesieer (surging) ueeìe. ³eeleerue Heefnu³ee ÒekeÀej®³ee ueeìe meHeeì efkeÀveeN³eeueiele Demetve leguevesves megjef#ele Demeleele. ogmeN³ee ÒekeÀejeleerue ueeìe ef k eÀveeN³eeueiele Yet K eb [ ceb ® eeJej (continental shelf) Deeuesu³ee De®eevekeÀ GYeej / ÒeJeeU ÒeMeerj / JeeuegkeÀe eEYeleercegUs le³eej nesleele Je DekeÀeqmcekeÀ DeeoUtve HeesnCeeN³eebvee leUekeÀ[s oeyeleele. eflemeN³ee ÒekeÀej®³ee ve HegÀìCeeN³ee ueeìe efkeÀveeN³eeHeemetve otj ceeskeÀȳee mecegêeJej Dee{Uleele Je HeesnCeeN³eebvee DeefOekeÀ Deele Kes®eleele. ueeìeb®³ee le[eK³eebcegUs (beating surf) efkeÀveeN³eeb®es #ejCe (erosion) lej nesles®e HeCe megìs, ueneve ceesþs keÀCe mees[Jetve les mecegêele {keÀueues peeleele. efkeÀveejs mejUmeesì nesTve Ke[keÀeb®es Je DeveskeÀoe GYes keÀ[s³egkeÌle Demes DeeefCe ueiele®es HeeCeer Keesue DemeCeejs Demes yeveleele. DeMee efkeÀveeN³eeb®ee yebojs DeLeJee OekeÌkesÀ cnCetve efJekeÀeme kesÀuee peeT MekeÀle veener. efkeÀveejHeÆer obletj Demelee YetKeb[ceb®e ©bo Je meHeeì Demelee ueeìebceOeerue Tpee& J³e³e nesTve l³eeb®ee le[eKee keÀceer neslees. DeMee efkeÀveeN³eebJej Ke[er, JeeUt Je ef®eKeue pecee neslees. DeMee efkeÀveejHeÆîee OekeÌkesÀ Je yeb o js yeeb O eC³eemeeþer GÊece þjleele. efkeÀveeN³eeueiele®³ee HeeC³eele ³ee efYevve J³eemee®³ee keÀCeeb®eer meeþJeCe nesTve JeeuegkeÀeefYeÊeer (sand bars) DeLeJee De[LeUe efpeJne (barrier spits) yevetve l³ee®³ee HeueerkeÀ[s GHemeeiej, Kee[er, KeepeCe ³eemeejKes peuemeeþs le³eej nesleele. ueeìeb®ee veewkeÀeve³eve, mecegêer lesue GlKeveve, meeiejer ¬eÀer[e, ceemesceejer DeMee ceeveJeer GHe¬eÀceebJej osKeerue ue#eCeer³e ÒeYeeJe He[lees. Heg{erue uesKeele Òeeke=ÀeflekeÀ cenemeeiej efJe%eeveeleerue GJe&efjle yeeyeeRefJe<e³eer ceeefnleer IesT.


ll aapala paryavaran ll

He³ee&JejCe peieleele ... efnceebMet ìWYeskeÀj ceie DeMee J³eÊeÀeR®ee DeeheCe DeeoMe& meceesj þsJeuee heeefnpes! Yeejleeleerue SkeÀeEMeieer ieW[îeeb®es ceensjIej Demeuesu³ee DeemeececeO³es mebJeOe&vee®es keÀe³e& peesj Oejle Demeues lejerner ieW[îee®³ee efMekeÀejer keÀceer ve Peeu³ee®es ef®e$e meceesj Deeues Deens. efMekeÀeN³eebvee jesKeC³eemeeþer SkeÀerkeÀ[s DeveskeÀ ³eespevee DeeKeu³ee peele Demeleevee og m ejer k eÀ[s ceveg<³eyeUe®ee DeYeeJe ne cegÎe heg{s ³eslees Deens.

Deelee pebieuee®³ee jepeeyeÎue SkeÀ he³ee&JejCee®ee þsJee DeyeeO³e jeneJee cnCetve DeeheCe keÀe³e keÀjlees SkeÀ jeshe ueeJelees keÀOeerkeÀOeer 10 jeshes ueeJelees, yeieer®ee GYeejlees. heCe ¿ee hewkeÀer ueeJeuesueer DeveskeÀ Pee[s veblej heeC³eeefJevee cejleele, keÀescespeleele. cnCepes jeshe ueeJeCes SJe{îeeJej Deeheues keÀece mebhele veener. lej DeeheCe l³eeb®es mebJeOe&ve keÀjCes l³eehes#ee peemle cenlJee®es !! nes³e vee. ceie ceeP³ee he³ee&JejCehe´sceer efce$eebvees DeeefCe cewef$eefCebvees pej Deeheu³eeuee Demee SKeeoe ceeCetme Yesìuee p³eeves 1400 SkeÀj peefceveerJej hetCe& pebieue GYes kesÀues lej leer J³eÊeÀer Deeheu³ee #es$eele $eÝ<eerlegu³e®e cnCeeJeer ueeiesue vee? nes³e, ns keÀle&=lJe ieepeJeueb Deens DeemeececeOeu³ee peeoJe hee³eWie ³eebveer ! ueneveheCeer hegjecegUs Peeuesu³ee me=äer®³ee vegkeÀmeeveerletve l³eebveer þjJeueb, DeeheCe mJeleë Pee[s ueeJee³e®eer. yeesì keÀe{tve veoer heej keÀje³e®eer DeeefCe yesìeJej peeTve Pee[s ueeJee³e®eer ns keÀece l³eebveer Denesje$e meg© þsJeueb DeeefCe Deepe nÊeer, JeeIe, ieW[s, njCes ¿eebvee DeeÞe³e osCeej SkeÀ oeì pebieue®e GYeejueb. ¿ee keÀeceefiejermeeþer Yeejle mejkeÀejves he¨eÞeer hegjmkeÀej osTve l³eeb®ee mevceeve kesÀuee. heCe l³eebveer ns keÀece efvemJeeLeea YeeJevesves megª þsJeues.

cenlJee®eer yeeleceer. SkeÀerkeÀ[s JeeIeeb®es mebJeOe&ve keÀjC³eemeeþer ³eespevee DeeKeu³ee peele Deensle DeeefCe ogmejerkeÀ[s ¿ee®e JeeIeebvee vejYe#ekeÀ þjJetve l³eebvee he´eCeermebie´neue³eele nueJeC³ee®eer keÀe³e&JeenerosKeerue kesÀueer peele Deens. `Gmleeo' yengoe ns veeJe meieȳeebvee Deelee heefjef®ele Peeues Demesue. nes³e lees®e Gmleeo, pees keÀener ceefnv³eebhetJeea efyeveOeemleheCes Deeheu³ee pebieueele efJe®ejCe keÀjle neslee heCe Jevej#ekeÀ jeceheeue mewveer ¿eeb®³ee ce=l³etuee Gmleeouee peyeeyeoej þjJeC³eele Deeues DeeefCe l³eeuee Deeheu³ee mJeeleb$³eeuee cegkeÀeJes ueeieues. iesu³ee 5 Je<ee&leueer ner ®eewLeer Ieìvee nesleer, p³eele Gmleeoves ceeCemee®ee yeUer Iesleuee neslee. cnCetve l³eeuee vejYe#ekeÀ þjJeues iesues. heCe he´Mve Demee he[lees, pej lees vejYe#ekeÀ Demelee lej

³eeJej Ghee³e cnCetve mLeeefvekeÀ ueeskeÀebvee JevemesJesle I³eeJes, Demes keÀeneR®es cele Deens. keÀePeerjbiee DeYe³eejC³ee®³ee Deepetyeepetuee nesCeejer yeskeÀe³eosMeerj yeebOekeÀecesner JeveebJej Keesue heefjCeece keÀjleele. l³eecegUs Deelee Deemeece mejkeÀej ¿ee ceveg<³eefvee|cele DeeheÊeerheemetve ieW[îee®es mebj#eCe keÀjC³eemeeþer keÀesCeles heeTue G®eueles ns®e peeCetve I³ee³e®es Deens.

JeejbJeej ceveg<³ee®eer efMekeÀej keÀjC³eeme Deeuee Demelee. heCe lemes Ie[ues veener. 15 ces jespeer JeveKeel³ee®³ee SkeÀe heLekeÀeves l³eeuee yesMeg× keÀªve eEhepeN³eele ìekeÀues DeeefCe jCeLebyeesjheemetve 400 ef k eÀef c e Deb l ejeJejer u e meppeveie[ peerJeGÐeeveele nueJeC³eele Deeues. osMeheeleUerJej DeveskeÀ Jev³epeerJehe´sceeRveer ¿eeuee keÀ[e[tve efJejesOe kesÀuee. keÀener Ghees<eCeeuee yemeues. heCe mejkeÀej Deeheu³ee YetefcekesÀJej þece jeefnues. Kej®e DeeheCe ¿ee efJe<e³eeJej iebYeerjheCes efJe®eej keÀjC³ee®eer iejpe Deens. ®egkeÀlees keÀesCe? JeeIe keÀer ceeCetme? veeC³ee®eer ogmejer yeepet cnCepes efleLeu³ee Jevej#ekeÀebmeeþer ceoleer®ee nele IesTve heg{s Deeues heeefnpes. pesCeskeÀªve l³eebveener efveOee&mleheCes pebieuee®es mebj#eCe keÀjlee ³esF&ue DeeefCe hegvne DeMee Ieìvee Ie[Ceej veener.


~~ DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe ~~ DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee...

15

DeekeÀeMeeletve Deefveye¥Oe Je<ee&Je ! (®e@Hìj 10 – Yeeie 2 ) mee³eueWì efmÒebie - uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve

Red imported FIRE ANT Alabama (ueeue ceesþîee cegbi³ee)

³ee ceOeu³ee keÀeUele JevemHeleer keÀerìkeÀ efve³eb$eCe efJeYeeiee®es DeefOekeÀejer efpeHmeer cee@LeyeÎue Lees[e JesU efJemeªve®e iesues nesles. keÀejCe Deelee oef#eCeskeÀ[erue Yeeieele ³eeHes#eener cenlJeekeÀeb#eer ³eespevee megª keÀjC³ee®³ee keÀeceele les J³eûe nesles. ‘mecetU G®®eeìve’ ne Meyo Depetvener efJeYeeiee®³ee mee³ekeÌueesmìeF&ue (efceceesûeeHeÀ) ceMeerveceOetve menpe yeensj He[lees Deens. cee$e ³ee JesUsme®³ee l³ee®³ee ÒeefmeOoerHe$ekeÀele HeÀe³ej DeBì®ee (ueeue ceesþîee cegbi³eeb®ee) mebHetCe& vee³eveeì keÀjC³ee®es Deeéeemeve l³eebveer efoues Deens. HeÀe³ej DeBì efkebÀJee ueeue ceesþîee cegbi³ee Demes l³ee keÀerìkeÀe®es veeJe He[ues Deens, les efle®³ee efJeKeejer veebieercegUs. ³ee HeÀe³ej DeBì®ee ÒeJesMe Deueeyeecee®³ee ceesefyeue yebojeletve ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmedceO³es Peeuee. Heefnu³ee cene³egOo®³ee MesJeìer Lees[îee®e keÀeueeveblej ³ee cegbi³ee ¢äerme He[u³ee. 1928 meeueeHe³e¥le ceesefyeue®³ee GHeveiejele l³ee Hemeju³ee nesl³ee. l³eeveblej l³eeb®es Dee¬eÀceCe ®eeuet®e jenerues. Deelee l³ee oef#eCeskeÀ[erue yengleskeÀ meJe& jep³eebceO³es Heesnes®eu³ee Deensle. ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmedceO³es efMeju³eeHeemetve iesu³ee 40 Je<ee&le HeÀe³ej DeBìveer HeÀej®e Lees[s ue#e JesOetve Iesleues Deens. p³ee jep³eebceO³es l³ee YejHetj ÒeceeCeele nesl³ee, lesLes l³eeb®ee GHeêJe neslees Deens Demes Jeeìe³e®es cegK³e keÀejCe cnCepes ¿ee HeÀe³ej

