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He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®ee GHe¬eÀce Yeeie 13 ~ DebkeÀ 3 ~ He=ÿmebK³ee 40 cetu³e ª. 40/1 Dee@iemì 2016


yee³ee megiejCe Slaty-breasted Railr

íe³eeef®e$e - ceveer<e kesÀjkeÀj efþkeÀeCe ë [eWefyeJeueer

efkeÀjefcepeer meg³e&he#eer Vigour’s Sunbird

íe³eeef®e$e - Mebleveg kegÀJesmekeÀ efþkeÀeCe ë ceeCeieeJe

Ieej Black Kite íe³eeef®e$e - Deeefcej MesKe efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&


Yeejleer³e nJeeceeve Keel³eeves JesUesJesUer J³ekeÌle kesÀuesues Deboepe keÀOeer Kejs, keÀOeer Keesìs þjJele HeeJemee®eb oCeoCeerle Deeieceve Peeueb Deens. meeje Deemeceble efnjJeeF&ves veìtve Leìtve ³esCeeN³ee meCeeb®³ee mJeeieleemeeþer meppe Peeuee Deens. Dees{s, veoîee, veeues YejYeªve Jenele Deensle. OejCeeb®ee HeeCeermeeþe Jee{lees Deens DeeefCe efvemeiee&®³ee ³ee Jejoeveeves MeslekeÀjer megKeeJeuee Deens. ³eeHeg{®es leerve-®eej ceefnves meCeeb®eer jsue®esue DemeCeej Deens. iesu³ee keÀener oMekeÀebceOes Iejiegleer lemes®e meeJe&peefvekeÀ HeeleUerJej meepejs keÀjC³eele ³esCeeN³ee meCeeb®eb mJeªHe KetHe yeouele iesueb. ieCesMeeslmeJeemeejK³ee GlmeJeebvee lej De#ejMe: J³eeHeejer mJeªHe Deeueb. MekeÌleerDeeefCe mebHeÊeerr®eb peenerj ÒeoMe&ve keÀjC³ee®eb les SkeÀ ceeO³ece®e nesTve iesueb, Hejbleg DeueerkeÀ[®³ee keÀeUele ³ee mJeªHeele mekeÀejelcekeÀ yeoue nesle Demeu³ee®eb peeCeJeleb Deens. DeLee&le®e ³eeJej KetHe ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele pevepeeie=leer nesC³ee®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee efJeefJeOe keÀe³e&¬eÀceebceOetve, GHe¬eÀceebceOetve lemes®e `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe'®³ee ceeO³eceeletve Deecner JesUesJesUer He³ee&JejCemvesner He×leerves meCe meepejs keÀjC³eemebyebOeer DeeJeenve keÀjle Deeuees Deenesle. ³ee DeeJeenveeuee pevemeeceev³eeb®ee DeuHemee keÀe nesF&vee HeCe Òeeflemeeo efceUlees Deens. ueeskeÀeb®eer ceeveefmekeÀlee nUgnUg yeoueles Deens. efvemeiee&®es {emeUles Deejesi³e meeJejC³eemeeþer DeeefCe efvemeiee&uee DeefOekeÀ me#ece Je lebog©mle þsJeC³eemeeþer mebIeefìle Òe³elveeb®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. keÀejCe efvemeiee&®eb {emeUleb Deejesi³e efvemeiee&leerue efJeefJeOe mepeerJe IeìkeÀebmeeþer DeeefCe He³ee&³eeves ceeveJeemeeþer neefvekeÀejkeÀ þjle Deens. ³ee mepeerJeebceOes ceOeceeM³eebmeejKes mebHegCe& peerJeme=<ìermeeþer Del³eble GHekeÀejkeÀ þjCeejs keÀerìkeÀ Deensle. efvemeiee&leerue efJeefJeOe ®e¬eÀebceOes, DevvemeeKeUîeebceOes ceOeceeM³eeb®eb mLeeve DeefleMe³e ceesuee®eb Deens. Dee@iemì ceefnv³ee®³ee 20 leejKesuee ceOegceef#ekeÀe efove meepeje keÀjC³eele ³eslees. jemee³eefvekeÀ keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee DeeflejskeÀer JeeHej, yeoueles nJeeceeve, nJes®eb Òeot<eCe DeeefCe peeieespeeieer GYeejC³eele Deeuesues ceesyeeF&ue ìe@Jeme& ³ee meeN³eeb®ee og<HeefjCeece ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee mebK³esJej neslees Deens. ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee efJeefJeOe Òepeeleer Deensle. HejeieerYeJevee®eb (pollination) Del³eble cenÊJee®eb keÀe³e& ³ee ceOeceeM³ee keÀjle Demeleele. DeMee ³ee ceOeceeM³eeb®eer PeHeeìîeeves keÀceer nesle peeCeejer mebK³ee ne ef®ebles®ee efJe<e³e Peeuee Deens. keÀejCe ³ee®ee Lesì og<HeefjCeece JevemHeleeR®³ee Hegve©lHeeove ÒeefkeÀ³esJej neslees Deens. ceOe DeeefCe cesCe ner J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ¢<ìîee Del³eble cenÊJee®eer GlHeeoves Deensle. ³eeb®³ee efveefce&leerJej osKeerue iebYeerj HeefjCeece nesle Deensle. `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe'®³ee ³ee DebkeÀele DeeHeu³eeuee ceOeceeM³eebmeboYee&le DeY³eemeHetCe& uesKe Jee®eeJe³eeme efceUleerue. ³ee®eyejesyej Deece®eer vesnceer®eer Jee®ekeÀefÒe³e meojs Deensle®e! Jee®eveevegYeJee®ee Deevebo I³eeJee Je DebkeÀemebyebOeer DeeHeues DeefYeÒee³e, Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee keÀUJeeJ³eele. ³esCeejs meJe& meCe DeeefCe efJeMes<ele: ieCesMeeslmeJe meepeje keÀjleevee He³ee&JejCee®eer neveer nesCeej veener ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³eeJeer ner efJevebleer!

mebpe³e peesMeer


A Bee hive : is an efficient industry where individuals and castes are given their assigned duties for maintenance of the hive.

ceOee®es HeesUs ë efpeLes Òel³eskeÀ ceOeceeMeeruee DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee JesieJesieȳee mecegnebvee Heesȳee®³ee mebHetCe& osKeYeeueer®eer keÀeces Jeeìtve efouesueer Demeleele...

meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe

cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer

efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj

keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë meew. keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj English Editor : Prof. Clara Correia

mebHeeove mene³³e ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë Devegue ceveJej ceO³eHe=ÿ ë efiejerMe kesÀlekeÀj mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer Je Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer Þeer efÒebìme&, S-117, Deceji³eeve Fb[mì^erpe efÒecee³emesme efue. Sme. ìer. JekeÀ&Mee@He meceesj, KeesHeì, þeCes (He) ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, KeejìCe jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. mebHeke&À ë 022-25411633 ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

www.paryavaran.org apalaparyavaran@gmail.com vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

Yeeie ë 13 ~ DebkeÀ ë 3

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

meHeÀj ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee peiee®eer ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ceOe mebkeÀueve ë SkeÀ HeejbHeefjkeÀ keÀuee ~ DeYe³e meesceCe jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs ceuee Demes Jeeìles! legcneuee? ~ [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs meJe&meeOeejCe Deew<eOeer ieesȳee ....- ìe@efkeÌmemeerìer ~ [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë ves®ee ~ Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j cegbyeF&peJeU efomeuesues He#eer ~ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

9 10 12 15 16 18 23 24 25

Dance of the Bee I Clara Correia

27

The Sting Factor I Clara Correia

28

The Honeyguide Bird

29

I Clara Correia

5

Fascinating World of Honeybees I Dr. Neelima Kulkarni

30

The Life of the Bee

32

I Shubhda Kushwaha

The Plant Life : Stem I Sweedle Cerejo-Shivkar

33

Festivals of India I Kalpana Malani

35

Paryavaran Shala

36

I Mukul Muzumdar

The Longest Grass .... I Shreelata Menon

37

Silent Green Lover

38

Amazing Nature I Avadesh Kumar

38

Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400 ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800 Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

Yearly : Rs. 400/2 Years : Rs. 800/5 Years : Rs. 1800/-

DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.


5

efJeMes<e uesKe cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea 88981 01901

ceesyeeF&ue ìe@Jeme&ceOetve efveIeCeeN³ee efJeÐegle®egbyekeÀer³e uenjer ns ceOeceeMeeb®eer meKb³ee keÀceer neCs³eeceeieeure hec´eKge keÀejCe ceeveues peeles. efJeÐegle®egbyekeÀer³e uenjer ceOeceeMeeb®³ee Mejerjele Demeuesu³ee `®eybgekeÀe³re j[ej'Jej heejfCeece keÀjleele. l³eecegUs efoMeenerve Peeuesu³ee ceeMee ieeOWeUvte peeleele Je heeÈ s ³ee he³el¥e heense®sele veenelre.

meHeÀj ceOeceeM³ee®b³ee peiee®ee.r.. ceeveJeeves he´ e ®eer v e keÀeUeheemet v e DeY³eemeuesuee Je heeUuesuee SkeÀ cenlJee®ee efkeÀìkeÀ cnCepes ceOeceeMeer. mecetn menpeerJeve Je= Ê eer v es jenCeeN³ee ³ee ef k eÀìkeÀe®es hejeieer Y eJeveeleer u e cenlJe, l³eeb ® ³eeheemet v e efceUCeeje ceOe Je cesCe ³eeb®eer Ghe³egÊeÀlee ns ceeveJeer peerJeveeleerue SkeÀ cenÊJee®es he´ieleer mLeeve Deens. Sef h eme ³ee he´ p eeleer c eOeer u e ceeM³eeb v ee `ceOeceeM³ee' cnCevte Meem$ee³re ¢ä³ee DeeU s Keues peeles. ceOeceeM³ee cnCepes yeejceener ceOe ieesUe keÀjCeeN³ee, mecetneves cesCee®es heesUs yeveJetve l³eele ceOe meeþJeCeeN³ee ceeM³ee. ³ee he´peeleerle SketÀCe ®eJJes®eeUerme Ghepeeleer Deensle. ceOeceeM³ee mecetn menpeerJeve Je=efÊeves jenleele. cesCee®es heesUs le³eej keÀje³e®es Je l³eele HegÀueebceOeerue ceOegjme Je hejeiekeÀCeeheemetve ceOe le³eej keÀje³e®ee ne l³eeb®ee peerJeve¬eÀce. heesȳeeleerue JemeenleerceO³es SkeÀ jeCeer ceeMeer, $eÝlegceeveehe´ceeCes Lees[s vej DeeefCe DemebK³e keÀecekeÀjer ceeMeeb®ee mecetn jenleele. keÀecekeÀjer ceOeceeMeer®³ee hee³eeJej Demeuesu³ee hejeie efheMeJeerceO³es hejeiekeÀCe meeþJet v e hees È ³eeceO³es DeeCeues peeleele.

ceOeceeM³eebcegUs ceesþîee he´ceeCeele hejeieerYeJeve nesles. mecetneves jenCeeN³ee meJe& keÀecekeÀjer ceOeceeMee heesȳeeme GheêJe osCeeN³eeJej obMe keÀªve heesȳee®es j#eCe keÀjleele. Deeefoce keÀeUeheemet v e ceOe, ces C e os C eeN³ee Je hejeieerYeJevee®³ee Glke=Àä keÀeceefiejerves Mesleer, HeÀUyeeiee HegÀueJeCeeN³ee ceOeceeM³ee ceeveJeeuee Devev³emeeOeejCe cenlJee®³ee Deenlse. ceOeceeM³ee vemeleer u e lej ceeveJee®es he= L Jeer l eueeJejer u e DeeqmlelJe Oeeske̳eele ³esF&ue. ceOeceeM³ee®bee Giece SkeÀ keÀes ì er ®eeUer m e ueeKe Je<ee¥ h et J eea efveDeeìeakeÀe veeJee®ee ceOeceeMeer®ee peerJeeMce veJsee[eceO³es meehe[ueusee Deen.s FDeemseevre DeeeCfe Dee@ e f u eiees m eer v e keÀeueKeb [ e®³ee keÀeþeJej ³egjesheceO³es ceOeceeMeer®es peerJeeMce meehe[ues Deensle. DeeefoceeveJe keÀeUeleerue DeveskeÀ iengecbeO³es eYfeÊeeer®fe$eele ceOeceeM³ee®bes e®fe$eekreÀjCe Deens. JewefokeÀ keÀeUeheemetve Yeejleer³eebvee ceOeceeMeer Je efle®eer Ghe³egÊeÀlee ceeefnle nesleer. $eÝiJeso Je DeLeJe&Jesoele ceOeceeMeer®es DemebK³e GuuesKe Deensle. Dee³egJexefokeÀ Deew<eOeeb®³ee evfeec|eleelre Je meJseveeJfeOeelre ceOe ne SkeÀ cenlJee®ee

ceOeceeMee®res keÀener hek´eÀej Sheerme efveDeejefÊeÀkeÀe Sheerme DeC[^sveerHeÀe@ceeame Sheerme mesjsvee Fbef[keÀe Sheerme HeÌueesjerDee Sefheme [e@mee&ìe Sheerme mesjsvee Sheerme keÀesMesJnefvekeÀesJee Sheerme cesueerHesÀje Sheerme efveie´esmeeRkeÌìe Sheerme De[cemeesveer íe³eeef®e$e ë keÀuHesMe leebyeskeÀj

Apis nearctica Apis andreniformis Apis cerana indica Apis florea Apis dorsata Apis cerana Apis koschevnikovi Apis mellifera Apis nigrocincta Apis adamsoni

ner peele Demlebiele heeJeuesueer Deens. keÀeUer íesìer Je=#e ceOeceeMeer Yeejleer³e ceOeceeMeer ueeue íesìer ceOeceeMeer keÀ[îeeJej®eer ceesþer ceOeceeMeer {esueerleerue DeeefMe³eeF& ceOeceeMeer Fb[esvesefMe³eve ceOeceeMeer ³egjesefheDeve ceOeceeMeer efHeÀueerheeF&ve ceOeceeMeer DeeefHe´ÀkesÀleerue ceOeceeMeer

Yeejleele keÀ[îeeJej ceeþ s ceeþ s er heeU s er yeeObeCeeN³ee Sheemre [em@eeì & e, Sheemre HeuÌeejseD r ee Je Sheemre mejsvsee Feb[ f keÀe DeMee leevre peeleer meehe[leele.


IeìkeÀ Demelees. FefpeeqhMe³eve efhej@efce[ceOeerue ef®e$eeceO³es Sefheme ce@efueHesÀje peeleer®³ee ceOeceeMeeb®³ee heesȳee®es DeeefCe l³eeheemetve ceOe efceUefJeu³ee®es ef®e$eerkeÀjCe efomeles. Lees[ke̳eele he´e®eerve keÀeUeheemetve ³ee efkeÀìkeÀe®es cenlJe Je Ghe³egÊeÀlee ceeveJeeuee ceeefnle Deens. ceOeceeMee®reer Mejejrj®evee ceOeceeMeer®es [eskesÀ yeoecee®³ee DeekeÀeje®es Demetve les Je#eeuee ueneveMee ceevesves pees[uesues Demeles. hegef{ue yeepetuee [esȳeeb®³ee Jej ceOeesceOe mheMe&met$es Demeleele. ceOe ®eeìC³eemeeþer cegKeeJe³eJe efJekeÀmeerle Peeuesues Demeleele. Keeue®³ee Deesþe®es ©heeblej Mees<ekeÀ veueerkesÀle Peeuesues Demeles. [eske̳ee®³ee he=ÿYeeieeJej efhemeebmeejKes DeveskeÀ HeÀeìs HegÀìuesues kesÀme Demeleele. ceOe he´eMeveemeeþer ceOeceeMeer HegÀueebJej yemeles lesJne HegÀueeleues hegbkesÀmej ³ee [eske̳eeuee Ieemeues peeleele Je l³eeleerue hejeiekeÀCe ³ee kesÀmeebceO³es De[keÀleele. ogmeN³ee HegÀueeJej ceOeceeMeer iesueer keÀer ns hejeiekeÀCe lesLes m$eerkesÀmejeuee ef®ekeÀìleele Je Devee³emes hejeieerYeJeve nesles. [eske̳eeJej®³ee kesÀmeebceOetve ceOeceeMeer hejeiekeÀCe mebkeÀefuele keÀjles. ns kesÀme HeÀÊeÀ keÀecekeÀjer ceeMeeruee®e Demeleele. ceOeceeMeer®es heg{®es hebKe ceeieerue hebKeehes#ee ceesþs Demeleele Je G[leevee les DeekeÀ[îee®³ee mene³³eeves pees[ues peeleele. ceOeceeMeer ® ³ee Je#eeJej Je hee³eeb J ejner hejeiemebkeÀueveemeeþer kesÀme Demeleele. keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eeb®³ee hee³eebvee ®eeueC³eeJ³eefleefjÊeÀ DeeCeKeerner keÀeces keÀjeJeer ueeieleele. heefnu³ee hee³ee®³ee heesìjer Je leUhee³eeuee kes À me Demeleele. l³ee®³ee mene³³eeves ceOeceeMeer Deeheues [esUs Je Mejer j e®ee heg { ®ee Yeeie mJe®í keÀjles. l³ee®eyejesyej leUhee³eeMeer Demeuesu³ee KeeyseCeelre MejejreJej®es hejeiekeÀCe meeþJeues peeleele. ceOeues hee³e kesÀmeebveer hetCe& Yejuesues Demeleele. Mejerje®³ee Flej YeeieeJejerue hejeiekeÀCe l³eeb®³ee mene³³eeves ieesUe kesÀues peeleele. eflemeN³ee hee³ee®³ee heesìjerJej DemebK³e Kee®ee Demeleele. l³eeceO³es hejeiekeÀCe meeþJeues peeleele. ³ee®e hejeiekeÀCe mebkeÀuevee®³ee hej[îee nesle. ³ee hej[îee HeÀÊeÀ keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eebceO³es®e Demeleele. heesìe®³ee Keeue®³ee lJe®esle cesCee®³ee ie´bLeer Demeleele. ³eeletve m$eJeCeejs cesCe ceeieerue hee³eeves keÀe{tve Iesleues peeles Je obleeJe³eJeekeÀ[s megheto& nesles. ceie l³eeb®³ee mene³³eeves heesȳee®eer oeueves le³eej kesÀueer peeleele. HeÀÊeÀ le©Ce keÀecekeÀjerceOes ³ee cesCeie´bLeer keÀe³e&#ece Demeleele. heesìe®³ee MesJeìer veebieer Demeles. efle®³ee leUeMeer efJe<eie´bLeer Demeles. veebieeruee pees[tve $eerkeÀesCeer DeekeÀeje®eer efheMeJeer Demeles Je efleuee mvee³et pees[uesues Demeleele. veebieer Keghemeleebvee leer Me$et®³ee Mejerjele m¬etÀ meejKeer efheUtve Keghemeueer peeles. l³eecegUs leer mejU yeensj keÀe{lee ³esle veener. veebieer Keghemeu³eeJej efheMeJeerle pecee Peeuesues efJe<e efheMeJeeruee pees[uesu³ee mvee³egb®³ee DeekegbÀ®eve-he´mejCeecegUs Me$et®³ee Mejerjele {keÀueues peeles. veebieer legìueer lejer efle®³ee meesyele ner efJe<ee®eer efheMeJeer Je leeruee pees[uesues mvee³eg keÀece keÀjle®e jenleele Je peemleerle peemle efJe<e {keÀuee³e®es keÀece keÀjleele.

