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efJeMes<e uesKe

þeC³ee®³ee Kee[er®es YeefJe<³e / YeefJeleJ³e keÀe³e? Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj

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þeC³eele Yejuesu³ee petv³ee þeC³ee®³ee íe³eeef®e$eeb®³ee SkeÀe ÒeoMe&veeceO³es SkeÀ HeÀesìes Heeefnuee neslee, keÀUJ³ee®ee Heefnuee Hetue yeebOeC³ee®³ee Deieesoj Kee[er®³ee oesve keÀeþeb®ee keÀe{uesuee HeÀesìes. Deelee HetueeKeeuetvener yejs®e HeeCeer Jeentve iesues Deens. þeC³ee®³ee DeeefCe keÀUJ³ee®³eener yeepetves ueeskeÀJemleer SkeÀoce ³esTve ef®ekeÀìueer Deens. veJ³ee cebgyeF&keÀ[s peeC³eeN³ee nîee cenÊJee®³ee HetueebJej Òe®eb[ JeenlegkeÀ keÀeW[er nesle Deens. ner JeenlegkeÀ keÀeW[er otj keÀjC³ee®³ee KeìeìesHeele veblej yeebOeuee iesuesuee Depetve SkeÀ Hetuener Deelee DeHegje He[t ueeieuee Deens. petv³ee Heguee®es mebHeuesues Dee³eg<³e DeeefCe veJ³ee HetueeJejerue Òe®eb[ ieoea ³eecegUs Depetve SkeÀe YeJ³e Heguee®eer ³eespevee DeeKeC³eele Deeueer Deens - HeCe... ³eeHetJeeaner ³ee Kee[er®³ee ceOetve peeC³eeN³ee jsuJesuee, DeefOekeÀ jsuJes ueeF&vme ìekeÀe³euee peeiee nJeer cnCetve meceeblej Hetue yeebOee³euee HejJeeveieer efceUeueer. iesu³ee one yeeje Je<ee¥ceO³es nîee Hetueeb®es yeebOekeÀece HetCe& nesTve l³eeJe©ve veJeer cegbyeF&letve ³esCeeN³ee ueeskeÀuener OeeJet ueeieu³ee Deensle. Hejbleg ns Hetue yeebOeC³eemeeþer Kee[er®³ee HeeC³ee®ee ÒeJeen De[efJeleevee lemes®e Keeue®³ee Ke[keÀebceOetve efHeuej ìekeÀleevee ÒeJeeneuee efvecee&Ce kesÀuesues De[LeUs, keÀecee®ee Yeeie cnCetve®e mebHetCe&HeCes keÀe{tve ìekeÀC³ee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee DeepeHe³e¥lener HetCe& Peeuesueer veener. l³ee®eyejesyej þeC³ee®³ee efYeJeb[er - yesueeHetj ceOeerue DeewÐeeseif ekeÀ Jemeenleerletve ³esCeejs Òeote<f ele HeeCeer Kee[erle mees[C³eekeÀjerlee yeebOeuesu³ee HeeF&HeueeF&vme, cegyebF&uee nesCeeje HeeCeerHegjJeþe megjUerle keÀjC³eemeeþer Kee[erHeej nesCeeN³ee ³ee

peueJeeefnv³ee ³ee meJee¥veer®e l³ee l³ee efþkeÀeCeer Kee[erceO³es De[LeUs efvecee&Ce kesÀues Deensle. Kee[er®³ee HeeC³eeceO³es ojjespe Yejleer - Deesnesìer®ee efvel³e KesU meg© Demelees. nîee Yejleer Deesnesìermeeþer HeeC³eeuee ³ee³euee Je pee³euee DemeCeejs meJe& ÒeJeen DeekegÀbef®ele Je GLeU Peeu³eeves HeeC³eeceOeerue meJe& lejbieCeejs HeoeLe& nîee®e ÒeJeeneceO³es Keeueer yemetve nîee Hee$ee®eer Keesueer keÀceer keÀjle Deensle. iesu³ee HeVeeme Je<ee¥ceO³es DeMee ÒekeÀejs mee®ele peeCeeje ieeU ne Kee[er®³ee HeeC³ee®³ee DeeJeieceveeme De[LeUe yevet ueeieuee Deens. Kee[er®³ee DeY³eemeemeeþer peueHejer#eCe Je Flej Hejer#eCeebmeeþer ueeieCeejer me@cHeume ieesUe keÀjC³eemeeþer vesnceer Kee[er®ee ÒeJeeme yeesìerletve keÀjCeejs mebMeesOekeÀ meebieleele keÀer, Kee[er®³ee efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue ef®eKeueele HetJeea ieg[I³eeHe³e¥le Hee³e ©lee³e®es. Hejbleg Deelee ceeCetme ef®eKeueeceO³es ieUîeeHe³e¥le yeg[lees. ³ee ef®eKeueeves Kee[er ogie&ce DeeefCe OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ yeveueer Deens. Kee[erceOeerue peueHeCeea®³ee, KeejHetÀìer®³ee Pee[eb®es DeefmlelJe nUtnUt ve<ì nesle Deens. Kee[er®³ee oMe&veer YeeieeceO³es efomeCeeN³ee nîee efnjJ³eeieej - meoenefjle DeeefCe oeì pebieuee®es nUtnUt efJejU Peg[Ht eele ªHeeblej nesT ueeieues Deens. DeveskeÀoe oMe&veer JevemHeleer þsJetve l³ee ceeie®³ee Pee[eb®es efMejkeÀeCe keÀjC³eele Deeuesues Deens. KeejHetÀìer®es DeefmlelJe ns Keej peefceveerJej Dee{Ules. cnCetve Keej peefceveeruee Heef[keÀ peefceve yeveefJeC³eemeeþer nîee KeejHetÀìerHe³e¥le ³esCeejs Yejleer®es HeeCeer yeebOe Ieeuetve De[JeC³ee®ee ceeie& Debeif ekeÀejuee peelees. megketÀve peeCeejer KeejHetÀìer ns GÊece FbOeve Demeu³eeves l³ee®eer lees[ Je GHe³eesiener PeHeeìîeeves kesÀuee peelees. DeefOekeÀ G<ceebkeÀ Demeuesueer KeejHetÀìer ner oe© ieeUC³ee®³ee DeJewOe OebÐeeceOeerue meJee¥le HeÀe³eosMeerj FbOeve Deens. KeejHetÀìer®³ee pebieueeuee Je=#elees[er®ee ceesþe MeeHe Deens. nîee mece=Oo Je Jesieeves Jee{C³eeN³ee KeejHetÀìer®³ee pebieueeuee lees[u³eeveblej Hejle Jee{efJeC³eemeeþer ceeveJeer Òe³elve ueeiele veenerle. ner KeejHetÀìer HeÀkeÌle Keejs HeeCeer peefceveer®³ee mebHekeÀe&le ³ee³euee ueeieu³eeJej nUtnUt vewmeefie&keÀefjl³ee l³ee efþkeÀeCeer GieefJeles. Debl³ele keÀþerCe HeefjefmLeleerlener leer GÊece Jee{les. Òeotef<ele HeeC³eelener KeejHetÀìer leie Oe©ve jneles. Òeote<f ele HeeC³eeleerue Òeot<ekesÀ


Mees<etve Iesles. HeeC³ee®³ee ÒeJeene®eer ieleer keÀceer keÀjles. HeeJemeeUîeeleu³ee Hegjeuee efkebÀJee GOeeCee®³ee Yejleeruee vewmeefie&keÀ yeebOe cnCetve keÀece keÀjles. kegÀþu³eener ÒekeÀej®es ueeskeÀefMe#eCe vemeu³eeves leelkeÀeueerkeÀ HeÀe³eÐeemeeþer nîee KeejHetÀìer®eer ceesþer lees[ nesle Deens. KeejHetÀìer®³ee pebieueele Deieesoj efMeªve keÀes³el³eeves nîee Pee[euee cegUeHeemetve keÀeHeCes Je les Pee[ megkeÀu³eeveblej megkeÀe ueeketÀ[HeÀeìe cnCetve l³ee®eer ceesUer yeebOetve leer Jeentve vesCes ne DeveskeÀeb®ee J³eJemee³e Deens. nîee lees[eruee efJejesOe keÀjC³eemeeþer DeveskeÀ peCe Òe³elve keÀjleele. Hejbleg mejkeÀejer DeveemLesves Je keÀener JesUe onMeleercegUs l³eeb®ee DeeJeepe oeyeuee peele Deens. KeejHetÀìer®³ee pebieueeb®eer ceeuekeÀer keÀesCeekeÀ[s; JeveKeel³eekeÀ[s keÀe keÀueskeÌìjkeÀ[s nîee ÒeMveeJe©ve vesnceer ìesueJeeìesueJeer kesÀueer peeles. DeveskeÀoe HeesueermeebkeÀ[s le¬eÀej keÀjleevee mejkeÀejer DeefOekeÀejer ne le¬eÀejoej nJee DeMeer Heesueermeeb®eer ceeieCeer Demeles. l³eeletve keÀesCeeueener DeMeer lees[ keÀjleevee DeLeJee lees[uesu³ee ueekeÀ[eb®eer JeenlegkeÀ keÀjleevee HekeÀ[ues Deens Je efMe#ee Peeueer Deens Demes DeepeJej SskeÀC³eele Deeuesues veener. DeMee veKes vemeuesu³ee JeeIeemeejK³ee keÀe³eÐeecegUs nîee KeejHetÀìer®es mebj#eCe keÀmes nesCeej ne®e ceesþe ÒeMve Deens. DeveskeÀpeCe, Deieoer efveJe[tve Deeuesues ueeskeÀÒeefleefveOeerner, DeveskeÀoe nîee KeejHetÀìer®³ee Keejpeefceveer®ee Heef[keÀ peefceve cnCetve GuuesKe keÀjleele. veJeceleoejebvee Deeke=À<ì keÀjC³eemeeþer nîee peefceveerJej DeekeÀ<e&keÀ yeeieyeefie®ee, ÒeYeeleHesÀjermeeþer jmlee lemes®e JesieJesieUîee LeerceJej yeeiee keÀjC³eemeeþer ner peeiee GHe³eesieer Deens Demes mecepeleele. l³eeletve nîee peeiesJej DeefOeke=Àle Deefle¬eÀceCe meg© nesles DeeefCe ceie Flej meceepekebÀìkeÀ nîeeb®ee DeeOeej IesTve ner peeiee nUtnUt yeUkeÀeJeleele. ner KeejHetÀìer FlekeÀer mece=× Deens keÀer efleves DeepeJej DeveskeÀ peue®ej, GYe³e®ej ÒeeC³eebvee pevce efouee Deens. nîee KeejHegÀìer®³ee pebieueele DeveskeÀ ceesþîee ÒeeC³eeb®esner DeefmlelJe DeveskeÀoe Dee{Ules. Hejbleg Menje®³ee peJeU®³ee KeejHetÀìerves cee$e meeF&yeeyeebHeemetve les ³esMetHe³e¥le DeveskeÀefJeOe Heerj, ceþ Je osJeUebvee pevce efouee Deens. ceeveJeefveefce&le nîee mebOeermeeOetveer osJeeefokeÀeb®³ee veeJeeJej ceesþîeeceesþîee YetKeb[eJejerue KeejHetÀìer mebHetCe&le: ve<ì keÀªve ìekeÀueer Deens. MenjeceOeerue keÀ®eN³ee®eer Je Fceejleer®³ee yeebOekeÀecee®³ee keÀ®eN³ee®³ee efJeunsJeeìer®eer mecem³ee efoJemesbefoJeme DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ iebYeerj nesle ®eeueueer. Deens. peeies®³ee Je [efcHeie ûeeGb[®³ee DeYeeJeecegUs mebOeermeeOeg keÀ®ejeJeenkeÀ iee[îee l³eeceOeerue meJe& ceeue je$eer DeHeje$eer Kee[erefkeÀveeN³eejerue nîee pebieueebceO³es DeeCetve Deesleleele. nUtnUt DeMee ìekeÀuesu³ee keÀ®eN³eeletve yesì efvecee&Ce nesles, lesLeerue KeejHetÀìer ef®ej[ueer peeles DeeefCe ceie l³eeJej YeieJ³ee, efnjJ³ee Jee efveUîee jbiee®³ee PeW[îee®eer PeesHe[HeÆer GYeer jneles. ceie l³ee ke@Àvmej®³ee efMejkeÀeJeeletve l³eeJej JesUer®e Ghee³e³eespevee ve

Peeu³eeme l³ee efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue meJe& KeejHetÀìer nîee ke@Àvmejuee yeUer He[les. Deepener DeeHeCe efvejer#eCe kesÀues lej Kee[erekf eÀveejer KeejHetÀìer®³ee pebieueele peeCeejs ì^keÀ®es ceeie DeeHeu³eeuee efveefM®ele Dee{Uleerue. oMe&veer Yeeieeleerue KeejHetÀìer leMeer®e þsJetve l³ee®³ee DebleYee&ieeceO³es ns [efcHebie meg© nesles DeeefCe yeIeleeyeIelee Kee[er®³ee efnjJ³ee HeÆîee®es ef¬eÀkesÀ쮳ee ûeeGb[ceO³es ©Heeblej nesles. ³ee [befHebieuee ÒeefleyebOe keÀjCeejer ³eb$eCee ner ueeskeÀeb®eer®e Demeueer Heenerpes. DeeHeu³eeuee DeMee ÒekeÀej®eer keÀesCeleerner neue®eeue Kee[erekf eÀveejer Dee{Uu³eeme leer keÀUJeC³ee®eer SkeÀ ³eb$eCee efkebÀJee HeÀesve, cesue, cesmespeÜejs veeWoJeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee GlHeVe Peeu³eeme DeeHeCe keÀener ÒeceeCeele nîee Òeke=Êeeruee DeeUe Ieeuet MeketÀ. nUtnUt ³ee ³eb$eCescegUs ns ÒekeÀej yebo nesT MekeÀleerue. nîee Hes#eener DeefOekeÀ OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ Deens les jemee³eefvekeÀ efkebÀJee efJe<ece³e HeoeLee¥®es Kee[er®³ee HeeC³eele efkebÀJee HeefjmejeceO³es kesÀues peeCeejs efJemepe&ve. DeeHeu³eeuee $eemeoe³ekeÀ Demeuesueer Òel³eskeÀ iees<ì otjJej HesÀketÀve osC³ee®ee DeeHeuee ÒeIeele Hejbleg Deepe DeeHeuee `ogjJej' ogmeN³ee Ieje®eer Jee Menje®eer Jee ieeJee®eer efYeble þjsue FlekesÀ peie Deepe peJeU Deeues Deens. cnCetve®e ogie¥Oeer³egkeÌle efkebÀJee efJe<ece³e Demes HeoeLe& Je keÀ®eje DeveskeÀoe je$eer®³ee DebOeejeceO³es Kee[er®³ee ÒeJeenele mees[u³eeves Kee[er®es ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Òeot<eCe nesles Je l³eeceOeerue peerJeme=<ìer®ee efJeveeMe neslees. Kee[er®es HeeCeer, l³ee®³ee yeepetuee Demeuesueer oueoue Je l³eeceO³es Jee{Ceejer KeejHetÀìer ner DeeHeu³ee MenjeceOeerue meJee¥le mece=× pew J eef J eef J eOelee Dee{UCeejer pew J eJ³eJemLee Deens . DeeHeu³ee me=<ìer®e¬eÀeleerue meJee¥le cenÊJee®³ee DeVemeeKeUer®³ee DeveskeÀ mecepe - DeHemecepeebvee otj keÀjle - pevepeeie=leer keÀjle nîee pewJeme=<ìer®es ³eesi³e J³eJemLeeHeve keÀjeJes DeMeer YeeJevee Je=ef×biele keÀjC³ee®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. cnCetve®e efo.2 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer `Jeu[& Jesìue@v[' [s ®³ee efveefceÊeeves Hegvne SkeÀoe efkeÌueve ef¬eÀkeÀ cegJnceWì (Kee[er mJe®ílee DeefYe³eevee®ee) Iees<e ceesþîee mJejele keÀje³euee nJee.


efJeMes<e uesKe

mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eevee®ee ke=ÀleerMeerue ÒeJeeme Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj

88790 74505 vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

pewJeefJeefJeOelesves mece=× Demeuesu³ee DeeefCe efvemeie&le: DeeHeu³ee DeefmlelJeecegUs DeeHeu³ee Heefjmejeuee meJe& peerJevejme meelel³eeves Òeoeve keÀjCeeN³ee Kee[ercegUs þeCes Menj mebHevve Peeues Deens. ceeskeÀUer nJee, KeejHetÀìer pebieueeb®eer ÒeeCeJee³et®eer osCeieer, efvemeie&jc³e DeeefCe DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Heefjmej, efve³eefceleHeCes efkeÀceeve mejemejer nesCeejer HeeJemee®eer yejmeele, efve³ebef$ele leeHeceeveeceOeerue ®e{Gleej... nîee Kee[er®³ee DeefmlelJee®³ee Menjeuee efceUCeeN³ee osCei³ee Deensle. Hejbleg iesueer DeveskeÀ Je<ex meJee&le mece=× DeewÐeesefiekeÀ HeÆe cnCetve efcejJeleevee nîee Kee[erceO³es ³esLeerue jemee³eefvekeÀ efJeYeeieeceOetve DeveskeÀefJeOe jmee³eves Deefveye¥Oe mees[C³eele Deeueer. nîee jemee³eefvekeÀ Òeot<eCeeves nîee Kee[erleerue meJe& mepeerJe ce=leÒee³e Peeues. DeveskeÀoe Hejer#eCeebceO³es ³ee Kee[erleerue HeeC³eeceOeerue efJejIeUuesu³ee Dee@ekf eÌmepeve®es ÒeceeCe Metv³e Demeles. DeMee HeeC³eele ceesþs mepeerJe lemes®e met#cepeerJener peiet MekeÀle veenerle. Hejbleg efvemeiee&®ee ®ecelkeÀej Je mepeerJeeb®eer peiee³e®eer leerJe´ F®íe ³eecegUs Kee[er®³ee HeeC³eeceOeerue ner pewJeefJeefJeOelee Deepener keÀener ÒeceeCeele efMeuuekeÀ Deens. meelel³eeves veoerletve nesCeeje iees[îee HeeC³ee®ee ÒeJeen lemes®e Yejleer Deesnesìer®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³escegUs Òeot<eCe ns mecegêe®³ee efoMesves Jeenle peele Demeu³eecegU g s leUeieeUeleerue ef®eKeueele Je Deepetyeepet®³ee KeejHetÀìerle Mees<eues peeCeejs Òeot<eCe mees[ues lej Flej Òeot<eCe Jeentve peeles. keÀener ÒeceeCeele ³ee ÒeJeenele Je Yejleer Deesnesìer®³ee ceeiee&le Deeuesu³ee De[LeUîeebveer ne ÒeJeen IegìceUle jeefnuee lejerner yengleebMe HeeCeer ns Deesnesìer®³ee ojc³eeve mecegêeHe³e¥le Heesnes®eles. jemee³eefvekeÀ DeewÐeeseif ekeÀ HeÆîee®eer efye©oeJeueer efcejJeCeejer yesueeHetj®eer DeewÐeesefiekeÀ Jemeenle Deelee Jesieeves mLeueeblejerle nesle Deens. cnCetve®e jmee³eveeb®es Òeot<eCe Deelee keÀener ÒeceeCeele keÀceer nesT ueeieues Deens. DeepeJej®³ee ieeUeceO³es ©leuesueer jmee³eves mees[ueer lej HeeC³ee®eer ÒeleJeejer ner keÀener ÒeceeCeele megOeeju³ee®es Hejer#eCeeceOetve peeCeJet ueeieues Deens. He#³eeb®eer efJeMes<ele: ÒeJeemeer He#³eeb®eer ceesþer GHeefmLeleer Je ogefce&U He#³eeb®ee Dee{U ³eecegUs ³esLeerue pewJeefJeefJeOeles®eer peeefCeJener HegveM®e nesT ueeieueer Deens. Deelee cee$e JesieUs®e mebkeÀì meceesj GYes jnele Deens les cnCepes nîee Kee[er®³ee Je l³eeceeie®³ee veoerJej Jemeuesueer efJeefJeOe ceneveiejs. Deepe þeCes, keÀu³eeCe - [ebsefyeJeueer, Gunemeveiej, efYeJeb[er Je veJeer -cegyb eF& ³ee ceneveiejeleerue veeiejerkeÀeb®eer mebK³ee PeHeeìîeeves Jee{le Deens. ³ee veeiejerkeÀebveer efvecee&Ce kesÀuesuee IevekeÀ®eje Je ³ee meJe& ceneueeskeÀmebK³es®es meeb[HeeCeer ns ³ee Kee[eruee DeHe&Ce kesÀues peele Deens.