DeBì Iejs yeebOee³e®³ee efkebÀJee SkeÀ HetÀì Jee DeefOekeÀ Gb®e JeeªU yeebOee³e®³ee. Mesleeleerue ³eebef$ekeÀ DeJepeejs JeeHejleevee JeeªUebcegUs De[®eCe Jne³e®eer. Hejbleg HeÀkeÌle 2 jep³eeletve Deeuesu³ee DenJeeueele ÒecegK³eeves DemeCeeN³ee 20 Flej keÀerìkeÀeb®³ee ÒepeeleeRyejesyej ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBì®ee meceeJesMe neslee. leesner ³eeoer®³ee MesJe쮳ee keÀener ¬eÀceebkeÀele neslee. keÀesCel³eener DeefOekeÀeN³eeuee efkebÀJee Keepeieer mebmLesuee Demes keÀOeerner Jeeìues veener keÀer ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBìHeemetve efHekeÀebvee efkebÀJee HeMegOeveeuee keÀener OeeskeÀe Deens. jemee³eefvekeÀ efJe<eejer keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee MeesOe ueeieuee lesJneHeemetve De®eevekeÀ ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBìkeÀ[s HeenC³ee®eer DeefOekeÀeN³eeb®eer Je=Êeer De®eevekeÀ yeoueueer. ³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmed®³ee MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeves 1957 meeueer SkeÀ JewefMeäîeHetCe& SsefleneefmekeÀ Òe®eej ceesnerce keÀe{ueer. HeÀe³ej DeBì ¿ee SkeÀeSkeÀer mejkeÀej®³ee Ye[erceeje®es efveMeeCe yeveu³ee. mejkeÀej®es ®eueef®e$e, l³eeb®³ee Òeme=le Peeuesu³ee keÀLee keÀneC³ee ³ee meieȳeeletve HeÀe³ej DeBì He#³eebvee ceejleele, iegje{esjebvee Je ceeCemeebveener ceejleele Demes oeKeefJeC³eele Deeues. SkeÀ Òe®eb[ ceesþer ceesnerce DeeKeueer iesueer. ³ee ceesnercesle mebIejep³e DeeefCe keÀener Flej jep³es p³eebvee HeÀe³ej DeBì®ee $eeme neslee, l³eebveer þjefJeues keÀer oef#eCeskeÀ[erue veT jep³eele efceUtve 2keÀesìer SkeÀj peefceveerJej keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee Òe³eesie keÀjeJe³ee®ee. ‘³egveeF&ìs[ mìsìmed®³ee MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeves J³eeHekeÀ ÒeceeCeele HeÀe³ej DeBì®ee efJeveeMe

mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs

keÀjC³ee®es DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ keÀe³e&¬eÀce pemes DeeKeues Je Debceueele DeeCeues lemes keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®³ee GlHeeokeÀebvee efJe¬eÀer®eer HeJe&Ceer®e ueeYeu³eemeejKes Peeues. ’ Demes Deieoer Gunemeeves 1958 ®³ee SkeÀe J³eeHeejer efve³elekeÀeefuekeÀele Deeues Deens. keÀOeerner keÀesCeleener keÀerìkeÀveeMevee®ee keÀe³e&¬eÀce, p³eebvee efJe¬eÀer®³ee HeJe&Ceer®ee ueeYe Peeuee Deens les mees[tve, yengOee Òel³eskeÀekeÀ[tve FlekeÀe efveKebouee iesuee veJnlee. mebHetCe& keÀerìkeÀÒepeeleerJej efve³eb$eCe keÀjC³eemeeþer kesÀuesu³ee, DeeefLe&keÀ¢äîee FlekeÀe ceneie He[uesu³ee DeeefCe p³eele DeveskeÀ ÒeeC³eeb®eer efpeefJeleneveer Peeueer, DeMee nslegHegj:mej, Del³eble neefvekeÀejkeÀ DeeefCe ®egkeÀer®³ee HeOoleerves kesÀuesu³ee Òe³eesiee®es ns SkeÀ Glke=Àä GoenjCe Deens. ³ee Òe³eesieecegUs MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeJej®ee ueeskeÀeb®ee efJeéeeme G[euee keÀer, ³ee DeMee keÀeceemeeþer FlekeÀe ceesþe efveOeer keÀmee efouee iesuee ns DeveekeÀueveer³e Deens. megªJeeleerme ³ee ³eespeves®eer DeMeer ceeb[Ceer kesÀueer iesueer keÀer efleuee DeefOemeYes®ee HeeþeRyee efceUeuee. HeCe veblej l³ee ³eespevesJej®ee ueeskeÀeb®ee efJeéeeme G[euee. peefceveerueiele Iejìer yeebOeCeeN³ee He#³eeb®³ee efHeuueebJej HeÀe³ej DeBì nuuee ®e{Jele cnCetve oef#eCeskeÀ[erue Mesleerleerue efHekeÀeb®ee Je pebieueer ÒeeC³eeb®ee ¿ee HeÀe³ej DeBì veeMe keÀjleele Demes ef®e$e GYes kesÀues iesues. l³eeb®³ee veebi³ee ceeveJeer Deejesi³eemeeþer IeelekeÀ Deensle Demes meebefieleues iesues. keÀesCeleener HegjeJee vemeleevee kesÀuesuee ne oeJee efkeÀleHele ³eesi³e neslee. ner efJeOeeves mee#e IesTve ³eesi³e Demeu³ee®es MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeves oeKeefJeues nesles. l³ee®e MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®³ee ÒeefmeOoer He$ekeÀeleerue ceeefnleerMeer les Deefpeyeele pegUle veJnles. 1957®³ee peenerj He$ekeÀele l³eebveer efHekeÀebJej Je iegje{esjebJej nuuee keÀjCeeN³ee keÀerìkeÀebmeeþer keÀener keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®eer


ll aapala paryavaran ll

16

efMeHeÀejme kesÀueer nesleer. Hejbleg l³ee keÀerìkeÀebceO³es HeÀ³ej DeBì®ee keÀener Keeme GuuesKe veJnlee. MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®ee mJele:®³ee Òe®eej ceesnercesJej ef J eéeeme Demelee, lej ne ceg Î e Demee ®ecelkeÀejerkeÀHeCes JeieUuee iesuee vemelee. ³eeefMeJee³e efJeYeeieeves 1952 meeueer ÒeefmeOo kesÀuesu³ee Keeme keÀerìkeÀebmeeþer®³ee Jeeef<e&keÀ %eevekeÀesMeeleerue 5 ueeKe MeyoebHewkeÀer kesÀJeU SkeÀ íesìe Hejer®íso ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBìbmebyebOeer neslee. ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBìb efHekeÀeb®es vegkeÀmeeve keÀjleele DeeefCe iegje{esjebJej nuuee keÀjleele ne pees keÀOeerner keÀeieoesHe$eer HegjeJee vemeuesuee MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®ee oeJee neslee. l³ee®³ee Deieoer efJeªOo jep³eeleerue MeslekeÀerefJe<e³eeleerue Òe³eesiekeWÀêe®es cnCeCes nesles. l³eebveer keÀeUpeerHetJe&keÀ DeY³eeme kesÀuee neslee DeeefCe Deueeyeeceeleerue keÀerìkeÀeb®ee peJeUtve Iesleuesuee leHeMeerueJeej DevegYeJe neslee. Deueeyeeceeleerue Meem$e%eeb ® ³ee celes , ‘ meJe& m eeOeejCeHeCes ueeueHeÀe³ej DeBìbHeemetve keÌJeef®ele®e OeeskeÀe mebYeJele Demes. ’ Deueeyeecee Hee@efueìseqkeÌvekeÀ mebmLes®es Je DecesefjkesÀleerue keÀerìkeÀMeem$e mebIeìves®es DeO³e#e [e@. SHedÀ. Smed. De@jvì cnCeleele keÀer iesu³ee Hee®e Je<ee&le ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBìHeemetve efHekeÀeb®es vegkeÀmeeve Peeues Deens, DeMee ÒekeÀej®ee SkeÀner DenJeeue Deeuee veener. lemes®e HeMegOevee®es keÀener vegkeÀmeevener Peeuesues efomeues veener. ¿ee ceeCemeebveer Òel³e#eHeCes Mesleeleerue cegbi³eeb®es efvejer#eCe kesÀues, lemes®e Òe³eesieMeeUslener kesÀues, les cnCeleele keÀer HeÀe³ej DeBìb ÒeecegK³eeves JesieJesieUs keÀerìkeÀ Keeleele. l³eeleerue yejs®emes ceeCemeebmeeþer neefvekeÀejkeÀ Deensle. ³ee HeÀe³ej DeBì keÀeHemeeJej®³ee yee@ue efJnefJeue keÀer[îeeb®³ee Deȳee efìHeleevee efomeleele. l³ee pes JeeªU yeebOee³e®es keÀece keÀjleele, l³eecegUs ceeleerKeeueerue nJee keÀesj[er jenles DeeefCe ceeleerleerue mee®euesu³ee HeeC³ee®ee efve®eje neslees. Deueeyeecee ³esLeerue Peeuesu³ee DeY³eemeeHes#ee efceefmeefmeHeer mìsì ³egefveJnefme&ìer ³esLes Peeuesues mebMeesOeve DeefOekeÀ Debieebveer ³egkeÌle Deens. MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®³ee HegjeJ³eebHes#ee les peemle HeìCeejs Deens. MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®es HegjeJes pegv³ee®e mebMeesOeveeJej

efkebÀJee MeslekeÀN³eebMeer pes yeesueCes Peeues l³eeJej DeeOeejerle Deensle. les MeslekeÀjer menpeHeCes ogmeN³ee ÒekeÀej®³ee cegbi³eebMeer ieuuele keÀjerle Demele. keÀener keÀerìkeÀMeem$e%eeb®es Demes cnCeCes Deens keÀer keÀener oMekeÀebHetJeea pes efvejer#eCe kesÀues iesues l³eeuee Deelee HeÀejmes cenlJe Gjues veener, keÀejCe SkeÀ lej HeÀe³ej DeBì®eer mebK³ee Deelee DeceeHe Peeueer Deens l³eecegUs l³eeb®³ee KeeC³ee®³ee meJe³eerner yeoueu³ee Deensle. Red imported fire ants Alabama (ueeue ceesþîee cegbi³ee)

ueeue ³ee HeÀe³ej DeBì Deejesi³eeuee kee peerJeveeuee IeelekeÀ Deensle, ¿ee oeJ³eele yeje®emee yeoue keÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. DeeHeu³ee ³eespevesuee HeeþeRyee efceUeJee cnCetve MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeves lemee Òe®eej keÀjCeeN³ee SkeÀe ef®e$eHeìeuee DeeefLe&keÀ HeeþeRyee efouee neslee. ³ee ef®e$eHeìele ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBì ®³ee veebieer®³ee Ye³ebkeÀj HeefjCeeceeb®es ef®e$e GYes kesÀues nesles. ns Kejs keÀer, ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBì®ee obMe Jesoveeoe³ekeÀ Demelees DeeefCe SKeeÐeeves lees obMe ìeUuee®e Heeefnpes. mebJesoveMeerue J³eeqkeÌle keÀOeerlejer leerJe´ Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee J³ekeÌle keÀjleerue efMeJee³e JewÐekeÀer³e ceeefnleer He$ekeÀele pejer Kee$eeroe³ekeÀHeCes veener lejer keÀoeef®ele ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBB쮳ee obMeeves SkeÀ ce=l³eg Peeu³ee®eer veeWo Deens. ³eeefJeªOo pevce – ce=l³eg®eer veeWoCeer keÀjCeeN³ee keÀe³ee&ue³eeves 1959meeueer ceOeceeMee Je ieebOeerue ceeMeeb®³ee obMeeves 33 ce=l³eg®eer veeWo kesÀueer Deens. lejerner ns keÀerìkeÀ veenermes keÀjC³eeefJe<e³eer keÀesCeerner keÀesCeleerner ³eespevee DeeKeuesueer veener. efMeJee³e mLeeefvekeÀ HegjeJes peemle HeìCeejs Deensle. ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBBì DeueeyeeceeceO³es pejer iesueer 40 Je<ex Jemeleer keÀªve Demeu³ee DeeefCe KetHe ÒeceeCeele Demeu³ee lejer Deueeyeecee jep³ee®³ee Deejesi³e DeefOekeÀeN³eeves Demes peenerj kesÀues keÀer, ‘³ee Dee³eele Peeuesu³ee ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBB쮳ee obMeeves ceeveJeer ce=l³eg Peeu³ee®eer DeepeHe³e¥le keÀesCeleerner veeWo veener.’