ceOeceeMee®res peeJreve®e¬eÀ ceOeceeM³ee `mecent menpeeJreve JeÊ=ee'rves jenleele. mecenteves ehfe{îeeveedHfe{îee jenleevee ³ee ieìeSJe{s meecetefnkeÀ Jele&ve pevegkeÀer³e heeleUerhe³e¥le heesnes®eues Deens. SkeÀe JemeenleerceO³es SkeÀ jeCeer ceeMeer, $eÝlegceeveehe´ceeCes Lees[s vej DeeeCfe melele yeouelee jenCeeje keÀecekeÀjer ceeMee®bee mecent DeMeer heeÈ s ³ee®eer j®evee Demeles. peeeflehe´ceeCes heesȳee®³ee jeCeer, vej, DeeefCe keÀecekeÀjer ceeMeeb®eer mebK³ee yeoueles. heCe ³ee ÞesCeerceO³es menmee yeoue nesle veener. jeCeer ceeMeer ë jeCeer ceeMeer Flejebhes#ee DeekeÀejeves ceesþer Demeles. jeCeer ceeMeer®es Deeheu³ee heesȳeeleerue meJe& ceeMeebJej hetCe& efve³eb$eCe Demeles. efJeMeerä he´keÀej®eer mebhe´sjkesÀ mees[tve keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee Je l³eeb®³ee keÀeceeJej jeCeer ceeMeer efve³eb$eCe þsJeles. DeveskeÀ vej ceeM³eebMeerr cewLegve keÀªve jeCeer ceeMeer Deeheu³ee Me¬geÀkeÀeesMfekeÀsceO³es Me¬geÀpelbet meeþJevte þJsele.s vej ceeM³ee®bee efceLegveeveblej ce=l³et neslees. jeCeer ceeMeer meeþJeuesu³ee Meg¬eÀpeblet heemegve HeÀefuele Je DeHeÀefuele Deb[er Ieeueles. jeCeer ceeMeer®es Dee³eg<³eYej ns SkeÀ®e keÀe³e& Demeles. DeHeÀueerle Deb[îeebheemetve SkeÀiegefCele iegCemet$ee®es vej lej HeÀueerle Deb[îeebheemetve efÜiegefCele iegCemet$eeb®³ee jeCeer DeeefCe keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee le³eej nesleele. heesȳeeleerue ceeM³eeb®eer mebK³ee Jee{u³eeveblej jeCeer ceeMeer Je keÀener keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee heefnues heesUs mees[tve peeleele Je ogmejs heesUs le³eej keÀjleele. heefnu³ee heesȳeele keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee je@³eue pesueer KeeT Ieeuetve veJeerve jeCeer ceeMeer le³eej keÀjleele. efvekeÀeceer Peeuesu³ee jeCeerJej keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee nuuee keÀªve ceeªve ìekeÀleele. vej ceeM³ee ë ³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eeb®³ee leguevesle keÀceer Demeles. jeCeer ceeMeerves Ieeleuesu³ee DeHeÀueerle Deb[îeeletve vej ceeM³eeb®eer evfeec|eleer nelse.s Je³eele Deeu³eeJej jeCeer ceeMeeyrejeysej meceeiece keÀjCes ns SkeÀ®e keÀece efvemeiee&ves l³eebvee efoues Deens. meceeieceeveblej vej ceeM³ee ceªve peeleele. keÀecekeÀjer ceeMee ë jeCeevres Ieeleueus³ee HeÀueelre De[ b îeehbeemevte keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee le³eej nesleele. cesCeeheemetve heesUs Je heesȳee®³ee keÀesþ[îee yeveJeCes, hejeiekeÀCe ieesUe keÀjCes, ceOe le³eej keÀjCes, jeCeer ceeMeerves Ieeleuesueer Deb[er heesȳee®³ee keÀesþ[erle þsJeCes, Deb[îeeletve yeensj he[uesu³ee Deȳeebvee he´Leceleë je@³eue pesueer KeeT IeeueCes Je veblej HeÀÊeÀ ceOe DeeefCe hejeiekeÀCe Kee³euee IeeueCes, p³ee Deȳeebheemetve jeCeer ceeM³ee le³eej nesleele l³eebvee Je jeCeer ceeMeeuree Kee³euee oCs³eemeeþer je³@eue peuseer le³eej keÀjCe,s heeÈ s ³ee®es leeheceeve efve³eb$eerle þsJeCes, heesUs mJe®í þsJeCes, DeeieblegkeÀ Me$etJej nuuee keÀjCes ner meJe& keÀeces keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee keÀjleele. l³eeb®eer heesȳeeleerue mebK³ee meJee&le peemle Demeles. keÀecekeÀjer ceeMeeb®es Je³e pemes DeefOekeÀ nesF&ue lemes l³eeb®es keÀece yeouele peeles. veJ³ee keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eeb®³ee Mejerjele Demeuesu³ee ie´bLeerveer je@³eue pesueer yeveefJeC³ee®es keÀece LeebyeefJeu³eeveblej l³ee heesȳeeceOeerue veJ³ee


íe³eeef®e$e ë ³eMe ieeuee

keÀesþ[îee yeebOeC³eeme cesCe le³eej keÀjleele. cesCe yeveefJeC³ee®es keÀece pecesveemes Peeu³eeveblej l³ee ceOe ieesUe keÀjCes DeeefCe hejeiekeÀCe DeeCeCes, heesȳee®es j#eCe keÀjCes DeMeer keÀeces keÀjleele. Dee³eg<³ee®³ee MesJeìhe³e¥le ceie l³ee ³ee keÀeceeJ³eefleefjÊeÀ keÀener keÀece keÀjerle veenerle. ceOeceeM³eeb®ee vee®e ë keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee DeVe ieesUe keÀjC³eemeeþer heesȳeeyeensj he[u³eeveblej efJeMeerä he´keÀej®es vee®e keÀªve hejmhejebvee DeVe DeeefCe heeCeer keÀesþu³ee efoMesuee DeeefCe efkeÀleer ueebye Deens ns meebieleele. DeVe heesȳee®³ee peJeU Demesue lej `Jeleg&UekeÀej vee®e' DeeefCe ueebyeJej Demesue lej `Je@ieue vee®e' DeMeer l³eeb®eer mebosMeJenvee®eer he×le Deens. Devve ieesUe keÀªve DeeCeuesu³ee ceeM³eebkeÀ[tve les heesȳeele vesC³eemeeþer veJ³eeves keÀeceeuee ueeieuesu³ee ceeM³eebmeeþer Jesieȳee he×leer®ee `LejLejeì vee®e' kesÀuee peelees. ceOee®es heesUs ne jeCeer, DeveskeÀ keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee DeeefCe Lees[s vej ³eeb®ee SkeÀef$ele mecetn cnCetve DeeqmlelJeele Demelees. SkeÀoe veJ³ee jeCeer ceeMeer®es HeÀueve Peeues cnCepes heesȳeeleerue keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee DeeefCe jeCeer ceeMeer veJes heesUs yeebOee³euee yeensj he[leele. veJ³ee heesȳee®eer peeiee keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eebveer DeeOeer®e MeesOetve þsJeuesueer Demeles. veJ³ee peeiesJej Deeu³ee Deeu³ee l³ee veJ³ee heesȳeemeeþer cesCee®³ee keÀesþ[îee yeebOee³euee Iesleele. heesUs le³eej nesle Demeleevee veJ³ee keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eeb®es Glheeove osKeerue ®eeuet nesles. DeMee leNnsves veJeerve peerJeve¬eÀceeme meg©Jeele nesles. meecetefnkeÀ efkeÀìkeÀ me=äerceO³es Demes Jele&ve Flej peeleeRceO³es Dee{Ule veener. Le[ b ehreemevte ye®eeJe ë 10 DeMbe meeWìfie[ s´ he#see keÀceer leeheceeveeme ceOeceeM³ee G[Ces LeebyeJeleele DeeefCe heesȳee®³ee ceO³eJeleea YeeieeJej ieesUe nesleele. Leb[erceO³es SkeÀ$e ³esC³ee®³ee ³ee he´keÀejecegUs DeeefCe ìhh³eeìhh³eeves kesÀuesu³ee neue®eeueercegUs jeCeer ceeMeer YeesJeleer®es leeheceeve 27 DebMe meWìerie´s[ he³e¥le þsJeues peeles. ³ee leeheceeveeme jeCeer ceeMeer Deb[er Ieeuet MekeÀle veener. Deb[er IeeueC³eemeeþer heesȳee®es leeheceeve 34 DebMeehe³e¥le Jee{Ces DeeJeM³ekeÀ Demeles. keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee melele heesȳee®³ee Deeleerue YeeieekeÀ[tve yeensjerue YeeieekeÀ[s efHeÀjle jeefnu³eeves keÀesCel³eener ceeMeerme Deme¿e Leb[erme leeW[

ÐeeJes ueeiele veener. ceOeceeM³ee ieesUe Peeuesu³ee mecetne®³ee yee¿e keÀ[s®es leeheceeve 8 les 9 DebMe meWìerie´s[ Demeles. yeensjerue leeheceeve pesJe{s Leb[ lesJe{s SkeÀ$e Deeuesu³ee ceeM³eeb®es Lej Jee{le peeleele. Leb[er®³ee efoJemeele meeþJetve þsJeuesuee ceOe Mejerje®es leeheceeve efìkeÀJetve þsJeC³eemeeþer ceeM³ee Jeehejleele. melele Ke®e& kesÀuesu³ee ceOeecegUs heesȳee®es Jepeve keÀceer nesle peeles. Leb[er®³ee leerJe´lesvegmeej leerme les meÊej ìkeÌkesÀ ceOe Ke®e& kesÀuee peelees. hejeieerYeJeve ë Sefheme kegÀueeleerue ceeM³ee efJeefJeOe HegÀueeleerue ceOe ieesUe keÀjleele. l³ee®eyejesyej DeveskeÀ HegÀueeb®es hejeieerYeJeve ceOeceeM³eebcegUs nesles. Sefheme cesefueHesÀje hejeieerYeJeveemeeþer Ghe³egÊeÀ þjueer Deens. J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ he×leerves Sefheme cesefueHesÀje®³ee Jemeenleer efhekeÀeceO³es HegÀues ³esC³ee®³ee keÀeUele þsJeu³eeme GlhevveeceO³es leerme ìkeÌkesÀ Jee{ efomeueer Deens. DeypeeJeOeer [e@ueme&®es keÀe³e& ceOeceeM³ee ceesHeÀle keÀjerle Demeleele. ceOe ë ceOe ns HegÀueeceOeerue ceOegjmeeJej Mejerjeleerue efJekeÀjeb®eer he´ef¬eÀ³ee nesTve heesȳeeleerue keÀesþ[îeeceO³es meeþJetve þsJeuesuee DeVemeeþe Deens. Sefheme he´peeleer®³ee meJe&®e ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee heesȳeeleerue ceOee®ee Jeehej DeveskeÀ Je<ex ceeCetme keÀjerle Deeuesuee Deens. Sefheme cesefueHesÀje DeeefCe Sefheme mesjsvee ³ee ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee heesȳeeleerue ceOee®es J³eeheejer Glheeove Iesleues peeles. cesCe ë le©Ce Je³ee®³ee keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eeb®³ee heesìeJejerue Keb[eceOetve cesCe le³eej nesles. ³ee cesCee®ee heesȳeeceO³es veJ³ee keÀesþ[îee le³eej keÀjCes, p³ee keÀesþ[îeeceO³es Deb[er meeþJetve þsJeueer Deensle l³eeb®eer leeW[s yebo keÀjCes DeeefCe heesȳeeb®eer og©mleer keÀjCes ³eemeeþer neslees. hejeiekeÀCe ë keÀecekeÀjer ceOeceeMeer®³ee hee³eeJej Demeuesu³ee hejeie

íe³eeef®e$e ë Devegue ceveJej


8 ehfeMeJeecreO³es hejeiekeÀCe meeþJevte heeÈ s ³eeceO³es DeeCeues peeleele. De[ b îeeceOevte yeensj he[uesu³ee Deȳeebvee he´efLeveeb®ee m$eesle cnCetve hejeie Kee³euee efoues peeleele. Sefheme cesefueHesÀje DeeefCe Sefheme mesjsvee ³eeb®³ee heesȳeebceOeerue hejeie ieesUe keÀªve l³eeb®ee Jeehej DeVeeyejesyej®e kesÀuee peelees. he´esheesefueme ë Pee[eb®³ee {esu³eeceO³es heesUer yeebOeCeeN³ee ceOeceeM³ee Pee[eb®³ee jsefPeveheemetve he´esheesefueme veeJee®ee SkeÀ ef®ekeÀì êJe yeveJeleele. ³ee®³ee mene³³eeves heesUs Pee[euee ef®ekeÀìJeues peeles. heesȳeeuee he[uesu³ee Yesiee yegpeJeC³eemeeþer he´esheesefueme Jeehejues peeles. p³ee Pee[eJej cegbi³ee Deensle l³eeb®ee GheêJe heesȳeeme nesT ve³es ³eemeeþer heesȳeepeJeU ³esC³ee®³ee ceeiee&le he´esheesefueme hemeªve þsJeues cnCetve cegbi³ee ³ee ef®ekeÀì êJeeJej De[ketÀve heesȳeehe³e¥le ³esle veenerle. mebj#eCe ë heesȳeeme GheêJe osCeeN³eeJej meJe& keÀecekeÀjer ceOeceeM³ee obMe keÀªve nuuee keÀjleele Je Deeheu³ee heesȳee®es j#eCe keÀjleele. nuuee keÀjleevee HesÀj@ceesve iebOe êJ³ee®³ee mene³³eeves met®evee efoueer peeles. l³eecegUs SkeÀe®e JesUer meJe& keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³ee GheêJeer Me$etJej nuuee ®e{Jeleele. Me$et®³ee Mejerjele veebieer IegmeJetve efJe<e mees[ues peeles. veebieer pej Me$eg®³ee Mejerjeletve efveIeeueer veener lej leer legìles Je leer®³eeyejesyej heesìe®es Keb[YeeiemegOoe efveIetve Deeu³eeves keÀecekeÀjer®ee ce=l³et Dees{Jelees. jeCeer ceOeceeMeer®³ee hejmhejeJejerue nuu³ee®³ee JesUer jeCeer ceeMeer®eer veebieer nl³eejemeejKes keÀece keÀjle.s Sehfeme mejsvsee ceOeceeMee®reer hee´lfekeÀej keÀjC³ee®eer he×le JesieUer®e Deens. Deeheu³ee heesȳeeJej ogmejs keÀerìkeÀ Deeu³ee®es efomelee®e meJe& keÀecekeÀjer ceeMee DeeieblegkeÀ keÀerìkeÀe®³ee DebieeJej OeeJetve peeleele. keÀecekeÀjer ceeM³eeb ® es mvee³et pees j eves LejLejleele.DeMee LejLejeìecegUs DeeieblegkeÀ keÀerìkeÀe®³ee DebieeJej OeeJetve peeleele. keÀecekeÀjer ceeMeeb®es mvee³et peesjeves LejLejleele.DeMee LejLejeìecegUs DeeieblegkeÀ efkeÀìkeÀeYeesJeleer®es leeheceeve SJe{s Jee{les keÀer l³ee®es cejCe Dees{Jeles. veJ³ee mebMeesOeveevegmeej DeeieblegkeÀ keÀerìkeÀeYeesJeleer leeheceeveeyejesyej keÀeye&ve [e³eDee@keÌmeeF&[ Jee³et®es he´ceeCe keÀceeueer®es Jee{u³ee®es Dee{Utve Deeues Deens. Jee{uesu³ee leeheceeveecegUs DeeefCe Dee@eqkeÌmepeve®³ee keÀcelejlescegUs keÀerìkeÀ cejCe heeJelees. heesȳeeceO³es Deeuesueer veJeKeer jeCeer eEkeÀJee efvekeÀeceer Peeuesu³ee jeCeer®ee ³ee®e he×leerves efvekeÀeue ueeJeuee peelees. ³ee he´keÀejeme `yee@eEueie o keÌJeerve' Demes cnCeleele. ceOegceef#ekeÀe heeueve ë Sefheme cesefueHesÀje DeeefCe Sefheme mesjsvee Fbef[keÀe