Kee[er meYeesJeleeue®³ee Jesìue@v[uee `Jesmìue@v[' cnCepes Heef[keÀ peefceve þjJetve l³eeJej Yeuesceesþs keÀ®eN³ee®es [eWiej GYes jent ueeieues Deensle. nîee keÀ®eN³ee®³ee Devewmeefie&keÀ efJeIeìveeletve efvecee&Ce nesCeejs efJe<eejer HeeCeer ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Kee[erceO³es ³esT ueeieues Deens. l³ee®eÒeceeCes n³ee ueeskeÀmebK³es®eer efJe<þener yengleebMe keÀesCeleerner Òeef¬eÀ³ee ve keÀjlee ³ee Kee[erceO³es efJemeefpe&le nesT ueeieueer Deens. nîee meJe& ÒekeÀej®³ee iees<ìer Kee[erle meceefHe&le Peeu³eeves Kee[er®es HeeCeer ie{gU Peeues Deens. l³eeceOeerue lejbieles HeoeLe& ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Jee{t ueeieues Deensle. FceejleeR®³ee Hee[keÀecee®ee keÀ®ejener ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Kee[erle ìekeÀuee peeT ueeieuee Deens. l³eecegUs Deieesoj®e ieeUeves Yejuesu³ee Je Iegmeceìuesu³ee Kee[ermeceesj ³ee ®eej ceneveiejeleerue keÀ®eN³ee®³ee mecem³esves DeefmlelJee®ee ÒeMve GYee keÀªve þsJeuee Deens. ³ee meJe& ÒeMveebkeÀ[s HeneC³ee®ee meJe& meeceev³e veeiejerkeÀ, jep³ekeÀlex, mLeeefvekeÀ mJejep³emebmLeeb®es ÒeefleefveOeer, ceneefJeÐeeue³eeleerue ÒeeO³eeHekeÀ Je mebMeesOekeÀ lemes®e ns meJe& vewmeefie&keÀ m$eesle p³ee Heg{®³ee efHe{ermeeþer peHee³e®es Deensle l³ee Heg{erue efHe{er®es ÒeefleefveOeer le©Ce DeeefCe efJeÐeeLeea ³eeb®ee ¢<ìerkeÀesve le³eej keÀjC³ee®es keÀþerCe keÀece He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ueves iesueer 9 Je<ex meelel³eeves ®eeueefJeues Deens. ³ee Kee[erceOeerue efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®ee DeepeJej ìekeÀuee iesuesuee keÀ®eje yeensj keÀe{Ces ne GÎsMe veener. keÀejCe Kee[erceO³es l³eeleerue DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®³ee pewefJekeÀ keÀ®eN³eeuee He®eefJeC³ee®eer vewmeefie&keÀ #ecelee Deens. Deepe ³ee Kee[erJej keÀ®eje ìekeÀC³eecegUs pees Yeej Deeuee Deens lees keÀceer JneJee cnCetve `mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeveeletve' Kee[er®³ee Heefjmejeleerue Menjebvee Jee ieeJeebvee Kee[erle keÀ®eje ìeketÀ vekeÀe ns Deece®es DeeJeenve Deens. nîeemeeþer meelel³eeves Kee[er®³ee meYeesJeleeue®³ee Menjele, ceneefJeÐeeue³eele Deecner Jesìue@v[ efkebÀJee ce@veûetJnped [ss ®³ee efveefceÊeeves pevepeeiejCee®eer ceesnerce ®eeueefJeueer Deens. Jesìue@v[me, Kee[er®es HeeCeer DeeefCe l³eeceOeerue pewJeefJeefJeOelee ³ee efJe<e³eeJej ceneefJeÐeeue³eerve efJeÐeeLeea Je Meeues³e efJeÐeeLeea ³eeb®³eeceO³es pevepeeie=leer efvecee&Ce keÀjCeejer ceesenf ce He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ueves 2007 meeueer meg© kesÀueer.

`mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve'

³ee meJe& Kee[er®³ee Deepe®³ee DeJemLesuee Kee[erceOes ìekeÀuee peeCeeje keÀ®eje peyeeyeoej Deens cnCetve®e Kee[er efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue DeveskeÀefJeOe Menjs, ceneveiejs Je ceneefJeÐeeue³eebletve 2 HesÀye´gJeejer `Jeu[& Jesìue@v[ [s'®³ee ceeO³eceeletve pevepeeie=leer mebcesueves Dee³eesepf ele keÀjC³eele Deeueer.


8

2 HesÀye´gJeejer 2008 jespeer Heefnueer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo þeCes ceneveiejHeeefuekeÀe Je efyeuee& keÀe@uespe, keÀu³eeCe ³eeb®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves vejWê yeuueeU meYeeie=nele Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer . 2 HesÀye´gJeejer 2009 jespeer ogmejer Heefj<eo keÀu³eeCe [esbefyeJeueer ceneveiejHeeefuekeÀe Je [eWefyeJeueer ³esLeerue HeW{ejkeÀj ceneefJeÐeeue³ee®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves meeefJe$eeryeeF& HegÀues meYeeie=nele YejJeC³eele Deeueer nesleer. 2 HesÀye´Jg eejer 2010 jespeer eflemejer Heefj<eo yeer.Sve.Sve keÀe@uespe, efYeJeb[er®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves keÀe@uespe®³ee meYeeie=nele®e YejJeC³eele Deeueer nesleer. ³ee Heefj<eos®³ee efveefceÊeeves npeej efJeÐeeL³ee¥®eer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve j@ueer efYeJeb[er®³ee jml³eeJe©ve efveIeeueer nesleer. 2 HesÀye´Jg eejer 2011 jespeer ®eewLeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo keÀce&Jeerj YeeTjeJe Heeìerue ceneef J eÐeeue³eele, ³ee®e ceneef J eÐeeue³ee®³ee Je veJeer ceg y eb F & ceneveiejHeeefuekesÀ®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer. 2 HesÀye´gJeejer 2012 jespeer Hee®eJeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo kesÀ.pes.meesce³³ee ceneefJeÐeeue³e, efJeÐeeefJenej cegyebF& ³esLes l³ee®e ceneefJeÐeeue³ee®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer 2 HesÀye´gJeejer 2013 ®eer meneJeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo ®eeboeryeeF& keÀe@uespe Gunemeveiej ³esLes nîee ceneefJeÐeeue³ee®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves YejefJeC³eele Deeueer nesleer. 2 HesÀye´gJeejer 2014 ®eer meeleJeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo kesÀUkeÀj Sp³egkesÀMeve meesmee³eìer®³ee JePes kesÀUkeÀj ceneefJeÐeeue³e, cegueg[ b

³esLes l³eeb®³ee®e menkeÀe³ee&ves Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer. 2 HesÀye´gJeejer 2015 jespeer DeeþJeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo meesveesHeble oeb[skeÀj keÀe@uespe, HeeueIej efpeune þeCes ³esLes jesìjer keÌueye ®³ee menkeÀe³ee&ves YejefJeC³eele Deeueer. 24 peguew 2015 jespeer veJeJeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo yeer. Sve.yeeboes[keÀj ceneefJeÐeeue³e, þeCes ³esLes efJeMJe KeejHetÀìer efovee®³ee efveefceÊeeves YejefJeC³eele Deeueer. DeeefCe Deelee oneJeer mJe®í Kee[er DeefYe³eeve Heefj<eo, Jeu[& Jesìue@v[ [s ®³ee efveefceÊeeves efo 31 peevesJeejer 2016 jespeer PegvePegveJeeuee ceneefJeÐeeue³e cegyebF& ³esLes YejefJeC³eele ³esCeej Deens. cegyebF& efJeÐeeHeerþe®³ee ke=ÀleerMeerue menYeeieecegUs ³ee Je<eea Jesìue@v[me Jej efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee DeefOekeÀ ceeefnleer JneJeer cnCetve efo.1 HesÀye´gJeejer jespeer Jesìue@v[ Jejerue mebMeesOekeÀeb®eer J³eeK³eeves efJeÐeeHeerþe®³ee keÀeefuevee keÀ@cHemeceO³es Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer Deensle. lemes®e ³ee®e keÀe³e&¬eÀceele efo. 2 HesÀye´Jg eejer jespeer cegyebF& efJeÐeeHeerþe®³ee HeoJeeroeve meYeeie=neceO³es Jesìue@v[ [s ®³ee efveefceÊeeves SkeÀe Heefj<eos®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues Deens. nîee ieesuecespe Heefj<eosceO³es Kee[er Je l³eeYeesJeleeue®eer peerJeme=<ìer lemes®e lesLeerue pewJeefJeefJeOelee ³ee meboYee&leerue DeepeJej®eer lep%eeb®eer SkeÀ$e kesÀuesueer celes Je met®evee nîee mejkeÀejer DeefOekeÀejer lemes®e ueeskeÀÒeefleefveOeeRvee HeeþJetve l³eeb®ee HeeþHegjJeþe kesÀuee peeF&ue.


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jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie

HegUCeeR®es JeieeakeÀjCe ... uesKeebkeÀ 9 Jee [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs ë 93225 07685 (polymegized) mJeªHeele JeeUtceO³es Dee{Uleele. ÒeemebefiekeÀ

HegUCe

(beach)

ns cenemeeiej, mecegê DeLeJee mejesJeje®³ee

keÀeþeJejer} YetieYee&leer} (geological) Yet#es$e vemetve les Ke[keÀ, keÀHe®³ee, ieesì,s Yej[ JeeUt, ieeU efkebÀJee ef®eKe}eves De®íeefole Demeles. ³ee De®íeove keÀCeebceO³es peerJepev³e ÒeJeeU, µebKe, efµebHe}s, keÀJe®es Fl³eeoerb®es legkeÀ[sner efJeefYevve ÒeceeCeele Dee{Uleele. HegUCeeR®es Dee®íeove keÀesCel³ee ÒekeÀej®es DemeCeej ns l³ee #es$ee®es vekeÀeµeeJejer} mLeeve, efkeÀveejHeÆer obletj keÀer mejU, HegUCe YetYeeiee®es DeeefCe l³ee}iele®³ee mecegêleUe®es mLeUJeCe&ve (topography), Jeejs- Yejleer -Deesnesìer - }eìeb®es - yeU ³eeJe©ve þjles. Jee}gkeÀece³e HegUCeer®ee YetÒeosµe Jeejs Je }eìe ³eeb®³ee jsìîeecegUs Ie[le-efyeIe[le jenlees. meceµeerlees<Ce (temperate) ÒeosµeebceO³es $eÝleg®e¬eÀebvegmeej JeeUt®ee veeìîece³e meb®e³e Je DeJe#e³e (deposition and depletion) nesTve HegUCeer®es ©He yeo}le jenles. Jemeble Je ûeer<ceeceO³es ©bo Je n}kesÀ®e Glejle peeCeejer JeeUt®eer HegUCe efµeefµejele De©bo Je Del³ebeflekeÀ Gleeje®eer nesleevee efomeles. efJe¬eÀeU }eìeb®³ee ceeN³eecegUs HetCe& OetHe nesTve HegUCe iee³eyener nesT µekeÀles. ner }eìeb®³ee ceeN³eeves efkeÀveeN³eeJe©ve G®e}}er ies}s}er JeeUt mecegêele keÀener DeblejeJej leUeµeer meeþtve Jee}gkeÀemleg (sand bar) yevet µekeÀlees. Jemeble Hejleele®e HeeC³ee®³ee cebo GmeUCeer yejesyej ner JeeUt Hegvne efkeÀveeN³eekeÀ[s }esì}er peeTve cebo GlejCeer®eer HegUCe HegveM®e ¢iees®ej nesles. meeceev³eele: HegUCeerJejer} JeeUt®³ee 80 les 90 ìkeÌkesÀ JeeUt veÐee Jeentve DeeCeleele. ner JeeUt [eWiejeJejer} oie[ HeeC³eeyejesyej Jeentve ³esleevee Ie<e&CeebcegUs HegÀìtve iegUiegUerle ieesìs yevele Je DeekeÀjeves }neve nesle yeveles. l³eeceO³es peerJepev³e keÀCe Je kegÀpeCeejs keÀeye&veer HeoeLe&ner efcemeU}s}s Demeleele. efmeef}keÀe@ve, ke@Àefuµe³ece, ce@ivesefµe³ece, mì^e@efvµe³ece, }esn, De@uîetefceefve³ece Fl³eeoer Oeelet Je DeOeeletb®es Dee@keÌmeeF[, keÀeyeexvesìmed, HeÀe@mHesÀìmed Fl³eeoer #eej yengJeeefjkeÀeb®³ee

Hegjebyejesyej Jeentve Dee}s}s DeefleefjkeÌle keÀCe meeþtve DeveskeÀoe ©bo efkeÀveejHeÆer le³eej nesles Je Hegvne Hetj ³esF&He³e¥le efle®eer OetHe nesle jenles. efvemeie&le: HegUCeer®es JeieeakeÀjCe Ke[keÀeU, JeeuetkeÀece³e Je HebkeÀce³e (rocky, sandy and muddy) HegUCeeRceO³es kesÀ}s peeles. ³eeHetJeea®³ee }sKeele ³ee HegUCeer keÀesCel³ee HeefjefmLeleerle yeveleele ³ee®es JeCe&ve kesÀ}s nesles. ³eeceOeer} Jee}gkeÀece³e HegUCeer He³e&ìve, keÀjceCegkeÀ Je efJeefJeOe meeiejer KesUebmeeþer peievceev³e Deensle. Deµee ceeveJeer GHe³eesieemeeþer®³ee HegUCeeR®es Jeefie&keÀjCe megjef#elelee Je OeeskesÀ ³eeJe©ve kesÀ}s peeles. Deµee SkebÀoj 13 ÒekeÀej®³ee HegUCeerceO³es 6 }eìeb®es Òeyeeuîe DemeCeeN³ee (wave- dominated) leerve GOeeCe ©HeYesefole (tide - modified) Je ®eej GOeeCe Òeeyeeuîe DemeCeeN³ee (tide-dominated) HegUCeer Deensle. ns JeieeakeÀjCe ÒeecegK³eeves HegUCeer®es mJe©HeJeCe&ve (beach topography), HegUCeer}iele®³ee mecegêleUe®es mJe©HeJeCe&ve (topography of near – shore seabed), HegUCeerJejer} Dee®íeove (keÀCeeb®ee DeekeÀej Je l³eevemeej Ke[keÀ , ieesìs, Yej[ JeeUt, yeejerkeÀ JeeUt, ieeU DeLeJee ef®eKe}) DeeefCe }eìe lemes®e GOeeCee®es yeU efJe®eejele IesTve kesÀ}s peeles. }eìeb®es Òeeyeeuîe Deme}suîee HegUCeer (wave dominated beaches) : ³ee ÒekeÀej®³ee HegUCeeRvee meowJe GHeÀeU}suîee mecegêe}e leeW[ ÐeeJes }eieles. Gb®e Je ye}µee}er }eìe efkeÀveeN³eebJej DeeoUle jenleele. ³ee HegUCeerb®es 6 ÒekeÀej He[leele. - DeHe#e³eer HegUCeer (Dissipative beach) : ³ee ©bo (300 - 500 efceìj) DeeoUCe #es$e (surf zone) DemeCeeN³ee Je HeeC³ee®³ee efoµesves 2 les 3 meeceev³e Gbyejþs (normal bars) DeeefCe êesCeer (trouphs) DemeCeeN³ee HegUCeer Deensle. ueeìeb®es yeU Je Tpee& DeefOekeÀlece Demetve ³eebvee cebo Gleeje®es, yeejerkeÀ JeeUt DemeCeejs ©bo cegKe Demeles. }eìe 2 - 3 efceìj Gb®e Demetve l³ee DeHeleìer (offshore) Kees}Jej HegÀìtve l³eeb®eer meceûe Tpee& ©bo DeeoUCe #es$eele DeHe#eef³ele nesles.³eecegUs mecegêmleeve keÀjCeeN³eebvee HegjesJeen #es$eele (swash zone) DeYe³e efceUles. - DeeblejJeleea- ogjmleì Jee}g®esHe HegUCeer (Intermediate – longshore - sandflats) : efJe}ie}suîee Gyebjþîeebveer JesieUîee kesÀ}su³ee Kees®eer- êesCeeRveer (rips -troughs) ³egkeÌle ³ee HegUCeeRJej 1.5 les 2 efceìj Gb®eer®³ee }eìe Oe[keÀle Demeleele. ³ee HegUCeeRJej ceO³ece DeekeÀeje®eer JeeUt Demetve HegUCe keÀceeveer ¢iees®eej nesleele (beach


10 cusps). GOeeCee®³ee JesUer Gyebjþs Je êesCeerb®³ee efþkeÀeCe®eer Kees}er

yejer®e Demeceeve Demeuîeeves DevevegYeJeer Je }neve ceg}s ³eebvee HeesnC³eemeeþer OeeskeÀeOee³ekeÀ þjles. - DeeblejJeleea - }³eyeOod Gbyejþs HegUCeer (Intermediate – rhythmic bar beaches) : ³ee ÒekeÀej®³ee HegUCeeRceO³es meceeblej Gyebjþs Je l³eebveer JesieUîee kesÀ}suîee êesCeer Demeleele. JeeUt yeejerkeÀ Demeles Je HegÀìCeeN³ee }eìe 1 les 2 efceìj Gb®eer®³ee Demeleele. HegUCe keÀceeveer (beach cusps) megmHe<ì Demeleele, GOeeCe mece³eer êesCeer Je Gyebjþs ³esLeer} Kees}er Demeceeve Demeuîeeves DevegveYeJeer Je }nevei³eebmeeþer OeeskeÀe mebYeJelees . - DeeblejJeleea - DevegÒemLe Gbyejþs Je Kees®eer (Intermediate – transverse bars and rips) : keÀes<ece³e - iees}ekeÀej j®eves®es, meeOeejCe 50 les 150 efceìj ©boer®es DeeoUCe #es$e DemeCeejer ner HegUCe Deens. DeeoUCeeN³ee }eìe 1 les 1.5 efceìj Gb®eer®³ee Demetve HegUCeerJej ceO³ece les yeejerkeÀ keÀCeeb®eer JeeUt Demeles. HegUCeer®³ee yeensjer} yeepetme JeUCeoej keÀceeveer (beach cusps) Demeleele. Deµee HegUCeer keÀceer }ebìeceO³es mecegê mveeveemeeþer megjef#ele Demeuîee lejer Gbyejþs Je êesCeerbceOeer} Demeceeve Kees}ercegUs keÀeUpeer IesCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ þjles. - DeeblejJeleer& - Deesnesìer JesefokeÀe (intermediate – lowtide terrace) : ³ee ÒekeÀeje®³ee HegUCeercb eO³es efkeÀveeN³ee}e Kesìvt e Jee}gkeÀemleg Demegve Deeke=ÀefleyebOe vemeCeeje DeLeJee Hegmeì HegUCe keÀceeveer DemeCeeje yeeefjkeÀ JeeUt®ee HeÆe lesJn{e Demelees. DeeoUCe }eìe 0.5 les 1 efceìj Gb®e Demetve efkeÀveeje }eìeb®³ee ceeN³eeHeemetve megjef#ele Demelees. Deesnesìer - Jeseof keÀe HegUCeer mveeveemeeþer megjef#ele Demeuîee lejer }eìeb®eer Gb®eer 1 efceìjntve DeefOekeÀ Peeuîeeme keÀeUpeer IesCes Deeiel³ee®es þjles. - DeHeJeleea³e - Gbyejþs Je êesCeer (Reflective + bars and rips) : ³ee ÒekeÀeje®³ee HegUCeer Deesnesìer keÀeUer }eìe HegÀìCeeN³ee Je Jee}gkeÀemleg lemes®e êesCeeRveer ³egkeÌle Demeleele. DeeoUCe }eìeb®eer Gb®eer 0.5 les 1.5 efceìj ojc³eeve Demetve JeeN³eeb®³ee yeUevegmeej leer keÀceer DeefOekeÀ nesles. Yejleer®³ee keÀeUele De©bo Je meueie DeeoUCe#es$eeJej }eìeb®ee ceeje neslees. Deesnesìer®³ee keÀeUele ©bo Je êesCeer DemeCeejs DeeoUCe #es$e efomeles. GOeeCe keÀeUer DeHeleìer³e DeeoU #e$eeyeensj megjef#ele mecegêmveeve keÀjlee ³esles HeCe Deesnesìer®³ee keÀeUele mecegêekeÀ[er} HeeC³ee®eer Dees{ HeesnCeeN³eebvee OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ þjles. GOeeCe ©HeYesefole (Tide - modified) HegUCeer : keÀceer Gb®eer Je yeU DemeCeeN³ee ueeìe Hejblet Yejleer- DeesnesìerceO³es ue#eCeer³e HeÀjkeÀ Demeuesu³ee efþkeÀeCeer GOeeCe - ©HeYesefole HegUCeer yeveleele. ueeìeb®eer Gb®eer 30 mes.ceer. ntve keÀceer HeCe Yejleer - Deesnesìer®³ee Gb®eerceO³es l³ee®³ee 3 les 15 Heì HeÀjkeÀ Demelees. ³ee HegUCeer®eW ÒekeÀej Keeueerue ÒeceeCes Demeleele. - DeHeJeleea³e + Deesnesìer - Jeseof keÀe (Reftective + lowtide terrace) : ³ee Keesue Yejleer keÀceeveer Je ceO³ece les Yej[ JeeUt Demeuesu³ee Je DekeÀefmcekeÀ Gleej Kebef[le nesCeeN³ee HegUCeer Demeleele. Deesnesìer®³ee JesUer cebo Gleeje®eer ©bo JesefokeÀe le³eej nesles. DeoUCe ueeìe 0.5 les