l³eeb®³ee celes HeÀe³ej DeBB쮳ee obMeeves p³ee ªiCeeF&lee®³ee Ieìvee Ie[u³ee, l³ee ÒeemebefiekeÀ nesl³ee. ieJelee®³ee kegÀjCeele efkebÀJee cewoeveele pej cegbi³eeb®eer JeeªUs Demeueer lej l³ee HeefjefmLeleerle lesLeerue cegueebvee cegbi³ee ®eeJeC³ee®eer Meke̳elee Deens. Hejbleg l³eemeeþer ue#eeJeOeer SkeÀj YetYeeie efJe<eejer jmee³eveebveer HetCe&HeCes efYepeJetve ìekeÀC³ee®eer keÀener iejpe veJnleer. Òel³eskeÀ JeeªUeJej JesieJesieUer Òeef¬eÀ³ee keÀjCes ³ee HeefjefmLeleerle menpe Meke̳e nesles. ³ee Kesjerpe p³eeb®eer efMekeÀej keÀje³e®eer DeMee He#eeb®es vegkeÀmeeve Peeues ne SkeÀ efyeveyeg[e®ee DeejesHe neslee. l³eemeeþer keÀener®e HegjeJee veJnlee. SkeÀ®e J³ekeÌleer Kee$eerves DeefOekeÀejeves ³eeyeeyele yeesuet MekeÀles leer cnCepes [e@ cee@jerme SHedÀ. yeskeÀj l³eeb®ee ³ee #es$eele yeN³ee®e Je<ee¥®ee DevegYeJe neslee. HeCe [e@. yeskeÀj ³eeb®es cele MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®³ee ³ee oeJ³eeb®³ee HetCe&HeCes efJeªOo nesles. l³eebveer Demes mHeäHeCes meebefieleues keÀer, ‘FLes Deueeyeeceele Deecneuee efMekeÀejermeeþer YejHetj He#eer Deensle. yee@ye JneF&ì He#eer menpeHeCes KetHe ceesþîee mebK³esves Demeuesu³ee Dee³eele kesÀuesu³ee ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBBìbyejesyej Jemeleer keÀªve Deensle. oef#eCe Deueeyeeceele iesu³ee 40 Je<ee&le ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBBì Demeu³ee lejer efMekeÀejermeeþer®³ee He#eeb®eer mebK³ee nUtnUt YejHetj ÒeceeCeele Jee{ueer Deens. pej ueeue


HeÀe³ej DeB B ì Jev³epeer J eveemeeþer Del³eb l e OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ Demel³ee lej DeMeer HeefjefmLeleer jeefnueer vemeleer. ’ HeÀe³ej DeBBBìmeeþer JeeHejuesu³ee keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee Flej Jev³epeerJeveeJej keÀe³e HeefjCeece nesleerue ne JesieUe®e cegÎe neslee. Deieoer veJeerve Demeuesueer [e³eSu[^erve Je nsHìekeÌueesj ner jmee³eves JeeHejueer nesleer. ³ee oesvnerHewkeÀer SkeÀe®eener HeÀej Lees[e DevegYeJe neslee. peefceveerJej jmee³eveeb®ee Fleke̳ee ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele JeeHej kesÀu³eeveblej l³eeb®ee jeveeleerue He#eer, ceemes Jee Flej memleve ÒeeC³eebJej keÀe³e HeefjCeece nesF&ue ³ee®ee keÀesCeeueener Deboepe veJnlee. DeLee&le ns ceenerle nesles keÀer ner oesvner efJe<eejer jmee³eves [er[erìerHes#ee efkeÀl³eskeÀ Heìerves IeelekeÀ nesleer. [er[erìer DeeleeHe³e¥le meeOeejCe one Je<ex JeeHejueer iesueer nesleer DeeefCe SkeÀjer 1 HeeQ[ ³ee ÒeceeCeele JeeHeªvemegOoe efle®³eecegUs keÀener He#eer Je DeveskeÀ ceemes ceejues iesues nesles. [e³eSu[^erve Je nsHìekeÌueesj ³ee Deew<eOeeb®eer cee$ee lej yeN³ee®e efþkeÀeCeer SkeÀjer 2 HeeQ[ FlekeÀer nesleer. pesLes JneF&ì efÖeÀvpe[d yeerìueJejner efve³eb$eCe DeeCee³e®es nesles lesLes SkeÀjer 3 HeeQ[ JeeHejues nesles. ³ee meJee&®ee He#³eebJej keÀe³e HeefjCeece neslees ns Heenlee [er[erìer®³ee leguevesle nsHìekeÌueesj SkeÀjer 20 HeeQ[, lej [e³eSu[^erve SkeÀjer 120 HeeQ[ ³ee ÒeceeCeele JeeHeju³eemeejKes Deens. jep³ee®³ee He³ee&JejCe j#eCe efJeYeeieeves, jeä^er³e He³ee&JejCe j#eCe mebmLeebveer DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe le%eebveer lej keÀener keÀerìkeÀMeem$e%eebveerner ³ee efJeªOo leeye[leesye DeeJeepe GþefJeuee. MeslekeÀer efJeYeeiee®³ee meef®eJe SPeje yesvmeve ³eeb®eer Yesì IesTve efJevebleer kesÀueer keÀer, peesHe³e¥le nsHìekeÌueesj Je [e³eSu[^erve ³eeb®³ee Jev³e Jee HeeUerJe ÒeeC³eebJej keÀe³e HeefjCeece neslees DeeefCe HeÀe³ej DeBBìbJej efve³eb$eCe DeeCeC³eemeeþer efkeÀleer keÀceerlekeÀceer ÒeceeCeele jmee³eves JeeHejlee ³esleerue ³eeefJe<e³eer mebMeesOeve nesle veener, leesHe³e¥le ne HeÀJeejCeer®ee keÀe³e&¬eÀce mLeefiele keÀjeJee. ³ee efJejesOeeuee ve pegceevelee®e 1958 ceO³es ³eespevee þjefJeu³eeÒeceeCes jeyeefJeC³eele Deeueer. DeveskeÀ oMeue#e SkeÀj peefceveerJej jmee³eves JeeHejC³eele Deeueer. DeLee&led

³eeveblej kesÀuesues keÀesCelesner mebMeesOeve cnCepes kesÀJeU MeJeefJe®ísove kesÀu³eemeejKes nesles. ner keÀerìkeÀ efve³eb$eCe ³eespevee leMeer®e ®eeuet jeefnueer. jep³ee®³ee DeeefCe mebIejep³ee®³ee Jev³epeerJe mebmLee Je efkeÀl³eskeÀ ³egefveJnefme&ìerceOeerue peerJeMeem$e%eebveer kesÀuesu³ee DeY³eemeeletve Demes efomeues keÀer DeMee ÒekeÀej®³ee Ieìvee Ie[le Deensle. ³ee DeY³eemeeletve nsner mHe<ì Peeues keÀer pesLes Òeef¬eÀ³ee Peeueer nesleer lesLeerue Jev³epeerJeve nUtnUt mebHetCe&HeCes veeMe HeeJeles Deens. keÀeWye[îee, iegjs{esjs DeeefCe HeeUerJe ÒeeCeermegOoe ³eele ceejues iesues. ner DeefleMe³eeskeÌleer Deens Je ueeskeÀeb®eer efoMeeYetue keÀjCeejer Deens Demes cnCele MeslekeÀer efJeYeeieeves vegkeÀmeeve oeKeefJeCeejs ns meieUs HegjeJes Oeg[keÀeJetve ueeJeues. DeLee&led DeMee ÒekeÀej®³ee Ieìvee SkeÀeJej SkeÀ ieesUe nesle jeefnu³ee. GoenjCeeLe& ìskeÌmeeme®³ee neefo&ve HejieC³eele DeHee@mece, Deecee&ef[uees Je YejHetj ÒeceeCeele Demeuesueer jketÀve®eer mebK³ee ³ee jmee³eveeb®³ee JeeHejeveblej KejesKej veenerMeer®e Peeueer. HeÀJeejCeerveblej®³ee ogmeN³ee efMeefMej $eÝletlemegOoe ns ÒeeCeer Deieoer Lees[îee ÒeceeCeele efomele nesles. pes Lees[s jketÀve l³ee Heefjmejele meeHe[ues l³eeb®³ee HesMeeRceO³es jmee³eveeb®es DebMe meeHe[ues. Raccoon (jketÀve) p³ee Heefjmejele jmee³eve JeeHejues nesles lesLeerue He#³eebveer ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBBìmeeþer®es ns efJe<e efieUues efkebÀJee l³eeb®³ee Mejerjele les Mees<eues iesues. l³ee He#³eeb®es jemee³eefvekeÀ efJeMues<eCe kesÀues lesJne l³eeb®³ee HesMeeRceO³es mHeäHeCes ns efometve Deeues. (pes keÀener Lees[sHeÀej He#eer Gjues nesles, l³ee Iejiegleer ef®eceC³ee nesl³ee. Flej efþkeÀeCeerner p³ee ef®eceC³ee jeefnu³ee nesl³ee, l³eeletve Demes efmeOo nesles keÀer l³ee leguevesves DeefOekeÀ Òeefle#ece nesl³ee.) 1959 meeueer Deueeyeeceeleerue p³ee YetÒeosMeeJej jmee³eves JeeHejueer nesleer, lesLeerue DeOexDeefOekeÀ He#eer cesues. He#³eeb®³ee p³ee Òepeeleer peefceveerJej jenleele DeeefCe yeN³ee®eoe Pee[ePeg[Heele Deemeje Iesleele, l³eeb®ee ce=l³eg®ee oj 100 ìkeÌkesÀ FlekeÀe neslee. HeÀJeejCeerveblej SkeÀe Je<ee&vesmegOoe Jemeble$eÝletle

ieeCeejs He#eer SkeÀ SkeÀ keÀjle cesues. pesLes Iejìer yeebOelee ³esleerue DeMee peeieener megv³eemegv³ee ef j keÀec³ee®e jeef n u³ee. ìs k eÌ m eemeceO³es IejìîeebceO³es cesuesues yue@keÀye[&, ef[keÀefmemeue DeeefCe ces[esueeke&À He#eer meeHe[ues. DeveskeÀ He#eer Iejìer mees[tve®e iesues nesles. pesJne ìskeÌmeeme, uegF&efPe³eevee, Deueeyeecee, pee@efpe&³ee DeeefCe HeÌueesjer[e ³eLeerue cesuesu³ee He#³eeb®es vecegves celm³e Je Jev³epeerJeve mesJeekeWÀêekeÀ[s efJeMues<eCeemeeþer HeeþJeues lesJne l³eeleerue 90 ìkeÌkesÀ He#³eebceO³es efveoeve oMeue#eeceeies 38 Yeeie Fleke̳ee ÒeceeCeele [e³eSu[^erve Je nsHìekeÌueesj®es vecegves meeHe[ues. efnJeeȳeele uegF&efPe³eevee ³esLes Jemeleer keÀjCeejs Jeg[keÀe@keÀ, l³eeb®eer Hewoeme cee$e GÊejskeÀ[s keÀjleele. les Deelee l³eeb®³ee Mejerjeletve ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBBìbmeeþer®es keÀuebefkeÀle efJe<e Jeentve vesleele. ³ee Òeot<eCee®ee Giece keÀesþtve neslees les mHeä®e Deens. YejHetj ieeb[gUs ns Jeg[keÀe@keÀ®es ÒecegKe KeeÐe Deens. l³eeb®³ee ueebye ®ees®eerves les ieeb[gUs MeesOetve keÀe{leele. Hejbleg HeÀJeejCeerveblej 6 les 10 ceefnv³eeveblejner l³ee Heefjmejeleerue efpeJeble Demeuesu³ee ieeb[gUeb®³ee Mejerjele oMeue#eeceeies 20 Yeeie FlekesÀ nsHìekeÌueesj meeHe[ues. SkeÀ Je<ee&veblej les oMeue#eeceeies 10 Yeeie FlekesÀ Peeues. DeÒel³e#eHeCes Jeg[keÀe@keÀvee peer efJe<eejer yeeOee Peeueer l³ee®es HeefjCeece cnCetve efomeles keÀer, efHeuueeletve ceesþîee nesCeeN³ee He#³eeb®eer mebK³ee Ieìles Deens. ueeue HeÀe³ej DeBBìbJej kesÀuesu³ee Deew<eOeeb®³ee JeeHejeveblej®³ee ceesmeceele ns HeefjCeece efometve Deeues. ¬eÀceMe:


ll aapala paryavaran ll HegÀueJee

ne[pees[ ë JeýeJeuueer Debpevee osJemLeUs

JeefMeÿ $eÝ<eeR®eer Helveer De©bOeleer efn®³ee ngMeejer®³ee DeveskeÀ keÀLee ueneveHeCeer SskeÀu³ee nesl³ee. l³eeHewkeÀer SkeÀe keÀLesves ceveele Iej keÀªve þsJeueb nesleb. keÀejCe l³eeleu³ee SkeÀe Meyoe®es GÊej kegÀCeer®e osT MekeÀues veJnles. keÀeueeblejeves leer ieesä efJemejues, l³ee Meyoe®ee DeLe& MeesOeC³ee®ee veeoner mebHeuee. Deepe Fleke̳ee Je<ee¥veer les GÊej MeesOeC³eemeeþer ceeP³ee ³epeceeveebvee l³eeb®³ee KeebÐee®es ne[ cees[tve I³eeJes ueeieues! ieesä DeMeer Deens, JeefMeÿ $eÝ<eeRveer SkeÀoe efJeMJeeefce$eebvee Þee×e®eb pesJeCe pesJee³e®es, Deieoer ceevee®es, Deeceb$eCe efoues. efJeMJeeefce$eebveer les mJeerkeÀjues; cee$e SkeÀe DeìerJej. pesJeCeele 1008 HeoeLe& DemeeJesle. De©bOeleer®³ee peerJeeJej JeefMe<þebveer les ceev³e kesÀueb. Peeueb ceie, þjuesu³ee efoJeMeer ceb[Uer pesJee³euee npej. `veoerJej DeebIeesU keÀªve ³ee. lesJe{îeele ceer leeìb Jee{les' Demes De©bOeleerves meebefieleues. meieUs DeebIeesU keÀªve Deeues lej Heeveele one®e HeoeLe&. efJeMJeeefce$eebvee ne DeHeceeve menve Peeuee veener. les MeeHe osCeej SJe{îeele De©bOeleerves DeefleMe³e ngMeejerves meceHe&keÀ GÊej osTve efJeMJeeefce$eebvee Meeble kesÀues DeeefCe pesJee³euee yemeJeues. ``keÀejJeefuue Meeble ®ewJe Jeýe Jeefuue Mele$e³eb Hevemeb <eì Meleb®ewJe ÞeeOe&keÀeues efJeOeer³eles'' Þee×e®³ee pesJeCeele Jee{uesu³ee HeoeLee¥ceO³es l³eeb®³ee iegCeOecee&vegmeej SkesÀkeÀe HeoeLee&®es efkeÀleerlejer HeoeLe& nesleele. keÀejueb ns Del³eble Deew<eOeer Demeu³eeves SkeÀe Yeepeeryejesyej MebYej HeoeLe&. HeÀCeme Del³eble ©®ekeÀj, HeewefäkeÀ DeeefCe Deew<eOeer Demeu³eeves l³ee®es SkeÀeme meneMes. lemes®e iegCekeÀejer cnCetve `Jeýe' ³ee JevemHeleer®³ee SkeÀe efpevvemeeyejesyej 300 HeoeLe&. ceie ner Jeýe JevemHeleer keÀesCeleer DeeefCe efle®es SJe{s iegCe lejer keÀesCeles ne ÒeMve He[uee. ojc³eeve®³ee keÀeUele ceeP³ee ³epeceeveeb®ee DeHeIeele Peeuee. neleeuee Fpee Peeueer DeeefCe Dee@LeeexHes[erkeÀ [e@keÌìjeb®es GHe®eej megª Peeues. KeebÐee®³ee ne[euee Öe@ÀkeÌ®ej Demetvener l³eeuee Hueemìj Ieeuelee ³esCeej veJnles. ³eeJej GHee³e cnCepes nele yeebOetve þsJeCes Deeef]Ce Deew<eOe IesCes. Deew<eOee®es veeJe `Union'. Deew<eOener Dee³egJexoe®es! ueies®e ceePes

keÀeve ìJekeÀejues. Cissus Quadrangularis ner JevemHeleer ceer DeveskeÀ yeeieebceO³es yeefIeleueer nesleer. DeveskeÀ JesUe ueeskebÀ leer IesTvener peele. ceie keÀener HegmlekeÀebceOetve DeeCeKeer MeesOe Iesleuee. yeIelee yeIelee ³ee Jesueer®es FlekesÀ iegCeOece& meeHe[t ueeieues keÀer yemme! DeMeer Jes[erJeekeÀ[er Jee{Ceejer, DeªHeJeeve Jesue FlekeÀer iegCee®eer Deens mecepeu³eeJej LekeÌkeÀ®e Peeues. ³ee Jesueeruee `JeýeJesue' cnCeleele ns keÀUues DeeefCe ceie cee$e De©bOeleer®es SJe{îee Je<ee¥®es keÀes[s megìu³ee®ee DeefleMe³e Deevebo Peeuee. `JeýeJesuueer', DeefmlemebnejkeÀ, ®ebieueceefHejeboe, ne[mebkeÀj, keÀebosJesue ner meJe& ner®eer®e veeJes. HeCe ³ee®ee ceesþe iegCeOece& oMe&efJeCeejs veeJe cnCepes `ne[ pees['! ne[b pees[Ceejer, DeefmlemebnejkeÀ cnCepes ne[eb®es j#eCe keÀjCeejer. iebcele cnCepes Dee³egJes&o, nesefce³eesHeLeer Deew<eOeer, De@ueesHeLeer meieUs®e ³ee®ee pe³epe³ekeÀej keÀjleele. ner Jesue pej legcner Heeefnueer Demesue lej efleuee efJemejlee®e ³esCeej veener. keÀejCe efomee³euee Deieoer JesieUer. DeeHeCe vesnceer yeIelees l³ee JevemHeleerbHes#ee efvejeUer. SkeÀ mejU HeÀeboer vemetve ®eej keÀesve Demeuesueer, ne[emeejKeer efnjJeer keÀe[er. efle®³ee Heg{s Hejle ogmejer keÀe[er. DeMee jebiesle ne[eb®eer ceeU keÀjeJeer DeMeer. efveIevìg jlveekeÀjceO³es ®eej keÀesve DeeefCe leerve keÀesve Demes oesve ÒekeÀej meebefieleues Deensle. Doctrine of Signature, meceeveles®es lelJe Demee ÒekeÀej Deens. cnCepes efvemeiee&le p³ee ieesäer meejK³ee efomeleele l³eeb®es iegCeOece& pegUleele. GoenjCeeLe& ceWo®³ee activity meeþer De¬eÀes[ KeeCes, mJeeogeEHe[emeeþer jepecee, HegÀHeÌHegÀmeemeeþer ìesce@ìes Fl³eeoer. l³ee®eÒeceeCes ne[ebmeeþer `ne[ pees[' ner JevemHeleer keÀeceer ³esles Demes keÀeneR®es cele Deens. Yeejleele G<Ce oceì efþkeÀeCeebceO³es meeHe[Ceejer keÀenerMeer jeveìer ÒekeÀejele yemeCeejer ner JevemHeleer Pee[eJej, kegbÀHeCeeJej Jee{leevee Dee{Ules. Deieoer ogue&ef#ele DeJemLeslener HeÀesHeÀeJeles, veJns Jes[er-JeekeÀ[er Hemejles. ueebye-ueebye keÀe[îee ceOeu³ee pees[eves eEkeÀJee Node, [esȳeeves pees[uesues Demeleele. Òel³eskeÀ

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meebO³eeJejle SkeÀ Ëo³eeke=Àleer Heeve DeeefCe ueebye Tendril ³esles. p³ee®³ee mee¿eeves Jesue DeeOeej Iesles. efleLes®e HegÀueeb®ee ieg®í osKeerue ³eslees. HegÀueb yeejerkeÀMeer Heeb{N³ee jbiee®eer, eEkeÀ®eerle efnjJeì íìe Demeuesueer. ne[pees[er ner êe#ee®³ee kegÀUeleueer JevemHeleer Deens. ³ee®eer HeÀUb ieesueekeÀej êe#ee®³ee IeesmeemeejKeer®e ueeieleele. efHekeÀuesueer HeÀUb ueeue®egìtkeÀ jbiee®eer Demeu³eeves ³ee Jesueer®eb meeQo³e& l³ee HeÀUebceO³es efomeles. ³ee Jesueer®eer DeefYeJe=×er Del³eble meesHeer. peje petve HeÀeboer [esȳee®³ee Keeueer íeìtve vegmeleer peefceveerle Hesjueer lejer nceKeeme Jee{les. efvemeiee&le pejer Jes[erJeekeÀ[er Jee{le Demeueer lejer DeeHeCe efleuee keÀeþîeeb®³ee DeeOeejeves JeUCe ueeJetve J³eJeefmLele Jee{Jet MekeÀlees. Deieoer kegbÀHeCeeJej®e veJns lej keÀceeve keÀªvener. Iej®³eeIejer ner JevemHeleer Jee{Jeu³eeme Deves k eÀ uenevemeneve og K eC³eeb J ej ef k eÀceeve ÒeLeceesHe®eej cnCetvener JeeHejlee ³esF&ue. `meebOeesYebiem³e mece³eespevee³e efnlece meeOeefve³ece' - meebOesogKeerJej eEkeÀJee meebOee efveKeUuee Demesue lej Flej GHe®eejebyejesyej ³ee®ee uesHe ueeJeu³eeme ueJekeÀj GHee³e neslees. metpe keÀceer nesTve meebOee pees[C³eemeeþer HeÀe³eoe neslees Demes cnCeleele. cee$e ogKeCes keÀceer nesC³eeme efveefM®ele HeÀe³eoe neslees. keÀener JesUe IeesCee HegÀìlees, veekeÀeletve jkeÌle ³esles lesJne DeveskeÀ GHe®eej meg ® eJeues peeleele. l³eeHew k eÀer SkeÀ cnCepes ne[pees[er®³ee keÀe[îee þs®etve, jme efHeUtve oesve LeWye IeeueeJes. YetkeÀ ueeiele vemeu³eeme ³ee®³ee Heeveeb®eer Yeepeer Keeuu³eeves ©®eer efvecee&Ce nesles. oc³eemeeþer Heeves GkeÀ[tve KeeC³ee®ee meuuee efouee peelees. Jeele DeeefCe keÀHeÀ oes<e yejs keÀjC³eemeeþer, cegUJ³eeOe, yegjMeerpev³e jesie, peble lemes®e ®e³eeHe®e³ee®³ee efyeIee[ecegUs Jee{uesues Jepeve ³ee®³ee efve³eefcele mesJeveeves keÀceer nesles Demes meebefieleues peeles. DeLee&le JewÐeeb®ee meuuee IesCes cenÊJee®es.


www.yuwarajgurjar.com

js[ nsueve kegÀU - He@efHeueerDeesveer[er GHekegÀU - He@efHeueerDeesveerveer JebMe/Òepeeleer - He@efHeueerDees peeleer - He@efHeueerDees nsuesvemed js[ nsueve ns mJe@ueesìsue ÒekeÀejeleerue SkeÀ ceesþîee DeekeÀeje®es HegÀueHeeKeª Demetve l³ee®³ee HebKeeb®ee efJemleej 110 les 130 ceer.ceer. FlekeÀe Demelees. ceeieerue HebKeeuee Keeueer MesHeìer Demeles. þmeþMeerle keÀeȳee jbiee®³ee ³ee HegÀueHeeKeje®es Debleyee&¿e mJeªHe SkeÀmeejKes Demeles. Heg{®³ee HebKee®³ee Jej®³ee yeepetJej keÀeȳee jbieele efcemeUtve iesuesueer ie[o leHeefkeÀjer PeekeÀ Demeles. js[ nsueve DeekeÀejeves keÀe@ceve jesPe DeeefCe keÀe@ceve cee@jcee@ve ³ee oesvner HegÀueHeeKejebHes#ee peemle ceesþs Demeles. HebKeeb®³ee keÀ[e veeiecees[er Demeleele. ceeieerue HebKee®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepetJej HesMeer®³ee Keeueer þUkeÀ Demes Heeb{js eEkeÀJee efHeJeUmej leerve efþHekesÀ Demeleele. ns ue#eJesOeer efþHekesÀ ceeieerue HebKee®³ee Jej®³ee yeepetJej l³ee®e efþkeÀeCeer HeCe DeekeÀejeves ceesþs Demeleele. ceeieerue HebKee®³ee oesvner yeepetJej Demeu³eeves, js[ nsueve G[leevee ns þmeþMeerle efþHekesÀ melele efomele jenleele. ceeoer®³ee ceeieerue HebKeeb®³ee keÀ[sJej ueeue jbiee®es efþHekesÀ Demeleele. Keeue®³ee yeepetJejerue ns efþHekesÀ Jej®³ee yeepetJejerue efþHeke̳eebHes#ee DeekeÀejeves ceesþs Demeleele. vejele ns ueeue efþHekesÀ vemeleele. vej-ceeoer®³ee Heg{®³ee HebKeebJej keÀesCelesner efþHekesÀ vemeleele. keÀeȳee jbiee®³ee HebKeeb®³ee Jej®³ee yeepetJej ie[o leHeefkeÀjer jbie keÀeȳee jbieele efcemeUuesuee Demelees. ns HegÀueHeeKeª F&Meev³e Yeejleele GÊej ÒeosMe les DeªCee®eue ÒeosMeHe³e¥le Je oef#eCe Yeejleele meJe&$e Dee{Ules. HetJe& Ieeìele DeebOe´ ÒeosMeele keÀener efþkeÀeCeer ns efomeu³ee®eer veeWo Deens. cenejeä^ele mebpe³e ieebOeer GÐeeve, ueesCeeJeUe, ef®eHeUtCe, Jeemeesìe, keÀes³evee Heefjmej, meeJebleJee[er, Deebyeesueer ³esLes efomeleele. peieele ns HegÀueHeeKeª vew$eÝl³e DeeefMe³eele ÞeeruebkeÀe, vesHeeU, Yetleeve, yeebieueeosMe, c³eeveceej, Lee³eueb[, ueeDeesme, keÀebHetef®e³ee, eqJnSleveece, oef#eCe ®eerve (nwveeve Je iebie[eBie ÒeosMe Oeªve), lewJeeve, oef#eCe peHeeve, oef#eCe keÀesjer³ee, N³egketÀ yesìs, oef#eCe Je HetJe& ceuesefMe³ee, ye´gvesF&, efHeÀefueHeervme Je Fb[esvesefMe³ee ³ee osMeebceO³es Dee{Uleele. cee®e& les veesJnWyej ³ee keÀeUele les efomele Demeles. 2100 ceerìj Gb®eerHe³e¥le ³ee®ee Dee{U Demelees. HegÀueebJej ceOegÒeeMeve keÀjCeeN³ee ³ee HegÀueHeeKejeuee ef®eKeueHeeve keÀjCes Hemeble Demeles. pebieueeleues veeues, veoerleU Je Deesu³ee peeieebJej les ³esles. Lees[e JesU ef®eKeueHeeve keÀje³e®es Je G[tve pee³e®es Je Hejle l³ee®e peeieer efKeueHeeveemeeþer ³ee³e®es Demes leer keÀjleele. ef®eKeueHeeve keÀjleevee leer mJe@ueesìsue HegÀueHeeKejebmeesyele efcemeUleele.