íe³eeef®e$e ë mebpe³e oeles

³ee oesve ceOeceeM³ee heeUC³eemeeþer ceOegceef#ekeÀe heeueve keÀjCeeN³eebceO³es he´efmeOo Deensle. DeeOegefvekeÀ keÀeUele ceOeceeM³ee pesLes hejeieerYeJeve keÀjC³ee®eer iejpe Deens lesLes IesTve peeC³eemeeþer ³eesi³e Deensle. DeMeecegUs Glheeove DeefOekeÀ efceUles. keÀvee&ìkeÀ jep³eeceO³es met³e&HetÀue MesleerceO³es ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee Hesìîee J³eeheejer lelJeeJej þjeJeerkeÀ Yee[s IesTve þsJeu³ee peeleele. MesleerJ³eefleefjÊeÀ ne pees[Oeboe nesT MekeÀlees. ceOeceeMeecreOeeure mehbe<s´eCe ë eJfeeJfeOe jemee³eevfekeÀ heoeLe& DeeeCfe ieObeeJej ceOeceeMeer®es mebhe´s<eCe DeJeuebyetve Deens. jeCeer ceeMeer®³ee Mejerjeletve yeensj mees[u³ee peeCeeN³ee iebOeecegUs keÀecekeÀjer ceeMee Deeheues heesUs MeesOetve keÀe{leele. SkeÀe heesȳeeleerue ceOeceeM³ee ogmeN³ee heesȳeele iesu³eeme l³eeb®eer nl³ee nesles. cees y eeF& u e®es heef j Ceece ë ceesyeeF&ue ìe@Jeme&ceOetve efveIeCeeN³ee efJeÐegle®egbyekeÀer³e uenjer ns ceOeceeMeeb®eer mebK³ee keÀceer nesC³eeceeieerue he´cegKe keÀejCe ceeveues peeles. efJeÐegle®egbyekeÀer³e uenjer ceOeceeMeeb®³ee Mejerjele Demeuesu³ee `®egbyekeÀer³e j[ej' Jej heefjCeece keÀjleele. l³eecegUs efoMeenerve Peeuesu³ee ceeM³ee ieeWOeUtve peeleele Je heesȳeehe³e¥le heesnes®ele veenerle. OeeskeÀe ë heeeq½eceel³e ceOegceef#ekeÀe heeueve GÐeesieeceO³es SkeÀ OeeskeÀe meO³ee GlheVe Peeuee Deens. JejJej heenlee SkeÀeSkeÀer ceOeceeM³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀceer nesles DeeefCe SkeÀe heesUs efìkeÀJetve þsJeC³eemeeþer pesJe{³ee ceeM³eeb®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens l³eentve keÀceer ceeM³ee jeefnu³ee cnCepes heesUs®e veeefnmes nesles. meve 2007 ceO³es leerme les meÊej ìkeÌkesÀ ceOeceeMeeb®eer heesUer veeefnMeer Peeueer. Dehegjer he´efLeves, Mesleer keÀjC³eeceOeerue yeoue eEkeÀJee Deefveeq½ele nJeeceeve DeMeer ³ee®eer leerve keÀejCes meebefieleueer peeleele. GÊej DecesefjkesÀle megOoe ceOeceeMeeb®eer mebK³ee SJe{er keÀceer keÀOeer®e Peeuesueer veJnleer. ³ee he´keÀejeme `keÀe@ueveer keÀesue@hme ef[meDee@[&j' Demes veeJe efceUeues. ne he´keÀej veJee Deens keÀer Flej yee¿e IeìkeÀebcegUs Peeuee ³ee®ee DeY³eeme Depetve DehetCe& Deens. heCe ne SkeÀ ue#eCe mecetn (eEme[^esce) Demetve Deepeej veener Demes efomeles. leeheceeveeleerue yeoue, Mesleerleerue efkeÀ[ ceejC³eemeeþer jemee³eveerkeÀ efJe<eejer êJeeb®eer HeÀJeejCeer ³eebcegUs ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee mebK³esceO³es Ieì nesT ueeieueer Deens. ceOeceeM³ee veä Peeu³ee lej ceesþîee he´ceeCeeJej nesCeejs hejeieerYeJevee®es vewmee|iekeÀ keÀe³e& yebo he[sue Je MesleerefhekesÀ DeeefCe HeÀueeslheeove nesCeej veener. ceeveJee®eer DeVee®eer Jee{leer iejpe DeeefCe Glheeove ³eeble he®´eb[ leHeÀeJele efvecee&Ce nesTve Ye³ebkeÀj DeeCeeryeeCeer Dees{Jesue. efvemeiee&leerue DeVemeeKeUer ® ee cenlJee®ee og J ee ³ee ceOeceeM³ee Deens l e. l³eeb ® es Devev³emeeOeejCe cenlJe Demevtener ceeveJeekeÀ[vte ouge#&e nelse Deen,s ner e®Eele®seer yeeye Deens.


9

efJeMes<e uesKe

ceOe mebkeÀueve ë SkeÀ HeejbHeefjkeÀ keÀuee

DeYe³e meesceCe

JeveJeemeer p³ee keÀ[îeebJej Deei³ee ceOeceeMee yemeleele DeMee keÀ[îeeb®eer heenCeer keÀªve ³esleele. ³ee efþkeÀeCeer ceOeceeMeeb®³ee JemeenleeR®eer mebK³ee, l³eeb®ee DeekeÀej, heesȳeeb®eer Gb®eer, HegÀues,Pee[s jenC³eemeeþer peeiee ³ee®eer heenCeer kesÀueer peeles. ³ee Devegmeej meJe& heesUer keÀe{C³eemeeþer ueeieCeejs meeefnl³e cnCepes IeeWie[îee, oesj, Jeslee®eer efMe[er, Yeeb[er, [yes, efMeOee Je Flej ieesäeR®eer pegUJee pegUJe kesÀueer peeles.

Deei³ee ceOeceeM³ee Deboepes 100 ue#e Je<ee¥ h et J eea he= L Jeer J ej ef v ecee& C e Peeu³ee Demes cnCeleele. YeejleeceOes ¿ee ceOeceeM³eebheemetve ceOe keÀe{C³ee®³ee heejbheefjkeÀ he×leer®eer ef®e$es, ceO³ehe´osMeeleerue YeerceyesìkeÀe ³esLeerue iegnsle keÀe{uesueer Dee{Uleele. ner ef®e$es Deboepes FmeJeer meve hegJe& 11000-15000 ¿ee keÀeueeJeOeerle keÀe{uesueer Deensle. heejbheefjkeÀ ceOe mebkeÀueve keÀjC³ee®eer he×le Jeef[ueebkeÀ[tve cegueekeÀ[s DeMeer efhe{îeevedefhe{îee meb¬eÀefcele Peeueer Deens. Deei³ee ceOeceeM³ee meb h et C e& Yeejleele meehe[leele. ¿ee ceOeceeM³ee Gb®e keÀ[skeÀheejer, pebieue, MesleebceOeerue Pee[ebJej, Gb®e Fceejleer, ceboerjs Je OejCes DeMee efþkeÀeCeer SkeÀ ceesþs heesUs yeebOeleele. ¿ee he´ceeCes DeveskeÀ Jemeenleer SkeÀe®e efþkeÀeCeer heesUer le³eej keÀjleele. l³eeb®eer mebK³ee keÀOeer keÀOeer 200 les 300 he³e¥le peeT MekeÀles. ¿ee Jemeenleer Je<ee&letve oesve les leerve JesUe l³eeb®³ee Gojef v eJee& n emeeþer mLeueeb l ej keÀjleele. mLeueeblej kesÀu³eeJej efjkeÀeces heesUs keÀeueeblejeves Keeueer he[tve peeles Je l³ee peeieer heesȳee®es þmes efMeuuekeÀ jenleele. ceOeceeMee mLeueeblej keÀªve hetJeea pesLes heesUs yeebOeues nesles lesLes peeleele. l³ee ef þ keÀeCeer ef M euuekeÀ Demeues u ³ee het J eea ® ³ee

þMeeb®ee Jeehej keÀªve Deeheues heesUs yeebOeleele. ¿ee heesȳeeletve Deboepes 4-5 efkeÀuees eEkeÀJee keÀOeer keÀOeer 20 efkeÀueeshe³e¥le ceOe efceUt MekeÀlees. heejbheefjkeÀ he×le : keÀ[îeeJej Jemeueus³ee Jemeenleer p³ee keÀ[îeebJej Deei³ee ceOeceeMee yemeleele DeMee keÀ[îeeb®eer JeveJeemeer heenCeer keÀªve ³es l eele. ³ee ef þ keÀeCeer ceOeceeM³eeb ® ³ee JemeenleeR ® eer meb K ³ee, l³eeb ® ee DeekeÀej, heesȳeeb®eer Gb®eer, HegÀues, Pee[s jenC³eemeeþer peeiee ³ee®eer heenCeer kesÀueer peeles. ³eevegmeej meJe& heesUer keÀe{C³eemeeþer ueeieCeejs meeefnl³e cnCepes IeeWie[îee, oesj, Jeslee®eer efMe[er, Yeeb[er, [yes, efMeOee Je Flej ieesäeR®eer pegUJee pegUJe kesÀueer peeles. keÀ[îeebJej keÀece keÀjC³eemeeþer meeOeejCe 35 les 70 ueeskeÀ ueeieleele. meeefnl³e pecee Peeu³eeJej ner ìesUer meJe& Jemlet heeþerJej Ies T ve keÀ[îeekeÀ[s jJeevee nes l es Je les L es hees®eu³eeJej cegkeÌkeÀece keÀjles. ogmeN³ee efoJeMeer heneìs®³ee JesUer keÀener peCe keÀ[îeeKeeueer peeleele Je Oetj keÀjC³eeme megjJeele keÀjleele. ne Oetj Jej Deeu³eeveblej Jeslee®eer efMe[er Keeueer mees[ueer peeles. ³ee efMe[erJeªve ceOe keÀe{Ceeje Heeve 17 Jej...


10

jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs 93225 07685

leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeueeb®³ee 1800 Òepeeleer cenemeeiejeb®³ee leìer³e pewJemecegneb®ee efnmmee Deensle. leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeueebleerue DeveskeÀ Òepeeleer DeekeÀejeves Je l³eeb®³ee pewJeYeejeceO³es Òe®eb[ Deensle. l³eeleerue mejie@ m ece peeleer ® ³ee Mew J eeuee®³ee DeeOfeke³ÌeeceU g s mejiem@ees meeiejeuee l³ee®es veeJe ÒeeHle Peeues Deens. meJe&®e leHeefkeÀjer MeJweeueecbeO³es Dee³ee[sevre®es ÒeceeCe ue#eCee³re Demeu³eeves J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ HeeleUerJej Dee³ee[sevre ecfeUJeC³eemeeþer l³ee®bee JeeHej keÀsuee peelee.s

leìer³e pewJemecetn uesKeebkeÀ 14 Jee

meeiejer HeejfmembLelseeure DeeOfeJeemee®bes JeewJfeO³e ³eeHetJeea®³ee uesKeebkeÀeble efJe<eo kesÀues nesles. ³ee DeefOeJeemeebHewkeÀer Jewueeb®eueer #es$eebmebyeOeer®eer ceeefnleer iesu³ee keÀener uesKeebkeÀeble efoueer nesleer. Deelee keÀener uesKeebkeÀebceOetve efvecve-Jesueeb®eueer #es$eeHeemetve DeveeJe=Êe cenemeeiejer (open ocean) #es$eebkeÀ[erue DeefOeJeeme Je lesLeerue pewJemecegneb®eer DeesUKe keÀªve IesT. DeefOekeÀlece peerJeve cenemeeiejebleerue leìer³e #es$eele SkeÀJeìuesues Demeles. ³ee DeefOeJeemeeuee efvecve-Jesueeb®eueer Jee leìer³e meeiejer #es$e cnìues peeles. ns #es$e YetKeb[ ceb®ee®ee 200 ceerìj KeesueerHe³e¥le®ee Yeeie J³eeHeles. peerJeMeem$e%eebveer ³ee #es$eeceO³es leerve mekeWÀêer (concentric) #es$es JeefCe&uesueer Deensle. l³eeHewkeÀer DeJeJesueeb®eueer (infralittoral) #es$e efve®elece Deesnesìer js<esKeeueerue keÀener ceerìj KeesueHe³e¥le Hemejuesues Demetve l³eele MewJeeueeb®es DeefOeke̳e Dee{Ules. l³ee®³eeKeeueer DemeCeeN³ee Jesueeb®eueer-HeefjIesj (ciralittoral) #es$eele DeJe=ble DeLeJee mLeeveye× (sessile) ÒeeC³eeb®es DeefOeke̳e Demeles lej ³eener #es$eeKeeueer Demeues u ³ee ef v ecveJes u eeb ® eueer (sublittoral) #es$eeuee HetCee&Lee&ves DeHeleìer³e #es$e cnCelee ³esles. DeHeleìer³e DeLeJee leìer³e (Jejerue leervener #es$es SkeÀef$ele Oeªve) #es$eele YetKeb[ ceb®ee®ee meeJekeÀeMe Kees u e nes l e peeCeeje Yeeie Je l³eeJejerue peuemlebYee®ee meceeJesMe neslees. Jesueeb®eueer #es$eeMeer ne DeKeb[ Demeu³eeves l³eeJej Ke[keÀeU, jslee[ eEkeÀJee HebkeÀce³e De®íeove Demeles. ieg©lJeekeÀ<e&Ceeves peerJeeb®eer ce=le Mejerjs ³ee DeJemeeoele Hees®etve l³eeb®es efJeIeìve nesle jenles. YetKeb[-ceb®eeJejerue HeeC³eele ueeìe

(p³ee ÒeeceKg³eeves JeeN³ee®³ee peejseceU g s HeeC³ee®³ee He=ÿYeeieeJej yeveleele), Yejleer Deesnesìes®eer Deeb o es u eves (p³eele meb H et C e& peuemleb Y ee®eer neue®eeue nesles) DeeefCe ÒeJeen ³eeb®³eecegUs KeUeU efvecee&Ce neslees Je leUeleerue DeJemeeoele cegkeÌle nesCeejs peerJeeOeej #eej HeeC³eele Deieoer He=ÿYeeieeHe³e¥le efcemeUues peeleele. #eejeb®eer GHeueyOelee, leHeceeve ³eecegUs leìer³e pewJemecetn meJee&efOekeÀ efJeefJeOelee Je Ievelee OeejCe keÀjleele. DeveeJe=Êe cenemeeieje®³ee (open ocean) efveleU HeeC³eele met³e&ÒekeÀeMe peJeUHeeme 1000 efceìj Keesue Hees®ele Demeuee lejer 200 efceìj Kees u eer H e³e¥ l e®e ue#eCeer ³ e Tpee& o e³ekeÀ ÒekeÀeMeHebkeÌleer Hees®et MekeÀleele. leìer³e #es$eeleerue HeeCeer l³ee®³ee KeUeUecegUs DeefOekeÀ ie{tU Demeles Je l³eele ÒekeÀeMee®³ee Tpee&oe³ekeÀ HebkeÌleer kesÀJeU 50 efceìj KeesueerHe³e¥le®e Hees®et MekeÀleele. ³ee ÒekeÀeMe Gpex®ee JeeHej keÀªve HeeoHe HueJekes À lemes ® e leUeuee mLeeveye× DemeCeejer MewJeeues ÒekeÀeMe-mebMues<eCeeÜejs Devve yeveJeleele. ³ee #es$eeleerue þeskeÀ ÒeeLeefcekeÀ GlHeeove (gross primary production) DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeves HejesHepeerJeer peerJeeb®es JewefJeO³e Je Ieveleener Deef O ekeÀ Demeles . mJe³eb H ees < eer Je HejHees<eeR®eer mebK³ee DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeves leUeMeer le³eej nesCeeN³ee efJeIeìveMeerue meWêer³e HeoeLee¥b®es ÒeceeCe DeefOekeÀ Demeles.³eecegUs ce=leesHepeerJeeR®es DeeefCe efJeIeìvekeÀejeR®es JewefJeO³e Je Ievelee DeefOekeÀ Demeles. SkebÀojerle®e peerJe-Yet-jmee³eve ®e¬eÀeb®eer ieleer, peerJeeb®³ee Dee³eg®e&¬eÀeb®eer ieleer, Sket À Ce peer J eYeej (biomass) DeMee meJe& IeìkeÀeb®eer meyeuelee leìer³e pewJemecetneuee