1.0 efceìj Gb®eer®³ee Demetve Yejleer®³ee ueeìeb®ee DeeJesie Del³ebeflekeÀ Gleeje®³ee cegKeeMeer Pesueuee peelees Je DeeoU #es$e®e vemeles. Debl³eeflekeÀ GleejecegUs GOeeCe keÀeUer DeMee HegUCeer yeeuekeÀ Je Je=Ooebmeeþer De[®eCeer®³ee þjleele. ueeìeb®eer Dees{ Deesnesìer®³ee keÀeUele DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeves ³ee keÀeUele HeeC³eele GlejCes Oeeske̳ee®es Demeles. - DeHeJeleea³e + Gbyejþs Je êesCeer (Reflective + bars and rips) Deesnesìer®³ee keÀeUele ©bo DeeoUCe #es$e DemeCeeN³ee Je megmHe<ì Gbyejþs DeeefCe êessCeer DemeCeeN³ee ³ee HegUCeeRJej YejleerceO³es De©bo DeeoUCe #es$e Demeleb. ueeìeb®es yeU Je Gb®eer keÀceer Demeueer lejer Yejleer - DeesnesìerceOeerue HeÀjkeÀ l³ee®³ee DeveskeÀ Heìercb eO³es Demelees. GbyejþîeeJej ueeìe peesjeves DeeoUtve ÞesCeeRceO³es PesHeeJeleele. p³eecegUs ³ee HegUCeer mecegêmveeveemeeþer keÀceer megjef#ele þjleele. - DeHe#e³eeleerle (ultradissipitive) : G®®e - Tpex®³ee ³ee GOeeCeªHeYesefole HegUCeer meeceev³ele: keÀceer Gb®eer®³ee (0.5efce.) ueeìeb®³ee efþkeÀeCeer le³eej nesleele. HegUCeerJej yeejerkeÀ JeeUt Demeles Je Yejleer Deesnesìerntve KetHe®e yeueMeeueer Demeles. DeeoUCe #es$eeHeemetve leìJeleea Þes$eele mecegêmveeve megjef#ele efjleerves keÀjlee ³esles. GOeeCe Òeeyeu³e Demeuesu³ee HegUCeer (tide dominated beaches) : ³ee ÒekeÀeje®³ee HegUCeer Yejleer #es$eele yeveleele. ³esLes ueeìeb®eer Gb®eer Òee³e: keÀceer Demeles Je GOeeCee®eer Gb®eer ueeìeb®³ee 10 les 15 Heì JeeuegkeÀeÒemlejer³e DeefOekeÀ Demeles. DeMee HegUCeeR®es Keeueerue ÒeceeCes ÒekeÀej mebYeJeleele. - DeHeJeleea³e + JeeuetkeÀeHeì (Reflective + sandflats) : ³ee HegUCeer Del³eeflekeÀ Gleeje®³ee (3 - 10b ) Je veer®elece Tpex®³ee Yejleer - #es$eele Dee{Uleele. ³esLes Yej[ JeeUt Demeles Je Deeke=Àleernerve meHeeì JeeUt®ee mlej Demelees. l³ee®³ee Heg{s efkeÀl³eskeÀMes efceìj ©bo Je yeejerkeÀ JeeUtves yeveuesuee JeeUt®ee meHeeì Lej efomelees. yeueMeeueer Jeeje vemeleevee DeeoUCe ueeìe yevele®e veenerle. nîee ÒekeÀej®³ee HegUCeer He³e&ìkeÀebvee HeÀejMee Deeke=À<ì keÀjle veenerle. - DeHeJeleea³e + JeeUgkebÀieesjs (Reflective + sand eidges): ³ee ceO³ece Gleeje®³ee YejleerkeÀeueerve De©bo HegUCeer efkeÀveeN³eeuee


11

ueeietve meceeve DeblejeJej DemeCeeN³ee JeeUt - kebÀieesN³eebveer ³egkeÌle Demeleele. ns keÀebieesjs megJesueeb®eueer lemes®e GbHeleìer³e (littoral and sublittoral) #es$eele HewÀueeJeuesues Demeleele. mecegêmveeveemeeþer ³ee HegUCeer HeÀejMee Deuneooe³eer Demele veenerle. - DeHeJeleea³e + GOeeCe HebkeÀmlejer³e (Reflective + mudflats) GOeeCe Òeeyeeu³e DemeCeeN³ee Je De©bo DeHeJeleea³e YejleerkeÀeueerve HegUCeer Yej[ DeJemeeoeves yeveuesu³ee Demetve Heg{erue Yeeieer keÀenerMes les keÀener menm$e efceìj ©bo Je peJeUHeeme meceleue ef®eKeuece³e HeÆe Demelees. KeepeCe JevemHeleer ³ee mebjef#ele HegUCeerJej menpe Jee{leele. mecegêieceve DeMee HegUCeeRJej peJeUHeeme DeMeke̳e Demeles. - DeHeJeleea³e + Hee<eeCeÒemlej (Reflective + rock flats) : Jej JeCe&ve kesÀuesu³ee DeHeJeleea³e, YejleerkeÀeueerve HegUCeeRÒeceeCes®e ³ee HegUCeer Demetve ³eeb®³ee peuemeefvveOe Yeeieer Ke[keÀeU Òemlej efometve ³esles. ³ee HegUCeeRJej Yejleer Deesnesìer ÒeyeU Demetve ueeìeb®es yeU Je Gb®eer keÀceer Demeles.DeMee HegUCeerbJej MewJeeue Je efJeefJeOe ÒeeC³eeb®eer efJeefJeOelee Je Ievelee ue#eCeer³e Demeueer lejer mecegêmveeveemeeþer ³ee HegUCeer keÀceeueer®³ee Demegjef#ele Demeleele. Jejer u e Jeieea k eÀjCeeJ³eef l eef j keÌ l e Heg U CeeR ® es Yet © ef H ekeÀ (Geomorphological) Jeefie&keÀjCe kesÀues peeles. ³ee keÀefjlee #ejCe / DeHej#eCe Ie[Jetve DeeCeCeejs IeìkeÀ ueeìeb®³ee KeUeU (wavewash) DeeefCe JeeoUebojc³eeve leìe®³ee efoMesves nesCeejs DeJemeeoe®es HeefjJenve (transport of sediments) ³ee iees<ìeRJej Yej efouee peelees. JeeoUeb®³ee ÒeYeeJeeves nesCeeN³ee DeJemeeoe®³ee HeefjJenveeJej HegUCeeR®³ee DebieYetle iegCeOecee¥®ee HeefjCeece nesle Demelees. ns iegCeOece& Keeueerue ÒeceeCes. ueeìeb®es KeUeU #es$e (wavewash area) : JeeoUele pesJne mecegêe®eer HeeleUer efkeÀveejer YegYeeiee®³ee leguevesle DeefOekeÀ Gb®eeJeles, lesJne mecegêe®es HeeCeer HegUCeerJej Hemejles. ³eecegUs HegUCeer Jejerue JeeUt ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele peefceveer®³ee efoMesves HebK³ee®³ee DeekeÀejele efJe#esefHele nesles. efkeÀveeje JevemHeleer efJenerve, keÀceer Gb®eer®ee Je JeeUt®³ee ìskeÀ[ebefJejefnle Demelees lesJne JeeoUer KeUeUe®ee HeefjCeece DeefOekeÀ leerJe´ Demelees. ©bo HegUCeerJej ne KeUeU ®eeojermece Hemejlees HeCe De©bo HegUCeeRJej l³eecegUs DeHej#eCe (erosion) DeLeJee Ie<e&Cepev³e efPepe nesles. JeeUt - ìskeÀe[eb®eer Gb®eer Je meueielee : JeeoUer DeeJesiee®ee DeeIeele HegUCeer®³ee Gb®emeKeuelesJej lemes®e DeJejesOeer JoerHeeb®³ee DemeC³ee - vemeC³eeJej þjlees. Gb®e, HeeefMJekeÀ meueielee (lateral continuity) DemeCeejer Je Pee[esN³eeveer ³egkeÌle HegUCeerJb ej JeeoUer DeeJesiee®ee HeefjCeece veieC³e Demelees. JeeUg- ìskeÀ[îeebceOeerue Keb[ DeLeJee HeÀìer ³eeletve JeeoUer DeeJesiee®es HeeCeer Iegmetve meKeue Yeeieele KeUeU ÒeveeU (overwash conduits) le³eej nesleele. HegUCeeR®eer ©boer ë JeeoUe®³ee ÒeeLeefcekeÀ DeeJemLesle HegUCeer ueeìebceOeerue Tpex®es DeHe#e³eve Ie[Jetve DeeCeleele. HeefjCeecemJe©He HegUCeeR®³ee ©boerJe©ve JeeoUe®eer DeeIeele #ecelee efveOee&efjle nesles. meeceev³ele: HegUCeer®eer ©boer 30 efceìj Oejueer peeles Je ³ee letuevesle

HegUCeer®es JeieeakeÀjCe ©bo Je De©bo ³ee ieìebceO³es kesÀues peeles. - Goiele JeeuegkeÀemleg (emergent sandbars) - p³ee HegUCeeRJej JeeUt cegyeuekeÀ ÒeceeCeele Demeles, lesLes ueeìe Je ÒeJeenebcegUs JeeUgkeÀCeeb®es HeefjJenve nesTve Godieeceer JeeuegkeÀemleg yeveleele. meeceev³ele: Yejleer®³ee cegKeemeefvveOe GLeU HeeC³eele ns JeeuegkeÀemleg le³eej nesleele Je leìekeÀ[s mejkeÀle HegUCeer®ee®e Yeeie yevet MekeÀleele efkebÀJee Je<e&&vegJe<e& l³ee®e peeieer meeþtve DeKesjerme ueneve - ceesþer yesìs yeveJet MekeÀleele. pesLes ns JeeuegkeÀemleg efkeÀveeN³eekeÀ[s mejkeÀleele lesLes De©bo KeepeCes (lagoons) le³eej nesleele. JeeuegkeÀemlegbcegUs JeeoUer DeeJesieeme DeeUe yemetve HegUCeerb®es mebj#eCe nesles. efJekeÀeme (development) : HegUCeeRJej ceeveJeefveefce&leer efJekeÀeme Je l³ee®eer Ievelee ³eecegUs osKeerue JeeoUe®³ee DeeIeelee®ee HeefjCeece þjle Demelees. ueeìe Je ÒeJeeneb®³ee Dev³eesv³e ¬eÀer³eebJej ceeveJeefveefce&le yeebOekeÀeceeb®ee HeefjCeece neslees Je JeeoUer DeeIeelee®eer iebefYejlee þjles. pesJne JeeoUe®³ee DeeJesieeves GlHevve Peeuesu³ee JesieJeeve ÒeJeeneb®eer ieeþ leeþj (rigid) yeeOebkeÀeceebMeer He[les lesJne ns ÒeJeen efJe#esefHele (deflect) nesTve #egyOelee (turbulence) efvecee&Ce nesles. ³eecegUs mLeeefvekeÀ DeHej#eCe (erosion) Ie[tve ³esles. iee{ keÀeB¬eÀerì yeebOekeÀeceecegUs HegUCeer®b es Deleesveele vegkeÀmeeve nesT MekeÀles. - HegUCe mLee³eerkeÀjCe yeebOekeÀece : KetHeoe HegUCeeRJejerue efJekeÀemeekeÀeceeb®³ee mebj#eCeemeeþer mLee³eerkeÀjCe yeebOekeÀece (meeceev³eHeCes efYeble) kesÀues peeles. ns yeebOekeÀece HeeC³eeuee LeesHeJeC³eemeeþer efkebÀJee peefceveeruee Ke®et ve osC³eemeeþer kesÀues peeles. HeÀes[uesues Ke[keÀ, keÀeB¬eÀer쮳ee ®eewHee³ee DeLeJee lelmece pe[ HeoeLe& JeeHe©vener efmLejerkeÀjCe kesÀues peeles. Hejblet ³ee yeebOekeÀeceecegUs osKeerue Jej JeCe&ve kesÀu³ee ÒeceeCes ¬eWÀêerYetle (focussed) DeHe#ejCe nesT MekeÀles. cegyebF&leerue `jeCeer®ee nej' (Queen’s necklace) cnCetve DeesUKeuee peeCeeje cejerve [^eFJeJejerue jmlee DeMee DeHe#ejCeecegUs Ke®eu³ee®eer yeeleceer Jee®ekeÀeb®³ee mcejCeele Demesueb ! mecegêmveeveemeeþer HeeC³ee®eer MegOolee Je megjef#eleleener ceespeueer peeles. l³eeceO³es peerJeeCet efveOee&jCe ie®e (microbial Assessment category) Je mJe®ílee Heefj#eCe ieì (sanitary inspection category) efveOee&efjle kesÀuee peelees. ³eeHewkeÀer peerJeeCet efveOee&jCe ieìebceO³es peerJeeCet mebK³ee Òel³eskeÀ efce . ueer. ceO³es 41 ntve keÀceer Demeu³eeme Glke=À<ì, 41 les 200 Demelee ®eebieuee, 201 les 500 Demelee HeeþHegjeJee DeeJeM³ekeÀ Je 50 ntve DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeme JeeF&ì Demes ieì kesÀues peeleele. mJe®ílee Heefj#eCe ieìeceO³es iegoele Jeeme keÀjCeeN³ee FM®esjeref®e³ee keÀesuee³e ³ee peerJeeCetb®eer mebK³ee leHeemeueer peeles. ner mebK³ee Deieoer keÀceer Demeu³eeme HeeCeer GÊece, keÀceer Demeu³eeme HeeCeer ®eebieues, ceO³ece Demeu³eeme HeeCeer þerkeÀ, G®®e Demeu³eeme HeeCeer Kejeye Je Del³eg®®e Demeu³eeme HeeCeer IeelekeÀ mecepeues peeles. oesvner efvekeÀHe SkeÀ$e ueeJetve®e mecegêmveeveemeeþer HeeC³ee®eer ³eesi³elee Je megjef#elelee þjJelee ³esles.


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Demes ceuee Jeeìles...! legcneuee?

efJeMes<e uesKe

[e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs ë DeveskeÀ JesUe pesbJne ceer SkeÀebleele Demelees lesJne nìketÀve ceuee

ceePes yeeueHeCe DeeþJeles. ÒesceU Deepeer, Iejemeceesj DebieCeele ìekeÀuesuee MesCeme[e, ieesþîeeceOeueer cebieUer iee³e, DebieCeeleu³ee ef®eTleeF&®eer ®eerJe ®eer J e, DeY³eemeemeeþer Je[er u eeb ® ee OeekeÀ, ûeeceHeb ® ee³eleer ® ³ee KegìkeÀbefoueeKeeueer kesÀuesuee DeY³eeme, Heneìs DeY³eemee®³ee efveefceÊeeves Gþtve DeeF&uee peel³eeJej®³ee oUCeemeeþer kesÀuesueer ceole, ceePeer MeeUe, kesÀJe{s lejer yeeueefce$e; l³eeletve SKeeoe Deieoer®e DeeieUe JesieUe. Deepe ceuee MebkeÀj HeJeej®eer KetHe DeeþJeCe Deeueer. ieeJeeyeensj oesve keÀesmeeJej Deece®es Mesle nesles DeeefCe l³ee®³ee peJeU®e HeejOeer ueeskeÀeb®eer oneyeeje kegÀìb ybg ee®eer Jemleer nesleer. MebkeÀj l³ee JemleerJej jenele neslee. l³ee®es Je[erue megieer®³ee efoJemeele Deece®³ee Mesleer®eer jeKeCe keÀjle, Leb[er®³ee efoJemeele ngj[e Heeìeameeþer Mesleeleueer keÀesJeUer keÀCemes Je[erueebvee YeepeC³eemeeþer DeeCetve osCes ns MebkeÀj®es keÀece. `MebkeÀj, let MeeUsle peeMeerue keÀe?' ceeP³ee Je[erueebveer efJe®eejuesu³ee ÒeMvee®³ee GÊejemeeþer l³eeves l³ee®³ee yeeHeekeÀ[s yeefIeleues. ceePee nÆ, Jeef[ueeb®es Òe³elve DeeefCe MebkeÀj®³ee yeeHee®ee neskeÀej ³eecegUs lees Deece®³ee MeeUsle Hee®eJeeruee Deeuee. DeeOeer keÀOeerlejer leeuegke̳ee®³ee ieeJeepeJeU lees oesve Je<e& efleLeu³ee efMe#ekeÀeb®³ee ceoleerves MeeUsle iesuee neslee. l³ee®ee l³eeuee ³esLes HeÀe³eoe Peeuee. ceer 7Jeerle Demeleevee ceeP³ee®e Je³ee®ee lees, 2 Je<ex ceeies jeefnuee. HeCe efpeJeueie efce$e cnCetve Jeie& meJebie[îeeHes#eener ceuee efÒe³e þjuee. MeeUsmeeþer ojjespe ®eej cewue ®eeuele ³esTve lesJe{s®e Deblej Hejle peeCeeje MebkeÀj ceuee keÀe³ece DeeoMe& Jeeìuee. Demes®e SkeÀe HeeJemeeUîeele MeefveJeejer MeeUe ueJekeÀj megìueer DeeefCe l³eeves ceuee MesleekeÀ[s ³esC³ee®ee Deeûen Oejuee. keÀejCe nesles megobj legje Demeuesu³ee `leCeceesj' He#³ee®³ee G[îee HeenCes. `leCeceesj? ne keÀesCelee He#eer?' ceeP³ee ³ee ÒeMveeuee `Dejs let ceesj Heeefnueeme vee? lemee®e ne. Lees[e ueneve HeCe Gb®e ieJeleele ceesjemeejKee®e HeeJemeele vee®elees cnCetve lees leCeceesj!' MebkeÀj®es GÊej ceuee l³ee®³ee Jemleerceeieerue ieJelee®³ee ceUjeveeJej DeeefCe l³ee meesyele®³ee leUîeeJej IesTve iesues. HeeTme keÀceer Peeu³eecegUs DeeF&ves Deecneuee HejJeeveieer efoueer. meesyele ®eìCeer YeekeÀjermeg×e. HeejOeer Jemleer®³ee ceeies SkeÀe Gb®e oie[e®³ee Dee[esM³eeuee yemetve Deecner leCeceesje®³ee DeekeÀ<e&keÀ G[îee yeefIeleu³ee.``G[er ceejCeeje ne He#eer vej Deens DeeefCe G[er ceejleevee lees yes[keÀemeejKee DeeJeepe keÀe{lees les ceeoeruee nekeÀ ceejC³eemeeþer. ns HeÀkeÌle Gb®e ieJeleele HeeJemeeUîeele®e Hene³euee efceUles.'' efHebpeN³eeleu³ee HeesHeìeHegjles ce³ee&eof le Demeuesues ceePes

nstekale@gmail.com : 98696 12531

He#eer%eeve MebkeÀjmeceesj keÀmHeìemeejKes nesles. Lees[emee yeokeÀemeejKee DeekeÀej, ceeve DeeefCe HeesìeKeeue®ee Yeeie keÀeUe, l³eeuee pees[uesueer Heeb{jer HeÆer, Heeþ leebyetme, l³eeJej keÀeUs efþHekesÀ DeeefCe [eske̳eeJej veeiee®³ee HeÀC³eemeejKee Heeb{je letje; leesner ìeskeÀeuee ®ece®³eemeejKee keÀeUe. leCeceesj ceeP³ee Ëo³eele keÀOeer efmLejeJeuee ns mecepeues®e veener. efJeefMe<ì DeeJeepe keÀe{tve l³ee®es ieJeleeceOetve yeensj ³esCes, OeeJeHeìtmeejKes Hee³e HeesìeMeer IesTve yemeCes DeeefCe oj ®eejHee®e efceefveìebveer ceeve ceeies IesTve Hee®e mene HetÀì Gb®e G[er ceejCes ns HeenC³ee®ee Deebveo ceve Jes[eJetve ìekeÀlees. MebkeÀjves ceuee Demes oesve -leerve leCeceesj l³ee ieJeleele oeKeJeues. ieJelee®³ee meceesj ceeskeÀUîee Yeeieele SkeÀ ceeoer MeerU JeepeJetve ³ee ceesje®³ee Òeeflemeeoeveblej l³ee®³ee Gb®e G[îee Heenele Demeles. p³ee®³ee legje DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Je peemle Gb®e G[er l³ee®³ee ieUîeele

leer Gb®e ieJeleeceO³es peeTve Jejceeuee Ieeueles. JejmebMeesOevee®es ns efvemeie&ef®e$e DeeefCe MebkeÀjmeejK³ee one-yeeje Je<ee&®³ee cegueeb®es %eeve Heentve Gieer®e DeeHeCe l³ee®³eeHeg{s oesve F³eÊee iesuees Demes ceuee #eCeYej Jeeìtve og:Ke Peeues. leCeceesj veje®es ns DeekeÀ<e&keÀ efÒe³eeOeejCe HeÀkeÌle HeeJemeeUîeele®e Heene³euee efceUles. le³eejer cee$e GvneUîeeHeemetve meg© Demeles. ce=iee®es Deeieceve DeeefCe [eske̳eeJej®³ee legN³ee®eer efveefce&leer SkeÀe®e JesUer meg© nesles. efceueveeveblej legN³ee®es cenÊJe mebHeles. leCeceesje®eer efÒe³ee cee$e DeefleMe³e meeOeer, keÀmeueerner jbiemebieleer vemeuesueer; lejerner DeeHeu³ee leeueeJej efÒe³ekeÀjebvee vee®eefJeCeejer Demeles. melele G[îee ceejC³eemeeþer leCeceesjeuee KetHe Tpee& ueeieles. ner Tpee& lees GvneUîeeceOes ieJelee®eer