yeìyeìerle [esȳeeb®eer DeeTue HeÌuee³e DeeTue HeÌuee³e ne DeefleMe³e keÀceer efomeCeeje efkeÀìkeÀ Deens. pejer ³ee®es veeJe HeÌuee³e Demeues lejer ³ee®ee Ke´³ee ceeM³eebMeer ³eeb®ee keÀenerner mebyebOe veener. efomee³euee ns lebleesleble ®elegjemeejKes eEkeÀJee S@bì uee³eve ¿ee efkeÀìkeÀemeejKes efomeleele. ¿ee efkeÀìkeÀebvee DeesUKee³e®eer KegCe cnCepes ³eeb®es yeìyeìerle, efJeYeeieuesues [esUs DeeefCe ueebyeue®ekeÀ mhe=Mee. Deeheu³eekeÀ[s efomeCeejer DeeTue HeÌuee³e ner ceO³ece DeekeÀeje®eer Demeles. l³eeb®ee jbie ie[o lehekeÀerjer Demelees DeeefCe heesìeJej efheJeUs heÆs Demeleele. ³eeb®³ee vej ceeÐee meejK³ee®e efomeleele HeÀÊeÀ l³eeb®³ee heesìe®³ee pee[erceOes HeÀjkeÀ Demelees. ³eebvee Deieoer ®elegjemeejK³ee®e efomeCee´³ee hebKeeb®³ee oesve pees[îee Demeleele. ¿ee leuece, heeleU, heejoMe&keÀ hebKeebvee DeveskeÀ peeUeroej Meerje Demeleele. MejerjmeejKes®e ie[o, lehekeÀerjer jbiee®es [esUs ns DeefleMe³e yeìyeìerle DeeCees efJeYeeieuesues Demeleele. ¿eeb®³ee mhe=Mee ³ee DeefleMe³e JewefMeäîehegCe& DeeefCe Flej efkeÀìkeÀebheemetve ³eebvee JesieUs DeesUKeC³eemeeþer Keeme Demeleele. mhe=Meeb®³ee Jejleer l³eeb®eer ìeskesÀ ieesueekeÀej DeeefCe efþheke̳eemeejKeer pee[ Demeleele. ³ee DeeTue HeÌuee³e menmee meg³eexo³ee®³ee JesUer heneìs DeeefCe meg³ee&mlee®³ee JesUer mebO³eekeÀeUer keÀe³e&jle Demeleele DeeefCe l³ee®e JesUsme G[leevee, efMekeÀej keÀjleevee efomeleele. FlejJesUer efoJemee ³ee SKeeÐee Pee[e®³ee Kees[eJej yemetve efJeÞeebleer Iesleevee meehe[leele. l³eeb®eer yemee³e®eer he×le meg×e þjuesueer Demeles. Deeheu³ee hee³eebveer l³eebveer Pee[e®es Kees[ IeÆ Oejuesues Demeles. ³eecegUs l³eeb®es hee³e DeeefCe Oe[ Kees[euee ef®ekeÀìuesues Demeles. hebKe Keeueer oeyetve þsJeuesues Demeleele DeeefCe heesì Mejerjeyeensj keÀe{uesues Demeles. ³eecegUs les SKeeÐee JeeUke̳ee, megke̳ee keÀeìkeÀermeejKes®e ueebyetve Yeemeles. ³eeb®³ee ceeÐee ieJelee®³ee heel³eeJej Deb[er hegbpeke̳eeves Ieeueleele. meeOeejCele: SkeÀeJesUer 30 les 50 Deb[er Ieeleueer peeleele. ner Deb[er ceìkeÀer®³ee oeC³eeSJe{er Demeleele DeeefCe l³eeb®ee jbie DeeefCe DeekeÀejmeg×e lemee®e Demelees. keÀeueeblejeves ner Deb[er HegÀìtve l³eeletve Devesue efheuues yeensj he[leele peer heg{s 2/4 efoJeme leMeer®e l³ee Kees[eJej SkeÀ$e jneleele. heg{s ner Pee[e®³ee Kees[eJeªve Keeueer heeueehee®eesȳeeceOes Gleªve l³eeb®³eeKeeuee Dee[esM³eeves jneleele. DeefleMe³e Keeoe[ DeeefCe efMekeÀej keÀjC³eele heìeF&le Demeuesu³ee ¿ee efheuueeb®eer Jee{l³eecegUs®e ceesþîee Peheeìîeeves nesles.


ll aapala paryavaran ll

pebieue ueeJee - Jungle Bush Quail efþkeÀeCe ë Deefueyeeie

íe³eeef®e$e ë ÒeefJeCe keÀJeUs

DeekeÀejeves Flej ueeJee eEkeÀJee ueentN³eebÒeceeCes. efomee³euee keÀeWye[er®³ee efHeuueebmeejKes. Jejerue jbie leebyetme leHeefkeÀjer, jeKee[er. HebKeebJej yeoeceer keÀeUs efþHekesÀ. veje®³ee HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie keÀeȳee-Heeb{N³ee HeÆîeeb®ee Je ceeoer®³ee HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie leebyetme yeoeceer jbiee®ee. ®ees®eerKeeueer ieȳeeHe³e¥le ie[o leebyetme jbie. [esȳee®³ee Jej leebyetme jbiee®eer YegJeF& Je l³eeuee Heeb{jer efkeÀveej. pee[ keÀeUer ®ees®e Je iegueeyeer efHeJeUmej jbiee®es Hee³e. HeeveieUer®eer Jeves, Peg[Heer pebieue, ieJeleer kegÀjCes ³esLes JeemleJ³e. Yeejle, vesHeeU, HeeefkeÀmleeve Je ÞeeruebkeÀe ³esLes Dee{Uleele.

eEHeieì Heesìe®ee meeleYeeF& - Tawny-bellied Babbler efþkeÀeCe ë Deefueyeeie

íe³eeef®e$e ë leg<eej YeeieJele

DeekeÀej mejemejer ef®eceCeerSJe{e eEkeÀJee ueneve. Jejerue Yeeie leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®ee. [esUs ie[o leebyetme Je eEHeieì. HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie efHeÀkeÀì leebyetme Je eEHeieì. ieȳeepeJeU Heeb{je jbie. ®ees®e keÀeUmej efHeJeȳee jbiee®eer Je iegueeyeer Hee³e. HeeveieUer®eer lemes®e meoenefjle Jeves, Peg[Heer pebieue ³esLes JeemleJ³e. Yeejle, vesHeeU, ÞeeruebkeÀe ³esLes Dee{U.

veJejbie - Indian Pitta efþkeÀeCe ë cegjyee[

íe³eeef®e$e ë efJeveeso ieesjues

meeOeejCe cewves®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee jbieerle He#eer. efnjJee, efveUe Demes HebKe Je Jejerue YeeieeJej jbie. [esȳeebJej Je keÀHeeUeJej ceevesHe³e¥le keÀeUe HeÆe. ieȳeeHeemetve ceevesHe³e¥le Je [esȳee®³eeJej Heeb{je jbie. HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie efHeJeUmej leebyetme. MesHeìerKeeueer ueeue jbie. keÀeUer ®ees®e Je iegueeyeer Hee³e. DeeKet[ ie[o jbiee®eer MesHetì. Yeejleele meJe&®e pebieueele $eÝlegvegmeej mLeeefvekeÀ mLeueeblej. eqJnìd ìerJed DeMee efMeÆermeejK³ee DeeJeepeeJeªve menpe DeesUKelee ³eslees.

®eelekeÀ - Pied Crested Cuckoo efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF& íe³eeef®e$e ë keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee DeekeÀejeves cewvesSJe{e. HeCe ueebye MesHetì Demeuesuee. keÀeUer Heeb{jer jbiemebieleer. ³eecegUs FbûepeerceO³es HeeF[ Demes cnCeleele. Jejerue Yeeie keÀeUe. HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie Heeb{je. HebKeeJej Je MesHeìerJej Heeb{js efþHekesÀ. [eske̳eeJej keÀeȳee efHemeeb®ee legje. Hee³e Je ®ees®e keÀeUs. HeeveieUer Jeves, Peg[Heer ÒeosMe, YeeleMesleer Je HeeCeLeU peeieebceO³es JeemleJ³e. Yeejleele HeeJemeeUer HeengCee. yeN³ee®e pegv³ee ûebLeebceO³es ®eelekeÀe®ee GuuesKe Dee{Ulees.

efleyeesìer ef{Jej -

mecegêer Ieej - Brahminy Kite

Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF& íe³eeef®e$e ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele Ieejer®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee efMekeÀejer He#eer. Jejerue Yeeie ne leebyetme jbiee®ee Demetve [eskesÀ Je HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie Heeb{je Demelees. Hee³eepeJeU®eer efHemes Je MesHetì leebyetme jbiee®eer. efHeJeȳee jbiee®es Hee³e Je ®ees®e. mecegê efkeÀveejs, ceesþs leueeJe, veÐee, Kee[er DeMee efþkeÀeCeer JeemleJ³e keÀjleele. $eÝlegvegmeej mLeeefvekeÀ mLeueeblej. Yeejleeyejesyej®e HeeefkeÀmleeve, yeebieueeosMe, ÞeeruebkeÀe, c³eeveceej ³esLes Dee{Uleele.

efþkeÀeCe ë Deefueyeeie íe³eeef®e$e ë megefveue þeskeÀU meeOeejCe ef®eceCeer®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee He#eer. Jejerue Yeeie leebyetme ueeuemej jbiee®ee. HebKe peebYeUs Je efveUmej PeekeÀ Demeuesues. [esȳeebKeeueer ceevesHe³e¥le Je HeesìekeÀ[®ee Yeeie efHeJeUe veejbieer. ceevesJej Je ieȳeeJej Heeb{je ®eÆe. keÀcejsJej iegueeyeer jbie. pee[ ceesþer veejbieer jbiee®eer ®ees®e Je íesìs Hee³e. meoenefjle Je HeeveieUer®eer Deeê& Jeves ³esLeerue íesìs DeesnesU. pebieueeleerue HeeCeLeU peeiesJejner JeemleJ³e. Yeejleele ÒeecegK³eeves HeefM®ece Ieeì Je GÊej HetJe& Yeejle. ³ee®eyejesyej oef#eCeHetJe& DeeefMe³ee Keb[eleues yeebieueeosMe, Yetleevee, ÞeeruebkeÀe, Fb[esvesefMe³ee, Lee³eueb[, ceuesefMe³ee, c³eeveceej ³esLes Dee{U. HeeJemeeȳeele mLeeefvekeÀ mLeueeblej.