11 cenemeeiejeleerue meJee&le cenÊJee®ee yeveefJeleele. ceO³eJeusee®beueer Je DeJeJeusee®beueer #e$seelbeeure MeJweeuee®beer eJfeKejgCeer l³eevbee GHeueyOe met³e&ÒekeÀeMee®³ee Òeleervegmeej Peeuesueer Dee{Ules. ³eeKesjerpe GOeëmleje®³ee ÒekeÀejeJej ³ee Mewjeueeb®³ee DeekeÀejelener HeÀjkeÀ neslees. HebkeÀce³e DeOeëmlej MewJeeueeb®³ee Jee{eruee Deefpeyeele Hees<ekeÀ vemelees. lej Ke[keÀeU DeOeëmlejeJej DeekeÀejeves Òe®eb[ ceesþer, yengHesMeer³e MewJeeues Jee{t MekeÀleele. ceO³eJesueeb®eueer Je DeJeJesueeb®eueer #es$ee®ee yeensjerue ÒeosMe cegkeÌleHeCes met³e&ÒekeÀeMe efceUJele Demelees DeeefCe DeMee efþkeÀeCeer nefjleMewJeeues DeefOekeÀ ÒeYeeJeerHeCes Jee{leele. DeuJee (Ulva), keÀe@ueHee& (Caulerpa), keÀesef[³ece, DeJexveeqJnueer³ee (Arvainvillea) n@ueerces[e (Halimeda), Jnsefì^keÀeefj³ee (Ventricaria), ³eemeejK³ee 2500 ÒepeeleeRveer nefjle MewJeeues efJeefJeOe cenemeeiejeb®es leìer³e pewJemecetn mece=× Peeuesues Deensle. HeeCeer ÒekeÀeMeHebkeÌleeR®³ee oesvner ìeskeÀebkeÀ[erue efkeÀjCe ÒeYeeJeerHeCes Mees<etve Iesle Demeu³eeves DeefOekeÀ KeesueJej kesÀJeU nefjle jbie uenjer Hees®eleele. l³eecegUs DeMee uenjer me¬eÀer³elesves JeeHeªve ÒekeÀeMe mebMues<eCe keÀjCeejer leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeues (brown algae) Je leebye[er MewJeeues (red algae) ¬eÀceeves DeefOekeÀ KeesueeRJej Jee{leele. ³eeleerue leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeueeb®³ee 1800 Òepeeleer cenemeeiejeb®³ee leìer³e pewJemecegneb®ee efnmmee Deensle. leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeueebleerue DeveskeÀ Òepeeleer DeekeÀejeves Je l³eeb®³ee pewJeYeejeceO³es Òe®eb[ Deensle. l³eeleerue mejie@mece peeleer®³ee MewJeeuee®³ee DeefOeke̳eecegUs mejie@mees meeiejeuee l³ee®es veeJe ÒeeHle Peeues Deens. meJe&®e leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeueebceO³es Dee³ees[erve®es ÒeceeCe ue#eCeer³e Demeu³eeves J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ HeeleUerJej Dee³ees[erve efceUJeC³eemeeþer l³eeb®ee JeeHej kesÀuee peelees. DemebK³e ÒekeÀej®eer leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeues KeeC³ee³eesi³e Demetve peHeevemeejK³ee ÜerHejeä^ebleerue KeeÐemeb m ke= À leer ® ee leer Deef J eYeep³e IeìkeÀ yeveueer Deens l e. ce@¬eÀesefmemìermemeejKeer MewJeeues mecegê leUeJej þUkeÀHeCes efomeleele. ue@efceveejer³ee, He̳etkeÀme, ef[keÌìerDeesìe, De@mkeÀesHeÀe³euece, Gb[eefj³ee ³eemeejKeer MewJeeuesner leìer³e pewJemecegnele DeefOekeÀ KeesueJej #es$eeHe³e¥le Dee{Uleele. leebye[er MewJeeuesosKeerue leHeefkeÀjer MewJeeueeb®³ee yejesyejerves leìer³e pewJemecegnebletve efometve ³esleele. ³eeb®³eeosKeerue peJeUHeeme 6500 Òepeeleer peieYejeleerue leìer³e #es$eebceOetve Jee{leele. keÀeB[^me, keÀesj@efuevee, Heeceeefj³ee, [sefuemesje, pesefue]ef[³ece, mee³evee, ûeeefmeueeefj³ee DeMee DeveskeÀ peeleer Je l³eeb®³ee Òepeeleer ue#eeJeOeer ìveeb®ee pewJeYeej cenemeeiejele ojJe<eea yeveefJeleele. l³eeleerue keÀHHeeHeÀe³ekeÀme Je yeerìeHeÀe³ekeÀme meejK³ee leebye[îee MeJweeueeHbeemevte ieeÈ s ³ee, ®eek@eÀueìs, peece, peuseer Je Dee³em¬eÀecreceO³es GHe³eeise kesÀuee peeCeeje ke@Àjepeerveve veeJee®ee HeoeLe& efceUJeleele. peerJeeCetb®³ee mebJeOe&veemeeþer Òe³eesie MeeUebceOetve JeeHeju³ee peeCeeN³ee Deieej ³ee HeoeLee&®³ee GlHeveeoveemeeþer ûeeefmeueeefj³ee, pesefueef[³ece Je efìjeskeÌue@efj[e meejK³ee leebye[îee MewJeeueeb®ee JeeHej neslees. MewJeeueeb®eer ceMeeiele keÀªve l³eeb®ee DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ pewJeYeej efceUefJeC³ee®eer efkeÀHeÀe³eleMeerj `Mesleer/ yeeiee³eleer' Yeejlee®³ee efkeÀveejHeÆîeebJej osKeerue megª Peeueer Deens. meb®ejCe #ecelee (ability of locomotion) ÒeeC³eebvee JevemHeleer Je Flej peerJeebHeemetve JesieUb keÀjles. HeCe efkeÀl³eskeÀ ÒeeCeer mLeeveye× eEkeÀJee DeJe=ble (sessile/sedentary) Demeleele. meO³ee DeefmlelJeele DemeCeeN³ee lemes®e Demlebiele Peeuesu³ee mLeeveye× ÒeeC³eebHewkeÀer peJeUHeeme 97 ìkeÌkesÀ meeiejer DeefOeJeemeebletve DeeefCe efJeMes<elJeeves leìer³e pewJemecetnebletve Dee{Uleele. l³eele DeveskeÀ ieewCe mebIeebleerue ÒeeCeer lej Deensle®e HeCe DeveskeÀ ÒeOeevemebIeebleerue ÒeeCeerosKeerue Deensle. l³eele ÒeJeeU ns meJee&efOekeÀ Heefj®e³ee®es

GoenjCe Deens. ³ee ÒeJeeUeb®eer JewefMeÿHetCe& HeefjmebmLee Demeles p³eeefJe<e³eer®eer ceeefnleer Heg{erue uesKeebkeÀeletve IesT³ee. DeJe=ble/mLeeveye× ÒeeCeer Ke[keÀeU DeefOemlejeJej®e Dee{Uleele. jslee[ DeefOemlejele o[tve jenCeejs ÒeeCeer DeefOekeÀ ÒeYeeJeerHeCes peiet MekeÀleele. efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³e, ueebye efveveeue (siphon) DemeCeeN³ee efMebHeer; Je¬eÀekeÀej veefuekeÀebceOetve jenCeejs yengkebÀìkeÀer Jeue³eebefkeÀ ke=Àceer (polychete annelids); JebpegHeÀU ke=Àceer (acorn wormy) ³eebmeejKes ÒeeCeer Je SkeÀHesMeer³e MewJeeue DeMee Keb[er³e ceb®eeJej Dee{Uleele. YetKeb[-ceb®eeJej ef®eKeue Demeleevee SkebÀojerle pewJeefJeefOelee keÀceer / DeYeeJeeves®e efomeles. keÀj[îee-keÀeȳee efJevee@keÌmeer ef®eKeueele DeHetCe& efJeIeìveeves ne³e[^espeve meuHeeF[ Je Deceesefve³ee meejKes Jee³et yevetve l³eeb®es yeg[yeg[s Jejerue HeeC³eeletve ÒeJeeme keÀªve He=ÿYeeieeJej HegÀìleele. l³eecegUs peuemlebYeelener pewJeefJeefJeOeles®ee ueesHe Peeuesuee efomelees. DeMee #es$eebvee iebOekeÀer mebmLee (sulphide system) cnCeleele Je l³ee G<Ce keÀefìyebOeeHeemetve Meelre-keÀìeyreObeeHe³el¥e meJeo&jt Hemejueus³ee eofmeleele. ³ee #e$seelbe DeJemeeoelevte keÀJekeÀer³e Je peerJeeCetpev³e efkeÀCJeve¬eÀer³ee lemes®e Flej #eejebletve (vee³eì^sì, meuHesÀì, keÀeyeexvesì, HeÀe@mHesÀì) ÒeeCeJee³et JesieUe keÀe{tve l³eeÜejs Tpee& peveve DeMee ¬eÀer³ee nesleevee efomeleele. keÀener veeruenefjle peerJeeCet, keÀUmekebÀìkeÀer (spirochaetes), leblet-keÀJekesÀ (thread-fungi-actinomycota), ³etefiueveemeejKes ÜerkeÀMeeefYekeÀ (dinoflagellates) Fl³eeoer meeOes, Deefoce peerJe FLes ìerkeÀeJe Oeª MekeÀleele. Hejbleg DeMee efþkeÀeCeer vewmeefie&keÀ Jee³et DeeefCe/DeLeJee Keefvepe lesuee®es meeþs KeesueJej meeHe[C³ee®eer Meke̳elee Demeles. leìer³e peuemecetnele peuemlebYeeleerue HueJekeÀer³e (planktonic) Je ®eHeU peue®ejer³e (nektonic) ÒeeCeer DeefOekeÀ Heefj®e³ee®es Demet MekeÀleele. HueJekeÀeb®ee meeÐeble Oee[eWUe ³eeHetJeea Òeefme× Peeuesu³ee `meHeÀj-HueJekeÀeb®³ee peieele' ³ee 15 uesKeeb®³ee ceeefuekesÀletve Iesleuee Deens. l³eecegUs l³eeb®³eeefJe<e³eer meÐe ceeef u ekes À leer u e ues K eeb k eÀeceOet v e Heg v ne ef u eef n C³ee®es ìeUlees . ®eHeUpeue®ejebefJe<e³eer efueefnC³eemeejKes Heg<keÀU keÀener Demeu³eeves les ³eeveblej®³ee uesKeebkeÀemeeþer jeKetve þsJelees. meO³ee SJe{s®e cnCelees keÀer HueJekesÀ Je ®eHeUpeue®ej ³eeb®eer pewJeefJeefJeOelee, peerJeveMewueer, DebieYetle JewefMeÿîes, DevegketÀueves, ®e³eeHe®e³e ef¬eÀ³ee Je Òepeveveeleerue JewefJeO³es DeMee DeveskeÀ yeeyeer efJemleejeves meebieC³eemeejK³ee Deensle. SketÀCeele®e leìer³e meeiejer #es$es ceeveJeeuee DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀejs efveJee&n Je mece=×er ÒeeHle keÀªve osCeeN³ee Deensle. ³ee veblej®³ee uesKeebkeÀebletve l³ee efJe<e³eer ®e®ee& nesF&ue®e. jepekeÀer³e [eJeHes®eelcekeÀ Debieebveer osKeerue leìer³e #es$es Del³eble mebJesovee#ece Deensle. ®eerveer mecegêe®³ee nkeÌkeÀ #es$ee®ee Jeeo ns l³ee®es DeJee&®eerve GoenjCe Deens. leìer³e #es$eeuee ceeveJeer nmle#esHee®ee meJee&le DeefOekeÀ $eeme menve keÀjeJee ueeieuee Deens DeeefCe ueeieCeejner Deens. meceûe ceeveJepeeleerves SkeÀef$eleHeCes J³eeqkeÌleiele mJeeLe& otj meeªve leìer³e Òeot<eCee®ee meecevee keÀjCes Deepe DeefveJee³e& yeveues Deens. ³ee #es$ee®ee J³eeHeejer ¢äerkeÀesveeletve HeÀe³eoe Iesleevee l³ee®eer neveer keÀceerlekeÀceer JneJeer Je lesLeerue pewJemecegne®es mebJeOe&ve-mebj#eCe keÀjC³eemeeþer Òe³elve neCses evfekeÀ[e®res Deen.s ns Peeues lej®e ³eCseeN³ee eHfe{îeevbee leìer³e pewJeefJeefJeOeles®eer HeÀUs ®eeKeC³ee®eer Lees[erHeÀej Meke̳elee jenerue. ³eeefJe<e³eer pevepeeie=leer keÀjCes Je efveoex<e GHe¬eÀce yeveJetve les njskeÀ osMeeves ceeieea ueeJeCes ner meÐekeÀeUe®eer leele[er®eer iejpe Deens.


12

efJeMes<e uesKe [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs 98696 12531 nstekale@gmail.com

Deepe jemee³eevfekeÀ Kelee®b³ee DeelfejkseÀeceU g s ceeleecreOeeure Dek@eìÌevreecsee³eemfeìemre epfeJeeCe®btee meeWêf³e IeìkeÀ veä Peeuee DeeeCfe MelseeceOeeure e®feceC³eener De¢<³e Peeu³ee. ceelee®reer Iejs njJeueer DeeeCfe meeysele e®feceC³ee meOgoe. IUCN ®³ee ³eeoelre ue#e oCs³eeFlehele cenlJee®ee veener DeMeer veeoW Demeleevee Deelee ne he#eer ueeue ³eeoelre heJ´eMse keÀjle Deen.s

ceuee Demes Jeeìles! legcneuee? ieeJeekeÀ[®eer MeeUe DeeefCe efle®³eeceO³es YejCeejs Deece®es ne³emkeÀtue®es Jeie& ceuee Depevtener DeeþJeleele. DeeþJeer les oneJeerhe³e¥le ceeP³ee Jeiee&le leerve cegueer keÀe³ece jeefnu³ee cee$e cegueeb®eer mebK³ee ®eeUermeJeªve Iemeªve 27 Jej Deeueer. ³ee leervener cegueer efMe#ekeÀ Jeiee&Jej ³esC³eeDeeOeer Jeiee& h eemet v e ot j Demeues u ³ee veeb ê g k eÀ®³ee Pee[eKeeueer yemele. Jeiee&leerue SkeÀener ceguee®eer ³ee cegueeRMeer yeesueC³ee®eer efnccele vemes. keÀOeer yeeuseC³ee®ee he³´elve keÀsuee lej `le le HeÀ HeÀ' DeeeCfe meesyele Ieeceeves Meì& Deesuee. l³eekeÀeUer lees SkeÀ efYeleer³egÊeÀ Deeoj neslee. Jeie& cewef$eCe, Jeie& efce$e DeMeer mebkeÀuhevee®e l³ee keÀeUer veJnleer. cegueeRvee meieȳeele peemle efYeCeeje ceer ueneveheCeer cee$e cewef$eCeer®³ee menJeemeele®e Jee{uees. meJee¥vee®e nsJee JeeìeJee DeMeer yeeueheCeer®eer ceePeer cewef$eCe nesleer ef®eTleeF&. DeeF& meebiele Demes,`ef®eceCeer®ee Ieeme þsJeu³eeefMeJee³e ne keÀOeerner pesJeuee veener. pesJeleevee Deepetyeepetuee keÀesCeer vekeÀes, HeÀÊeÀ ef®eceC³ee®e nJ³eele, l³eener leeìepeJeU ³esTve Yeelee®es Meerle G®eueCeeN³ee!' ef®eceCeeryejesyej®es SJe{s meejs yeeueheCe ceuee DeeþJele veener. cee$e hee®eJeer les oneJeerhe³e¥le ceer ceeP³ee DeibeCeele DevekseÀ e®feceC³eeMbeer KeU s uees Deen.s l³ee®beer ceeUJeoe®b³ee KeCeeceOeeure Iejìe,r l³eeleerue ef®ecegkeÀueer efheuues, l³eeb®ee Deenej, melele®eer ®eerJe ®eerJe. Deece®eb Iej ceeCemeebHes#ee ef®eceC³eebveer®e peemle Yejuesues Demes. ogheej®eer pes J eCes Peeueer keÀer leeì-Jeeìîeeb y ejes y ej ef ® eceC³eeb ® eer ueneve HeÀew p e DeeF& ® ³ee ceeies hejmeoejer peele Demes. ef®eceC³eeb®es Yeespeve Peeu³eeJej®e Yeeb[er Oegleueer peele Demele. Gvneȳeele Oeev³e JeeUle IeeueC³eele ceer DeeF&uee ceole keÀjle Demes les cegUer ef®eTleeF&me heewäerkeÀ Deenej efceUeJee cnCetve®e.Deece®³ee Iejer meJe& meeb [ ues u es , heeKe[ues u es Deeef C e ®eeUuesues HeÀÊeÀ ef®eTleeF&meeþer®e Demes. iees[ DeeJeepee®es, Devvee®³ee efMelee®es DeeefCe íesìîee efheueeuee DeeF&®eer he´sceU cee³ee osC³ee®es ns meJe&