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yeer Heesìele ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele meeþJetve efvecee&Ce keÀjlees. MebkeÀj®eer DeeefCe ceePeer cew$eer pescelesce SkeÀ®e Je<e&. lees meneJeerceOes iesuee DeeefCe l³ee®eer MeeUe megìueer. ieeJekeÀjer DeeefCe Heesueermeeb®³ee OeekeÀeves l³ee meJe& kegÀìgyb eebme ieeJe mees[eJes ueeieues. peeC³eeHetJeea meeOeejCe one efoJeme DeeOeer mebO³eekeÀeUer lees ceeP³ee Iejer Deeuee neslee. Debie efYepeuesues, LejLej keÀeHele DemeCeejs Mejerj, ®esnje keÀeUpeerves $emle neslee. lees DeeF&meceesj yemeuee DeeefCe cnCeeuee ``cee³e, Iejer keÀeueJeCeemeeþer JejCe oslee keÀe? yeeHeeves leCeceesj HekeÀ[tve Iejele DeeCeuee Deens. ceer l³ee®³eeMeer ue³e Yeeb[uees. lej cnCelees keÀmee, ceeuekeÀekeÀ[tve keÀeueJeCe DeeCe. ceer ³eeuee Hejle ieJeleele vesTve mees[lees. cee³e, legcner lejer l³eeuee Jee®eJee!'' DeeF&ves l³eeuee peJeU IesTve ceeþs HeelesuesYej JejCe osTve Iejer HeeþJeues. DebOeej DeeefCe Deblej ³eecegUs F®íe Demetvener l³ee legjsJeeu³ee megboj leCeceesjeuee mHeMe& keÀjeC³ee®eer ceePeer F®íe leMeer®e jeefnueer. ogmeN³ee efoJeMeer MebkeÀj MeeUsle Deeuee. ceOeu³ee megÆerle yeeHeeves l³ee He#³eeuee je$eer®e keÀmes ieJeleeceO³es mees[tve efoues ns nmetve meebiele neslee. leCeceesj, l³eeuee efpeJeoeve osCeeje MebkeÀj HeJeej DeeefCe l³ee®eer leer Jemleer ceuee DeepeHe³e¥le keÀOeerner Yesìueer veener. 2003 meeueer keÀewmlegYe Heeb{jerHeeb[s ³ee DeefleMe³e ng<eej JeveDeefOekeÀeN³eeves JeeefMece, ³eJeleceeU, keÀejbpee Yeeieeleerue HeejOeer peceeleeruee yejesyej IesTve leCeceesjeb®es j#eCe kesÀues. HeejOeer ner YeìkeÀer peceele. efpeLes Heef[keÀ peefceve efomeles efleLes les Leebyeleele. peveeJejebmeeþer ®eeN³ee®eer J³eJemLee keÀjleele. uenevemee HeeCeermeeþe DeLeJee íesìs leUs Demesue lej pJeejer, yeepejermeejKes HeerkeÀ Iesleele DeeefCe GojefveJee&n keÀjleele. Gb®e ieJele, H³ee³euee HeeCeer DeeefCe l³eeuee pees[tve Lees[er le=CeOeev³ee®eer Mesleer Demesue lej leCeceesjebmeeþer ne Glke=À<ì DeefOeYeeme. keÀewmlegYeves ³ee peceeleerceOeu³ee le©Ceebvee ®eeN³eemeeþer pebieuee®ee Yeeie GHeueyOe keÀªve efouee. leCeceesjeb®es j#eCe keÀjC³ee®eer peyeeyeoejer l³eeb®³eeJej meesHeJeueer. meesyele efvemeie& jKeJeeueoej cnCetve JeveKeel³eekeÀ[tve ceeefmekeÀ GlHevve efceUJetve efoues DeeefCe Yeejleer³e GHeKeb[eleerue otecf e&U DeMee ³ee He#³eeb®es KeN³ee DeLee&ves j#eCe kesÀues. HeeJemeeUe ne ³ee He#³ee®ee DeeJe[lee $eÝlet. jep³eejep³eeceOeerue HeeJemeeUîeeÒeceeCes ne He#eer mLeueeblej keÀjlees. ceneje<ì^eletve, iegpejele, keÀvee&ìkeÀ, DeebOe´ÒeosMeceOes meHeeì peefceveerJejerue ieJeleeU kegÀjCeele l³ee®es JeemleJ³e Dee{Ules. vesnceer SkeÀìe, keÌJeeq®ele pees[erves efomeCeeN³ee ³ee He#³ee®³ee vejeuee meceeieceve nesC³eeDeeOeer efvemeie& osJelesves yeneue kesÀuesu³ee mebog jlescegUs HeejOeer peceeleerkeÀ[tve efMekeÀejer®³ee ceeO³eceeletve peemle OeeskeÀe Demelees. oesvner keÀeveeb®³ee Heeþerceeietve GieJeuesu³ee mene Fb®e ueebyeer®³ee ®eej ®eej DeekeÀ<e&keÀ legN³eecegUs Gb®e ieJeleele meg×e ne ueebyetve efomelees, l³ee®³ee G[er ceejC³ee®³ee peeiesJej peeUs HemejJetve l³eeme HekeÀ[ues peeles. DeJewOe efMekeÀej, ve<ì Peeuesueer ieJeleeU kegÀjCes Deepe ³ee He#³eeme IUCN ®³ee 2011 ®³ee ueeue³eeoerle mLeeve osC³eeme keÀejCeerYetle þjueer Deensle.

efkeÀìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee JeeHej, ieJele ve<ì keÀjC³eemeeþer JeeHejuesueer leCeveeMekesÀ; l³eecegUs leCeceesje®es cegK³e Devve Demeuesues efkeÀìkeÀ, yes[keÀeb®eer íesìer efHeuues, mejHeìCeejs HeeueermeejKes ÒeeCeer, ieJelee®³ee yeer³ee, ueneve HeÀUs, le=CeOeev³es Deepe efceUle veener. YetkesÀves J³eeketÀU nesTve cejCe HeeJeuesu³ee leCeceesjeb®eer mebK³ee HeÀej ceesþer DemeeJeer. DeefleMe³e ueepeeUt Demeuesuee ne He#eer HeÀkeÌle Òeele:keÀeueer Je mee³ebkeÀeUer®e Devve ûenCe keÀjlees. leCeceesje®eer ceeoer vejeHes#ee DeekeÀejeves Lees[er ceesþer Demeles. ³ee He#³ee®es Iejìs oeì ieJeleele peefceveerJej®e Demeles. l³eeceO³es efnjJeì keÀj[îee jbiee®eer 3 DeLeJee 4 Deb[er Demeleele Deb[er ceeoer®e GyeJeles. 21 efoJemeeveer efHeueeb®ee pevce neslees. ceneje<ì^ele HetJeea DeveskeÀ leCeceesj nesles, Deelee HeÀkeÌle JeeefMece efpeunîeeleerue keÀejbpee leeuegke̳eele pescelesce 20 He#eer Dee{Uleele. les meg×e JeveKeel³eeves HeejOeer peceeleeruee neleeMeer Oe©ve mebjef#ele kesÀuesues. oesve Je<ee¥HetJeea meHìsyb ejceOes SkeÀe Heefj<eosmeeþer ceer JeeefMeceuee iesuees neslees. lesJne Deece®eer keÀejbpee Yesì Dee³eesepf ele kesÀueer nesleer. DeveskeÀ ÒeeO³eeHekeÀ ceb[Uer lesLeerue ceþeceO³es Meeblelee MeesOele nesleer DeeefCe ceer cee$e Jes[îeemeejKee leCeceesje®³ee MeesOeele YeìkeÀle neslees. #eCeYej SkeÀ efomeuee DeeefCe ieJeleele De¢M³e Peeuee. efce$eebveer efouesu³ee Hes{îeeb®³ee ÒemeeoeHes#eener leCeceesj oMe&vee®ee lees SkeÀ #eCe ceuee meg¢{ efvemeiee&®³ee efkeÀleerlejer peJeU IesTve iesuee. ceeieerue Je<eea leueeJe mebJeOe&vee®³ee efveefceÊeeves Dee³eesefpele SkeÀe Deeblejje<ì^er³e yewþkeÀermeeþer ceer Heg<keÀjuee DeeefCe lesLetve peJeU®e Demeuesu³ee Depecesjueener iesuees neslees. GÎsMe neslee leCeceesje®ee MeesOe. DepecesjHeemetve 35 efkeÀ.efce. DeblejeJej `meesvekeÀeueer³ee' ³ee efþkeÀeCeer jepemLeeve mejkeÀejves 30 SkeÀj peeiesJej ceesþs ieJeleeU kegÀjCe le³eej kesÀues Deens. Mesleer Keel³eeleHexÀ lesLes `kegÀb oe' ieJele Hesjues peeles. Deepe ³ee #es$eele ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele leCeceesj Heene³euee efceUleele. JeveKeel³ee®³ee ceeie&oMe&keÀebyejesyej ceer uegìuesuee leCeceesj oMe&vee®ee keÀe³e&¬eÀce ceuee Heg<keÀjceu³ee peieeleerue SkeÀcesJe ye´ïee cebefojeHes#eener kesÀJe{elejer peemle Deebveo osTve iesuee. Deevebo efceUJeC³ee®eer, lees ÒeeHle keÀjC³ee®eer p³ee®eer l³ee®eer He×le JesieUer Demeles. ceer veeefmlekeÀ Deefpeyeele veener. ieoea vemeuesu³ee He³ee&JejCeÒesceer cebefojele osJeosJeleeb®³ee menJeemeele ceePes Yeeve njJeles. cee$e pesJne efvemeie& DeeefCe ceeveJeefveefce&le ceboerj nîeeb®³eeceO³es efveJe[ keÀjC³ee®eer JesU ³esles lesJne ceePeer HeeJeues meJe& ÒeLece efveme&ie osJeles®³ee cebefojekeÀ[s®e JeUleele. efveme&ieosJeles®ee Keje mesJekeÀ ceveg<³e®e Deens ns ceuee HeejOeer peceele DeeefCe leCeceesj ³eeb®³eeceOeerue meg¢{ veel³eeJe©ve mecepeues. efvemeiee&Meer DeeHeues Demes®e veeles DemeCes ner He#eer mebJeOe&ve DeeefCe mebj#eCeemeeþer keÀeUeb®eer iejpe Deens Demes ceuee Jeeìles! legcneuee? ¬eÀceMeë


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ìe@ekq eÌmemeerìer

Heeb{jer meeKej ... [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer ë 98200 37224

mJe³ebHeekeÀIejele JeeHejueer peeCeejer Heeb{jer meeKej ner Tmee®ee jme DeeìJetve l³eeJej Òeef¬eÀ³ee keÀ©ve yeveefJeueer peeles. Meem$eer³e Yee<esle ³ee meeKejs®es veeJe `meg¬eÀespe' Demes Deens. iuegkeÀespe Je ÖegÀkeÌìespe ³ee oesve jsCetb®ee meg¬eÀespe ne jsCet yeveuesuee Demelees. MegYe´ meg¬eÀespe DeveskeÀ ªHeebceO³es yeepeejele GHeueyOe Deens. Ke[ermeeKej, meeKej, yeejerkeÀ meeKej, Yetje meeKej, efHeþermeeKej Fl³eeoer. efvejefvejeȳee HeoeLee¥®eer iees[er Jee{efJeC³eemeeþer ³ee meg¬eÀespe®ee me{U neleeves DeeHeCe JeeHej keÀjlees. Deeê&lee Mees<ekeÀ Demeu³eeves kesÀkeÀ, {eskeÀUe Deeoer HeoeLe¥eceO³es meeKejs®ee JeeHej keÀsu³eeves ns meef®íê HeoeLe& ceT nesleele. meeKej Deeêlee& Mees<ekeÀ Demeueer lejer efle®³eele meg#cepeerJeeb®eer GÊHeÊeer nesle veener. leer ìerkeÀeT Demeu³eeves peemle keÀeU efle®ee meeþe keÀjlee ³eslees. cee$e Leb[ Je keÀesj[îee peeiesle nJeeyebo [y³eebceO³es meeKejs®ee meeþe keÀjeJee; Dev³eLee leer nJesleerue Deeê&lee Mees<etve Iesles Je [yee GIe[u³eeJej DeukeÀesnesue®ee Jeeme ³eslees. keÀener Deew<eOeebceO³es meg×e efle®ee GHe³eesie `yeeF¥[eRie Spebì' cnCetve keÀjleele. DeMeer ner iees[ meeKej DeeflemesJeveecegUs Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ Deens. ³eeJej efJeMJeeme yemeCes®e DeMeke̳e; Hejbleg ns keÀìt mel³e Deens. meeKejsuee `efjkeÀeces Devve' Demesner mebyeesOeues peeles. keÀejCe meeKejsle kesÀJeU keÀeye&ve, ne³e[^espeve Je Dee@efkeÌmepeve cnCepes®e keÀeyeexne³e[^sì Deens; l³ee

J³eefleefjkeÌle kegÀþu³eener ÒekeÀej®es #eej, peerJevemeÊJes DeLeJee ÒeefLeves vemeleele. meeKejs®ee G<ceebkeÀ HeÀej peemle Demeu³eeves efle®³ee mesJeveeves ®eìkeÀve Tpee& efceUles. DeeHeCe Keeuuesueer meeKej iuegkeÀespe Je ÖegÀkeÌìespe®³ee jsCetcb eO³es efJeIeìerle nesles. iuegkeÀespe ns DeeHeu³ee Mejerjebleerue efpeJeble HesMeeRceO³es Demeles®e. pej Devveeletve ns efceUeues veener lej DeeHeues Mejerj ³ee®eer efveefce&leer keÀjles. Hejbleg ÖegÀkeÌìespe JesieUs Demeles. DeeHeu³ee Mejerjeleerue HesMeeRceO³es ³ee®eer efveefce&leer nesle veener DeeefCe l³ee®eer Mejerjeuee HeÀejMeer DeeJeM³ekeÀleener vemeles. ÖegÀkeÌìespe®es ®e³eeHe®eve HeÀkeÌle ³eke=Àleele nesles. ³ee®³ee He®eveemeeþer peerJevemeÊJes, #eej Je ÒeefLeves DeeJeM³ekeÀ Demeleele. ns IeìkeÀ HegjsMee ÒeceeCeele GHeueyOe vemeleerue lej ve He®euesu³ee ÖegÀkeÌìespe®es cesoele ªHeeblej nesles. meeceev³ele: ÖegÀkeÌìespe ns HeÀUebceO³es Demeles, l³ee®e yejesyej HeÀUebceO³es peerJevemeÊJes Je #eejmeg×e Demeleele, p³eecegUs ÖegÀkeÌìespe®es ³eke=Àleele menpe He®eve nesles. Hejbleg meeKejsleerue ÖegÀkeÌìespeyejesyej DeMee ÒekeÀej®es peerJevemeÊJes, #eej DeLeJee ÒeefLeves vemeu³eeves les ve He®elee lemes®e ³eke=Àleele meeþle peeles Je keÀeueeblejeves l³ee®es ªHeeblej cesoele nesles. Mejerje®es Jepeve Jee{les. keÀener JesUe oele Je ne[ebleerue ke@ÀefuMe³ece®ee yeUer ÖegÀkeÌìespe Üejs Iesleuee peelees. HeefjCeeceer ne[s Je oele efþmetU nesleele. meeKejs®³ee DeeflemesJeveeves Fvmegefueve veecekeÀ mebÒesjkeÀ le³eej nesC³eeme yeeOee efvecee&Ce nesles. l³eecegUs jkeÌleeleerue meeKejs®es ÒeceeCe Jee{les Je Mejerj ceOegcesnemeejK³ee jesieeMeer Peie[t ueeieles. DebOeÊJemeg×e ³esT MekeÀles. ÖegÀkeÌìespe®³ee DeeflemesJeveeves YetkeÀ Mecele veener. ceWokt eÀ[tve YetkesÀ®es meboMs e efoues peeleele. iejpe vemeleevee peemle Keeuues peeles. Mejerjeleerue ceso Jee{lees, Deeìeske̳eele ve ³esCeejs Jepeve Jee{les, Mejerj yes{ye, mLetue nesles, keÀesuesmìe^@ue Jee{les, meebOesogKeer GodYeJeles, Ûo³eefJekeÀej pe[t MekeÀlees, MeejerefjkeÀ ceeveefmekeÀ $eeme Jee{lees. ns meJe& ìeUe³e®es Demesue lej meeKejs®es (Hee{bN³ee efJe<ee®es) DeeflemesJeve ìeUe. kesÀkeÀ, DeeF&m¬eÀerce, keÀeseuf [^kb eÀ, mee@me, peece, pesueer FʳeeoeRceO³es meeKej cegyeuekeÀ ÒeceeCeele Demeles. meeKejsSJs epeer ceOe, Kepetj, iegU DeMee iees[ HeoeLee¥®es mesJeve ³eesi³e ÒeceeCeele keÀje.


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DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee...

SkeÀe íesìîeeMee Pejeske̳eeletve.... (®e@Hìj 13 - Yeeie 2) mee³eueWì efmÒebie - uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve

keÌueesjervesìs[ ne³e[^eskeÀeye&vmeceOeerue [er[erìer ns efJeueieerkeÀjCe keÀjCeejs jmee³eve Deens, ns efmeOo Peeues Deens. Heg{erue mebMeesOeveeletve keÀoeef®ele GIe[ nesF&ue keÀer ³eemeejKeer DeeCeKeer keÀesCeleer jmee³eves efJeueieerkeÀjCe keÀjCeejer Demeleerue. Hejbleg efJeueieerkeÀjCe ne keÀener SkeÀ®e GHee³e veener keÀer p³eecegUs Mejerjeleerue DeypeeJeOeer HesMeeRceOeerue lees mHegÀuueeRie (pJeuevee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee) efJePeJelee ³esF&ue. DeeHeCe Heeefnues®e Deens keÀer Dee@eqkeÌme[sMeve®³ee Òel³eskeÀ Hee³ejeruee SKeeÐee efJeefMeä SvPeeF&cecegUs efoMee efceUles efkebÀJee ieleer efceUles. pesJne ³ee SvPeeF&ceHewkeÀer Deieoer SKeeos SvPeeF&cener veeMe HeeJeues efkebÀJee MeeqkeÌlenerve Peeues lejer HesMeeRceOeerue Dee@ekq eÌme[sMeve®es ®e¬eÀ Leebyet MekeÀles. keÀesCel³ee SvPeeF&ceJej HeefjCeece Peeuee Deens ³eeves keÀener®e HeÀjkeÀ He[le veener. De@eeqkeÌme[sMeve®ee ÒeJeeme ne mee³ekeÀuemeejK³ee melele efHeÀjCeeN³ee ®e¬eÀeÒeceeCes ®eeuet Demelees . pej DeeHeCe ®eekeÀeleer u e DeeN³eebceO³es ueesKeb[er Henej IegmeJeueer, lej leer keÀesCel³ee DeeN³eele Deeeleueer Deens ³eeves keÀener®e HeÀjkeÀ He[le veener, les ®eekeÀ efHeÀje³e®es Leebyeles. Deieoer ³ee®eÒeceeCes ³ee mee³ekeÀueceO³es keÀe³e& keÀjCeeN³ee keÀesCel³eener efyebotJej®³ee SvPeeF&ce®ee DeeHeCe veeMe kesÀuee, lejer Dee@eqkeÌme[sMeve Leebyeles. ³eeHeg{s Gpee&efveefce&leer HetCe&HeCes Leeb y eles . cnCepes DeKes j efJeueieerkeÀjCeemeejKee®e HeefjCeece neslees. Dee@ e q k eÌ m e[s M eve®es ®e¬eÀ Leeb y eef J eC³eemeeþer meJe& m eeceev³eHeCes keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀ cnCetve JeeHejC³eele ³esCeejs keÀesCelesner jmee³eve Henej cnCetve keÀeceeme ³esT MekeÀles. [er[erìer, cesLeeskeÌmee³ekeÌueesj, ce@ue@eLf eDee@ve, HeÀsveeLee@³eeefPeve DeeefCe DeveskeÀ [e³evee³eì^es (ve$eJee³et³egkeÌle) jmee³evee®es efceÞeCe ner meJe& DeMee DeieefCele keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeHewkeÀer Deensle. peer Dee@eqkeÌme[sMeve®³ee ®e¬eÀele menYeeieer Demeuesu³ee SkeÀ Je DeefOekeÀ SvPeeF&cevee DeJejesOe keÀjleele. ner keÀerìkeÀveeMekesÀ DeMee jerleerves peCet keÀener Demes ÒeefleefveOeer Deensle p³eeb®³eele mebYeeJ³e #ecelee Deens keÀer, Gpee& efveefce&leer®eer mebHetCe& Òeef¬eÀ³ee LeeyeJeCes DeeefCe HesMeeRvee GHe³eesie keÀjlee ³esC³eepeesi³ee ÒeeCeJee³etHeemetve Jebef®ele keÀjCes. ³ee ogKeeHeleer®es HeefjCeece HeÀej DeveLe&keÀejer Demet MekeÀleele. Hejbleg FLes kesÀJeU Lees[îee®e GoenjCeeb®ee GuuesKe keÀjlee ³esF&ue.

mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs

kesÀJeU HeOoleMeerjHeCes ÒeeCeJee³et®ee HegjJeþe jesKetve Oejuee, l³ee Òe³eesiekeÀl³ee&cegUs meeceev³e HesMeer ke@Àvmej HesMeeRceO³es ªHeeblejerle Peeu³ee. ³eeefJe<e³eer DeeHeCe Heg{®³ee ÒekeÀjCeele Heent³ee. pesJne ÒeeC³eeb®³ee efJekeÀefmele nesCeeN³ee Ye´Ct eeJej/ ieYee&Jej ÒeeCeJee³et HegjJeþe Keb[erle keÀjC³ee®³ee Òe³eesie kesÀuee. lesJne®e ³ee Ye³ebkeÀj HeefjCeecee®ee FMeeje efceUeuee neslee. cetU pes HesMeermecetn DeJe³eJe le³eej nesC³eemeeþer efMemleyeOo efjleerves keÀece keÀjleele, les ÒeeCeJee³et®³ee DeHegN³ee HegjJeþîeecegUs efJemkeÀUerle nesles. Mejerjeleerue meoes<e Ie[Ce Jee efJeke=Àleer l³eecegUs Dee{Utve ³esles. yengleskeÀ JesUe ceeveJeeuee ieYee&JemLesle ÒeeCeJee³et®ee HegjJeþe veerì efceUeuee veener, lej pevcepeele J³ebie efvecee&Ce nesT MekeÀles. DeMee ÒekeÀej®³ee ogIe&ìvee Deelee peemle ÒeceeCeele Deensle Demes ef®evn efomeles Deens. lejer l³ee®es keÀejCe MeesOeC³eemeeþer HeÀej®e Lees[s ueeskeÀ otjJej ¢äer ìekeÀleele. DeMee®e SkeÀe efvejeMe Dejer ä met ® ekeÀ keÀeUele, 1961 meeueer peerJeveeJeM³ekeÀ DeekeÀ[sJeejer®³ee keÀe³ee&ue³eeves jeä^e³r e mlejeJej keÀesäkeÀ keÀje³e®es þjefJeues les pevcele:®e J³ebie DemeCeeN³ee®eer ceespeoeo keÀje³e®eer®e, HeCe keÀesCel³ee ieesäercegUs pevcepeele J³ebie ³esC³ee®eer Ieìvee Ie[ueer DeeefCe keÀesCel³ee HeefjefmLeleercegUs ns Dee{Uues ³ee®eerner veeWo þsJee³e®eer. DeMee ÒekeÀej®ee DeY³eeme efve:MebkeÀHeCes efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®es HeefjCeece peesKeC³eekeÀ[s®e ÒeecegK³eeves JeUlees. Hejbleg DeveskeÀ jmee³eves efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®es mene³ekeÀ Demet MekeÀleele Je De®etkeÀHeCes leMee®e HeefjCeeceeb®eer efveefce&leer keÀª MekeÀleele, ³eekeÀ[s ogue&#e keÀjlee keÀecee ve³es. peerJeveeJeM³ekeÀ DeekeÀ[sJeejer veeWoCeeN³ee keÀe³ee&ue³eeves ceesþîee ieebYeer³ee&ves Demee Deboepe Jele&eJf euee Deens keÀer GÐee®³ee efHe{erleerue keÀener ceguebeceO³es keÀener DeHetCe&lee Je J³ebie Demet MekesÀue. DeeefCe ns Ie[sue les l³ee jmee³eveebcegUs p³eebveer DeeHeues peerJeve Debleyee&¿eHeCes J³eeHeues Deens. keÀener mebMeesOeveele Dee{Utve Deeues ö Demesner Demet MekeÀles keÀer mepeerJeeb®³ee keÀceer nesle peeCeeN³ee HegvejeslHeeovee®ee mebyebOe ÒeeCeJee³etMeer nesCeeN³ee pewefJekeÀ ef¬eÀ³esle (yee³eesuee@efpekeÀue Dee@eqkeÌme[sMeve) ³esCeeN³ee De[LeȳeeMeer DeeæefCe HeefjCeecele: nesCeeN³ee meieȳee cenlJee®³ee Gpee& mebûeenkeÀeb®ee - SìerHeer®³ee NnemeeMeer Deens. yeerpeeb[îeele ieYe&OeejCee nesC³eeDeeOeer®e l³eeuee YejHetj ÒeceeCeele SìerHeer®ee HegjJeþe nesCes