~~ DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe ~~ efJeMes<e uesKe

`iesce efLeDejer'®es pevekeÀ ë pee@ve ve@Me megjefYe JeeueeJeuekeÀj

Gl¬eÀeb l eer

(Evolution)

ner efJe%eeveeleerue SkeÀ Del³eble cenÊJee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee. 4.6 Deype Je<ee¥HetJeea DeeHeu³ee He=LJeer®eer efveefce&leer Jne³euee meg©Jeele Peeueer. peJeUpeJeU mee[sleerve Deype Je<ee¥HetJeea mepeerJe me=äer efveefce&leeruee DeejbYe Peeuee. yejs®e `peerJe' efvecee&Ce Peeues. ³eeleerue keÀener peieues lej l³eeHewkeÀer yejs®emes keÀe³ece®es veä Peeues. `Survival of the fittest' cnCepes®e pees mepeerJe l³ee®³ee YeJeleeue®³ee HeefjefmLeleerMeer leeUcesU peceJetve (adapt) peiesue lees®e KeN³ee DeLee&ves Heg{s peeF&ue. peerJeMeem$e Gl¬eÀebleer DeY³eemekeÀ efj®e[& [e@efkeÀvme ³eeb®³ee celes DeeHeues Mejerj ns HeÀkeÌle SkeÀ ³eb$e Deens. pevegkesÀ les ®eeueJeleele. (We are just a machine. Genes are governing our body)

l³eecegUs meYeesJeleeue®³ee HeefjefmLeleerMeer pegUJetve IesC³eeceO³es pevetkeÀeb®ee ceesþe menYeeie Demelees. ³ee®e Gl¬eÀebleerceO³es Game Theory ner SkeÀ mebkeÀuHevee Deens. efvemeiee&le oesve mepeerJeebceO³es efJeefJeOe keÀejCeebcegUs interaction nesle Demeles. SKeeÐeeJesUer les menkeÀe³e& (cooperate) keÀjleele eEkeÀJee veekeÀejleele (defeat). keÀener mepeerJeebceO³es meejKeer strategy Demeles. DeveskeÀ Je<ex ner strategy leMeer®e jenles Je lees peerJe adapt nesle jenlees. ³eeuee®e `Evalutionary Stable Strategy' Demes cnCeleele. ³ee®ee MeesOe ueeJeuee mej pee@ve HeÀesyme& ve@Me ³eebveer. pee@ve ve@Me ns DecesefjkeÀve ieefCelep%e nesles. ieefCeleeceOeerue DeY³eeme Demetvener l³eebveer DeLe&Meem$e, mebieCekeÀ Gl¬eÀebleer, DekeÀeTvìeRie SJe{®e veJns lej jepekeÀejCe DeeefCe mewefvekeÀer #es$eelener DeveskeÀ cenÊJee®eer mebMeesOeves kesÀueer. pee@ve ve@Me ³eeb®ee pevce 13 petve 1928 jespeer DecesefjkesÀleerue Jnefpe&veer³ee jep³eeleerue yu³etefHeÀu[ Menjele Peeuee. l³eeb®es Je[erue FueskeÌì^erkeÀ Fbefpeefve³ej nesles. MeeUsle Demeleevee ve@Me l³eeb®³ee Jeef[ueebveer DeeefCe Deepeesyeebveer efouesueer DeveskeÀ HegmlekesÀ Jee®ele. ieefCele ³ee efJe<e³eele HeoJeer mebHeeove kesÀu³eeveblej l³eebveer 1950 ceO³es

[e@keÌìjsì efceUJeueer. Non Co-operative games ³ee efJe<e³eeJej l³eeb®es keÀece meg©®e nesles. meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes efvemeiee&leerue ÒeeCeer, He#eer ³eeb®³eeceO³es DeeHeeHemeele eEkeÀJee SkeÀceskeÀeble pesJne Yeeb[Ces ceejeceeN³ee nesleele lesJne l³eeceeies DeveskeÀ keÀejCes Demet MekeÀleele. SKeeÐee peeiesJeªve DeeHeues Je®e&mJe efme× keÀjCes (Territory), DeeHeu³eeuee ³eesi³e lees pee[eroej efceUJeC³eemeeþer cnCepes®e pees[eroejeuee DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s DeekeÀef<e&le keÀjC³eemeeþer (Display) eEkeÀJee Devveemeeþer. Hawk & Dove ns ³eg×Meem$eeleerue oesve [eJeHes®e (Fighting Strategy) Deensle. DeeHeCe SkeÀ GoenjCe yeIeg³ee. oesve JeeIe pej SkeÀceskeÀebmeceesj Deeues lej keÀe³e nesF&ue? SkeÀ lej l³eeb®³eele Ye³ebkeÀj ceejeceejer nesF&ue eEkeÀJee les oesIes DeeHeeHeu³ee Jeeìsves efveIetve peeleerue. l³eeHewkeÀer SkeÀe JeeIee®³ee ÒeJe=ÊeerefJe<e³eer DeeHeCe efJe®eej keÀª. SkeÀe JeeIeeves ogmeN³ee JeeIeeuee HeÀkeÌle IeeyejJeues eEkeÀJee ogmeN³eeuee ns oeKeJetve efoues keÀer, ne DeeHeu³eeHes#ee MekeÌleerMeeueer Deens. l³eecegUs DeeHeuee efìkeÀeJe ueeieCeej veener. lej ³eg× nesCeej veener. Hejbleg pej SkeÀe JeeIeeves ogmeN³ee JeeIeeJej Lesì nuuee kesÀuee lej ogmejener ceeiesHeg{s ve Heenlee nuuee keÀjsue. MesJeìer ³ee ieesäer lesLeerue HeefjefmLeleerJej DeJeuebyetve Demeleerue . DeeCeKeer SkeÀ cenÊJee®eer ieesä DeMeer keÀer, meceesj®ee keÀe³e efJe®eej keÀjle Demesue, l³ee®es [eJeHes®e keÀe³e Demeleerue ns DeeHeu³eeuee ceeefnle vemeles. ns lees ÒeeCeer eEkeÀJee He#eer Òel³e#e

SkeÀceskeÀebmeceesj Deeu³eeJej®e DevegYeJesue. ÒeeC³eebvee ³eeDeeOeer Peeuesu³ee ceejeceejerefJe<e³eer keÀener DeeþJele vemeles. DeMee ÒekeÀejs peer s t r a t e g y ef m Lej jener u e leer u ee Evolutionary stable strategy

cnCeleele. cnCepes®e Òel³eskeÀ mepeerJeeuee mJeleë®eer DeMeer stable strategy Demeles. ve@Me ³eebveer efÒemìve ³egefveJnefme&ìerceO³es yeje®e keÀeU mebMeesOeve kesÀues. 1994 ceO³es l³eebvee `DeLe&Meem$eer³e efJe%eeve' efJe<e³eele veesyesue HegjmkeÀejeves mevceeefvele keÀjC³eele Deeues. l³ee®³eeyejesyej®e `Game Theory' ³ee efJe<e³eeceOeerue Flej oesve mebMeesOekeÀ jsven[& mesuìve Je pee@ve njmeev³eer (Reinhard Selten, John Harsanyi) ³eebveener veesyesue HegjmkeÀej Òeoeve keÀjC³eele Deeuee. ve@Me ³eebvee efmkeÀPeesÖesÀefve³ee ne Deepeej neslee. ³ee DeepeejeJej ceele keÀªve l³eebveer mebMeesOevee®³ee #es$eele Del³eble ceesuee®eer keÀeceefiejer yepeeJeueer. l³eeb®³ee peerJeveeJej `y³egìerHegÀue ceeF&v[' ³ee Fbûepeer ef®e$eHeìe®eer efveefce&leer keÀjC³eele Deeueer. ve@Me ³eebvee Abel HegjmkeÀjeves ieewjJeC³eele Deeues. vee@Jex osMee®³ee mejkeÀej®³ee Jeleerves ne HegjmkeÀej ieefCele #es$eele GuuesKeveer³e keÀeceefiejer keÀjCeeN³ee mebMeesOekeÀeuee efouee peelees. DeMee ³ee megboj cevee®ee (Beautiful Mind) ogowzJeer Deble 23 ces 2015 jespeer SkeÀe DeHeIeeleele Peeuee. l³eeJesUer les 86 Je<ee¥®es nesles.


ll aapala paryavaran ll

keÀu³eeCe ³esLes efvemeie& Ye´cebleer efo. 10 ces 2015 ë keÀu³eeCeceOeerue ieebOeejer ³esLes He#eer efvejer#eCe Dee³eesefpele kesÀues nesles. ieJeleeU ÒeosMe, Kee[er HeefjmebmLee DeeefCe Lees[e Yeeie Ieveoeì pebieuee®ee Demee ne Heefjmej Demeu³eeves efJeefJeOe He#eer ÒepeeleeR®es ³esLes DeekeÀef<e&le nesleele. ³ee Ye´cebleerceO³es keÀesleJeeue, Jes[e jeIet, o³eeU, KeeìerkeÀ, leebyeì, ceOegyeepe, efììJeer, eEHeieUe, efHeJeȳee kebÀþe®eer ef®eceCeer, eEMeHeer, leeKeeueer HeeskeÀeUer, jeKeer JeìJeìîee, met³e&He#eer Demes SketÀCe 23 ÒekeÀej®es He#eer efomeues.

efììJeeUe ³esLes He³ee&JejCe efMeyeerj efììJeeUe ³esLeerue peveÒeyeesefOeveer mebmLesleHexÀ efo. 16 les 18 ces jespeer `He³ee&JejCe' efJe<e³e IesTve GvneUer efMeyeerj Dee³eesefpele kesÀues nesles. ³eele Heefnu³ee efoJeMeer pewJeefJeefJeOelee efJe<e³eeJej efJeefJeOe ueIegHeì oeKeJeues Je veblej cegueebyejesyej ®e®ee& keÀjC³eele Deeueer. ogmeN³ee efoJeMeer meesueej kegÀkeÀj DeeefCe vewmeefie&keÀ jbie le³eej keÀjC³ee®eer keÀe³e&MeeUe IesC³eele Deeueer. ³eeJesUer cegueebveer meewj TpexefJe<e³eer DeefOekeÀ ceeefnleer peeCetve Iesleueer. veblej vewmeefie&keÀ jbie le³eej keÀjC³ee®es ÒeefMe#eCe Iesleues. MesJe쮳ee efoJeMeer keÀeHe[er efHeMeJ³ee DeeefCe He#eebmeeþer `ye[& HeÀer[j' yeoueeHetj ³esLes JeìHeewefCe&cee peeie=leer keÀe³e&¬eÀce le³eej keÀjC³ee®es ÒeefMe#eCe Iesleues. ³ee efMeyeerjele SketÀCe 38 cegueebveer menYeeie JeìHeewefCe&ces®³ee efveefceÊeeves Je[e®³ee Pee[e®eer, l³ee®³ee HeÀebÐeeb®eer nesCeejer Iesleuee. ieCesMe efJeÐeeue³eeleerue efMe#ekeÀ efJeJeskeÀ HegjeefCekeÀ DeeefCe He³ee&JejCe lees[ LeebyeefJeCes, l³ee Pee[e®es He³ee&JejCeeleerue cenÊJe HeìJetve osCes ³eemeeþer o#elee ceb®e®³ee Yeei³eÞeer ûeeceHegjesefnle ³eebveer ns efMeyeerj ³eMemJeer kesÀues. He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e DeeefCe Yeejleer³e ceefnuee HesÀ[jsMeve ³eeb®³ee leHexÀ 24 ces jespeer SkeÀe keÀe³e&¬eÀcee®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ceeueleer JewÐe mce=leer ceeceCeesueerceO³es met³e&kegbÀYe ì^mì ³esLes HesÀ[jsMeve®³ee 20 ceefnueebvee JeìJe=#ee®es meJe& HeÀe³eos mecepeeJetve 5 petve He³ee&JejCe efovee®³ee efveefceÊeeves He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e, meebieC³eele Deeues. ³ee Je=#ee®es jesHeCe keÀmes keÀjeJes ³ee®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀner ceeceCeesueer ³eebveer meceleesue HeÀeTb[sMeve®³ee ceeceCeesueer ³esLeerue mJeeceer oeKeJeC³eele Deeues. Yeei³eÞeer ûeeceHegjesefnle ³eeb®³ee ceeie&oMe&veeKeeueer keÀe³e&¬eÀce efJeJeskeÀevebo ceveHeefjJele&ve keWÀêele `cenemet³e&kegbÀYe' GHe¬eÀcee®es Dee³eespeve Heej He[uee. kesÀues nesles. ³eeJesUer efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer met³e&®egueer le³eej keÀªve l³eeJej Devve efMepeJeC³ee®es ÒeefMe#eCe Iesleues. ceb®e®es Yejle iees[ebyes DeeefCe megYee<e Fmeeces ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. 4 efMe#ekeÀ DeeefCe 4 HeekeÀebveer keÀUJee ³esLeerue DebketÀj Leerce Heeke&Àuee Yesì efoueer. meWêer³e Mesleer, yee³ees ie@me, ieeb[tU Kele, ce@efpekeÀ yekesÀì, pewJe Kele, jsve Jee@ìj neJexmìeRie Demes efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀuHe l³eebveer mecepeeJetve Iesleues.