ceer ³ee íesìîeeMee he#³eekeÀ[tve®e efMekeÀuees. pescelesce mene Fb®e DeekeÀeje®ee DeeefCe 25 ie´@cehe³e¥le Jepevee®ee ne he#eer MeeUkeÀjer ceguee®³ee cegþerceO³es menpe yebo nesT MekeÀlees. ceveg<³e Jemleerle, ceeCemeeb®³ee Iejele jenCeeje ne efvemeie&efce$e DeefleMe³e ®eheU DeeefCe Oeerì Demelees. ef®eceC³eeb®es meeOeejCeheCes oesve he´keÀej Dee{Uleele. Pee[eJej®eer ef®eceCeer DeeefCe IejeceOeerue ef®eceCeer. oesvnerceO³es HeÀejmee HeÀjkeÀ veener cee$e J³eJeeqmLele ue#e efoues lej oesvnerner Deeheeheuee DeefOeJeeme menmee yeouele veenerle. DebìekeÌìeakeÀe®ee DeheJeeo JeieUlee ne he#eer peieeceOeer u e he´ l ³es k eÀ os M eele Dee{Ulees . ceeCemee®³ee mebhekeÀe&ceOeerue, ceeCemeeyejesyej he´Jeeme keÀjCeeje ne iees[ he#eer ceeCemee®³ee Iejele®e l³ee®es íesìsmes Iej yeebOelees. vej leebyetme keÀj[îee jbiee®ee, hebKee®eer ueneve Mesheìer DemeCeeje iegyeiegefyele Demelees. ef®eceC³ee®³ee leguevesle ef®eceCeer DeekeÀejeves Lees[er ueneve DeeefCe efle®³ee jbieeceO³es heeb{jì keÀj[sheCee peemle Demelees. ®ees®e DeeefCe hebKee®³ee jbieeJeªve vej DeeefCe ceeoer menpe DeesUKelee ³esleele. Iejeleerue ef®eceCeer ceeveJe efvee|cele DeVe Keeles. Goe. Yeelee®eer eMfele,s ®eeUCe, JeeUle Ieeleueuses Oeev³e, Deȳee, efkeÀ[s Fl³eeoer DeeefCe Pee[eJej®eer ef®eceCeer ieJelee®³ee yeer³ee, MesleeceOeerue keÀesJeUs oeCes, Deȳee, efkeÀìkeÀ Keeleele. ueneveheCeer Deecner veoerkeÀeþer heeCeer efheC³eemeeþer GLeU Pejs keÀjle Demet. leneve ueeieueer keÀer veoerkeÀeþer peeTve PeN³ee®es heeCeer ef h eCes ne Deece®ee DeeieUeJesieUe íbo neslee. PeN³eeheemetve otj peeTve JeeUlte yemelee®e 8-10 e®feceC³ee®bee LeJee MesleeceOetve ³ee PeN³eele Glejle Demes DeeefCe hebKe HeÀ[HeÀ[le cevemeesÊeÀ mveeve keÀjs. Ieje®³ee DebieCeele, hejmeoejer meeþuesues mJe®í heeCeer Demeues keÀer l³eeb ® ee mveevee®ee keÀe³e& ¬ eÀce heenC³eeme cepee ³esle Demes. Gvneȳee®³ee meg©Jeeleerme pJeejer, yeepejer, ieJne®es KeUs Mesleele ®eeuet Demes lesJne Mesleeleerue ef®eceC³ee


13 Keȳee®³ee yeepetme Demeuesu³ee heeb{N³ee keÀesj[îee ceeleerle hebKe HeÀ[HeÀ[tve ceeleer mveeve keÀjle. ef®eceC³eeb®es ceeleer mveeve heenC³eemeeþer ceer MesleeJej®³ee Oeev³e KeȳeeJej DeeJepet&ve peele Demes. heeb{jer ceeleer DeeefCe ef®eceCeer ³eeb®ee keÀener mebyeOe DemeeJee keÀe? ceeP³ee ueneveM³ee mebMeesOeveele ceuee heeb{N³ee ceeleerceO³es `De@keÌìerveescee³eefmeìerme'®es mheesDej efJehetue ÒeceeCeele Dee{Ules. Iej yeebOeCeerle heeb{N³ee ceeleer®ee hetJeea Kethe Jeehej nesle Demes. efmeceWìhes#eener G®®e opee& Demeuesueer ner vewmee|iekeÀ ceeleer ie´eceerCe YeeieeceOeerue Jee[îeebvee 100 Je<ee&hes#ee peemle Dee³eg<³e osle Demes. ef®eceC³eeb®eer Iejìer ³ee®e ceeleer®³ee KeCeeceO³es peemle Demele. l³eeb®es hebKe, iegueeyeer keÀele[er DeeefCe l³eeJej Dee{UCeejs De@keÌìerveescee³eefmeìerme®es mheesDeme& ³eeb®ee mebhe´sjkesÀ DeeefCe IejyeebOeCeerMeer keÀebner mebyeOe? ef®eceC³ee ³ee vesnceer ueneveMee LeJ³eeceO³es Dee{Uleele. cee$e efJeCeer®³ee keÀeUele pees[îeeb®³ee ©heele heneJe³eeme efceUleele. ne Jemeble $eÝleg veblej®ee keÀeU Demelees. ³ee®e keÀeueeJeOeerle l³eeb®es ceeleer mveeve nesTve Iejìs yeebOeC³eeme meg©Jeele nesles. ³esLes hegvne ceeleerceOeerue `De@keÌìerveescee³eefmeìerme' ®ee l³eeb®ee mebheke&À ³eslees. ³ee nUo ueeJeC³ee®ee DeeefCe efJeCeer®³ee nbieecee®ee keÀener mebyeOe? ceePes mebMeesOeve keÀener keÀejCeebcegUs Dehegjs jeefnues. Deepe jemee³eefvekeÀ Keleeb®³ee DeeflejskeÀecegUs ceeleerceOeerue `De@keÌìerveescee³eefmeìerme' efpeJeeCetb®ee meWefê³e IeìkeÀ veä Peeuee DeeefCe MesleeceOeerue ef®eceC³eener De¢<³e Peeu³ee. ceeleer®eer Iejs njJeueer DeeefCe meesyele ef®eceC³eemegOoe. IUCN ®³ee ³eeoerle `ue#e osC³eeFlehele cenÊJee®ee veener' DeMeer veeWo Demeleevee Deelee ne he#eer ueeue ³eeoerle he´JesMe keÀjle Deens. efJeCeer®³ee keÀeUeceO³es ef®eceCee- ef®eceCeerceO³es mebhe´sjkeÀeceO³es yeoue Dee{Ulees. ef®eceC³ee®eer ®ees®e Je cemlekeÀe®ee Yeeie keÀeUmej nesles lej ef®eceCeer®ee ne®e Yeeie leebyegme jbiee®ee neslees. ef®eceC³ee®eer ³eesi³e peeiee MeesOeC³eemeeþer JeCeJeCe meg© nesles DeeefCe leer megjef#ele peeiee efceUeueer keÀer lees ef®eceC³eebvee efJeefMeä DeeJeepeeves meeo Ieeuelees, ³ee DeeJeepeeme DevekseÀJeU s e oevse leevre e®feceC³ee hee´lfemeeo olseele DeeeCfe neCseeN³ee YeeJeer veJejesyeemeeþer l³eeb®³eele ceejeceeN³ee nesleele. ³ee keÀeUele ef®eceC³ee®es Iejìs yeebOeC³ee®es keÀe³e& MeebleheCes ®eeuet Demeles. JeOeghemebleer Peeu³eeJej oesIes

efceUtve Iejìs hetCe& keÀjleele. ef®eceCeer 4-5 Deb[er osles. jbie efveUmej heeb{je l³eeJej keÀj[îee jbiee®es efþhekesÀ Demeleele. ef®eceCeer Deb[er GyeJeles DeeefCe ef®eceCee cee$e Iejìîee peJeU®e Lees[e otj heneje osle Demelees. leerve ®eej efoJemeele Deb[îeeceOetve yeensj ³esCeejer efheuues IejìîeeceO³es 20 les 24 efoJeme Demeleele. efheueeb®eer ®ees®e ceesþer, efheJeUmej, ceeve ueebye, iegueeyeer DeeefCe DeeF& KeeÐe IesTve IejìîeepeJeU Deeueer keÀer meJee&®es®e ®ees®e GIe[tve ef®eJeef®eJeeì keÀjCes DeeefCe les heenCes Ëo³emheMeea Demeles. ef®eceCeer KeeÐe IeT s ve Iejìîee®³ee peJeU Lee[ s e ojt #eCeYej Leeybeles DeeeCfe velbej Iejìîee®³ee keÀeþeJej yemetve yeeUebvee Ieeme YejJeles. ef®eceCeer®es Iejìîee®³ee otj yemeCes, les DeesUKetve yeeUeb®eer ef®eJeef®eJeeì DeeefCe he´l³eskeÀ ®ees®eerle Ieeme YejCes, efheueeb®eer Iejìîeele peeiee ve yeoueCes ns meJe& mebMeesOevee®es efJe<e³e Deensle. ceeP³ee yeepet®³ee meoefvekesÀceO³es ef®eceCee-ef®eceCeer, l³eeb®eer ®eej yeeUs l³eeb®ee hees<ekeÀ Deenej DeeefCe l³ee meJee¥®eer efveȳee DeekeÀeMeele mJe®íbo Yejejer ceer he´l³e#e DevegYeJeueer. ef®eceCee ef®eceCeer®³ee Iejìs yeebOeC³ee®³ee keÀeUeheemetve®e ceer l³eebvee Yejhetj Deeȳee Demeuesuee jJee cewoe ³egÊeÀ Deenej ie@uejerceOetve efouee. SkeÀe ogkeÀeveoejekeÀ[tve les ®eeUCe ceer Kejsoer keÀªve he´³eesieemeeþer JeeHejues. he´efLeve³egÊeÀ Deenej efceUeu³eecegUs meJe& efheueeb®eer Jee{ GÊece Peeueer DeeefCe ceefnv³ee®³ee Deele meJe& G[tve iesues. ceT keÀele[er®³ee ueneve veepetkeÀ Deȳee ne ef®eceC³eeb®³ee yeeUemeeþer heewef<ìkeÀ Deenej Deens. Demee Deenej ve efceUCes ns ³ee he#ee®³ee Nnemee®es cegK³e keÀejCe Deens. Iejele meeHeÀ kesÀuesues®e leebogU JeehejCes, efheþe®³ee [y³eele ®eeUCeer vemeCes ³ee®ee mebyebOe ³ee efpeJee®³ee DeeqmlelJeeMeer Deens ns®e cegUer kegÀCeeme mecepele veener. Jee{l³ee efkeÀìkeÀveeMekeÀebcegUs DeMee Deȳee Deelee Demleieble nesle Deensle. [y³eeceOeerue heerþ mebheues keÀer ceePeer DeeF& Deeleerue ®eeUCeer DebieCeele þsJele Demes. meesyele Oeev³e efveJe[uesues methemegOoe. DebieCeeceOeerue meJe& ef®eceC³ee efleLes ieesUe nesle. he#eer mebJeOe&vee®es ns meeshes efJe%eeve ceeP³ee DeefMeef#ele DeeF&ves ceuee vekeÀUle efMekeÀJeues. ef®eceC³ee Kes[îeele Deensle cee$e Menjele HeÀej®e keÀceer. ceenerce ves®ej heeke&ÀceO³es Dee{Uleele l³ee®eyejesyej OeejeJeerle megOoe! Demes keÀe? DeeOegefvekeÀ MenjerkeÀjCeeceO³es ef®eceC³eeb®eer Iejìer njJeueer. ®eer J e ®eer J e DeeJeepeehes # ee keÀeveeceO³es De[keÀJeuesueer ceesyeeF&ue®eer ueneveMeer keÀe@[& Deecneme eÒfe³e Deen.s e®feceC³eemeeþer Iejìer yeeObevte MenjeceO³es ef®eceCeer mebJeOe&vee®ee he´³elve vekeÌkeÀer®e ³eMemJeer nesT MekeÀlees cee$e l³eemeeþer Jew%eeefvekeÀ he×leer eqmJekeÀejeJe³eeme nJeer. Iejìs ueekeÀ[e®es®e heCe jbieJeuesues vemeeJes. efíês yeepetme nJeerle, Jej vekeÀesle. Iejìîee®³ee Deeleu³ee he=ÿYeeie ceT keÀª vekeÀe keÀejCe les keÀece ef®eceCeer®es Deens, ceepbej ner e®feceCee®ree veybej SkeÀ Me$eg cnCevte Iejìs Lees[s Gb®e DemeeJes. p³ee ie=nmebkegÀueele DeLeJee meoefvekesÀceO³es ceebpejer Demeleele lesLes ef®eceC³ee Dee{Ule veenerle, Iejìîee®es efíê ueneve


14 DemeeJes pesCes keÀªve ef®eceCeer keÀeþeJej yemeueer Demelee meJe& efheueeb®³ee ®ees®eer SkeÀe®e JesUsme yeensj ³esT MekeÀleerue, IejìîeepeJeU DeUer, efkeÀìkeÀ ³egÊeÀ HeeweqäkeÀ Devve GheueyOe DemeeJes. efJeCeer®³ee keÀeUele ef®eceCeer®es pees[hes Kehte meJbeosveMeeure Demeles cnCevte l³ee®b³eekeÀ[s SkeÀìkeÀ heenCe,s HeÀeìses keÀe{Ces ìeUeJes, he´keÀeMe DeeefCe ceesyeeF&ue ìe@Jejheemetve he´meeefjle nesCeejer efkeÀjCes ³eeb®ee ef®eceC³eeceOeerue meskeÌme mebhe´sjkeÀeMeer peJeU®ee mebyeOe Deens. ef®eceCeeef®eceCeer®es SkeÀ$e ve ³esCes, l³eeb®³ee 12-13 Je<ee&®ee Dee³eg<³e keÀeU Demee®e JeebPe J³eefLele nesCes ³eeme l³eebvee GheueyOe ve nesCeeje hees<ekeÀ Deenej, efmeceWì keÀe@ef¬eÀì®eer Iejs, ceesyeeF&ue®ee Deefle Jeehej, he´keÀeMeceeve heefjmej, OJeveer he´ot<eCe, Jee{leer Jeenve mebK³ee DeeefCe Deece®es njJeuesues yeeueheCe peemle peyeeyeoej Deens. hesì^esue®³ee pJeueveeceOetve nJesle efceefLeue vee³eì^sì ne efJe<eejer IeìkeÀ hemejlees.ueneve Deȳee, íesìs efkeÀìkeÀ ³eecegUs heìkeÀve cejleele. ef®eceCeerme nJee Demeuesuee ne Deenej Demee yebo neslees DeLeJee efJe<e ªheeves efle®³ee Meefjjele peelees. ef®eceCeer mebK³ee jes[eJeC³eeceO³es Jeenve Òeog<eCe ne IeìkeÀ HeÀej cenlJee®ee Deens. ³ee®eyejesyej jemee³eefvekeÀ Keleeb®³ee DeeflejskeÀecegUs ef®eceCeer®³ee DeenejeceO³es vee³eì^sì®es he´ceeCe peemle DemeCes Je l³eecegUs ³ee he#ee®³ee jÊeÀele ³egefjkeÀ De@meer[ Jee{JeCes ns meg×e ef®eceC³eeb®eer mebK³ee jes[eJeC³ee®es Depetve SkeÀ keÀejCe Deens. ef®eceCeer mebJeOe&veemeeþer ien=mekbeÀguee®³ee GÐeeveeceO³es ueneveMeer heCe Lee[ s er G®be DeMeer yeeye®bteer Peehse[er yeebOeueer DeeefCe l³eeJej Yeelee®es keÀe[ hemejues lej ef®eceC³ee nceKeeme hejle ³esT MekeÀleele. hetJeea SkeÀ Ieeme ef®eT®ee, SkeÀ Ieeme keÀeT®ee cnCetve yeeUeuee YejJeues peele Demes. Deelee otjoMe&ve®³ee meb®eemeceesj yemetve DeeF& meceesj yeIele yeeUe®³ee veekeÀe, leeW[euee, ieeueeuee YejJele Deens. `ef®eTleeF& oj GIe[ ! ef®eceCeer®es Iej cesCeeb®es, keÀeJeȳee®es Iej MesCee®es' DeMeer SkeÀentve SkeÀ yeesOehe´o yeeueieerles SskeÀle Deece®es yeeueheCe mejues. he#eer ne ceeP³ee yeeueheCee®ee meKee neslees. ef®eceCeer lej yeeuecew$eerCe®e. Deepe ef®eceCeer®es peieCes, efle®es DemeCes ns DeeheCee meJee¥meeþer ceesþs DeeJneve nJes. 20 cee®e& ne peeieeflekeÀ ef®eceCeer efove Òel³eskeÀ efoJeMeer meepeje nesCes iejpes®es Deens. ie@uejerceOeerue ®eerJe ®eerJe efoJeeCeKeeC³eele ³eeJe³eeme nJeer Demeu³eeme he´l³eskeÀ Iejele hejle SkeÀoe methe DeeefCe ®eeUCeer ³esCes iejpes®es Deens. Demes ceuee Jeeìles ! legcneme ?