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DeeJeM³ekeÀ Demeles. SkeÀoe Meg¬eÀeCet®ee ÒeJesMe nesTve ieYe&OeejCee Peeueer keÀer yeerpeeb[îeele MejerjOeejCesmeeþer DeHeÀeì HeefjÞece keÀjeJes ueeieleele Je l³eemeeþer Òe®eb[ ÒeceeCeele MekeÌleer Ke®e& nesles. HesMeeR®³ee ieȳeepeJeU Deieoer oeìerves ieesUe Peeuesu³ee cee³eìeskeÀesv[^er³eeceO³es le³eej Peeuesu³ee SìerHeer®³ee HegjJeþîeeJej DeJeuebyetve Demeles keÀer, Meg¬eÀeCet lesLes Heesnes®etve yeerpeeb[îee®ee Yeso keÀª MekesÀue keÀer veener. SkeÀoe ieYe&OeejCee Peeueer Je HesMeeR®es efJeYeepeve megª Peeues keÀer SìerHeer®³ee mJeªHeeves Deeuesueer Gpee&®e yengOee þjefJeles keÀer ieYee&®eer Jee{ HetCe&lJeeHe³e¥le nesFu& e keÀer veener. ieYe&eJf e%eeve le%e pesJne l³eeb®³ee DeefOekeÀ megueYe Jee mees³eermkeÀj efJe<e³ee®ee DeLee&le yes[keÀe®³ee Deb[îee®ee efkebÀJee mecegêer Peg[Hg ee®ee DeY³eeme keÀjerle nesles lesJne l³eebvee Demes efometve Deeues keÀer Deieoer Debeflece þejeefJekeÀ HeeleUerKeeueer SìerHeer®ee keÀceer Peeuee lej les yeerpeeb[s mejUmejU efJeYeepeve keÀjC³ee®es keÀece yebo keÀjles DeLeJee ueJekeÀj®e cejCe HeeJeles. je@efyeve He#³eeb®³ee Iejìîeele pesLes les megboj DeMeer efveUer efnjJeer Deb[er Ieeueleele, lesLes®e ieYe&eJf e%eevee®³ee DeY³eemee®eer Òe³eesieMeeUe vesCes Deelee DeMeke̳e keÀesìerleerue veener. Hejbleg leer Deb[er ieej He[ueer Deensle DeeefCe l³eeb®³eeceOeerue keÀener efoJeme HeÀ[HeÀ[Ceejer ÒeeCep³eesle Deelee efJePeueer Deens. efkebÀJee HeÌueesjer[e HeeF&ve Je=#eeb®³ee Gb®e DeMee MeW[îeeJejleer veerì ceeb[uesu³ee íesìîee [neȳee Je keÀeìke̳eeb®³ee DeJ³eJeefmLele Peeuesu³ee jeMeerle leerve Heeb{jer Deb[er Deensle leer Leb[ Je efve<ÒeeCe! leer je@efyevme®eer DeeefCe ner ieª[e®eer Deb[er Gyeueer keÀe veenerle? ³ee Deb[îee®es l³ee Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue yes[kt eÀemeejKes Peeues keÀe? l³ee yes[keÀe®eer Deb[er efJekeÀefmele Peeueer veenerle keÀejCe l³eebvee vesnceer efceUCeeN³ee Gpex®ee HegjJeþe keÀceer He[uee ö SìerHeer®es jsCet ve HegjJeu³eeves l³eeb®ee HetCe& efJekeÀeme Peeuee veener. DeeefCe SìerHeer®eer keÀcelejlee keÀe Peeueer DemeeJeer? keÀejCe HeeuekeÀ Demeues u ³ee He#eeb ® ³ee Mejer j ele Deeef C e Deb [ îeeb c eO³es keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee FlekeÀe meeþe peceuee DemeeJee keÀer, p³ee®³eeJej Gpex®ee m$eesle DeJeuebyetve Demelees l³ee ÒeeCeJee³et meb³eesiee®³ee (Dee@eqkeÌme[sMeve) Òeef¬eÀ³es®eer efHeÀjleer ®e¬esÀ Leebyeueer? He#³eeb ® ³ee Deb [ îeeceO³es Demeues u ³ee keÀer ì keÀveeMekeÀeb ® ³ee meeþîeeefJe<e³eer Deboepe yeebOeC³ee®eer keÀener®e iejpe veener. memleve ÒeeC³eeb®³ee yeerpeeb[îeeHes#ee ³ee He#³eebveer Deb[er DeMee ÒekeÀej®³ee efvejer#eCeemeeþer DeLee&le®e menpeHeCes GHeueyOe keÀªve efouesueer Deensle. Òe³eesieebleie&le efkebÀJee pebieueele ceeskeÀȳeeJej jmee³eveeb®³ee DeeOeerve Peeuesu³ee He#³eeb®³ee Deb[îeebceO³es [er[erìer®es Je Flej ne³e[^eskeÀeye&ve®es DeJeMes<e HeÀej ceesþd³ee ÒeceeCeele meeþuesues meeHe[ues. DeeefCe l³ee jmee³evee®eer leerJe´lee peemle®e nesleer. ke@ÀefueHeÀesevf e&³ee ³esLeerue Òe³eesieele leerlej He#³eeb®³ee Deb[îeele oj oMeue#eeceeies 349Yeeie [er[erìer nesleer. efceefMeieve ³esLes [er[erìerves ce=le Peeuesu³ee je@efyeve®³ee Deb[JeeefnveerceOetve keÀe{uesu³ee Deb[îeele oj oMeue#eeceeies 200 Yeeie FlekeÀer leerJe´lee meeHe[ueer. yeekeÀer®eer Deb[er IejìîeeceOetve keÀe{tve Iesleueer. l³eeb®eer keÀesCeer keÀeUpeer IesCeejs veJnles, keÀejCe l³eeb®es pevceoeles He#eer efJe<eyeeOes®es efMekeÀej Peeues

nesles, l³eeb®³eeceO³esner [er[erìer®e Yejuesueer nesleer. Mespeej®³ee Mesleele JeeHejuesu³ee Dee@u[^evr ecegUs efleLes ®ejCeeN³ee keÀeWye[îeebvee efJe<eyeeOee Peeueer. les jmee³eve l³eeb®³ee Deb[îeele meb¬eÀefcele Peeues. p³ee keÀeWye[îeebvee Òe³eesie keÀjleeve [er[erìer DeVeeletve efoueer, l³eebveer Ieeleuesu³ee Deb[îeele oj oMeue#eeceeies 65Yeeie [er[erìer nesleer. ns ceenerle Deens keÀer [er[erìer efkebÀJee Flej (keÀoeef®ele meJe&®e) keÌueesjervesìs[ ne³e[^eskeÀeye&vme ns Gpee& efveefce&leer keÀjCeejs keÀener efJeefMeä SvPeeF&ce efveeq<¬eÀ³e keÀjleele efkebÀJee Gpee& efveefce&leer®³ee ³eb$eCes®es efJeueieerkeÀjCe keÀªve Gpee& efveefce&leer®es ®e¬eÀ LeebyeefJeleele. jmee³eveeb®es ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele DeJeMes<e Demeuesueer Deb[er peerJeveefJekeÀemee®es FlekesÀ eqkeÌueä keÀece keÀmes keÀª MekeÀleerue, ne yeIeCesner keÀäoe³ekeÀ Deens – pemes, DeieefCele HesMeeR®es efJeYeepeve, HesMeermecetn DeeefCe DeJe³eJeeb®eer ieglb eeieglb eer®eer j®evee, peerJeveeme DeeJeM³ekeÀ DeMee HeoeLee¥®³ee meb³eesieef¬eÀ³ee p³eeletve DeKesj SkeÀe efpeJeble ÒeeC³ee®eer efveefce&leer nesles. ³ee meJee¥meeþer HeÀej ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Gpex®eer iejpe Demeles – SìerHeer®eer íesìer HeeefkeÀìs peer He®eveef¬eÀ³es®eer ®e¬esÀ efHeÀjJeleele leer®e kesÀJeU DeMeer Gpee& efvecee&Ce keÀª MekeÀleele. Hejbleg ³ee DeMee DeveLe&keÀejkeÀ Ieìvee HeÀkeÌle He#eebHegjl³ee®e ce³ee&efole Deensle Demes ie=nerle OejC³eeme keÀener®e keÀejCe veener. SìerHeer ns DeJeI³ee efJeéeeleerue Gpex®es ®eueveer veeCes Deens. DeeefCe p³ee DeVeHe®evee®³ee ®e¬eÀeletve ner Gpee& le³eej nesles, les®e Òe³eespeve He#³eebceO³es, met#ce pebletcb eO³es, ceveg<³eele DeeefCe GbojeceO³esner Demeles. keÀesCel³eener Òepeeleermeeþer peblegveeMekeÀeb®ee meeþe DebkegÀjerle yeerpe HesMeeRceO³es DemeCes ner Jemlegemf Leleer cnCetve®e keÀeUpeerle ìekeÀCeejer Deens. ceveg<³eÒeeC³eeMeer leguevee keÀjlee Demes®e HeefjCeece metef®ele nesleele. DeeefCe Demes efveoMe&veeme Deeues Deens keÀer yeerpeHesMeer®es GlHeeove keÀjCeeN³ee HesMeermecetneceO³es Jee KegÎ HesMeeRceO³es ner jmee³eves peeTve yemeleele. DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®³ee He#eebceO³es Je memleve ÒeeC³eeb®³ee uewefiekeÀ DeJe³eJeebceO³es ¿ee keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee meeþe nesle Demeuesuee mebMeesOeveele efometve Deeuee Deens - pemes leerlej He#eer, Gboerj efkebÀJee efve³ebef$ele HeefjefmLeleerle þsJeuesues Òe³eesieemeeþer JeeHejues peeCeejs ÒeeCeer (efieveer efHeie - GbojemeejKee ÒeeCeer). lemes®e Suce Je=#ee®³ee jesieeJej ceejuesu³ee jmee³evee®³ee Heefjmejeleerue je@efyeve He#eer, Heef½eceskeÀ[erue pebieueele mÒetme ye[Jece& ³ee keÀerìkeÀebmeeþer ceejuesu³ee HeÀJeejCeercegUs HeefjCeece Peeuesueer lesLes efHeÀjCeejer njCes. SkeÀe je@eyf eve®³ee Mejerjeleerue Flej DeJe³eJeeleerue [er[erìerHes#ee l³ee®³ee Je=<eCeele leer DeefOekeÀ leerJe´ nesleer. leerlej He#eebveerner DeJeepeJeer ÒeceeCeele l³eeb®³ee Je=<eCeele [er[erìer meeþJeueer nesleer. Deieoer oj oMeue#eeceeies 1500 Yeeie FlekeÀer. memleve ÒeeC³eebJejerue Òe³eesieele Demes efvejer#eCeeme Deeues keÀer uewefiekeÀ DeJe³eJeeleerue DeMee meeþîee®ee HeefjCeeceeves yengOee Je=<eCee®ee efJekeÀeme Leebyelees. cesLee@keÌmee³ekeÌueesj®³ee mebHekeÀe&le Deeuesu³ee ueneve Gboje®eer Je=<eCes efJeue#eCeHeCes ueneve nesleer. pesJne ueneve keÀeWye[îeebvee [er[erìer


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KeeC³eeletve efoueer lesJne l³ee®³ee Je=<eCeeb®eer Jee{ meeceev³e ÒeceeCee®³ee kesÀJeU 18 ìkeÌkesÀ®e Peeueer. vej keÀesbye[îee®³ee ieȳeeHeemetve ueeWyeCeeje keÀuuee (Je@ìumed) DeeefCe keÀeWye[îee®ee legje ³eeb®eer Jee{ Je=<eCeeletve ³esCeeN³ee ûebLeerm$eeJeeJej (neceexvmed) DeJeuebyetve Demeles DeeefCe efve³eefcele DeekeÀejeHes#ee lees kesÀJeU SkeÀ le=leer³eebMe®e neslee. yengOee SìerHeer®³ee keÀcelejlescegUs KegÎ jslepevleg / Meg¬eÀpevlegJej HeefjCeece nesle DemeCeej. Òe³eesieeDebleer Demes efomeues keÀer [e³evee³eì^es efHeÀvee@uecegUs yewuee®³ee Meg¬eÀpevletb®eer ®eueve#ecelee keÀceer Peeueer. ns jmee³eve pees[Ceerletve Gpee&efveefce&leer®³ee ³eb$eCesle {JeUe{JeU keÀjles. ceie DeHeefjne³e&HeCes Gpex®ee DeHenej neslees / Gpee& ieceeJeueer peeles. pej Flej jmee³eveebmebyebOeer Demes®e mebMeesOeve kesÀues Demeles lej keÀoeef®ele ns®e HeefjCeece efometve Deeues Demeles. efHekeÀebJej [er[erìer®³ee YegkeÀìer®eer nJeeF& HeÀJeejCeer pes keÀjleele, DeMee ceveg<³eebceO³esmegOoe JewÐekeÀer³e leHeemeCeerle JebO³elJe (Dee@euf eieesmHeefce&³ee – oligospermia) efkebÀJee jslepevletb®es GlHeeove keÀceer ÒeceeCeele Peeu³ee®eer ef®evns efometve Deeueer. mebHetCe& ceveg<³ecee$eemeeþer Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ peerJeveele DemeerceHeCes Demeuesuee meJee&le efkeÀbceleer þsJee Deens lees DeeHeu³eeuee DevegJeebefMekeÀlesves ueeYeCeejs pevegkeÀer³e iegCeOece&, p³eeb®eer keÀ[er /ogJee DeeHeu³ee YetleYeefJe<³eeMeer pees[uesuee Deens. DeefleoerIe&keÀeue Ie[CeeN³ee Gl¬eÀebleerojc³eeve DeekeÀejeme Deeuesu³ee DeeHeueer pevegkesÀ (peervme) HeÀkeÌle DeeHeu³eeuee DeeHeCe pemes Deenesle lemes yeveefJele veenerle, HeCe DeeHeu³ee YeefJe<³ee®es yeejkeÀeJesner l³eele Demeleele. keÀOeer les DeeéeemekeÀ lej keÀOeer efYeleeroe³ekeÀ Demet MekeÀleele. Hejble Deelee ceeveJeefveefce&le mebkeÀìecegUs Deelee ³ee DevegJeebefMekeÀ pevegkeÀeb®ee Nneme neslees Deens. DeeHeu³ee ceeveJe mebmke=ÀleerkeÀjerlee ne MesJeì®ee Je meJee&le ceesþe OeeskeÀe Deens. Hegvne SkeÀoe jmee³eves Je efkeÀjCeeslmeie& ns meceeblej DeeefCe DeìU Deensle. efpe®³eeJej De®eevekeÀ efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®ee nuuee Deens, l³ee efpeJeble HesMeeRvee DeveskeÀ leNns®³ee peKecee nesleele. l³ee HesMeer®eer efJeYeepeve MekeÌleer ieceeJeueer peeles efkebÀJee veäner HeeJeles. l³eecegUs HesMeerleerue m$eer / Hegª<e iegCemet$ee®eer yeebOeCeer efkebÀJee JebMeHejbHejsves ³esCeejs pevegkeÀeceOeerue iegCeOece& Fleke̳ee De®eevekeÀ nesCeeN³ee HesÀjyeoueecegUs keÀoeef®ele peerJeMeem$eer³e / pevegkeÀer³e yeoueele (c³egìsMeve) HeefjCeeefcele nesleerue. ³ee keÀejCeecegUs ³esCeeN³ee efHe{erle keÀoeef®ele efJeMes<e iegCeOece& Demeleerue. lemes Peeues lej efJeMes<e mebJesoveeMeerue HesMeer keÀoeef®ele ueies®e cejCe HeeJeleerue efkebÀJee DeKesj keÀener keÀeU iesu³eeveblej efkebÀJee keÀener Je<ee¥veblej l³ee DeefleMe³e IeelekeÀer nesT MekeÀleerue. Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue DeY³eemeele efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&®³ee HeefjCeeceeb®eer ngyesnyg e vekeÌkeÀue keÀjCeejs HeefjCeece efometve Deeues les SkeÀe jmee³eve mecetneceO³es, p³ee®es veeJe Deens, js[erDeescee³ecesefìkeÀ efkebÀJee js[erSMeve FefceìsìeRie. peblegveeMekesÀ, leCeveeMekesÀ lemes®e keÀerìkeÀveeMekesÀ cnCetve JeeHejele Demeuesueer DeveskeÀ jmee³eves ³ee®e mecetnele cees[leele. ³ee jmee³eveebceO³es iegCemet$eebvee ( ¬eÀesceesmeescmed) OeeskeÀe Heesnes®eefJeC³ee®eer #ecelee Demeles.

meeceev³ele: ®eeuet Demeuesu³ee HesMeer efJeYeepevee®³ee keÀe³ee&le ns ueg[yeg[ keÀjleele efkebÀJee GlHeefjJele&ve leLee pevegkeÀer³e yeoue (c³egìsMeve) Ie[Jetve DeeCeleele. DevegJeebeMf ekeÀlesves Deeuesu³ee ieesäeRvee ¿eecegUs Fpee Heesnes®eles. HeefjCeecele: p³ee J³eeqkeÌle®ee jmee³eveebMeer mebHeke&À Deeuee Deens, l³eeuee keÀener jesie GoYeJesue DeLeJee Heg{®³ee efHe{îeebJejner HeefjCeece nesT MekesÀue. Deieoer keÀener oMekeÀebHetJeea ³ee jmee³eveebeJf e<e³eer Je efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&eJf e<e³eer keÀesCeeuee®e keÀener®e ceenerle veJnles. l³ee keÀeUer DeCet®³ee efJeIeìvee®eer Je efkeÀjCeeslmeieea jmee³eveeb®eer keÀuHeveener jmee³eveMeem$e%eeb®³ee ®ee®eCeer veueerkesÀle Glejueer veJnleer. ceie 1927 ceO³es ìskeÌmeeme ³egevf eJnefme&ìer®³ee PegDee@uee@peer efJeYeeiee®es ÒeesHesÀmej [e@. S®e. pes. c³eguej ³eebveer MeesOe ueeJeuee keÀer SKeeÐee peerJeeuee #e – keÀerjCeeslmeiee&®³ee mebHekeÀe&le DeeCeues lej l³ee®³ee Heg{®³ee efHe{îebeceO³es pevegkeÀer³e yeoue nesT MekeÀlees. c³eguej®³ee ³ee mebMeesOeveecegUs Meem$e DeeefCe JewÐekeÀer³e oesvner #es$eemeeþer SkeÀ veJes®e oeueve GIe[ues. [e@. c³eguejvee l³eeb®³ee ³ee keÀe³ee&meeþer veblej l³eebvee JewÐekeÀer³e #es$eeleerue veesyesue ÒeeF&pe efceUeues. ueJekeÀj®e peieeuee ³ee %eevee®eer DeeeqCJekeÀ mHeÀesìeveblej efkebÀJee DeeeqCJekeÀ Òeef¬eÀ³esveblej Deemecebleele Hemejuesu³ee jeKe DeeefCe OegUerves efceÞeerle keÀeȳee keÀj[îee HeeJemeemeejKeer og:Keoefjl³ee DeesUKe Peeueer. Deelee Deieoer Meem$ee®eer ceeefnleer vemeCeeN³eebveener efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&Heemetve nesCeeN³ee mebYeeJ³e HeefjCeeceeb®eer ceeefnleer Deens. . pejer HeÀejmee yeesueyeeuee Peeuee veener, lejer ³ee®³ee yejesyejer®es mebMeesOeve 1940®³ee megªJeeleerme S[erveyeie& ³egefveJnefme&ìer®³ee Meeueexì Dee@jyeekeÀ DeeefCe efJeu³ece je@yemeve ³eebveer kesÀues Deens. cemì[& ie@me ³ee lesuekeÀì jemee³eefvekeÀ êeJeCeeJej keÀece keÀjleevee ³ee oesIeeb®³ee ue#eele Deeues keÀer, ns jmee³eve iegCemet$eebceO³es (¬eÀesceesmeescmed) Deefve³eefcelelee DeeCeles, peer efkeÀjCeeslmeiee&cegUs nesCeeN³ee HeefjCeeceebHes#ee JesieUer DeesUKet ³esle veener. [e@. c³eguejveer p³ee HeÀUebJejerue ceeMeerJej cetuele: #eefkeÀjCeebveer Òe³eesie kesÀues nesles, l³ee®e ceeMeerJej cemì[& ie@me®ee Òe³eesie kesÀuee Demelee (c³egìsMeve) pevegkeÀer³e yeoue Peeuesues efometve Deeues. ³eeÒeceeCes Heefnu³ee pevegkeÀer³e yeoue keÀjCeeN³ee jmee³evee®ee (c³egìepesve) MeesOe ueeieuee. cemì[& ie@me Deelee SkeÀ c³egìepesve Deens, p³ee®³eeyejesyej DeveskeÀ jmee³eveeb®eer uebyeer ³eeoer pees[ueer iesueer Deens. ner jmee³eves JevemHeleeR®³ee Je ÒeeC³eeb®³ee DevegJeebefMekeÀ iegCeebceO³es yeoue keÀjleele. jmee³eves JebMeHejbHejsves Deeuesues iegCe yeoueC³ee®es keÀe³e& keÀmes keÀjleele, ns mecepetve IesC³eemeeþer ÒeLece efpeJeble HesMeeR®³ee veeìîeceb®eeJej KesUu³ee peeCeeN³ee Dee³eg<³ee®³ee cegK³e veeìkeÀe®es efvejer#eCe kesÀues Heeefnpes. ¬eÀceMe:


18

HegÀueJee

keÀUce... Mitragyna Parvifolla Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 93245 65060

DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s efJeHegue JevemebHeoe Deens. ner JevemebHeoe kesÀJeU jeveeJeveele®e veener lej l³ee®es GuuesKe DeeHeu³ee mebmke=Àleer, HeewjeefCekeÀ keÀLeebceO³es, keÀeJ³eele, Jeeæ[ce³eele neslees. DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s peMeer JevemebHeoe Deens. leMeer®e Yee<eeb®eerner efJeHeguelee Deens. l³eecegUs yeN³ee®eoe SKeeoer J³ekeÌleer vescekebÀ keÀesCel³ee Je=#eeyeÎue yeesueles ns®e keÀUle veener. yejb, lesJe{b®e veener. SkesÀkeÀe Yee<esle SKeeÐee Je=#eeuee DemebK³e veeJeb Demet MekeÀleele. GoenjCeeLe& pej legcnebuee kegÀCeer Jemebleêgce, ceOetueer, jmeeueer, menkeÀej, megceove, Jemebleogle, HeerkeÀJeuueYe ns SkeÀe®e Je=#ee®es veeJe Deens Demes meebefieleues lej Heìsue keÀe? DeeefCe nîee Je=#ee®es veeJe DeesUKee³euee meebeif eleues lej meebielee ³esFu& e keÀe? ne Je=#e cnCepes Deebyee! Je= # eeb ® ³ee common names ®eer , mLeeefvekeÀ veeJeeb®eer ner®e lej iebcele Deens. cnCetve Meem$eer³e veeJeebveer Je=#eebvee DeesUKeCeb ns GÊece. Meem$eer³e veeJeb pejer DeJeIe[ Jeeìueer lejer leer mecepegve Iesleueer keÀer l³ee®³eele o[uesueer iebcele keÀUles. Deepe®ee Je=#e keÀUce. nîeeuee HeCe DemebK³e mLeeefvekeÀ veeJeb Deensle. OeekeÀìe keÀobye, ueIeg keÀobye, kewÀce, keÀuece, ceg[ b er Demes DeeefCe lesJe{s®e veener lej ces I eog l eeleuee `lJelmeb H ekeÀe& l e HegueefkeÀleefceveer Òeew{Heg<Hes keÀocyew' ne DeeHeu³eeuee Heef j ef ® ele Menjer keÀob y e vemeg v e peb i eueele Dee{UCeeje keÀUce Je=#e®e Deens. Demes nîee Je=#ee®es ®eenlesner YejHegj ÒeceeCeele meeHe[leerue. DeMeeJesUer vescekeÀe Je=#e keÀesCelee ns DeesUKeCeb Kej®e DeJeIe[ peeleb. ceie, JevemHeleer Meem$e%e leke&ÀefJe®eej keÀjleele. Pee[eb®ee GuuesKe, meboYe& leHeemeleele. Pee[eb®es iegCe, Heeveb-HegÀueb, meieUe®e leHeeme keÀjleele. cnCetve®e Meem$eer³e veeJe JeeHeju³eeme peieYejele kegÀþsner pee veeJe les®e jeefnue DeeefCe keÀenerner celeYeso nesCeej veener. Mitragyana parvifolia , keg À U - Rubiaceace keÀUce. Parvifolia cnCepes ueneve Heevee®ee. DeeHeu³eeuee Heefjef®ele Demeuesu³ee keÀobye Je=#ee®³ee kegÀUeleuee®e. oesIeebceO³es KegHe meec³e, HeCe yejs®e HeÀjkeÀner. keÀobyee®es HegÀue pemes, lemes®e nîeeb®esner. ieesìer HegÀueesje, efHeJeUì -efnjJeì jbiee®eer DemebK³e HegÀueb yee@ue Jej Kees®eues DemeeJes DeMeer efomeleele

HeCe keÀobyee®eer HegÀueb peemle ceesþer, lepesueoej DeeefCe ìJeìefJele. keÀoeef®ele nîeecegUs®e keÀobye yeepeer cee©ve peelees DeeefCe keÀUbyeeb®ee GuuesKener nesle veener. lemes Demeues lejerner keÀUbye ne DemebK³e Deew<eOeer iegCeOecee¥veer Yejuesuee SkeÀ GÊece Je=#e Demeu³eecegUs l³ee®eer oKeue I³ee³euee®e nJeer DeeefCe ueeieJe[ner Jee{e³euee nJeer. keÀUce Je=#e Yeejleele peJeUpeJeU meieUerkeÀ[s Dee{Ulees; ceneje<ì^ele lej meieUerkeÀ[s. ceeleer DeeefCe YeesieewefuekeÀ HeefjefmLeleerÒeceeCes ³eeb®eer Jee{, Gb®eer DeeefCe Iesj ueneve-ceesþe neslees. keÀeUer ceeleer, veÐee-veeu³eeb®³ee peJeUHeeme ne Je=#e Dee{Uuee lej Yeuee ceesþe Hevveeme-meeþ HetÀì Gb®e, mejUmeesì, Kees[euee meieUîee yeepetbveer HegÀìuesu³ee HeÀebÐeebcegUs Hemejuesuee jepemJeer Je=#e®e Jeeìlees. HeeveieUer®³ee pebieueebceO³es ne Je=#e cegyeuekeÀ ÒeceeCeele meeHe[lees. HeeveieU Peeuesuee, JeeUuesuee, jKejKeerle HeÀebÐeeb®³ee Je=#eeuee pesJne veJeerve HeesHeìer HeeueJeer ³esles DeeefCe mebHetCe& Je=#e Yeªve peelees, lesJne cee$e keÀeefueoemee®ee ne®e keÀobye Demeb Jeeìleb. keÀUce®eer Heeveb keÀenerMeer efyeyy³ee®³ee HeeveemeejKeer iees u eeke= À leer , oer [ -oes v e yees ì Yej ueeb y eer ® eer , meceesjemeceesj ³esCeejer. veefJeve Heeveebvee stipules ®eb mebj#eCe Demeleb. Heeveb Deeu³eeJej les ieUgve peeleele. HeÀg u eb ies b o s o ej, Heeb { jìef H eJeUs veepeg k eÀ, megJeeefmekeÀ. DemebK³e HegÀue SkeÀ$e Demeu³eeves meyebOe ieg®í ns SkeÀ HegÀue DemeeJeb Deme Yeemeleb. HeÀU keÀ[keÀ Demeleb. les Hesju³eeme DemebK³e jesHeb ³esleele. Menjeleu³ee yeeieeb c eO³es ueeieJe[ keÀjC³eemeeþer®ee GÊece Je=#e Deens. nîeeJej keÀceeb[j HegÀueHeeKejb Deb[er Ieeueleele DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee DeUîee Heesmeu³ee peeleele. l³eecegUs Butterfly garden meeþer GÊece Je=#e. JewÐe, Jewogb®ee ne DeeJe[lee Je=#e. nîee®eer cegUs DeeefCe meeue JeeHeªve leeHe DeeefCe Heesìe®es efJekeÀej yejs nesleele. Heesìe®eer peUpeU, efJe<eÒeeMeve, KeeskeÀuee nîeebveer yeje neslees Demesner cnCeleele. Heeveeb®ee jme peKece yejer keÀjC³eemeeþer JeeHejleele. nîeeleues flavonoids, glycosides DeeefCe tannin ns keÀe³e& keÀjleele. ueekegÀ[ HeeC³ee®³ee mebHekeÀe&le ³esle vemesue lej ®eebieues efìkeÀleb.


23

³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338

efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele

ues[erye[& yeerìue : osJeeves Oee[uesues efkeÀìkeÀ ¿ee efkeÀìkeÀeuee ues[er yeerìue DeLeJee ues[erye[& yeerìue Demes cnCeleele. He´WÀ®e ueeskeÀ lej ³eebvee `osJeeves Oee[uesues efkeÀìkeÀ' Demes®e mebyeesOeleele. Deepe peieYejele ¿eeb®³ee 4000 ntve DeefOekeÀ peeleer Demetve l³eeleerue yentleskeÀ meJe& l³eeb®³ee hebKeebJejerue efþheke̳eeb®³ee j®evescegUs JesieJesieUs DeesUKelee ³esleele. Flej {euekeÀer[îeebhe´ceeCes®e ³ee ues[erye[&®eemeg×e hetCe& peerJeve¬eÀce Demelees. Deb[er, DeUer, keÀes<e Je he´ew{ DeMee ®eejner DeJemLee Demeleele. Deb[er les he´ew{eJemLee ¿ee keÀeueeJeOeerme 3-4 DeeþJe[îeeb®ee keÀeU peeJee ueeielees. Pee[e®³ee heeveeKeeueer meg#ce, efheJeUer, ueebyeì 10 les 50 Deb[er mecegnele Ieeleueer peeleele. Deb[îeeletve 3 les 5 efoJemeele DeUer yeensj ³esles. ner DeUer ceeJeekeÀer[îeebJej Jee{les DeeefCe leer®³ee Jee{ermeeþer Deboepes 2 les 3 DeeþJe[s ueeieleele. ³eeveblej leer®ee keÀes<e nesTve l³eeletve he´ew{ efkeÀìkeÀ Deboepes 7 les 10 efoJemeeveblej yeensj ³eslees. ¿ee {euekeÀer[îeebceOes he´ew{ efkeÀìkeÀ DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee Deȳee ns oesIesner ceeJee keÀer[îeebJej legìtve he[leele. efhekeÀebJej, HegÀueyeeieebJej ³esCeejs Flej $eemeoe³ekeÀ efkeÀìkeÀner l³eebvee KeeC³eemeeþer ®eeueleele. ³eeb®eer SkeÀ DeUer Deboepes 400 ceeJee keÀer[s HeÀmle keÀjles DeeefCe he´ew{ keÀer[e l³ee®³ee Dee³eg<³eeceOes Deboepes 5000 ntve DeefOekeÀ ceeJee keÀer[s HeÀmle keÀjlees. ³ee®e keÀejCeekeÀjlee hejosMeele ns ues[erye[& ceeJee keÀer[îeeb®ee veeMe keÀje³euee efJekeÀues peeleele. ns keÀer[s SkeÀe®e peeiesJej Je<ee¥ceeiegve Je<ex peceleele. l³eecegUs ³ee efkeÀìkeÀebvee ³ee peeieebJej hekeÀ[tve ceie l³eebvee MeslekeÀN³eebvee, yeeiee³eleoejebvee efJekeÀues peeles. MeslekeÀN³eebvee cee$e vewmee|iekeÀ keÀer[ efve³eb$eCe Peeu³eeves l³ee®ee Deleesveele HeÀe³eoe neslees.

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901

ueeBie yeB[s[ efmeuJnj ueeF&ve Meem$eer³e veeJe : efmHeb[emeermed ueesefnlee GHekegÀue :LesefkeÌueveer keÀe@ceve efmeuJnj ueeF&vemeejKes®e efomeCeejs ns HegÀueHeeKe© veerì Heeefnu³eeJej JesieUs Deens ns mecepeles. ³ee®ee HebKeefJemleej 30 les 42 ceer. ceer. Je HebKeeb®ee ogOeer efHeJeUmej les efHeJeUmej - leHeefkeÀjer jbie Demes mJe©He Demeles. HebKeeJej ueeue leebye[îee HeÆîeeb®³ee ceOeesceOe ®ebosjer jbieeb®³ee ®ecekeÀoej js<ee Demeleele. HebKeeb®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepetJej SkeÀ ceO³eJeleea HeÆe Demelees. l³ee®³ee Jej®³ee yeepetme SkeÀ meeceeF&keÀ HeÆe efomelees. Heg{erue ìeskeÀepeJeU Jej®³ee HeÆîeeKeeueer ueebye DeekeÀeje®³ee efþHeke̳eeb®eer keÀesveeke=Àleer Demeles. ceeieerue HebKee®³ee leUeHeemetve meg© nesCeeje HeÆe ceO³eJeleea HeÆîeeuee HebKee®³ee keÀ[sMeer efYe[uesuee Demelees. ceeieerue HebKee®³ee Keeue®³ee ìeskeÀeuee oesve MesHeìîee HegÀìuesu³ee Demeleele. veje®³ee Heg{erue HebKee®³ee ceOeesceOe Je ceeieerue HebKe Ye©ve ®ecekeÀoej Jeebieer-efveUe jbie Demelees lej ceeoerle peJeUHeeme leHekeÀerjer jbie®e Demelees. ns HegÀueHeeKe© Yeejleele ceO³eÒeosMe, HeefM®ece yebieeue, GÊejeb®eue Je DeªCee®eue ÒeosMe ³esLes Dee{Ules. lemes®e lelmece DeefMe³eeF& osMeele Dee{Ules. ³ee®ee Dee{U YejHetj Hepe&v³eceeve Demeuesu³ee pebieueeceO³es Demelees. efnceeue³eele 1670 ceerìj Gb®eerHe³e¥le les G[le Demeles. HegÀueebceOeerue ceOegÒeeMeveeyejesyej les ef®eKeueHeevemeg×e keÀjles. Hes© (efme[er³ece ieewpeJee ), [gkeÌkeÀjkebÀo Jeieea³e Jesueer ([e³emkeÀesjer³ee efmHemeerpe) Je Pee³eueer³ee Jeiee&leerue JevemHeleeRJej ner HegÀueHeeKejs Deb[er Ieeueleele.

Long-banded Silverline Ladybird Beetle Natural pest control for plant eaters This is a lady beetle or ladybird beetle. Most species of ladybird beetles are among our most beneficial insects. This fact and their attractive appearance have contributed to the generally good opinion of them held by most people. The same reason French call them “creatures of the good God”. There are more than 4000 species found worldwide. Most species can be identified by the pattern of spots on their elytra (flight wing covers). Like all beetles, the ladybird beetle has a complete metamorphosis with distinct egg, larval, pupa and adult stages. Usually the life cycle from egg to adult requires about 3 to 4 weeks. Tiny, yellow oval eggs are laid upright in clusters of 10 to 50 on undersides of leaves. Eggs hatch in 3 to 5 days, and larvae feed on aphids or other insects for 2 to 3 weeks, they pupate and the adult emerges in 7 to 10 days. Ladybird beetles, both adult and larva, are known primarily as predators of aphids but they prey on many other pests such as soft scale insects, mealy bugs and spider mites etc. One larva will eat 400 medium size aphids during its development to the pupa stage. An adult eats more than 5000 aphids in its lifetime.

www.yuwarajgurjar.com

Sc Name -Spindasis lohita Family –Lycaenidae Sub-family -Theclinae Long-banded Silverline is a Common Silverline look alike. It is creamy yellow to cinnamon colour with wing span of 3042 mm. Silver lines are in the centre of reddish bands which are edged prominently with black to red. On the underside a central band runs continuously on both the wings. The wings have a band running near the upper edge and another band in between upper and central band. On the fore wing, spots form small bands that are joined like (>) symbol. On the hind wing the band starting from the base touches the central band near the tornus. A large orange lobe with two black spots and two tails forms the tornus. Both the sexes are brown and do not have orange patch on upper side of fore wing. Male is purplish blue on the dorsal area of the forewing and the whole hind wing except the costal border. It lay eggs on Common Guava (Psidium gaujava), Dioscorea sp and Xylia sp. It prefers forests with heavy rainfall and found up to 1,670 mts. in Himalayas. It is found in peninsular India upto Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttaranchal to Arunachal Pradesh and also South Asian countries. like Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan.


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cegyb eF&peJeU efomeuesues `HeengCes' He#eer

efvejer#eCe

DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ë 98920 61899

efþHekesÀoej HeÀìekeÀ[er Spotted Crake íe³eeef®e$e - ce³egjsMe Hejye

efþkeÀeCe ë JemeF&

keÀeWye[er meejKee efomeCeeje HeCe ueneve DeekeÀeje®ee He#eer. DebieeJej keÀeUs Heeb{js Je leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®es efþHekesÀ Demeleele. jeceyeeCe ieJele, HeeCeLeU peeiee, keÀeboU - Jeves ³esLes Dee{Ulees. ³egjesHe Je HegJe& DeefMe³ee ³esLes JeerCe. Yeejle, HeeefkeÀmleeve Je lelmece DeefMe³eeF& osMeebceO³es efnJeeUer mLeueeblej. HeeC³eeleerue efkeÀìkeÀ, ieesieueieeF&, JevemHeleer Fl³eeoerJej iegpejeCe. vej - ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes. It is similar to a hen but smaller in size. It is black and white and has rufous spots on its body. Breeds in Europe and Eastern Asian region. Winter migration to India, Pakistan and subcontinent. Feeds on insects, molluscs and water plants. Male and female look same.

Heeb{N³ee [esUîeeb®ee yeepe White-eyed Buzzard íe³eeef®e$e -Meblevet kegÀJesmekeÀj

efþkeÀeCe ë ceeCeieeJe

keÀeJeUîee®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee efMekeÀejer He#eer. Heeb{N³ee MegYe´ [esUîeecegUs menpe DeesUKe. Yeejleeyejesyej HeeefkeÀmleeve yeebiueeosMe, c³eeveceej ³esLes efveJeemeer Demegve, mLeeefvekeÀ mLeueeblej keÀjleele. íesìs He#eer, mej[s, meeHe, veekeÀlees[e, ®elegj ³eeJej iegpejeCe. efHeuueeb®es [esUs Heeb{js vemeleele. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e. Crow-sized raptor bird. Easily identified by its white eyes. Resident in India and subcontinents like Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Feeds on lizards, small birds, snakes, grasshoppers and dragonflies. Juveniles don’t have pure white eyes. Male and female look similar.

leejJeeueer efYebiejer Wire-tailed Swallow íe³eeef®e$e -Deeefcej MesKe

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&

peebYeUer HeeCekeÀeWye[er

Grey-headed Swamphen

íe³eeef®e$e - DebkegÀj ceesF&$ee

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&

HeeUerJe keÀeWye[er®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee efveUîee jbiee®ee He#eer. Yeejleer³e mLeeefvekeÀ He#eer Demegve yengleebMe jep³eele Dee{Ulees. jeceyeeCe ieJele, oueoueer ÒeosMe Je HeeCeLeU peeieebceO³es JeemleJ³e. íesìs peue®ej, JevemHeleer, Je efkeÀìkeÀ ³eeJej iegpejeCe. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e. Hen-sized blue colored bird. Resident in most of the Indian subcontinent. Prefers Typha reeds, wetlands and water bodies. Feeds on small aquatic insects and plants. Male and female look similar.

leebyegme Heeþer®ee KeeefìkeÀ íe³eeef®e$e - ef®ejeie Dengpee

Long-tailed Shrike efþkeÀeCe ë Yeeb[tHe

yegueyegue®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee jeKee[er leebyegme He#eer. mebHetCe& Yeejleeyejesyej HeeefkeÀmleeve yeebiueeosMe Je c³eeveceej ³esLes Dee{Ulees, Je mLeeefvekeÀ mLeueeblej keÀjlees. KegjHes pebieue, ceeUjeves, YeeleMesleer ³esLes JeemleJ³e. mej[s, Heeueer, veekeÀlees[,s Gboerj ³eeJej iegpejeCe. efMekeÀejer®es iejpesvegmeej legkeÀ[s keÀ©ve Keelees Je Gjuesues keÀeìîeebceO³es ueHeJetve þsJelees cnCetve KeeìerkeÀ Demes veeJe. Grey brownish bulbul sized bird. Resident and local migrant within most of the Indian subcontinent. Prefers scrub, open lands, and paddy-fields. Feeds on lizards, grasshoppers, rodents and other insects. It cuts the prey as per the requirement and hides the remaining within thorny bushes, hence also known as butcher bird.

ueeuemej íeleer®eer HeÀìekeÀ[er Ruddy-breasted Crake íe³eeef®e$e - DeefJeveeMe Yeiele

efþkeÀeCe ë þeCes Kee[er

MesHeìer®eer oesve efHemes ueebye Demeuesuee yegueyegue Hes#ee DeekeÀejeves ueneve He#eer. Yeejleeyejesyej®e HeeefkeÀmleeve, yeebiueeosMe Je c³eeveceej ³esLes mLeeefvekeÀ. veoerefkeÀveejer Je HeeCeLeU peeieebpeJeU JeemleJ³e. HeeCeLeU peeiesle De{UCeejs efkeÀìkeÀ ns ÒecegKe KeeÐe. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele.

cewves®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee keÀeWye[ermeejKee efomeCeeje He#eer. YeejleeceO³es mLeeefvekeÀ Demegve oueoueer ÒeosMe, jeceyeeCe ieJele Je HeeCeLeU peeieebceO³es JeemleJ³e. HeeCeLeU peeiesleerue JevemHeleer, efkeÀìkeÀ Je ieesieueieeF& ³eeJej iegpejeCe. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e

A bird smaller than a bulbul with two long wire-like tail feathers. Resident in India and subcontinent. Prefers rivers, wetlands and paddy-fields. Feeds on insects and flies. Male and female look similar.