meesuej kegÀkeÀj keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 3 ces jespeer keÀUJee ³esLeerue DebketÀj Leerce Heeke&ÀceO³es meesuej kegÀkeÀj keÀe³e&MeeUe Heej He[ueer. He@jeyeesefuekeÀ meesuej kegÀkeÀjJej Devve efMepeJeCes, meesuej Jee@ìj efnìj DeeefCe Svepeea Dee@ef[ì ³ee leerve efJe<e³eebJej lep%e DeeefMe<e Heeìerue ³eebveer menYeeieeRvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. keÀe³e&MeeUsveblej ³ee®e kegÀkeÀjJej efMepeJeuesuee [eU-Yeele, GkeÀ[uesues yeìeìs Je Deb[er ³eeb®ee DeemJeeo meJee¥veer Iesleuee.

keÀeb[er keÀesUmee keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 10 ces jespeer keÀeb[er keÀesUmee le³eej keÀjCes Je mejeF& kegÀkeÀj®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ ³eeJej Yejle iees[ebyes ³eebveer keÀe³e&MeeUe Iesleueer. efJeIeìveMeerue keÀ®eN³eeHeemetve keÀesUmee keÀmee le³eej keÀjeJee ³ee®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ iees[ebyes ³eebveer oeKeJeues. l³eeveblej HegC³ee®³ee `Deejleer' mebmLesves le³eej kesÀuesu³ee mejeF& kegÀkeÀj JeeHejC³eeefJe<e³eer ceeie&oMe&vener l³eebveer kesÀues. ³ee kegÀkeÀjceO³es®e meJee¥veer YejCe-Yeele Je keÀ[Oeev³ee®eer GmeU le³eej keÀªve l³ee®ee DeemJeeo Iesleuee.

yeesvmee³e keÀe³e&MeeUe efo. 17 ces jespeer Je=#elep%e Debpevee osJemLeUs ³eebveer `yeesvmee³e' keÀe³e&MeeUsuee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. ÒeLece yeesvmee³e efJe<e³eer ceeefnleer meebietve Òel³e#e ke=ÀleerÜejs yeesvmee³e keÀjC³ee®eer He×le l³eebveer efMekeÀJeueer. ³ee keÀe³e&MeeUsle 35 He³ee&JejCe Òesceer GHeefmLele nesles.

nBieeRie yeemkesÀì keÀe³e&MeeUe efo. 24 ces jespeer Ieje®eer MeesYee Jee{JeCeeN³ee nBieeRie yeemkesÀì le³eej keÀjC³ee®eer keÀe³e&MeeUe IesC³eele Deeueer. HeesefCe&cee Yeesmeues ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. meJe& menYeeieeRveer nBieeRie Hee@ì, kegbÀ[er, ceeleer, jesHeìb, keÀeskeÀes Heerìve Kele JeeHeªve DeeHeeHeueer kegbÀ[er le³eej kesÀueer.

memetHee[e pebieueYe´cebleer efo. 21 petve jespeer veeieuee-memegHee[e ³esLes efvemeie& Ye´cebleer®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles ³eele 28 efvemeie&ÒesceeRvee menYeeie Iesleuee. HeeJemeeveblej pebieueele nesCeejs yeoue, efvecee&Ce nesCeejer pewJeefJeefJeOelee meJee¥vee DevegYeJee³euee efceUeueer. efJeefJeOe HegÀues, yes[tkeÀ, HegÀueHeeKejs, efkeÀìkeÀ, mej[s DeeefCe meieȳeele ue#eCeer³e Demee DeesefjSbìue [dJeeHe&À eEkeÀieefHeÀMej - pees ÞeeruebkesÀletve `HeeJemeeUer HeengCee' cnCetve ³eslees l³ee®esner oMe&ve Peeues.

DekeÀgj Leerce Heeke&Àuee Yesì efo. 14 ces jespeer ceerveeleeF& þekeÀjs veefme¥ie keÀe@uespe®³ee 29 efJeÐeeefLe&veer Je 2 ÒeeO³eeHekeÀebveer `DebkegÀj' uee Yesì efoueer. efo. 19 ces jespeer ceerje jes[®³ee YekeÌleer Jesoeble veefme¥ie keÀe@uespeceOeerue 20 efJeÐeeefLe&veer DeeefCe oesve ÒeeO³eeHekeÀebveer Yesì efoueer. ³ee meJe& efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee HeewefCe&cee Yeesmeues, ©Heeueer, cesOee, efMeuHee efMejJe[keÀj ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.


ll aapala paryavaran ll Special Report

CELEBRATING WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY Prof. Clara Correia

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The working committee of Paryavaran Dakshata Manch decided to celebrate ‘World th Environment Day’ on 5 June 2015 with a difference. Thus the concept of conducting a study tour emerged. A ‘Khadi Yatra’ was planned as a part of the Clean Creek Movement, under the direction of the Event Manager - Avinash Bhagat. The event was declared to the general public through a press conference held on 26th May 2015 at Thane College. A nominal fee for the public, with concession for students saw a rush for participation. Registered boats were hired, life saving equipment were courtesy TMC, Fire brigade (Wagle Estate) and Precision Fisheries (Thane). The catchy slogan coined by Prof. Athalye (V. P. of B. N. Bandodkar College of

Science) - ‘Swachh Khadi Thanyachi, Jababdaari Sarvanchi’ was every apt. The day dawned and what made it more special was to see the Press reporters who actually participated in the half day study tour of Thane Creek. Around 40 participants which included senior citizens and children gathered, wearing specially made ‘water drop’ badges and holding placards with different awareness slogans.

The decorated boats with banners arrived at 11.15 A.M. The excitement was palpable, after a short introduction by Prof. Walavalkar and Dr. Prasad Karnik, there was short felicitation of Pradeep Koli (who arranged for the motor boats) and others by Shri. Anant Tare the representative head of the ‘Koli’ community. Traditional offering of the shawl, coconut and Tulsi plant were given. The boats were then flagged off by the wave of the green flag by Shri. Anant Tare amidst cheers of the assembled crowd at Ganesh Ghat, Mithbunder. Each boat had experts who covered all aspects of the biodiversity of the creek. They explained about the types of mangroves, creek water, birds, reptiles and other flora, fauna. Causes of pollution of the creek


and remedial measures were also discussed. What stuck the participants was the pollution level, which could be judged just by looking at the colour of the water. It was touching to see the warm welcome and snacks arranged by the local fishing community waiting to welcome the ‘Yatra’ at Vitawa and Divagaon. Boats then passed through Airoli, Vashi, Bhandup, Vi k h r o l i a n d r e t u r n e d t o Mithbunder, Thane (E) at 3 p.m. In all four different types of mangroves trees were seen in addition to 31 species of birds which included around 10,000 Greater and Lesser Flamingos. It was indeed a fun-filled learning experience, which will remain etched in the memories of the participants for a long time. It has been decided that such ‘Khadi Yatras’ will be conducted from time to time to promote and create awareness about our very own creek.

THREATS TO MANGROVES All over t h e w o r l d , mangrove ecosystems are under severe threat. Several competing land use options make mangrove land extremely vulnerable to development pressures, while the utility of mangrove trees as timber, fuel wood, fodder etc. lead to their unsustainable harvest. Some of the major issues that threaten the mangrove forests include: Change of land-use pattern : Development and change of land-use pattern along the coastal areas has a negative influence on mangrove habitats. Mangrove areas are generally cleared for real estate development, industrial activities, infrastructure development, aquaculture, salt pans and for tourism related activities. Pollution : Untreated effluents from industrial units and pollution from waste disposal sites that get discharged into the rivers and creeks kill marine organisms

that live within the mangrove forest. Oil spills are also known to smother mangrove roots and pneumatophores, thereby killing the mangroves. Deforestation : The use of mangrove species for firewood, construction, pulp production, charcoal production and animal fodder also threaten the species. While harvesting of mangrove forests has taken place for centuries in some parts of the world, it is no longer sustainable and threatens the future of the forests. Increased sedimentation : Erosion of land due to deforestation and dumping of soil and construction debris increases the amount of sediments around the creek areas. This leads to smothering of pneumatophores and reduce their breathing and filtering capacity, which ultimately result in the destruction of the mangrove ecosystem.


ll aapala paryavaran ll NEW LINK ROAD RESIDENTS FORUM - DAHISAR Dr. S. P. Mathew What would

a Dentist, a businessman, a Manager in an IT firm and a Physician have in common? Indeed, these were the very type of people who got together years ago, in 2008 to be precise, and created a revolution in community transformation in North Mumbai, united by a love for the place where they all happen to live. The place they happen to stay is the beautiful northwest border of Mumbai, the western part of Dahisar and Borivali which also happens to be Ward number 1 in the BMC. When they got together for the first time, it was a united voice of protest against an illegal hookah parlour being run in an abandoned building. It was called Kawa Kawa. This parlour is history now, after they

successfully managed to get it shut down despite opposition from high places. Even the Mayor of Mumbai got into the fray against this joint. You can say that this was the genesis of the New Link Road Residents Forum. Immediately after they got together they noticed that some people were cutting mangroves in the lush green forests that surround Dahisar and protect it from the ravages of the Arabian Sea. They got the people arrested, who happened to be hired labour from Pen district, and on further investigations realized that they have stumbled upon something that was unimaginably huge. A ploy to surreptitiously destroy over 450 acres of mangrove forest! The builder who was behind

this used the best advocates like Ram Jethmalani and team, trying to convince the Supreme Court of India in 2010 that all he was interested in was to make salt by repairing the salt pan bunds! As soon as he got the nod from the Supreme Court he started dumping hundreds of truckloads of debris day and night trying to encircle these 450 acres of mangroves and cut off their sea water. The Forum, with support from the BEAG, Vanashakti and other NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, used detailed documentation and satellite maps as evidence to enable the Supreme Court to pass a landmark judgement over ruling the permission, and asking the Suburban Collector to remove the dumped debris at the cost of the land owner. Over the years, the Forum


The group members : Chairperson Dr. S. P. Mathew Secretary Harish Pandey Treasurer Dr.Arelene Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;souza David Soosay Shrikant Mududi Neil Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;souza Rita Newnes Derek Newnes

has exposed water thefts from BMC pipelines, air pollution due to burning of rubber and plastic, Milk packet adulteration rackets, expired foodstuff sale rackets, illegal wetland destruction and many other matters related to local environment and wellbeing of honest taxpaying residents of the area.

: Mission : To link up and bring Citizens together for the upliftment of Enviromental, Social, Civic aspects of the Society for a BETTER TOMORROW

Address : New link Road, Dahisar, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 400103 Email Id : newlinkroad@gmail.com Mobile : 9819011190 Website : www.newlinkroad. wordpress.com

water birds nest within mangrove forest. Mangroves help in carbon sequestration Anthropogenic activity leads to release of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane etc. However, mangroves act as carbon sinks, as they take up carbon from the atmosphere and bury it in the soil, thereby reducing the impacts of climate change. Scientists say, they are six times more effective than rainforests in carbon sequestration. Mangroves provide a source of recreation and tourism Mangrove ecosystems are known to have a plethora of life forms. Due to their aesthetic value, mangrove forests act as natural attractions for tourists.

WHY WE SHOULD PROTECT MANGROVES? Mangroves prevent land erosion Mangroves trap debris and silt and help in soil formation and stabilizing the coastline. They also act as natural water filters and help control pollution. Mangroves act as natural barriers They act as natural barriers against storm-driven wave (tsunamis) and wind action and helps stop erosion, preventing loss of life and property. Mangroves are a haven for marine biodiversity They provide shelter for marine and terrestrial animals and also protect them from ocean currents and strong winds. They serve as nursery and refuge for many species of juvenile fish and invertebrates. Many species of

www.drspmathew. wordpress.com


ll aapala paryavaran ll Activity

Residents of Aarey and its surrounding suburbs in Mumbai received some shocking news in the third week of November. Almost overnight notices for removal were posted on 2298 trees in Aarey for the upcoming Metro line 3. To a city which had already lost a number of trees in the past year to infection and development projects this was unacceptable. A series of citizen meetings was organised to try and prevent this further loss of green cover. These were the beginnings of what has come to be known as the Save Aarey Campaign. The campaign kicked off with a petition to the Chief Minister of Maharashtra and various officials in the BMC and MMRDA requesting them to save the trees and declare Aarey a protected zone. It was conducted online and as a door to door campaign. Simultaneously a PIL was filed in the Mumbai High Court to put a stay to the felling of the trees. It was revealed during the course of the hearings that the tree authority board had never given permission to remove the trees and a decision would be taken at their next meeting. This gave the campaign some crucial time to create more awareness among Mumbaikars. By this time more citizens had joined the campaign, bringing with them a wealth of experience in diverse fields and professions. Artists, writers, designers, filmmakers, teachers,

THE `SAVE AAREY’ CAMPAIGN Ms. Priya Mishra photographers, graphic designers, corporate employees, naturalists and students helped to shape the campaign. Short films were made to highlight the issue, a theme song and video was created and celebrities extended their support. Schools were approached to create awareness campaigns among students and parents, tree appreciation walks were