He³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[bUeves meepeje keÀsuee 17 Jee JeOeeH&eveeofve meensUe- oJsejeF& eJfeMe<se

He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®ee 17 Jee `JeOee&Heveefove' efo. 10 peguew jespeer DeveskeÀ megËoeb®³ee GHeefmLeleerle þeCes ³esLes Heej He[uee. [e@.De®e&vee iees[yeesues (DeHueeF&[ SvJne³e&ceWìue efjme®e& HeÀeTb[sMeve-HegCes, mebmLeeHekeÀ meb®eeuekeÀ), [e@.efJepe³e peesMeer (Òee®ee³e& meesce³³ee efJe%eeve Je JeeefCep³e ceneefJeÐeeue³e) ³eeb®eer ÒecegKe GHeefmLeleer ueeYeueer. SvJne³ejes eqJnpeerue®es meb®eeuekeÀ [e@. efJekeÀeme neefpejefveme ³eebveer Jejojepe yeeHeì (Dee³e.Dee³e.ìer ÒeeO³eeHekeÀ), De[@.ÒeJelek&eÀ HeeþkeÀ ³ee®beer keÀe³ek&eÀeejfCeecreO³es veJ³eeves meceeefJeä Peeuesues meb®eeuekeÀ cnCetve DeesUKe keÀ©ve efoueer. l³eeveblej He³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[bUe®es meje®feìCeemre Òee. eJfeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eevbeer ÒeemleeeJfekeÀ keÀsue.s Òee. JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eevbeer He³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[bUe®³ee veeeJfev³eHeCte& GHe¬eÀcee®beer ceeefnleer osleevee®e osJejeF&®³ee ceeO³eceeletve pebieue peesHeemeC³ee®³ee Òe³elveeuee meg©Jeele kesÀu³ee®es meebefieleues. [e.@De®ev&ee iee[syeeuses ³eevbeer He³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[bUe®es DeeYfeveobve keÀjleevee®e l³eebveer `DeHueeF&[ SvJne³e&ceWìue efjme®e& HeÀeTb[sMeve'ves osJejeF&®³ee ceeO³eceeletve keÀsueus³ee DeepeHe³el¥e®³ee keÀe³ee®&eer ceeenfleer eofuee.r keÀekseÀCeeleeure oJsejeF& Oeekse³Ìeele ³eT s ueeieu³ee Deenlse. l³eemeeþer ueekseÀecbeO³es pevepeeiel=eer Peeueer Heeenfpe,s Demenser mHeä kesÀues. [e@. efJepe³e peesMeer ³eebveer megboj keÀeJ³ej®evesyejesyej®e meebefieleues keÀer, Deelee keÀece keÀjle Demeuesu³ee efHe{erkeÀ[tve®e ÒesjCee IesTve ³esCeejer veJeerve efHe{er ner ®eUJeU Heg{s megª þsJesue. He³ee&JejCeMeeðeeleerue HeoJ³egÊej efMe#eCe Iesleu³eeveblej efkeÀleer peCe He³ee&JejCeeMeer keÀe³ece pees[uesues jenleele ns HeenCesner iejpes®es Deens. He.o.ceb[Ue®es DeO³e#e [e@. Òemeeo keÀefCe&keÀ ³eebveer JeOee&Heve efoveeefveefceÊe JesieJesieȳee mebmLeebveer MegYes®íe efou³ee®eer ceeefnleer efoueer. ³eeveblej ûeerve keÀefjDej keÀesmexme Je ûeerve ueJnme& keÌueye®³ee meYeemeoebvee ÒeceeCeHe$e osTve ieewjJeC³eele Deeues. ³eeJesUer ceb[Ue®³ee JesyemeeF&ì Je Deeieeceer íe³eeef®e$e mHeOee& ³ebe®eer Iees<eCee keÀjC³eele Deeueer. l³eeveblej ceb[Ue®es GHeeO³e#e [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs ³eebveer meJee¥®es DeeYeej ceeveues. De@[. ÒeJele&keÀ HeeþkeÀ ³eebveer keÀe³e&¬eÀcee®es meg$emeb®eeueve kesÀues. keÀe³e&¬eÀcee®eer meebielee He³ee&JejCeer³e jeä^ieerleeves Peeueer.


15

ìee@kfemÌemeeìrer [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer 98200 37224

og i e¥ O eer v eeMekeÀe®³ee Deef l e Jeehejeves Deejes i ³eeme Oees k eÀe mebYeJelees. DeveskeÀ Je<ex meelel³eeves ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀeb®ee Jeehej kesÀu³eeme keÀke& À jes i eemeejK³ee DemeeO³e jesieeuee leeW[ ÐeeJes ueeiet MekeÀles. Deeheu³ee cejeþer Yee<esle cnCe Deens `Deef l e les L es ceeleer . keÀesCel³eener ieesäer®ee DeeflejskeÀ ìeUe.

meJe&meeOeejCe Deew<eOeer ieesȳee .... ces ceefnv³ee®³ee keÀ[keÀ GvneUer megÆer veblej DeeheCe Deeletjlesves Jeeì heenlees leer nJesle ieejJee DeeCeCee³ee& heeJemee®eer. MeeUe meg© neslee-neslee ns JeªCe jepes npesjer ueeJeleele, keÀOeer efjceefPece yejmetve lej keÀOeer oceoej OetceOe[eke̳eele leeb[Je keÀjerle yejmetve. jespe ye@iesle í$eer Demesue®e Demes vemeles vee !! ceveg<³e mJeYeeJe efJemejC³ee®ee eEkeÀJee cegÎece efJemejC³ee®ee; l³eele®e pej heeJemeeves le[eKee ef o uee lej efYepeC³eeefMeJee³e he³ee&³e vemelees. keÀener JesUe í$eer Demetvener efce$e-cewef$eCeeR yejesyej MesDej keÀjeJeer ueeieu³eeves eEkeÀJee he´®eb[ Jeeje Demeu³eeves hegjles ef Y epelees Deeef C e MeeUe, keÀe@ u es p e, keÌ u eeme eE k eÀJee Dee@efHeÀme ®³ee S.meer. ceO³es lemes®e Deesu³ee keÀhe[îeele yemeu³eeves DeefOekeÀ®e ieejþlees. heefjCeeceer meoea, he[mes, [eskesÀ ogKeer, Debie ogKeer DeMee Deeheu³eeuee MeguuekeÀ JeeìCee³ee& Deepeejeuee yeUer he[lees. ueies®e®e MeguuekeÀ Deepeejebmeeþer [e@keÌìj keÀ[s keÀMeeuee pee...³ee efJe®eejeves efìJnerJej heeneruesu³ee peeefnjeleer DeeþJele SKeeoer meoe,a Deibe oKgeeJrej Ghe³eÊgeÀ Demeueuseer ieeU s er heeC³eemeesyele IeMeele {keÀuelees. keÀener keÀeUeveblej yejs Jeeìues cnCetve Depetve SkeÀ ieesUer heesìele {keÀuelees. ³ee DeMee JewÐekeÀer³e meuu³eeefMeJee³e Iesleuesu³ee Deew<eOeer ieesȳee Deeheu³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀleele Demee efJe®eej meg×e ceveele [eskeÀeJele veener, keÀejCe peUer-mLeUer heeefnuesu³ee peeefnjeleeR®eer hekeÀ[ Deeheu³ee ceveeJej HeÀej®e IeÆ Demeles. Kejs lej JewÐekeÀer³e meuu³eeefMeJee³e JeejbJeej Deeheueer DeeheCe Deew<eOes IesCes Del³eble Oees k eÀeoe³ekeÀ Deens . me@ e f u eme@ u es ì , he@ j eef m eìs c ee@ u e, ef H eÀvejDeceeFve ce@ e f u eSì,

[skeÌmeìjes efceLeesjHe@Àve ne³e[^esyee´sceeF[, Fl³eeefo jmee³eves meoea, KeeskeÀuee, Debie ogKeer DeeoeRJej JeehejC³eele ³esCee´³ee Deew<eOeebceO³es Demeleele. me@efueme@uesì, he@jeefmeìscee@ue ³eeb®ee Ghe³eesie jÊeÀ heeleU keÀjC³eemeeþer neslees. ¿eo³e efJekeÀej pe[uesu³eebvee ner Deew<eOes HeÀe³eosMeerj þª MekeÀleele. efHeÀvejDeceeFve ce@efueSì cegUs ceWot meghleeJemLesle peelees, Peeshe ³esles, Meefjjeme Deejece efceUlees.

heCe JeejbJeej JewÐekeÀer³e meuu³eeefJevee ner Deew<eOes Iesleu³eeme leer eflelekeÀer®e IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀleele. ³eeb®³ee mesJeveeves DeVeeJej®eer Jeemevee G[Ces, heesì ogKeer, heesìeleerue Deumej Deeoer Deepeej pe[C³ee®eer Meke̳elee Demeles. jÊeÀ heeleU Peeu³eeves Je jÊeÀeleerue Deecuelee Jee{u³eeves, jÊeÀ Jeenerv³eebJej efJehejerle heefjCeece nesTve keÀener IeìveebceO³es DekeÀmceele ce=l³et®ee OeeskeÀe meg×e GÓJet MekeÀlees. JewÐekeÀer³e meuu³eeefJevee keÀesCelesner Deew<eOe Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀles. keÀener JesUe [e@keÌìj peemle ieesȳee osleele DeMeerner Deeheueer le¬eÀej Demeles hejbleg l³ee ieesȳee SkeÀceskeÀebvee hetjkeÀ Demeu³eeves, ieesȳeebleerue IeelekeÀ jmee³eveeb heemet v e l³ee Deeheu³ee Deejesi³ee®es mebj#eCe keÀjleele. he´l³eskeÀe®eer he´ke=Àleer Jesie- JesieUer Demeu³eeves, efyeIe[uesu³ee he´ke=Àleeruee megOeejC³eemeeþer Deew<eOes meg×e JesieJesieUer Demelee; ns O³eeveele þsJeeJes.


16

DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee mee³eueWì efmÒebie uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

keÀeyeec&eìs jmee³evee®b³ee mecenteleeure Dee³e Heer meer DeeeCfe meer Dee³e Heer meer ner oevse leC=eveeMekeÀs, Gobje®³ee keÀele[ecreO³es ieeþer (ìîet c ej) le³eej nes C ³eeme keÀejCeerYetle Deensle Demes efometve Deeues. l³eeleeure keÀener ieeþer ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ nels³ee. ³ee jmee³eveebcegUs keÀener ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ þjCeejs yeoue neCs³eeme meª g Jeele nelses DeeeCfe He³eeJ&ejCeele DeeOee®re DeemflelJeele Demeueus³ee Flej jmee³eveecbeU g s ner Òee¬feÀ³ee HeCte& nelse.s

Òel³ekseÀ ®eejeme SkeÀ!... ®eH@ìj 14 ë Yeeie 2 DeeOegefvekeÀ keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀ efveefce&leer®³ee ¿ee keÀeUele jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®ee ÒeeogYee&Je Jee{l³ee ÒeceeCeele efomelees Deens. ve@Meveue Dee@efHeÀme Dee@HeÀ Jne³eìue mì@efìmìerkeÌmeves GHeueyOe keÀsueus³ee DeekeÀ[JseejeÒreceeCes ns mHeäHeCes efmeOo nesles keÀer, jkeÌleefveefce&leer keÀjCeeN³ee Hes M eer m eb y eb O eeleer u e ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ jes i e e®felbeepevekeÀHeCes Jee{le Deenlse. 1960 ®³ee SkeÀe Je<ee&le®e kesÀJeU jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesieeves 12290 yeUer Iesleues. meieȳee ÒekeÀej®es jkeÌleeleerue ueefmekesÀleerue ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ jesie ³eecegUs nesCeeN³ee cel=³e®geer meKb³ee SkeÀtCe 24500 Yejuee.r 16690 ³ee 1950 meeue®³ee DeekeÀ[JseejeHreemevte leer meKb³ee Deelee leerJe´lesves Jee{les Deens. ueeskeÀmebK³esleerue Òel³eskeÀ ueeKeeHewkeÀer efkeÀleer ce=l³et Demes ÒeceeCe keÀe{ues lej 1950 meeueer ne oj 11.1 Yeeie neslee, lees 1960 meeueer 14.1 FlekeÀe Jee{uee Deens. jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesi³eeb®eer Jee{ DeLee&le®e Deelee ³evgeeFì&[ s mììsmeHdejgleer ce³eee&ofle jeenfueuseer veener. meJe&®e osMeebceO³es meieȳee Je³eesieìeleerue jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesi³eeb®eer mebK³ee ojJe<eea 4 les 5 ìkekÌeÀ³eevbeer Jee{les Deen.s ³ee meieȳee®ee DeLe& keÀe³e? DeeHeu³ee He³ee& J ejCeeuee veJeer v e Demeuesu³ee keÀesCel³ee ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ ÒeefleefveOeer®³ee (jmee³evee®³ee) mebHekeÀe&le ueeskeÀ JeejbJeej Jee{l³ee mebHekeÀe&le ³esle Deensle? cee³ee eqkeÌueefvekeÀ ³ee efJeéeefJeK³eele mebmLesves jkelÌe yeveeJfeCeeN³ee DeJe³eeJee®b³ee jeisee®es MekseÀ[es jeiseer oeKeue keÀªve Ielseue.s cee³ee ekqeuÌeevfekeÀ®³ee ªefOejMeem$e (jkeÌlee®es keÀe³e& Je jesie ³eeefJe<e³eer®es Meem$e - nsceeìe@uee@peer) efJeYeeiee®es [e@. ceeukeÀce nejûesJnpe DeeefCe l³eeb®es menkeÀejer ³eebveer eofueus³ee DenJeeueele cnìues Deens keÀe,r SKeeoe DeHeJeeo JeieUlee ¿ee meJe& jesi³eeb®ee Fefleneme meeb i elees keÀer meJe& p eCe ef J eef J eOe ef J e<eejer jmee³eveeb®³ee mebHekeÀe&le Deeues nesles. ³eele meceeJesMe neslees lees DeveskeÀ HeÀJeeN³eeb®ee, p³eele [er[erìer, keÌueesj[sve, yesvPeerve, efueb[sve DeeefCe Hesì^esefue³ece®ee Deke&À. [e@ nejûeJsnpe®es cnCeCes Demes keÀe,r eJfeMe<sele:

iesu³ee 10 Je<ee&le efJeefJeOe efJe<eejer HeoeLee¥Meer efveie[erle Demes He³ee&JejCeecegUs nesCeeN³ee jesieeb®eer mebK³ee Jee{les Deens. JewÐekeÀer³e ef®ekeÀerlmes®³ee oerIe& DevegYeJeevegmeej l³eebvee Demes Jeeìles keÀer, jkelÌeoe<se (jkelÌee®eer DemeeOeejCe DeJemLee DeeeCfe ueefmekesÀ®es jesie ³eebveer $eemeuesu³ee jesi³eeb®ee efJeMes<e Fefleneme efometve ³eslees lees Demee - DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®³ee ne³e[^eskeÀeye&vmeMeer Deeuesuee mebHeke&À DeeefCe ner ne³e[^eskeÀeye&vme DeepekeÀeue JeeHejele Demeuesu³ee yengleskeÀ meJe& keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀele Deensle. jesi³ee®³ee JewÐekeÀer³e Feflenemee®ee meeJeOeHeCes ceeieesJee Iesleuee lej yengleskeÀJesUe ne mebyebOe efvejHeJeeoHeCes ÒemLeeefHele nesF&ue. [e@. nejûesJnpe ³ee le%eekeÀ[s l³eebveer Heeefnuesu³ee Òel³eskeÀ jesi³ee®eer leHeMeerueJeej efJeefMeä ceeefnleer Deens - Deves k eÀ jes i eûemle pemes jkeÌ l ee®es keÀke&Àjesie, MeeqkeÌlenerve keÀjCeeje Heb[gjesie (De@efveefce³ee), nepekeÀerve®ee jesie, jkeÌleoes<ee®es Flej efJekeÀej DeeefCe jkeÌle yeveefJeCeeN³ee HesMeeR®es efJekeÀej. les cnCeleele, `meJe& jesieer pes Òeotef<ele He³ee&JejCeer³e IeìkeÀeb®³ee mebHekeÀe&le Deeues Je yeN³ee®e ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele l³eeb®ee mebmeie& Peeuee.' Òel³eskeÀ jesi³ee®ee Fefleneme keÀe³e oeKeJelees? SkeÀe ef ® eb l eekeg À ue ie= e f n Ceer u ee keÀes È ³eeb ® ee (mHee³e[j) efleìkeÀeje ³esle Demes. Dee@iemì ceef n v³ee®³ee ceO³eeJej ef l eves [er [ er ì er Je Heìse^esufe³ece®ee DekeÀ& Demeueus³ee êJee®es HeÀJeejCeer ³eb$e Iesleues DeeefCe leer leUIejele iesueer. mebHetCe& leUIejele, Hee³eN³eebKeeueer, HeÀUeb®³ee keÀHeeìele DeeefCe íHHejeHeemetve JeeM³eebHe³e¥le meieȳee meeboer keÀesHeN³eele HeÀJeeje YejHetj ÒeceeCeele ceejuee. HeÀJeeje ceeªve Peeuee lemes ueies®e®e efleuee Lees[s yejs Jeeìsveemes Peeues. ceUceU Jeeìt ueeieueer. vewjeM³e Jeeìtve DeefleMe³e ef®ebleener ueeieueer ceveeuee. Heg{s Lees[îee efoJemeele efleuee yejs Jeeìt ueeieue.s Hejlbeg Peeueus³ee $eemee®³ee keÀejCeeeJfe<e³eer efleuee keÀmeueerner MebkeÀe Deeueer veener Je efleves meHìWyej ceefnv³eele l³ee®e HeOoleerves Hegvne meJe&$e HeÀJeeje ceejuee. Hejle Hejle Deepeejer He[e³e®es. Lees[s yejs Jeeìues keÀer leMee®e HeÀJeeN³ee®eer