Myna sized, hen-like bird. Resident in the Indian subcontinent. Prefers wetlands and Typha reeds. Feeds on aquatic plants, molluscs and insects. Male and female look similar.


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He³ee&JejCe peieleele ... efnceebMet ìWYeskeÀj ë 94045 86596 DeefleMe³e cenÊJee®eer HeCe og:Keo DeMeer yeeleceer cnCepes ceeieerue ceefnv³eele JeeIee®³ee ®eej yeí[îeeb®ee kegÀHees<eCeecegUs Peeuesuee ogozJeer ce=l³et. ner yeeye pejer meeOeer Jeeìle Demeueer, lejer mejkeÀejuee DeeefCe Jeve efJeYeeieeuee ieebYb eer³ee&ves efJe®eej keÀje³euee ueeJeCeejer Deens. ®ebêHetj ³esLeerue lee[esyee J³eeIe´ ÒekeÀuHeeHeemetve 50 efkeÀceer ueebyeerJej Demeuesu³ee HeLejer ieeJeepeJeU ner Ieìvee Ie[ueer. ieeJekeÀN³eebvee leerve yeí[îeeb®es ce=leosn Dee{Utve Deeues lej JeveeefOekeÀeN³eebvee Del³eeJemLesle Demeuesuee SkeÀ yeí[e efceUeuee. HeCe GHe®eejeojc³eeve l³ee®eener ce=l³eg Peeuee. DeeF&efJevee kegÀHees<eCeeuee yeUer He[uesues ns MeeJekeÀ DeeefCe l³eeb®eer njJeuesueer DeeF& ns Jeve efJeYeeiee®³ee DeHe³eMee®es®e ÐeeslekeÀ Deens. MeeJekeÀeb®³ee DeeF&®eer efMekeÀej Peeu³ee®eerner Meke̳elee Jele&JeC³eele ³esle Deens. ogmejerkeÀ[s SkeÀ Deeveboe®eer yeeleceerosKeerue Deens. HeW®e J³eeIe´ ÒekeÀuHeele JeeIeeb®³ee mebK³essle Jee{ Peeueer Deens. 2013 meeueer 19 Demeuesueer ner mebK³ee Deelee 34 FlekeÀer Peeueer Deens. l³eecegUs nîee yeeleceer v es Jev³epeer J e ÒesceeRveer Lees[e efoueemee ef c eUeuee Deens . SkeÀerkeÀ[s DeHe³eMeer þjuesuee Jeve efJeYeeie cee$e jep³e Meemevee®³ee ceoleerves SkeÀcesJe DeeefCe ÒeLece®e Deceueele DeeCeC³eele ³esCeejer SkeÀ ke=ÀleerMeerue ³eespevee jeyeJeC³ee®³ee le³eejerle Deens. p³eeceO³es je<ì^er³e GÐeevee®³ee Deepetyeepetuee nesCeeje Jev³epeerJe DeeefCe ceeveJeer mebIe<e& keÀceer nesFu& e. nîeeceO³es keÀener cenÊJee®es cegÎs þjJeC³eele Deeues Deensle. p³eele efJeefnjeRvee PeekeÀCe yemeJeCes, Jev³epeerJeebvee jmlee Heej keÀjC³eemeeþer Yetefceiele jmles yeveJeCes, HeÀe³eyej®es efHebpejs JeeHejCes, MeerIe´ke=Àleer HeLekeÀ yeveJeCes, ieeJekeÀN³eeb®ee menYeeie Jee{JeCes nîee iees<ìer®b ee meceeJesMe Deens. lemes®e mejkeÀej nîeeJe<eea Jeve He³e&ìveeuee ®eeuevee osCeej Deens. 48 DeYe³eejC³es, 6 je<ì^er³e GÐeeve, 4 jeKeerJe njerle HeÆs nîee®ee Òe®eej kesÀuee peeCeej Deens. lejer nîeeefveefceÊeeves lejer Jeves Je Jev³epeerJeebvee `De®ís efove' ³esleerue DeMeer DeHes#ee keÀje³euee njkeÀle veener. keÀener efoJemeebHetJeea®e þeCes Kee[erceO³es MeskeÀ[es ceemes ce=le DeJemLesle

Dee{Utve Deeues. HeeC³eele mees[C³eele Deeuesues efJe<eejer meeb [ HeeCeer nîeeuee peyeeyeoej Demeu³ee®es meeb i eC³eele ³es l e Deens . Òeef¬eÀ³ee ve keÀjlee mees[C³eele ³esCeeN³ee HeeC³eele Del³eble IeelekeÀ IeìkeÀ Demeleele. p³eecegUs mebHetCe& HejermebmLes®es ceesþs vegkeÀmeeve nesles. ner nesCeejer neveer keÀesCel³eener ÒekeÀejs Yeªve keÀe{lee ³esle veener. nîee®e ÒekeÀejs HeveJesue ³esLes nesCeejer KeejHegÀìer®³ee JeeCeeb®eer nesCeejer yesmegceej keÀÊeuener Ye³eevekeÀ HeefjCeeceeme keÀejCeerYetle þ© MekeÀles. veJeerve efJeceeveleUeJej pejer ÒeMveef®evn Demeues lejer l³eemeeþer le³eejer cee$e peesjele meg© Deens. KeejHegÀìer keÀeHeCes, lesLes ceeleer®es YejeJe ìekeÀCes nîee keÀeceebveer Jesie Oejuee Deens. l³eecegUs l³ee efþkeÀeCeer ³esCeeN³ee mLeueebleefjle He#³eebveermeg×e ogmejs He³ee³e& MeesOeC³eeme meg©Jeele kesÀueer Deens. l³eecegUs He³ee&JejCee®ee meceleesue jeKee³e®ee Demesue lej DeeHeu³eeuee peueeMe³e DeeefCe Kee[er Heefjmej Jee®eJeuee Heeefnpes. ³ee ¢äerves keÀener DeeMes®ess efkeÀjCener efomele Deensle. vegkeÀleer®e jep³e Jev³epeerJe ceb[Ueves cebgyeF&peJeU leerve He#eer DeYe³eejC³eebvee HejJeeveieer efoueer Deens. ³eeceO³es efMeJejer - ceentue, HeeCepes – GjCe DeeefCe veJeer cegyebF&leerue Heece yeer®e jes[ Jejerue Kee[er Heefjmeje®ee meceeJesMe Deens. DeMee keÀener efveCe&³eebveer ³esCeeN³ee efHe{eruee ner He#eer mebHeoe Heene³euee efceUsue DeMeer DeMee Deens.


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v³etpe uesìj megboj Iejiegleer yeeie mHeOee& : veboveJeve yeeie mHeOee& ner efoveebkeÀ 21,23 Je 28ef[meWyej 2015 jespeer ner mHeOee& þeCes Menjeleerue efJeefJeOe efþkeÀeCeer Heej He[ueer. ner mHeOee& ìsjsme, ueB[mkesÀHe,yee@keÌme ûeerue,yeeukeÀveer F. efJeYeeieebceO³es IesC³eele Deeueer. mHeOexmeeþer 35 ÒeJesefMekeÀe IesC³eele Deeu³ee. ÒecegKe HeengCes [e@. ieesefJebo HeejìkeÀj DeeefCe efceefuebo HeeìCekeÀj ³eeb®³ee nmles efJepesl³eebvee yeef#emes osC³eele Deeueer. Nandanvan Gardening Competition : PDM has arranged Nandanvan Ie Gardening Competition on 21, 23, 28 Dec. 2015 at Thane city. Total 35 participants took part in Terrace, Landscape, Box grill and Balcony Gardening categaries. The winners were felicitated by chief guest Dr. Govind Paratkar and Milind Patankar.

efvemeie& Ye´cebleer ë efoveebkeÀ 24 les 27 ef[bmesyej jespeer oeb[sueer J³eeIe´ ÒekeÀuHe keÀvee&ìkeÀ ³esLes Ye´cebleer Dee³eesefpele Deeueer nesleer. meele peCeeb®ee ³eele meceeJesMe neslee. megceejs 100 ngve DeefOekeÀ HeefM®ece Ieeìeleerue ÒeosMeeleerue He#eeb®³ee peeleermeesyele keÀesune, jeve[gkeÀjs, efyeyeìîee, yue@keÀ HeBLej, jevememee G[Ceejer Keej,MeskeÀ©, ef®eleU, G[Ceeje mej[e DeMeer pewJeefJeefJeOelee Hene³euee efceUeueer. ³eele DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Nature Trail : On 24 to 27 December, PDM has arranged Naturetrail at Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve at Karnataka. Total seven participants sighted more than 100 species of Forest birds, as well as Golden Jackal, Leopard, Black Panther, Hare, Flying Squirell, Giant Squirell, Spotted Deer and Flying Lizard with expertise by Avinash Bhagat.

JevemHeleeR®eer DeesUKe ë efo.3 peevesJejer jespeer He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[U leHexÀ yeeje yebieuee, þeCes efvemeie& Ye´cebleer Dee³eesefpele kesÀueer nesleer. .³eeceO³es eEHeHeU, eE®e®e, Tbyej, keÀceU, yeebyet Je ©êe#e Demes DeveskeÀÒekeÀej®es JevemHeleer lesLes HeneJe³eeme efceUleele. lemes®e keÀener Deew<eOeer JevemHeleerner ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele Dee{Uu³ee. Yejle iees[ebyes ³eebveer GHeefmLeleebvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Plant Identification Trail : On 3 January PDM has arranged plant identification trail at Bara- bungalow area Thane. Mr. Bharat Godambe gave information on 50 – 60 species of trees & plants during the trip. Many butterflies, Caterpillars & birds also sighted in this trail.

He#eer efvejer#eCe ë efoveebkeÀ 9 Je 10 peevesJeejer jespeer efYeieJeCe ³esLes Ye´cebleer Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer nesleer. efJeme peCeeb®ee ³eele meceeJesMe neslee. HeÌuesceeRiees meejKes mLeueeblejerle Je mLeeefvekeÀ He#eer efceUgve 100 ngve DeefOekeÀ peeleer®es oMe&ve yeesì meHeÀejerlegve Ie[ues. ceneje<ì^ele Del³eble ogefce&U Demeuesuee Heeb{N³ee ceeL³ee®ee keÀuenbme nîee Ye´cebleerceO³es efomeuee. Òee. keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee Je DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ³eebveer He#eebyeeyele ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Bird Watching Trail : On 9 & 10 January PDM has arranged bird watching trail at Bhigwan. 20 participants took part in it. More than 100 species of birds sighted during boat rides. Rare winter migrant Greater White-fronted Goose also sighte. Prof. Clara Correia & Avinash Bhagat Guided the participants.


27 DekegbÀj Heeke&Àuee Yesì ë efoveebkeÀ 16 ef[meWyej 2015 jespeer ceguegb[ ³esLeerue ve@Meveue Sp³egkesÀMeve meesmee³eìer®³ee 11 efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer He.o.ceb[Ue®³ee keÀUJee ³esLeerue DebkegÀj Heeke&Àuee Yesì efoueer. ³eeJesUer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee DebkegÀj Heeke&À ³esLes jeyeefJeC³eele ³esCeeN³ee efJeefJeOe GHe¬eÀceeb®eer ceeefnleer osC³eele Deeueer. Yeejleer efMeJevebo DeeefCe HegefCe&cee efMejieeJekeÀj ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. lej megosMevee ³eebveer HeeCeer efJe<e³eeJejerue efHeÀuce efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee oeKeefJeueer. Ankur Park Visit : On 16 Dec. 2015, 11 students from IB Diploma programme of NES, Mulund visited at Ankur. Bharati Shivnand arrange Ankur visit. Pournima Shirgaonkar facilited ankur visit till 11.30am. All students were introduced about the activities of Ankkur Park. Sudeshna showned film on water.

ûeerve Mee@Heer®es GHe¬eÀce : He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee ûeerve Mee@Heer ³ee GHe¬eÀceele osMeYejeleerue 30 DeMeemekeÀer³e mebmLee DeeHeu³ee MebYejntve DeefOekeÀ He³ee&JejCeer³e peerJeveesHe³eesieer Jemletbmen menYeeieer Peeu³ee Deensle. ceeieerue oesve ceefnv³eeble ûeerve Mee@Heer®eer cegbyeF& DeeefCe þeCes Heefjmejele 16 ÒeoMe&ves Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeueer. l³eeme megceejs 30 npeej He³ee&JejCeÒeWceerveer Yesì efoueer. Activities of Green Shoppe : P.D.M's Green Shoppe is networking with 30 NGOs working across the country and has more than 100 products. The last two months have been very productive with us participating in 16 exhibitions at various schools and corporates. where in more than 30,000 people got a chance to see the products.

jeä^er³e He#eer efove : efo. 5 peevesJeejer 2016 jespeer þeC³eeleerue efMeMeg %eeve cebefoj ³esLes jeä^er³e He#eer efoveeefveefceÊe ceeefnleer me$ee®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues. ³eeJesUer 50 peCe GHeefmLele nesles. He#eer le%pe jefJebê meeþs ³eebveer GHeefmLeleebvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. lej Yeei³eÞeer ûeeceHegjesefnle ³eeb®es ³ee me$eemeeþer menkeÀe³e& ueeYeues. National Bird Day Activity : 5th January 2016, National Bird

Day was celebrated at Shishudnyanmandir School , Thane. 50 participants were guided by Ravindra Sathye, a Birder . Bhagyashree Grampurohit co-ordinated the activity.

Anti Plastic Flag Movement : A session on Anti Plastic Flag Movement was conducted at Vartak Nagar Shikshan Mandal’s English medium school. 150 students from std 5th to 10th were. The students were urged not to buy personal flags and participate in public national flag hoisting ceremonies. It was explained to the students that it was disrespectful to the national flag to buy personal flags and then discard them once the celebration was over. Mukul Muzumdar guided the students.

HueemìerkeÀ PeW[e efJejesOeer DeefYe³eeve : þeC³eeleerue Jele&keÀveiej efMe#eCe ceb[Ue®³ee FbiueerMe efce[er³ece MeeUsle HueemìerkeÀ PeW[e efJejesOeer DeefYe³eeve IesC³eele Deeues. ³ee DeefYe³eeveele 5Jeer les 10Jeer®³ee megceejs 150 efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer menYeeie Iesleuee. Hue@efmìkeÀ®es PeW[s efJekeÀle ve Ieslee meeJe&peefvekeÀ efþkeÀeCeer nesCeeN³ee PeW[eJebove keÀe³e&¬eÀceele menYeeieer JneJes lemes®e PeW[eJebove Peeu³eeveblej eflejbi³ee®eer efJeìbyevee LeebyeJeeJeer, Demes DeeJeenve keÀjC³eele Deeues . He.o.ceb [ Ue®³ee ceg k eg À ue cegPetceoej ³eebveer GHeefmLeleebvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.


28


29 Water temperatures influence food production. Invertebrate production in the water column may ultimately depend on the water temperature and the ability of a wetland to produce algae. Cold water might not be a very hospitable environment for small animals and plants that some wetland birds eat. However water that is too warm also might not produce foods that some birds prefer. Many bird species use forested wetlands as well as forested uplands, feeding on the abundant insects associated with trees. These birds are not dependent on wetlands because they use both habitats equally well. Some birds, such as wood ducks, are found primarily in forested wetlands and are dependent on this wetland type. Wetland vegetation provides shelter from predators and from the weather. The presence or absence of shelter may influence whether birds will inhabit a wetland or a nearby upland area. Predators are likely to abound where birds concentrate, breed, or raise their young. Wetlands form an important buffer or barrier to land-based predators and reduce the risk of predation to nesting or young birds. However, some predators are well adapted to both wetland and upland environments, and take large numbers of both young and nesting birds. Some forage for nesting or sleeping birds along the edges and interiors of wetlands. Other animals, such as the snapping turtle, the alligator, are effective waterbased predators of young birds, particularly young waterfowl. Snakes take their toll as well. Many bird species that are highly adapted to feeding in a wetland environment also have genetic adaptations that lower their risk of becoming prey. One such example is the bittern which has excellent protective

coloration. The same vegetation that hides birds from predators also provides some shelter from severe weather. During cold and stormy weather, waterfowls, ducks protect their young in the shelter of a marsh that is almost impenetrable to wind. Some wetlands are on the migration path of waterfowls and other migratory birds and provide stopover locations for travelling birds. These birds travel each year between their breeding grounds in the northern hemisphere and nonbreeding habitat. Migratory shorebirds inhabit the shorelines of rivers, wetlands, oceans and lakes, where they need to rest and feed during their non-breeding season (SeptemberMarch) to prepare for their annual migrations to breeding grounds in the Arctic. .Some of these birds might feed in agricultural fields during the day and return to the shelter of wetlands during the night. India is a signatory to the Convention of Migratory Species and must ensure safe passage for all migratory birds. Though considerable research has increased the understanding of wetlandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; influence on the numbers of waterfowl that breed and their breeding success. However, the relation between wetlands and the population and propagation of various waterfowl species is not well understood. This relation depends on: (1) the number of wetlands in the area; (2) the wetlandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; size and water depth; (3) whether the wetlands hold open water in the early spring or through late August (4) the climate and (5) the species of bird and the birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s adaptations to wetlands. Photo courtesy Avinash Bhagat


30

SPECIAL ARTICLE

Have We Lost What Were Once Our Treasures? Dr. Sheetal Pachpande Assistant Professor V.P.M.'s B.N.Bandodkar College of Science, Thane

Room temperature of 24°C, pleasant atmosphere, good living, fresh air, were the amenities that were once available in abundance. Sadly, these amenities in today’s times are luxuries (almost) impossible to achieve, even if you are ready to spend for it. The question which arises are : Why? What has changed so far? What has lead to this change? The soil? The water? The atmosphere? The environment? Or is it us?. Sadly, the answers to these questions point towards the humans - The “Homo sapiens”. Humans are the pioneer species responsible for the fate of the earth, even though humans and trees lived hand in hand for centuries together. As we know, the byproduct of human respiration mainly comprises of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Oxide is used by plant and released in the atmosphere in the form of oxygen (O2) for human respiration. Considering this fact it is necessary to stick to 1:1 human plant ratio probably one plant per person. However, unfortunately this remains a fact on paper; it is very far away from reality. Presently, we are dealing with carbon dioxide (CO2), the byproduct generated artificially or naturally by humans. In 2006, “An Inconvenient Truth”, the documentary narrated by Ex Vice-President Al Gore of United States of America was an eye opener across the globe on threats by global warming. The documentary gave an insight on increasing ratio of carbon dioxide and increase in temperature. Not only carbon dioxide but, the entire chemistry of the atmosphere is at stake today. From years scientist worldwide are struggling for a solution to curb excess level of CO 2 and one of best solution is sequestration of carbon dioxide. The sequestration of carbon is absorbing carbon in sinks. These sinks can be artificial or natural. The sinks act as containers to store carbon in it for long period of time. Since ancient times trees play a great role in forming these carbon sinks and among all other economic and ecological values, trees as carbon sequesters stands apart. Research states that in general, forests absorb between 10 and 20 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare, each year, through photosynthetic conversion into starch, cellulose, lignin, and wooden biomass. After a certain period of time the carbon (in tree) is stored in fixed form, forever in its biomass. To

Photo courtesy Dr. Sheetal Pachpande understand the carbon sequestration potential of various manmade and natural sinks is of immense importance today. Nature has always given its best to maintain the balance of the environment. Mangroves, is one such example (treasure) i.e. evolved and highly adapted to protect us and our coastline, protect livelihoods of fisher folk communities and protect our biodiversity. Mangroves aka Kandalvan, is a unique forest with mesmerizing floral and faunal adaptations. They are found along the borders of the land where, land meets water from rivers or ocean. They have tendency to hold themselves strongly on a very unstable ground with the help of specialized and sturdy root system. These root system not only provides support but also help the trees through gaseous exchange to survive in highly water logged soil and give habitat to various marine aquatic flora and fauna to breed in them. The soil is very clayey and so is termed here as sediment. These mangroves trees bear special glands on their leaves to get rid of excess salt present in sea water. When these leaves defoliate, they enter into the sediment increasing sediment carbon store. Due to diurnal tidal fluctuation sedimentation rate in mangroves is very slow, also due to highly alkaline condition the decay rate is low, which helps in carbon storage for prolonged period of time. A typical mangrove has capacity to store more than 152 tons of above ground biomass per hectare (Spalding, 2013) and even more than that in below ground biomass and in


31 mangrove sediment. Given the huge stretch of Indian coastline, mangrove in India cover area of 4627.8 sq km of land (as per India State of Forest Report, 2011, Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.). These figures give us an estimate of how much carbon these fragile ecosystems store. Thane city is blessed with this Mangrove ecosystem. Different mangrove species such as Avicennia marina, Sonneratia apetala, Ceriops tagal, Brugueira cylindrica, Acanthus illicifolius are present in regions of Thane creek, Navi Mumbai, etc. This ecosystem is the sole purpose for the avid avifauna observed in some patches. Flamingoes are one such attractants which renames Thane creek, as Flamingo Sanctuary. With this fact that at today there are many Thane residents are involved in protection of these mangroves. There are still a vast number of people who lack the knowledge about mangroves and their role in maintaining our life. As they usually occupy the areas of high light intensity, they take in more carbon dioxide and in turn also give out more oxygen for sustainance of myraid of marine inhabitants. Rise in human population and urbanization has led to destruction of mangrove forests at an alarming rate. It is said that in India, 70% of construction is yet to be developed. Considering this statistic,development should be planned in way to maintain harmony between various forest ecosystem. Coastal areas are the most targeted areas for development and we (humans) cannot afford development at the cost of any forest. If thought wisely, there lies solution to save this unique ecosystem and humanity.