Japanese agency funding a part of the metro. The letter nailed some major falsehoods in the Environmental Assessment report prepared for the project. Thousands of SMS were sent to the tree board members requesting them to save the trees. All these activities contributed to the momentum of the campaign with the result that the board withheld permission to remove the trees. This was a major success and a big boost to

conducted inside Aarey to help busy Mumbaikars discover its natural wealt. Signature campaigns were held at public events like marathons, equal streets, yoga camps and thousands of postcards were sent to the Prime Minister, Chief Minister and various officials. Delegations met concerned ministers and officials to convey the strong objection of citizens to such large scale destruction. A letter was written to JICA, the

the campaign. It led to the first onsite public protest called ‘a picnic protest’. Entire families turned up at the metro site, on the day of the India- Pakistan world cup match, to show their support for Aarey. It was the first time that Mumbai had seen a Chipko movement ! This event proved to be a turning point in the campaign. Political parties extended support to the campaign and the Chief Minister announced the setting up of a


committee to look into other alternatives. Subsequently many more focussed activities followed in quick succession. A twitter campaign with the hashtag #Save Aarey, a cycling rally inside Aarey and a human chain of over 1000 people, right at Marine Drive, the doorstep of the government. Meanwhile the government dropped another bombshell on Aarey in the form of the Development Plan 2014-34. It proposed Aarey to be developed as a growth node with commercial, recreational and institutional infrastructure. This would have meant a loss of nearly 70% of the existing green cover. Nearly 2000 letters were sent objecting to these proposals and suggesting Aarey to be retained as a natural forest and outdoor area for Mumbaikars. To highlight this potential of Aarey and to encourage citizens, especially children, to reconnect with nature the Aarey Mahotsav was held recently

inside Aarey. This was a festival with biodiversity as the theme and saw thousands of citizens take experience cultural performances, take part in art workshops, enjoy a poetry and wildlife photography exhibition and explore Aarey as a part of a treasure hunt. Many more events and activities are being planned to attract more and more citizens to experience this gift of nature in their midst. The committee set up by the CM is yet to announce its decision. The redrafted development plan will also take

GREEN SHOPPE Small purchase, big differences

Think Green, Live Green, Be Green - All the products are eco-friendly. - Green Shoppe is a platform for self sustaining NGO’s who lack marketing opportunities. - A purchase from the shoppe supports a cause. Our Shoppe operates under banners of eco-friendly festivals, eco-friendly living, green gifts, shop with cloth and publications. Add. : Gala No. 15, Dadoji Konddev Stadium, Khartan Road, Thane West. Phone : 022-25411633 E-mail : paryavarans@gmail.com

a few months. Till then the threat to Aarey remains. T h e S a v e A a r e y Conservation Group will continue the Save Aarey campaign till Aarey is made safe from any future threats. This can only be achieved if it is given protected status and citizens claim ownership of Aarey as an open space. As the world hurtles towards a critical point of no return for climate change it is time to take a relook at the definition of ‘development’. We need a course correction and we need it now. While it is an uphill task and daunting task, we as a society can start with what is closest to us. The trees of your neighbourhood, the creek and mangroves in your suburb, all these are as crucial as the Amazon or a rain forest. Our attempt at Aarey is precisely that. Conserve a forest because humans can build cities and skyscrapers but we can never replace a forest.


ll aapala paryavaran ll Enviro Edu

GREEN CAREERS – Part I DR. Prasad Karnik

Financial security is the ‘Mantra’ of today. People first think of self benefit, it may be even at the cost of other, work or even at the cost of environmental degradation. Hence ‘eco-friendly’ is the key concept. In this article we put forth an idea of certain careers, which will provide good livelihood to a person and will help protect the environment; rather will lead to development of the same. There will be ‘Win-Win’ situation in all respect. India is an agricultural country and even today a sizeable population depends upon agriculture for their bread and butter. Traditional techniques are not only beneficial to the practitioners but may harm nature also. Modern and practical, applicable techniques and technologies would fetch good profitable yields to the farmers without any undesirable

effect on the environment. There are some professions that support human and nature together. These careers are applicable for anyone and everyone who has basic know-how and knowledge of the subject. However more importantly,

readiness to take efforts, do hardwork to some extent and to top it all – an ardent will power to be successful in the field. Any one or more of the green careers can be practiced by functional farmers – traditional or otherwise, students, teachers and other professionals viz. engineers, architects, scientists, lawyers and many more. Formal education would help a great deal but it is not mandatory. Partly trained or even untrained people can initiate these professions and can be successful. ‘Innovative mind’ is the basic necessity and ‘zeal’ to do something good and better for all. Especially the fast deteriorating environment is the key to progress and success here.

The careers we will be dealing within this series are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Agriculture Horticulture Fisheries Dairy Science Animal Husbandry Nature Reader, Writer and Photographer Nature Guide Environmental Engineers Environmental Educationist / Teacher Environmental Social Worher Environmental Lawyer Environmental Researcher


MANGROVES OF MAHARASHTRA COAST The total length of the Maharashtra coast is characterised by several pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, these are estimated about 720 km long. The Maharashtra coastal zone extends between the latitude 15 52’N and 20 10’N and longitude 72 10’E and 73 10’E and falls under five districts from South to North Thane District Sindhudurg District Ratnagiri District Raigad District Mumbai District Majority of the mangrove forests of Maharashtra have vanished due to anthropogenic pressures in the recent years. During the last 25 years, about 40% reduction in the mangrove cover of Maharashtra has been due to human interference and State Kharland Development Board. Habitat conversion and wood felling are the two major threats observed for the mangroves of Maharashtra. The estuary /creek ecosystems in general and the mangroves inparticular are under tremendous pressure of u r b a n i z a t i o n a n d industrialization. Satellite Imagery data shows that in Maharashtra coast the mangrove area is only 148.4 km2 on the mouth of the rivers like the Vashishti, and in Thane,

the Vaitarana. The minor areas are Ratnagiri, Raigad, Thane, Mumbai, Sindhudurg, Mahim, Elephanta Island, Waghotan, Rajapur, Dharamtar, Vasai (Ulhas), Shastri, Vikroli etc. Conversion of mangrove swamps into residential plos tis observed in vicinity of fast growing cities like Mumbai. In these cities, chances for horizontal expansion are meager for residential or industrial premises. In such cases mangrove swamps are reclaimed on larger scale for this purpose. Mankhurd (Thane creek), Diva-Dombivali section

of Ulhas river are some of the examples for such conversions. DISTRICT

Mangrove Cover In Sq.Km.

Mumbai

02

Mumbai Sub.

43

Thane

53

Raigad

62

Ratnagiri

23

Sindhudurg Total

03 186

Up Coming Green Career Courses

Aqua Culture in Jully & August ( Only Sundays) For details Contact 2533 2731 / 2540 0012


ll aapala paryavaran ll BIRDS IN AND AROUND MUMBAI Jungle Bush Quail Habitat – Alibaug Photo Credit – Pravin Kawale It is similar in size to other quails. It appears like a chick. It has a rufous grey upper body, with buff and black spots on the wings. Male has black and white stripes on underparts. Female has buff underparts. A dark brown throat an rufous supercilium with white border. Thick black beak and pinkish yellow legs. Prefers deciduous forest, scrub forest and grasses. Found in India, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka.

Avinash Bhagat

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Indian Pitta Habitat – Murbad Photo Credit – Vinod Gorle It is a Myna sized colourful bird. Wings and upperbody appear green and blue. Black eye line and crown stripe. Throat neck and supercilium white in colour. Underparts are orangish yellow. It has a red colured vent, black beak and pink legs. It has a short tail which is dark blue in colour. It is found in all kinds of forest in india. It shows seasonal passage migration. It has a unique wheet-tew call .

Tawny-bellied Babbler Habitat – Alibaug Photo Credit – Tushar Bhagwat Size similar to a House Sparrow. Light brown upperparts, head and crown rufous light brown and white throat. Blackish yellow beak and pink legs. Prefers deciduous, evergreen and scrub forest. Found in India, Nepal, and Srilanka.

Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher Habitat – Alibaug Photo Credit – Sunil Thokal It is a sparrow sized colourful bird. Reddish rufous upperparts, wings are purple with blue patches. Face till nape and underparts are orange in colour. Neck and throat have white spots, purple pink colour on rump. Large thick orange beak and small legs. Prefers snall streams in evergreen moist forest. Mostly found in Western Ghats, North-East India and South-East Asian countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Srilanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar. Passage migration is seen in monsoon.

Pied Crested Cuckoo Habitat – Navi-Mumbai Photo Credit – Clara Correia It is a Myna sized bird with a longer tail. It is called Pied due to its black and white colour. Upper body is black with white underparts. White spots on wing and tail. Black crest on head. Beak and legs are black. Prefers deciduous forests and scrub lands, paddy fields and water bodies. It is a monsoon visitor to India.

Brahminy kite Habitat – Navi Mumbai Photo Credit – Avinash Bhagat Size similar to a black kite. Rufous upperparts, head and underparts are white. Feathers on legs and tail are also rufous coloured. Legs and beak are yellow. Prefers sea shores, dams, rivers and creeks. Seasonal passage migration is seen. Found in india, Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka and Myanmar.


Makarand Kulkarni

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Red Helen Family: Papilionidae Sub Family: Papiloninae Genus : Papilio helenus Red Helen is a large swallowtail butterfly with a wing span 110-130 mm. It is a brownish-black butterfly with tails. The underside is nearly a copy of upperside. The basic colour is dark blackish-brown. Its female looks similar to Common Rose therefore it resembles the Common Mormon Female of Stitchius form which is the mimic of Common Rose. However, Red Helen is bigger than Common Mormon. The hind wings are black and they have tails. The edge is wavy. The wing is dominated by three broad, white or yellowish spots below the cell. On the upperside of hind wing these white spots are a little bigger in size. In flight these white spots are conspicuous against its overall black colour. In female on the hind wing there is a chain of small red spots at the outer edge. The red spots on the underside are bigger than the same spots on the upperside of the wing. In male these red spot are missing. It is found in Southern India and in the North-East India from Uttaranchal to Arunachal Pradesh. Isolated sightings are reported in Andhra Pradesh in the Eastern Ghats. In Maharashtra it is found in Chiplun, Vasota, Koyna, Sawantwadi, Amboli. Isolated sightings have occurred in SGNP Mumbai, Lonavala areas. Its global occurance is in South-East Asia. It is found in Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea, Vietnam, Southern China (including Hainan, Guangdong province), Taiwan, Southern Japan, South Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Peninsular and Eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, and Indonesia. It prefers hilly evergreen forests of heavy rainfall areas, but visits nearby gardens for food plants like citruses. It is seen from March to November. With its rapid, weaving flight it is the most common swallowtail butterfly of the forested hills. It is seen flying upto 2100 meters. It visits flowers and wet patches too. In the nallah, riverbed and on damp patches it mudpuddles for short durations. It will fly away instantly and come to mudpuddle at the same spot again. While mudpuddling it gets mixed among other Swallowtails

Red Helen lay eggs on Wild Citrus (Glycosmis pentaphylla/arborea), Orange climber/Forest pepper (Toddalia asiatica), Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium), Indian Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum rhetsa) and Evodia (Tetradium spp) of Rutaceae family .

Yuvraj Gurjar

98921 38338

Owl Fly Owlflies are dragonfly-like insects with large bulging eyes and strongly knobbed antennae. They are neuropterans in the family Ascalaphidae; they are only distantly related to the true flies, and even more distant from the dragonflies and damselflies. They are diurnal or crepuscular predators of other flying insects. Adult owlflies are aerial predators feeding on other insects. When disturbed, some owlflies will release a strong, musk-like chemical to deter enemies. Adults of many New World species are most active at sunset and dawn and can often be collected around lights. During the day, such adults rest on stems and twigs with the body, legs, and antennae pressed to the stem. The abdomen in a few species is held up, projecting into the air, to look like a broken twig. Many Old World species, however, are most active during the day, and are brightly colored – many even hold their wings spread at rest like dragonflies; perhaps this is a form of mimicry to benefit from the fact that dragonflies are aggressive predators which smaller predatory insects. Eggs are laid on twigs or under stones. Larvae are predatory, and lie on the ground or in vegetation, covered with debris, waiting for prey. Larvae resemble those of antlions, but have a “finger-like appendage” on the side of each segment. Some genera actively cement sand and debris onto their bodies as camouflage. Pupation occurs in a spheroidal silk cocoon in leaf litter or soil.. www.yuwarajgurjar.com

Nisarg Bhramanti at Phansad Paryavaran Dakshata Manch is organising a Nature Trail to Phansad Wild Life Sanctuary ( Second Batch) on 11th and 12th July 2015. A day and night trail will unfold the rich biodiversity of the forest under the guidance of expert Naturalist - Avinash Bhagat. for more details : Paryavaran Shala

25380684 / 9869033583


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July 2015  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine July 2015

July 2015  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine July 2015

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