17 HegvejeJe=Êeer keÀje³e®eer. DeMee leNnsves Depetve oesve JesUe l³ee®e ®e¬eÀeletve leer ie=efnCeer iesueer. HeÀJeejCeer®³ee eflemeN³ee me$eeveblej efle®³eele Deepeeje®eer ue#eCes efomet ueeieueer. pemes leeHe, mebeO³eeceO³es Jesovee, meeOeejCe DemJemLelee, SkeÀe Hee³eele DeMegOo jkeÌleJeeefnveer®ee oen (HeÌuesyee³eìermed). [e@ nejûeerJnpe ³eeb®³ee leHeemeCeerle Dee{Utve Deeues keÀer efleuee leerJe´ ÒeceeCeele jkeÌlee®ee keÀke&Àjesie Deens. (De@ke̳egì u³egkesÀefce³ee). Heg{u³ee ceefnv³eele®e leer cejCe HeeJeueer. [e@ nejûesJnpe®ee DeeCeKeer SkeÀ jesieer J³eJemeeef³ekeÀ neslee. pegv³ee Fceejleerleerue l³ee®es Dee@HeÀerme PegªUebveer yegpeyegpeues nesles. Jeeìsue lesJne Flemlele: JeeJejCeeN³ee PegªUebcegUs l³eeuee Deieoer DeJeIe[u³eemeejKes nesF&. cnCetve l³eeves mJele:®e GHee³e keÀje³e®es þjefJeues. yengleskeÀ Òel³eskeÀ jefJeJeej l³eeves Dee@HeÀerme®³ee leUIejele Je efvece&veg<³e peeieebJej HeÀJeeje ceejC³eele IeeueefJeuee. l³ee HeÀJeeN³eele cesLeuesì Demeuesu³ee ve@HeÌLe@eueerve®³ee êeJeCeele

ceOe mebkeÀueve ë SkeÀ HeejbHeefjkeÀ keÀuee Fmece IeeiWe[er heeIbeªve Keeueer Glejlee.s l³ee®³ee neleeleu³ee ueeybe keÀUkeÀeves eEkeÀJee keÀeþerves ceOee®es heesUs {keÀuelees. keÀ[îee®³ee Keeueer ®eej peCe keÀehe[e®eer PeesUer Oeªve GYes Demeleele. l³ee PeesUerceOes ns heesUs Pesueues peeles. veblej l³eeleerue ceOee®³ee keÀebÐeeceOetve ceOe efheUtve JesieUe keÀjleele. Pee[eJej Jemeuesu³ee Jemeenleer : JeveJeemeer, DeeoerJeemeer Je Flej ueeskeÀ je$eer®³ee JesUer IeeWie[er heebIeªve p³ee Pee[ebJej Deei³ee ceOeceeM³eeb®es heesUs Deens l³eeJej ®e{leele. DeMee heesȳeeuee ìWy³eeves Deeie oeKeJetve eEkeÀJee ceOeceeM³eebvee peeUtve mebhetCe& heeskeÀ[er®ee veeMe keÀjleele. l³eeleerue ceOee®ee keÀeobe keÀehevte keÀe{leele. ceie lees yeeoueelre Ieeuevte Keeueer mee[ s leele. ³ee ceOee®ee keÀeboe heerUtve ceOe keÀe{leele. ³ee ceOeeuee `efheUkeÀe ceOe' Demes cnCeleele. DeMee efhekeÀuesu³ee ceOeele hejeie keÀCe, cesCee®es legkeÀ[s, ceeleer Je Flej IeeCe ³esles. ¿ee he×leerle ceeMee l³ee peeiesJeªve mLeueeblej keÀjleele. l³eecegUs SkeÀoe®e ceOe keÀe{lee ³eslees. ¿ee he×leerle keÀOeer keÀOeer jeCeerceeMeer oieeJeles Je Jemeenleer®ee mebhetCe& veeMe neslees efMeJee³e DeeefoJeemeer ueeskeÀebvee ceOeceeM³eeb®es Yejhetj [bKe yemeleele. megOeeefjle he×le : ns meJe& ìeUC³eemeeþer ceOe keÀe{C³ee®eer megOeejerle he×le keÀWêe³re ceOecgee#fekeÀe meMbeeOseve Je hee´Mfe#eCe membLee, heCges ³eLses eJfekeÀemfele keÀjC³eele Deeueer Deens. ¿ee he×leerceO³es SkeÀe heesȳeeheemetve SkeÀehes#ee DeefOekeÀ JesUe Je efoJemee ceOe mebkeÀueerle keÀjlee ³eslees. l³ee®ehe´ceeCes le³eej kesÀuesu³ee efJeefMeÿ heesMeeKeecegUs l³eeb®es ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee [bKeeheemetve j#eCe nesles. Pee[ebJej eEkeÀJee keÀ[îeebJej yemeuesu³ee ceOeceeM³eeb®³ee Jemeenleerheemetve ceOe mebkeÀueve keÀjC³eemeeþer ueeieCeejer DeJepeejs cnCepes-[bKe j#ekeÀ heesMeeKe, ®esnN³eeJej IeeueC³ee®eer mebj#eCe peeUer, neleceespes, efMe[er eEkeÀJee oesj, mìsveuesme mìerue®eer yeeoueer, ceOe ieeUC³eemeeþer mìsveuesme mìerue®eer ®eeUCeer Je Yeeb[s, Oeejoej ®eeketÀ,ceOe ieesUe keÀjC³eemeeþer efhebhe, Oetj osC³eemeeþer meeOeve. p³ee Pee[ebJej Jemeenleer Deensle, DeMee Pee[ebKeeueer heneìs®³ee JesUer 3-4 efþkeÀeCeer JeeUuesu³ee keÀeìke̳ee, Deesuee heeueehee®eesUe ìeketÀve Oetj keÀjC³eele ³eslees. ne Oetj Jemeenleerhe³e¥le

25 ìkeÌkesÀ [er[erìer efcemeUJetve kesÀueues leerJe´ efceÞeCe nesles. Lees[îee®e efoJemeele l³eeuee melele peKeceebmeejKes Je´Ce nesTve jkeÌle ³esT ueeieues. Mejerjebleie&le DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer jkeÌlem$eeJe Peeu³eeves lees oJeeKeev³eele / ne@efmHeìueceO³es oeKeue Peeuee. l³ee®³ee jkeÌlee®eer leHeemeCeer kesÀueer lesJne Demes efomeues keÀer l³ee®³ee DeefmLeceppesle (yeesve ce@jes) Deel³ebeflekeÀ KeUiee He[u³eemeejKes Peeues Deens. ³ee jesieeuee cnCeleele, &meoes<e DeJe³eJeeb®ee DeMekeÌleHeCee & (DeHueeefmìkeÀ De@vesefce³ee). Heg{erue Hee®e les mee[s Hee®e ceefnv³eeYeje®³ee DeJeOeerle Flej GHe®eejebmeesyele l³ee®es 59JesUe jkeÌle yeoueues. (yue[ ì^evmeHe̳etPeve). ³ee meJee&cegUs l³eeuee Lees[erHeÀej jesiecegkeÌleer ueeYeueer. Hejbleg Deboepes 9 Je<ee¥veblej ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ Demee jkeÌlee®ee keÀke&Àjesie Peeu³ee®es efveoMe&veeme Deeues. ¬eÀceMeë hees®eu³eeJej, ceOeceeM³ee heesUs mees[eJe³eeme ueeieleele. ceOeceeM³eebveer heesUs mees[ues keÀer ceie ceOe keÀe{Ceeje [bKe j#ekeÀ heesMeeKe Ieeuetve, Oetj osC³ee®es meeOeve, ®eeketÀ Je yeejerkeÀ oesjer IesTve Pee[eJej ®e{tve heesȳeehe³e¥le peelees. ns meeOeve JeeUuesu³ee keÀeìke̳ee Je l³eeJej Deesueer heeves yeebOetve le³eej kesÀuesues Demeles. ns hesìJetve le³eej nesCeeN³ee Oegjeves heesȳeeJejerue jeefnuesu³ee ceOeceeM³ee otj kesÀu³ee peeleele. heesȳee®³ee SkeÀe keÀesheN³eele eEkeÀJee ceO³eYeeieer ceOee®ee keÀeboe Demelees. lees keÀeboe Oeejoej metjerves keÀehetve yeeoueerle þsJeuee peelees. ner yeeoueer oesje®³ee mene³³eeves Keeueer mees[ueer peeles. ¿ee he×leercegUs mebhetCe& heesȳee®ee veeMe ve neslee ceOe mebkeÀueerle keÀjlee ³eslees. veblej ceOeceeM³ee l³eeb®³ee heesȳeeJej hejle peeTve yemeleele Je l³eeb®es keÀe³e& vesnceermeejKes meg© þsJeleele. ceOee®³ee keÀebÐeeheemetve ceOe keÀe{C³ee®eer he×le ë ceOee®ee keÀeboe ®eeUCeerle þsJeuee peelees. ceOee®³ee keÀebÐeeuee ceO³eYeeieer SkeÀ he[oe Demelees. l³ee he[Ðeeuee oesvner yeepetveer megjerves keÀehe efoues peeleele. ¿ee keÀeheebceOetve mJeí Je heejoMe&keÀ ceOe yeensj he[tve ®eeUCeerletve Keeue®³ee Yeeb[îeele pecee neslees. megOeeefjle he×leerle keÀ[îeeJej yemeuesu³ee ceOeceeM³eebheemetve ceOe keÀe{C³eemeeþer oesje®³ee efMe[er®ee Jeehej keÀjC³eele ³eslees. ³ee efMe[erJeªve leer J³eÊeÀer neleele ueebye keÀUkeÀ IesTve Glejles. ³ee keÀUkeÀe®³ee SkeÀe ìeskeÀeuee Oeejoej nl³eeje®eer hee®ej ueeJeuesueer Demeles. ¿ee®³ee mene³³eeves HeÀÊeÀ ceOee®ee keÀeboe keÀehetve keÀe{uee peelees. ne keÀeboe Jeªve mees[uesu³ee yeeoueerle eEkeÀJee PeesUerle Pesueuee peelees Je veblej lees Jej Dees{tve Iesleuee peelees. veblej ceOee®³ee keÀebÐeeuee ceOeerue he[Ðee®³ee oesvner yeepetbvee keÀehe osTve mJe®í ceOe ieesUe kesÀuee peelees. ceOeceeM³ee keÀeheuesuee Yeeie hejle yeebOetve keÀe{leele Je l³eele ceOe pecee keÀjleele. ¿ee Jemeenleer ceOetve hegvne oer[ ceefnv³eeves ceOe keÀe{lee ³eslees. ¿ee he×leerle ceOeceeMeeb®es heesUs Je ceeMee oesvner megjef#ele jenleele. l³eecegUs ner he×le HeÀe³eosMeerj Deens. ³ee he×leercegUs ceOeceeM³eeb®ee mebnej nesle veener Je l³eeb®eer he´pee Jee{t MekeÀles. ceOeceeM³ee vewmee|iekeÀefjl³ee JeveeceOeerue HegÀueesN³ee®es hejeieerkeÀjCe keÀjC³ee®ee ceesþe Jeeìe G®euele Demeleele.


18

HeÀgueJee

ves®es

FERN

Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 9324565060 ceveg<³eeuee keÀmeues keÀmeues veeo, Jes[ ueeiesue ³ee®ee vesce veener. keÀenerJesUe ³ee Jes[euee `mania'Demes cnCeleele. meeOeejCe 1830-40 ®³ee Deemeheeme Fbiueb[ceOes ueeskeÀebvee pteridomania Peeuee. Pterido cnCepes JevemheleeRceOeu³ee pteridophytes cnCepes ves®es. ns Jes[sheCe SJe{s nesles keÀer eqJnkeÌìesefj³eve keÀeUeleu³ee he´l³eskeÀ ieesäerle les efomee³e®eb. yeeieebceOes®e veJns lej Iejele ves®³ee®³ee kegbÀ[îee, keÀueekegÀmej,ef®e$e, HeÀefve&®ej, meeefnl³e ... cnCeeue efleLes, SJe{s®e keÀe³e lej efyeeqmkeÀìebJej ef[PeeF&vener l³ee®es®e. meg©Jeeleeruee ngMeej ueeskeÀeb®eer Pee[b cnCetve ¿eeb®ee he´meej Peeuee. heefnu³eeboe Þeercebleebyejesyej®e meieȳeebveer®e ves®³ee®eer Pee[b Jee{Jee³euee Iesleueer. ves®es G<Ce-oceì keÀìeryebOeeletve ³esle Demeu³eeves l³eebvee Jee{Jee³euee l³ee®e he´keÀej®es ke=Àef$ece JeeleeJejCe le³eej keÀjeJes ueeiee³e®es. keÀe®e Iej, ceesþeues Ke[keÀ, Jeenleb heeCeer ¿eeb®eer GYeejCeer/ceeb[Ceer keÀªve ves®es ueeJeues peele Demes. p³eeb®³eekeÀ[s DeMeer megefJeOee veJnleer les JeeUJeuesueer ves®³ee®eer heeveb Deuyece keÀªve þsJele nesles. ves®es ieesUe keÀjCeejer he´l³eskeÀ J³eefÊeÀ mJele:®ee mebûen ceesþîee leesN³eele he´oe|Mele keÀjle. ves®³eeb®eer ceeefnleer JneJeer cnCetve DeveskeÀ hegmlekebÀ he´keÀeefMele Peeueer. ves®es ieesUe keÀje³euee pebieueele ceesefncee efveIee³e®³ee. peieeleu³ee keÀevee-keÀesheN³eeletve, keÌJeef®ele peerJe Oeeske̳eele Ieeuegvener ves®es ieesUe kesÀues peele. ves®es ne he´keÀej cegUele®e Jes[ ueeJeCeeje Deens. ³eeb®ee Fefleneme lej efJeue#eCe Deens. megceejs 360 ue#e Je<ee¥hetJeea he=LJeerJej ves®es ner®e Jevemheleer nesleer. l³eeb®es efJeefJeOe DeekeÀej-he´keÀej DeeqmlelJeele nesles. ves®³eebveer he=LJeerJej [e³eveesmeesjeb®ee efJenej yeefIeleuee Deens DeeefCe ceveg<³ee®eer Gl¬eÀebleerosefKeue. ceie JevemheleeR®eerner Gl¬eÀebleer Peeueer. HegÀuesHeÀUs-efye³ee osCeeN³ee Jevemheleer OejleerJej efvecee&Ce Peeu³ee, eqmLejeJeu³ee. ve®ses cee$e l³ee®b³eeMeer peieC³ee®³ee mheOelxe ceeies He[ues DeeeCfe DemeKb³e ve®s³ee®bes he´keÀej veeceMes<e Peeues. Deepe pes ves®es Deeheu³eeuee efomeleele les MeskeÀ[eskeÀjes[es Je<ee¥hetJeeaner lemes®e nesles. HetjlelJe Meem$e%eebvee Depetvener ves®³eeb®es DeMce, efpeJeeMce meehe[leele pes Deepe®³ee ves®³eebMeer lebleesleble pegUleele. Jevemheleer Meem$eeleu³ee cee@HeÀexuee@efpemì, De@veeìesefcemìmed, He@efueDeesyeesì@efvemì DeeefCe efmemìsce@efìmìmed ³ee meieȳeebvee®e ves®³eele jme. Deecne GÐeeveeJfeÐee Meem$e%eevbee lej ve®ses Jejoeve®e þjleele. yeeielseu³eemeeJeueer®³ee DebOeeje®³ee peeieer, efpeLes keÀener GieJele veener efleLes ns nceKeeme HeÀesHeÀeJeleele. l³eeb®eer veepetkeÀ, ve#eeroej heeveb yeeies®eer MeesYee Jee{Jeleele. efveke=Àä peefceveerle ves®es GÊece Jee{leele. Gueì he´otef<ele peefceveer megOeeje³euee ves®³eeb®ee Jeehej kesÀuee peelees.