HOLY - HOLI Naturally can make a big difference. Lets' all 'I' pledge to use only natural colours this HOLI to help conserve the environment. megkeÀer nesueer.... !

megKeer nesueer.... !!

For natural colours contact Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal's

GREEN SHOPPE Shop No. 15, Dadoji Konndev Statium, Khartan Road, Thane (W). Tel : 022-25411633 E-mail : paryavarans@gmail.com

GREEN WARRIOR Excerpt from an Interview Shree Ekvira Aai Pratishthan - Bhandup is an NGO the brain child of Mr. Nandakumar Pawar. He was born and brought up in Bhandup and belongs to the ‘Koli’ community. He studied in a municipal school till 7th and later his SSC at another school in Bhandup and faced discrimination from students and Staff alike! He completed his graduation from Dnyansadhana College and abandoned his LLB at Thana College due to domestic reasons. He was an active fisherman fishing twice a day and this routine continued for a decade as there was no other option. In his words he made enough to keep his body and soul together. He is now trying his best to draw attention to the plight of his community due to the illegal destructive activities taking place in the coast, mangroves and creeks that border the city and nearby towns. He laments that earlier at any given point of time irrespective of the tide, casting their nets into the creeks and mangrove areas in their backyard would fetch them with at least two baskets of fish. The community never ever purchased fish from the market! All this was before 1991. Being a hardcore fisherman, he has personally witnessed the transformation that has happened in the past 20 years. Most of the fish have vanished from the creek and only 3 species the resilient Tilapias, Catfish and Shrimps have remained that too in small numbers. He first decided to take up the issue of mangroves after the Tsunami and 26th July 2005 flooding incident. He realised the extent of the danger that they were in and his motivation stemmed from the massive loss of life and damage to property caused by the floods and the realisation that the chopping of mangroves is one of the contributing factors to flooding. “I’m a fisherman and I have grown up realising the importance of mangroves for breeding of fish as well as for cleaning the air, which is polluted due to so many factors today.” Initiated by ... page 32


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him, nearly 1,000 hectares stretch of mangroves alongside the Eastern Express Highway, between Kanjurmarg and Mulund, is patrolled by 40 volunteers on a daily basis. Soon, they started spotting people who would sneak inside to hunt birds or to collect firewood and hand them over to the forest department or the police. Once he chanced upon a demolition vehicle trying to clear out a section of the mangroves and immediately raised an alarm. The people fled leaving the vehicle there and it was then seized by the police. The same people later tried to discredit him in court however the court ruled in his favour. This victory gained him more volunteers for his civilian patrol. “Apart from the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, these mangroves are the only major chunk of greenery that helps purify the air. If we don’t fight to preserve them, what kind of quality of life we are passing on to future generations?” Mangrove trees have been destroyed in a five-acre area in Sector 20, near Airoli Kalba complex at Navi Mumbai. Environment activists alleged the local fishing community was responsible for the hacking of the trees to convert the area into a pond for fishing purposes. It was a matter of land grabbing where fully grown and healthy mangrove trees had been hacked which was hardly a kilometre away from the Mangrove cell office. Many local villagers were trying to make their own pond by destroying these mangroves. They should have realised that the destruction of mangroves is banned and the area falls under public property. Mangrove replantation is being sponsored by several well-meaning Corporates. However what they are actually doing is damaging the existing wetlands. There are areas of intertidal grasslands in between the mangroves. These are important areas for birds as they provide nesting and roosting places, the birds lay their eggs and hatch their young. Some NGOs with funding from Corporates have converted parts of grassland into a mangrove replantation zone, but very few of the mangroves have survived! It also was due to the fact that the nursery supplied them with Ceriops tagal species which cannot grow on hard ground. So now other NGO’s are undoing the damage by replacing each and every sapling with Avicennia marina. The second reason is the inundation of intertidal grasslands by rising sea water alongwith the subsequent destruction of the nesting sites,

now the birds and the migratory birds have no place to go, and are deserting these patches as well. At Bhandup Pumping Station too, he is not happy with the water being pumped out of the Sewage Treatment Plant [STP] the quality of the water and from the colour of the water one can make out that all is not well, yet there are quite a few birds in other areas of the Bhandup creek, he is surprised at the resilience of these wonderful creatures of nature. Despite his NGO crusading for the preservation of wetlands he has fought not only greedy developers and politicians but even his own community! The indigenous knowledge he has is based on real experience. Though his stand against the wrong doings of his own community has not gone down well with some section with vested interests, the majority have understood and are supporting him. He continues to organise cleaning camps in the mangroves every year and holds awareness camps in the fishermen's villages regularly in order to reinforce the importance of mangroves. The community needs to know that they are the ‘Protectors’ not ‘Owners’. He feels that unless there is a feeling of ‘Belongingness’ nothing can be achieved. This ‘sense’ has to be developed in youngsters if the mangrove ecosystem has to be saved for the future generations. In the real sense Nandakumar and his likes are the real inspiration and true heroes of Mumbai. Nandakumar Pawar, Director Environment Cell, Shree Ekvira Aai Pratishthan, Mobile - 9819831683


33

SPECIAL ARTICLE

Sand Mining - A Menace Mr. Nandakumar Pawar The National Conference â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hyderabad

I llegal reclamation aided by the political and bureaucratic class have taken away most of the fishing and boat mooring areas. The poorer section of the fishing community which used to make a living by fishing in the creeks and wetland areas are the hardest hit. Over the last two decades the fishing community has watched helplessly the creek which has turned into a toxic sludge disposal route. Hardly any life forms can survive in the creeks due to the high levels of pollution. The only hope is to wait for the high tide to bring in fish from the deep seas. Increasing pollution have dwindled their catch to single digit numbers. At the time when the fish catch dwindled due to pollution and other factors, some of the fishing community members tried their hand at Sand Mining. Manual excavation of sand

began and though it was a reluctant choice, it did not inflict too much loss. The construction boom of the cities began and rich people introduced the mechanised dredgers that came in and all chaos followed. Those with political backing and muscle power took over the creeks and began recklessly removing sand from the beds of the creek. Suction pumps recklessly gobbled up the creek beds and river beds. Though there is a ban on suction pumps, they are still used in many places and this is known to the authority which

chooses to look the other way for obvious reasons. As a result of this the waters of the creek has started to get murkier and deeper and the fish have just vanished from the area. Areas which were traversed by foot and where one stood in the water and cast their nets became so deep that it was impossible to fish even if one used a boat. Thus sand mining became a menace. A boat is not a privilege for all fishermen. The vast majority used to walk in the creeks and wetlands to fish but with the depth of the water steadily increasing, it has now become impossible to fish anymore. The depth has exceeded over 150 ft at places where one used to wade and fish! The sand miners too, chase the boats away from the area and no one is ready to hear the complaints of the fishing community. Even those with boats cannot place their nets in the water since it is too deep and also the sand miners destroy the nets during their operations. The mudflats along the creeks where the community used to fish for crabs are no longer seen. The mudflats have transformed into sand storage depots. Even manual excavation is done on such a large scale that it has started to reach levels of what mechanised dredgers can do. Let me explain how this is done today. A man dives down from a boat to over 50 ft depth and fills the bucket and is pulled up when he tugs the rope. Without the rope he may never be able to surface! Lives of so many divers are at a risk. To battle the physical discomfort, he is given liquor (illicit liquor) so that his senses are numbed! Thus human life and health are at a very high risk level. In fact human casualties are increasing with time. In one year alone at least 10-12 deaths have taken place in Maharashtra. Floating dead bodies of divers engaged in sand mining has become a regular feature in the creek near Thane. As they belong to the poorest of poor sections, no questions are asked fearing the might of the sand mining lobby. Deaths due to this activity are most likely reported as being caused


34 due to alcoholism! Human life is a cheap commodity for the sand miners. These poor divers have no medical cover, no insurance, no protection of any kind and their death goes unnoticed. The Government recently banned sand mining in CRZ areas; however, this law has only remained on paper. Nothing has changed, the lives of the fishing community has instead worsened. Kms after Kms of creeks are already taken over and despite complaining to the highest authorities absolutely nothing has changed. Sand mining has destroyed our creeks, wetlands and mangrove areas. The fishing community once a proud independent community who for centuries have mastered the art of sustainably exploiting the coast for their survival are facing extinction. Sand mining has taken away everything from them; their livelihood, culture and their land. They have become unwanted aliens in their own motherland. Their women who were home makers are forced to take up jobs as maids in the affluent houses that have ironically come up on their traditional fishing grounds. The men are working as security guards and auto rickshaw drivers. I myself have escaped this due to my education which helped me to see the dangers before it hit me. However the large majority of my brethren who don’t have formal education, the situation is indeed grim. The community is yet to receive any help from the Government despite the CRZ laws repeatedly offering involvement of coastal communities for conservation, nothing has happened at ground level. We cannot fight this mafia. The community suffers from a chronic problem of dependence on politicians for their problems. Each politician takes them for granted and keep cheating them by not giving any relief. In conclusion Why has this been done? What was our crime? Despite protecting the coast and help feed many houses including our own. Who gave others the right to destroy our lives? Questions are many…but there are no answers. I have managed to convey some of the pain of my community to you and hope that the Government understands our plight and comes to our rescue. May our Goddess Ekvira, deity of all fishing community, bless all of you.

Let’s celebrate Wetland Day everyday!! Ms. Shubhda Kushwaha shubhda.shubhs@yahoo.com

9594348821

“Wetlands are at a tipping point. While we have made great strides in conserving and restoring wetlands since the 1950s when we were losing an area equal to half the size of Rhode Island each year, we remain on a downward trend that is alarming.” Wetlands are important for so many reasons. These complex habitats act as giant sponges, soaking up rainfall and slowly releasing it over time. Wetlands also efficiently work for sewage treatment by absorbing chemicals, filtering pollutants and sediments, breaking down suspended solids and neutralizing harmful bacteria. They are also the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth. Unfortunately, wetlands are one of the most undervalued ecosystems. They are often viewed as wasteland. More than 64% of the world’s wetlands have disappeared since 1900. With the view of conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, the Convention on Wetland, Called Ramsar Convention was signed on February 2, 1971 in Iran. It is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. World Wetland Day was celebrated for the first time in 1997. This made an encouraging beginning towards protecting world’s most productive environments and cradles of biological diversity. Since then each year, government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and groups of citizens at all levels of the community have acted to raise public awareness of wetland values and benefits in general and the Ramsar Convention in particular. Every year the Ramsar Secretariat announces the theme for World Wetland Day. The theme for 2016 is “The Wetlands for our Future: Sustainable Livelihoods.” ... page 36


35

FLORA

World of Orchids - Part III Sweedle Cerejo-Shivkar

“The sky shuddered, the clouds groaned, a fork of lightning struck across the sky and then the sky itself exploded.” Ruskin Bond in his Book of Nature explains the onset of monsoon so well. The first showers bring along loud noise of thunders and aroma of soil…. They make the atmosphere fresh, enhance the shades of green and tickle the seeds and the soil dwelling tubers of orchids to sprout. The tubers (which are modified stem) are food reserves for the species to survive in unfavourable conditions for 8 months, which is major part of the year. The leaves prepare food for the current season as well as the soon arriving winters and summers. The monsoon stays over for almost 4 months in our region…. The prominent terrestrial orchids found in Thane in this season are Habenaria, Nervilia, Peristylus and Eulophia; while some of the tree dwelling ones which go into hibernation during the dry months develop leaves just like their ground inhabiting counterparts. The monsoon orchids grow from few centimeters to about 4 feet tall varying from species to species. The first showers experienced around 2nd week of June trigger the early orchids. Nervilias are fore runners amongst the terrestrial orchids. They are unique because the life cycle of Nervilia is reverse.

Butterfly Orchid

Habenaria grandifloriformis

Flowers develop first, followed by the fruits and then comes out the green chlorophyllous part – the leaf. They develop a solitary leaf which has very prominent nerves, hence the name. The next is the “Gramophone orchid” (Porpax reticulata), which produces a red flower. The flower is in a shape of Gramophone - the ancient record player. The pair of leaves is short-lived and what is observed for the major part of the year are the modified stems attached on trunks of large trees. The month of July has its own charm – the earlyHabenarias and first of the Peristylus (Peristylus lawii) are in bloom. Habena (in Latin) means reins which refer to the long straplike petals and the lip. The colour of the flowers ranges between white, cream and green, rarely yellow. Some tiny little orchids like Conchidium grow in monsoon as well…they grow in large numbers on the branches giving appearance of a green blanket. The flowers are minute and cream in colour which look like hundreds of stars descended on earth. One of the most attractive is the Sheput Haabe amri (Habenaria longicorniculata). Amri means orchid in Marathi while the prefix Haabe is used for Habenarias. Sheput means ‘tail’ which stands for the long spur of the flower. It grows at

Habenaria longicorniculata

Leaf of Nervilia


36 elevations above 500 metres. The beautiful, white flowers appear in the months of July-August. They are present on the stalk and lure the insect to sip the nectar and in turn pollinate the flowers. The pollinator is as unique as the orchid – it’s the Hummingbird hawk-moth. The proboscis of this Moth is as long as the spur of the orchid and probably the only pollinator that can reach so far. Orchids steal the show in the monsoon. Very few species flower in heavy rains like the Wild Turmeric, Ground Star Lily, the Mushrooms (they send out their fruiting bodies) and so on, however the monsoon orchids have to stand above these other green friends to advertise their presence. One of the prolific orchids in Thane is the Aashadh Haabe amri (Habenaria grandifloriformis) which grows above the short grasses on the plateaus, popularly called “one-leaved Habenaria” Orchid. The month of August marches in with more Habenarias and Peristylus. Another delicate species called as Kaateri mukut (Malaxis versicolor) with purple or yellow flowers is seen growing on the forest floor. These are found in the semievergreen forest patches. As the monsoon recedes, the beautiful “Butterfly orchid” develops flowers. It is the largest flower among the orchid species of Western Ghats. Lip appears like a butterfly with its wings spread across basking in the sun. These pretty flowers easily attract passerby’s attention. It is called Wagh Chowra in Marathi as the flowers resemble the ‘whiskers of Tiger’. To attract the suitable pollinators, some orchids produce nectar or develop colourful petals while some emanate smell, which could be pleasant or disagreeable. An orchid called as Ugra Habe amri is found in the forests which gives out bad smell - favoured by its visitor. The bee pollinated orchid flowers develop sweet scent, have irregular shape, are present in yellow or white colors, they have a prominent landing platform and presence of nectar guides for the insect. The flowers remain for a few days, waiting for the pollinators and then develop fruit once pollinated. Orchids are found in various habitats from sea level to higher altitudes. They have occupied their niche on plateaus, on forest slopes and the plains. Photo Credit of images - Adesh Shivkar

Let’s celebrate Wetland Day everyday!! contd.... This theme is selected to demonstrate the vital role of wetlands for the future of humanity and specifically their relevance towards achieving the new Sustainable Development Goals. Various anthropogenic activities like encroachment by destruction of mangroves, wood felling by slum dwellers, dumping of construction debris for flattening, devegetation, conversion into aquaculture plots, pollution of water due to industrial and sewage discharge and conversion into agricultural / residential / industrial plots pose serious and direct threats to the wetlands worldwide. The damage can lead to unavoidable calamities which can cause severe losses. The recent floods in Chennai (India), termed as a human-made disaster, created by unrestrained constructions is an example of such adversity. Major portions of wetlands around the city have been sacrificed to accommodate IT corridors. Situations like these demands urgent need of strategies to conserve and protect the wetland ecosystem for better and efficient utilization. The question is, why just a day or week to protect our ecosystem? When wetland forms crucial habitats for diverse group of living forms, isn’t it our responsibility to preserve these natural elements daily? In India, wetlands account for 4.7% of the total geographical area of the country. In a nation of 1.28 billions, can we not work together to conserve this vital landform. Very few realize the range of uses; wetlands provide us for our very own survival. Each individual should therefore understand the social and economic benefits that wetlands provide us and take up different conservation methodologies to safeguard this life-sustaining habitat. The necessitating strategies recommended includes taking up social economic initiatives by involving locals, creating awareness, decreasing the pressure on natural resources of the area and continuous monitoring of biodiversity for monitoring health of habitat. These community based activities can avoid permanent damage to wetlands. The sustainable practices will also help us restoring the wetlands to derive constant and long-term benefits not only for our generation but for future generations too.


37

ENVIRO EDU

GREEN CAREERS

Nature Reader - Writer - Photographer Dr. Prasad Karnik pckarnik@gmail.com 9869767374

In earlier articles, we have delved into the established frontiers of Green Careers. Now, we will introduce few of the new/upcoming opportunities/fields in these careers. In modern times, there are some exciting but not so established, careers that can be taken up to have good prosperous future at least in our country. The most important aspect is the passion for these fields. If anyone has interest and liking for any of the employment options, the sky is the limit, literally. One who enters into these careers may not earn lot of money/fame/physical comforts to begin with; but the future is very positively bright and one can reach the pinnacle after experience and expertise. Nature Reader: Nature lovers who explore natural habitats, if do so with all five receptive sense organs, they would become very good nature readers and those among these, who can write, can be ‘nature writers’; those who use camera or, paint brush/pencil to take snapshot or, create wonderful drawing/painting and become professionals! Nature reading is not taught (though there are some short-term courses run by renowned organisations like BNHS, Mumbai), it has to be inculcated and learnt by oneself. Those who have the insight ‘from within’ are the best nature readers. All they have to do is, complement it with professional and methodical attitude and focused orientation. Henry David Thoreau is often considered the father of

modern American nature writing. Other canonical figures in the genre include Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Burroughs, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, M. Krishnan, and Edward Abbey are the world-known writers who were and are reckoned for their famous literature on nature and environmental issues. ‘Silent Springs’ by Rachel Carson; ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ by Ex US Vice-President Al Gore are recent examples. These books (and movies made on the second one) are best sellers of all times and gave the authors not only name and fame but money, too. In India, apart from the famous Jim Corbett, currently Dr. Anil Avachat - along with his passionate social reforming work, is one such example who writes mainly for children about conservation of nature, wild life and environment. Nature reader can be a A. Nature Writer or B. Nature Photographer. A) Nature Writer: As mentioned earlier, the natural flair for nature and writing should be accompanied by proper approach. One cannot be ‘taught’ to be a ‘nature writer’; rather one can develop him/her-self into one. We can suggest a few broader steps as follows: 1. Subject Introduction: The basics of any natural topic a. Recreation/Reproduction: Repetition is the base of nature. While writing on any issue, recreation of it has to be taken into consideration to start the project. b. Change: Though it appears contradictory to above principle, this is the second principle of nature. All natural sources once reproduced/recreated, change continuously. These aspects have to be taken into consideration and used appropriately in the articles. Description of any natural source or resource is a perfect blend of repeatability and constant change. 2. Subject Description/Elaboration/Content: Good knowledge of the subject; optimum experience and keen interest in writing and nature would make one successful and established nature writer eventually. Though ‘writers’ are not made, the following tips may help amateur and entrant person. i. Passion ii. Proper contents with appropriate quotes and phrases


38 iii. Use of objective and subjective facts iv. Respect and humble approach towards nature v. Responsible writing vi. Apt summary and conclusion. Little elaboration about each of the points mentioned above can be given: i. Already it is mentioned that unless there is passion for nature and nature-related aspects, one cannot venture into any of the ‘Green Careers’, least of all starting a career related to Nature Reading. Initially there would be no big success, money and fame. Perseverance is the key, but passion is the basic need. ii. Bare facts do not entice common reader. Appropriate and timely use of quotes from famous writes, ecologists, philosophers and philanthropists make better impact. Young, local icons like Sarang Kulkarni, Krushnamegh Kunte have already written good books; nice and apt observations and quotes from these can add value to others’ writing. iii. Repeat- bare facts do not entice common reader . Objective and factual details do not become interesting. To add taste- personal, individualistic and subjective- material becomes useful. Ornamental language, though sparsely used, helps make the write-up more acceptable. The only precaution to be taken is, not to mention any non-realistic, fictitious matter at all. iv. Nature writing is mainly aimed at not only informing the readers about natural facts and figures; but to make them more respectful and humble towards Nature. In this respect, the write has to have this attitude and approach inculcated. The feeling should come ‘from within’ of the writer to percolate it to the readers’ perceptions. v. Point no iii above is to be coupled with this one. The write has to be very responsible for every syllable written on paper for the readers. Any tall/illogic claim or, fictitious information discredits the writer and ultimately, takes the readers away from reading any such literature. Personal observations, experiences should be equipped with photographs, literature and other documentation to make these ‘authentic’. Documentation is the crux of the authenticity. vi. Good start, interesting contents must be concluded with nice summary and end of the article. The last punch is so important that reader would remember the write-up forever or, forget the matter instantaneously depending upon the last part. In short, experience, expertise, good and thorough knowledge, nice observations, proper documentations and flair for tangible writing are the main ingredients of a successful and acceptable cuisine in nature writing.

B) Nature Photographer- There are many govt/public/ private institutions and personal guidance classes for photography learning. Nature photography, though, is not ‘taught’ or, ‘learnt’ academically. There are a few local individual photographers; who train those who are interested and enthusiastic to learn nature photography. With any other profession involving nature reading and exploration, nature photographer is ‘born’ and not ‘made’. Of course, just like the first profession discussed above in this article, guidance from expert and experienced photographers in this specialty. The virtues a photographer needs for being nature photographer are: keen and detailed observation; tremendous perseverance; patience and hardship. Unlike any other photography (save for neonatal and child shooting), the objects are real-life, constantly moving/changing, unpredictable and having their own mind/mood/personality. Let it be plants, animals or, inanimate things like water, light, soil, wind etc. Nature photographers have big demand in print media like, newspapers/national-international journals/periodicals/ or, digital media like TV channels/documentaries/films and short films etc. There are number of good artists in this filed locally, domestically and globally. Our magazine ‘Aapla Paryavaran’ publishes work of these local maestros whom readers of this article can approach and contact through us. In a nutshell, nature reading is very satisfying activity and can become a profession if one has passion, dedication, orientation and preparedness to be the professional!


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February 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine February 2016

February 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine February 2016

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