he´ogef<ele peefceveerletve pe[ Oeelet, DemexefvekeÀ keÀe{C³eemeeþer l³eeb®ee Ghe³eesie neslees. ves®es Jevemheleer Demeueer lejer l³eeb®³eele DeeefCe Flej JevemheleeRceO³es keÀceeueer®ee HeÀjkeÀ peeCeJelees. Meeeqm$e³e Yee<eslener Jevemheleer lep%e ves®³eeb®³ee efJeefJeOe Yeeieebvee Jesieȳee veeJeebveer mebyeesOeleele. ves®³eeb®³ee heeveebvee `ÖeÀe@v[' cnìues peeles. yengleskeÀ meJe&®e ves®³eebvee SkeÀe®e osþeJej DemebK³e heeves Demeleele. keÀenerJesUe ner heeveb JesieUer-JesieUer Demeleele DeeefCe keÀener JesUe ner®e heeveb nelee®³ee Hebp³eeÒeceeCes pegUuesueer Demeleele. DeekeÀejelener he´®eb[ efJeefJeOelee Demeles. keÀener ves®³eeb®eer heeveb 1/16 Fb®e Demeleele lej keÀeneR®eer Heeveb 12 HegÀìeb®eer Demeleele. ves®³eeb®³ee HeÀebÐee cnCelee ³eeJ³ee Demes ³ee®es je³ePeescme. yeN³ee®eoe les peefceveer®³ee Deele oyeuesueb Demeleb. ves®³eebvee HegÀues vemeu³eecegUs HeÀUb vemeleele DeeefCe l³eecegUs efye³ee osefKeue vemeleele. efye³eeb®es keÀece mHeesDeme& keÀjleele. mHeesDeme& cnCepes DeefYeJe=odOeer®es meg#ce-keÀCe. DemebK³e mHeesDeme& SkeÀ$e SkeÀe ieÇîeele Demeleele. p³eeme sorus cnCeleele. heeveeb®³ee ceeie®³ee yeepeguee Deieoer he×leMeerjheCes ¿eeb®eer ceeb[Ceer Peeuesueer efomeles. l³eeb®³ee Dee³eg<³eele ves®es keÀesìîeJeOeer mHeesDeme& mees[leele. ³eesi³e efþkeÀeCeer, l³eeb®³eemeeþer JeeleeJejCe hees<ekeÀ Demeueb lej leer ©peleele. heCe ¿ee mHeesDeme&hewkeÀer HeÀej keÀceer ©peg MekeÀleele. ¿ee ©peuesu³ee mHeesDeme&®es ie@c³esìesHeÀeFì yeveles DeeefCe l³ee FJeu³eeMee mHeesDeme& heemevge ve®s³ee®es vej DeeeCfe ceeoer evfeceeC&e nelseele. l³ee®b³ee HegvejeslHeeoveemeeþer heeCeer ueeieles. cnCetve®e heeC³ee®³eepeJeU ves®es Yejhegj he´ceeCeele efomeleele. l³ee efMeJee³e MeeKeeb®es legkeÀ[s ueeJegve ves®³eeb®eer DeefYeJe=odOeer keÀjCes menpe Meke̳e Demeleb. yeeieebceO³es lemes®e kesÀues peeles. ves®es GÊece met®ekeÀ (Fbef[kesÀìj) Deensle. les efpeLes GieJeleele, Jee{leele, efleLeu³ee heefjeqmLeleer®es les GÊece ÐeeslekeÀ Demeleele. l³eecegUs ves®es he³ee&JejCee®ee DeY³eeme keÀjC³eeme Ghe³egÊeÀ þjleele.HeefjmebmLee mebJeOe&vee®³ee ¢äerves ner ceeefnleer Del³eble Ghe³eesieer þjles. he´l³eskeÀ ves®³ee®³ee he´keÀejeuee efJeefMeÿ he´keÀej®es leeheceeve, ceeleer,Deeê&lee, meecet, Gpes[ DeeJeM³ekeÀ Demeleele. GoenjCeeLe& Asplenium bulbiferum Jeenl³ee heeC³eepeJeU Jee{les. Asplenium trichomanes ®egveKe[er®³ee Ke[keÀebJej Pteridium esculentum KeesueJej ceeleerle, Gpes[e®³ee efþkeÀeCeer, pesLes heeCeer cegyeuekeÀ Deens. heeJemeeȳeele efYeleeRJej Jee{Ceejs Maidenhair fern SkeÀJesU Ke[keÀeJej Jee{leb heCe Deeheu³ee kegbÀ[erle cegUer®e veener, l³ee®es ns®e keÀejCe Deens.


vesÂŽes

Fern


HeejbHeeefjkeÀ He×leerves DeeefCe efvemeiee&Meer cesU meeOetve meCe meepejs keÀjleevee...


ieeCeeje efmekeÀe[e

uesmej iueeme yu³et


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³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338

ekfeÀìkeÀe®b³ee eJfeMJeele

ieeCeeje efmekeÀe[e pebieueele keÀenermee o®ekeÀJeCeeje ne DeeJeepe Heenlee Deemeceble Ye©ve ìekeÀlees DeeefCe efpeleke̳ee De®eevekeÀ meg© neslees lemee®e De®eevekeÀ Leebyeleesner. ner Demeles efkeÀìkeÀJeiee&leerue efmekeÀe[e ³ee efkeÀìkeÀe®eer JeeF&u[ efmecHeÀveer. Pee[e®³ee Kees[eJej o[uesuee SkeÀ vej efmekeÀe[e leejmJejele `efkeÀ j j Pe Pe' DeMeer uekesÀj mees[tve megjJeele keÀjlees DeeefCe DeemeHeeme®es meieUs®e vej leeue mes leeue efceueekeÀj meg© nesleele. veJeue cnCepes efmekeÀe[e ne meieUe megjcesU kebÀþeefJevee®e meeoj keÀjle Demelees. efkeÀìkeÀJeieea³e Demeu³eeves efmekeÀe[euee mJej³eb$e Jee lelmece DeJe³eJe®e vemelees. vej efmekeÀe[e®³ee íeleerJejleer oesvner yeepetuee efìbyeue veeJee®es DeesUKeu³ee peeCeeN³ee oesve Huesìme Demeleele. DeeHeu³ee mvee³egb®eer Deeflepeueo neue®eeue keÀ©ve efmekeÀe[e ³ee Huesìme®eer GIe[PeeHe keÀjlees DeeHeues mebieerle SskeÀJelees. ieUîeeefJevee keÀe{uesuee ne DeeJeepe keÀceer peemle keÀjC³eemeeþer MejerjeJej Keeme DeeJejCener Demeles. ns DeeJejCe Jej Keeueer keÀ©ve efmekeÀe[e DeeJeepee®eer HeÆer keÀceer peemle keÀ© MekeÀlees. ³ee meieUîee ³eb$eCes®ee JeeHej keÀjerle meskebÀoeuee npeejJesUe efkeÀefjkeÀjC³ee®eer #ecelee efmekeÀe[epeJeU Demeles. keÀener vejeb®ee G®®ejJe lej DeOeea efkeÀueesceerìj DeblejeHe³e&le menpe SsketÀ peelees. Deb[îeeletve yeensj Deeuesuee yeeue efmekeÀe[e ueies®e ceeleerle efMe©ve Yetceeriele neslees DeeefCe ceeleerKeeueer 3 les 17 Je<ex jenlees. ³ee Yetceeriele DeJemLesle Pee[eb®³ee cegUebletve Devvejme Mees<etve yeeue efmekeÀe[e GojYejCe keÀjlees. Òeew{ Peeu³eeJej peefceveeryeensj Deeuesuee efmekeÀe[e keÀener DeeþJe[s®e peielees.

Singing Cicadas Cicadas are from Order Homoptera. The cicadas are a family of bugs whose shrill, piercing calls are so much part of our jungles. The loudest cicadas can be heard over a distance of ½ kilometer. They are typically forest insects, but do occur elsewhere also. The cicada is remarkable for its prolonged infancy. The young cicada nymphs dig in the soil and suck at roots and develop very slowly through thirteen, seventeen or more years. Their adult life is only of few weeks long. They depend on trees for food, when young they suck at roots as adults on tree trunks and branches. They are colored and marked like bark of tree on which they generally live. It is only the male cicada that sings, the female can hear, but can not answer. Cicadas may not be seen for many years, then they appear suddenly in great crowds only to disappear totally for many years again, when literally they go underground. After mating, female deposits eggs in twigs of shrubs and small trees. The eggs may overwinter, or they may hatch and drop the ground. The nymphs dig into the soil and spend a number of years in the ground feeding on the roots of trees. When they become an adult, they come to surface of ground and build a soil tower that is hollow in between and afterwards they come out of tower and settle down on trees.

www.yuwarajgurjar.com

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901

uesmej ûeeme yu³et Meem$eer³e veeJe – efPePeervee Deesìer kegÀue ë uee³eefmeveer[er GHekegÀue ë Hee@efueceBefìveer uesmej ûeeme yu³et ns ûeeme yu³et ieìeleueb SkeÀ ueneveKegjb HegÀueHeeKe©. HebKee®eer ueebyeer 19 les 26 efceefce Demeles. HebKeeb®eer Keeue®eer yeepet efHeÀkeÀì keÀj[îee leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®eer lej Jej®eer yeepet vej-ceeoerle JesieJesieUer Demeles. veje®³ee HebKeeb®ee Jej®ee jbie ie[o efveUe lej ceeoerle ie[o leHeefkeÀjer Demelees. ceeieerue HebKee®³ee yeepetJej DeOeJ&eleU &g ekeÀej DeekeÀejele leHeekfeÀjer eþfHekeÀs Demeleele. l³eeleeure HeKbee®³ee keÀ[pseJeUeure oesve efþHekesÀ Flej efþHeke̳eebHeemetve JesieUs HeCe SkeÀceskeÀebueiele Demeleele. Hegef{ue HebKee®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepet®³ee Jej®³ee keÀ[speJeU Heeb{N³ee jbieeves Jesef<ìle ieesue keÀeUîee efþHekeÀîeeb®eer meeKeUer Demeles. l³eeleerue SkeÀ®e efþHekeÀe GYee uebyeJeleg&UekeÀej Demelees. oesvner HebKeeb®³ee Keeue®³ee yeepetJej Jej®³ee keÀ[suee efHeÀkeÀì leHeefkeÀjer efþHekeÀîeeb®eer ve#eer Demeles. HebKeeb®³ee Jej®³ee þUkeÀ leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®ee keÀ[e l³eeJej Demeuesu³ee Heeb{N³ee kesÀmeebcegUs GþeJeoej Peeuesu³ee Demeleele. HebKeeb®eer Jej®eer yeepet vej-ceeoerle JesieJesieUer Demeles. YeejleYej efomeCeejs ns HegÀueHeeKe© peieele ÞeeruebkeÀe, HeeefkeÀmleeve, vesHeeU, Yelteeve, yeeibueeoMse Je c³eeveceej oMseecbeOes Dee{Ule.s Je<eY&ej eofmeCeeN³ee ³ee HeÀgueHeeKejeuee ceeskeÀUîee peeiee Hemeble Demeleele. mejU js<else ve G[lee FLes-efleLes Demes nUtJeej Jesieeveb efYejefYej G[C³ee®eer ³ee®eer He×le Deens. meHeeìerHeemetve 2000 efceìj Gb®eer®³ee ìskeÀ[îeebceOes ³ee®ee JeeJej Demelees. Flej ûeeme yu³et HegÀueHeeKejebHeceeCes ³eeueener SkeÀe peeieer yemeu³eeJej mJele:YeesJeleer ieesue ieesue efHeÀjC³ee®eer meJe³e Deens. peefceveerueiele DemeCeeN³ee ueneve HegÀueebJej leer ceOegÒeeMeve keÀjleele. JeeìeCeeJeieea³e JevemHeleeRJej ner HegÀueHeeKejs Deb[er Ieeueleele.

Lesser Grass Blue Sc Name - Zizina Otis Famiy - Lycaenidae Sub-family - Polyommatinae Another small butterfly belonging to the ‘Grass Blues’. Wing span 19 to 26 mm. The underside of wings is light brown. On the hind wing on the underside small spots are in semicircular arch however, two nearing the edge are leaned out and close to each other. On the fore wing there is a chain of black spots near the upper edge and one of them is vertically oblong. On both wings light brown spots are along the sharp brown edge which has white fringe. On the upper side male is bright blue with broad black band forming the outer edge, that tapers broadly upwards. Female upper side is dark brown with scattered blue at the base of wings. It is found throughout India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It flies from sea level up to 2000 meters in hills. It prefers open space. Flight is wayward. As all the blues do, this butterfly too turns round and round whenever it sits down. They nectar on small flowers along the ground. They lay eggs on various plants of Legume family.


24

evfeje#reCe

ceybgeFp&eJeU eofmeueuses He#eer DeefJeveeMe Yeiele : 98920 61899

evfeȳee íelee®reer heeCekeÀeyWe[er íe³eeef®e$e - ceveer<e kesÀjkeÀj

Slaty-breasted Rail efþkeÀeCe ë [eWefyeJeueer

keÀyegleje®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee DeeKeg[ Mesheìer®ee he#eer. heeCeLeU peeiee, Kee[erefkeÀveejs, jeceyeeCe ieJele Je oueoueer Yeeieele JeemleJ³e keÀjlees. ef®eKeueeleerue efkeÀìkeÀ, peue®ej lemes®e Jevemheleer®³ee efye³ee megOoe Keelees. Yeejleeyejesyej®e Deboceeve efvekeÀesyeej yesìs Je ÞeeruebkeÀe ³esLes Dee{Ulees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele. A short tailed pigeon sized bird. It prefers wetlands, mangroves, typha reeds and marshes. Feeds on invertebrates, insects and seeds of aquatic plants. It is resident in India as well as Andamans, Nicobar and Srilanka. Male and female look similar.

ekfeÀjecfepeer me³geh&e#eer íe³eeef®e$e - Mebleveg kegÀJesmekeÀj

Vigour’s Sunbird efþkeÀeCe ë ceeCeieeJe

ef®eceCeerhes#ee íesìîee DeekeÀeje®ee jbieerle he#eer. meoenefjle lemes®e heeveieUer®eer Jeves ³eeb®eyejesyej Menjeleerue yeeieebceO³es megOoe JeemleJ³e keÀjlees. HegÀueebceOeerue ceOe lemes®e keÀesUer Je Flej ³eebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. Yeejleeyejesyej Flej peJeU®³ee osMeebceO³es keÀener Ghepeeleer Dee{Uleele. ceeoer efnjJeì lehekeÀerjer jbiee®eer Demeles. A colourful bird, smaller than a sparrow. Prefers evergreen and deciduous forests, also seen at gardens near human habitation. Feeds on nectar as well as spiders and other insects. Resident in India and some subspecies are seen in subcontinent. Female is olive green and brownish in colour.

Ieej Black Kite íe³eeef®e$e - Deeefcej MesKe

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&

keÀeJeȳeehes#ee ceesþîee DeekeÀeje®ee efMekeÀejer he#eer. pebieues lemes®e ceveg<³eJemleer peJeU meJe&$e®e Dee{Ulees. heeCeLeU peeieebceOetve Jeentve ³esCeejer ce=le peveeJejs Je Flej peerJe, íesìs he#eer, ceemes, mej[s, Gboerj ³eeJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. Yeejlee yejesyej®e peJeU®³ee osMeebceO³es yengleebMe Yeeieele Dee{Ulees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele. A raptor bigger than crow. Seen everywhere in forests and near human habitation. Feeds on Bio waste, small birds, fish, lizards and rats. Common resident in Indian subcontinent. Male and female look similar.

iee³eyeieUe

Cattle Egret

íe³eeef®e$e - keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&

keÀeJeȳee®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee SkeÀ meeceev³e yeieUe. ceeUjeves, ieJeleeU he´osMe Je GefkeÀj[îeeJej ieeF&-cnMeeRmeceJesle JeemleJ³e keÀjlees. Yeejleer³e GheKeb[ele meJe&$e®e Dee{Ulees. veekeÀlees[s, ieJeleeleerue efkeÀìkeÀ, ceemes, mej[s ³eebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. efJeCeer®³ee nbieeceele ceeves®ee Je heeþer®ee jbie efheJeUe neslees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele. Crow sized bird. Prefers open lands, Dumping grounds and seen around the cattle. Resident in Indian subcontinent. Feeds on grasshoppers, other insects, fish and lizards. It gets a buff plumage in breeding season. Male and female look similar.

meeceev³e lelgeejer Common Sandpiper íe³eeef®e$e - DebkegÀj ceesF&$ee

efþkeÀeCe ë Yeeb[gHe

cewves®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee SkeÀ ef®eKeuehee³eìe he#eer. veÐee, KeejHegÀìer, heeCeLeU peeiee Je oueoueer he´osMeeceO³es JeemleJ³e keÀjleele. ef®eKeueeleerue efkeÀ[s Je peue®ejebJej iegpejeCe keÀjleele. Yeejleeleerue yengleebMe YeeieebceO³es efnJeeUer mLeueeblej keÀjleele. efnceeue³e Je GÊejskeÀ[erue osMeebceO³es he´peveve keÀjleele. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele. A Myna sized wader. Prefers rivers, mangroves, wetlands and marshes. Feeds on invertebrates. Winter migrant to India and breeds at Himalayas and Northern countries. Male and female look similar.

JeìJeìîee Plain Prinia íe³eeef®e$e - DeefJeveeMe Yeiele

efþkeÀeCe ë Yeeb[gHe

ef®eceCeer®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee ueneve he#eer. ieJeleeU he´osMe, veoerefkeÀveejs, oueoueer Yeeie Je Peg[heer pebieue DeMee efþkeÀeCeer JeemleJ³e keÀjlees. megjJebì, veekeÀlees[s Je Flej efkeÀìkeÀebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. Yeejleer³e GheKeb[ele meJe&$e®e Dee{Ulees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele. A Sparrow sized small bird. prefers grasslands, river beds, marshes and scrub forests. Feeds on caterpillars , grasshoppers and other insects. Resident in Indian subcontinent. Male and female look similar.


25

Jeelee& He$e / News Letter AQUA FARMING : On 12th June, Green Career Courses conducted a workshop on Fish Farming. The participants were introduced to the various concepts and methods of fish farming with help of presentation. Dr. Prasad Karnik was the resource person and Ms. Shilpa Shirwadkar assisted them.

celm³eMesleer ë efo. 12 petve jespeer He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee ûeerve keÀefj³ej keÀesmexme Debleie&le celm³eMesleer keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nelse.s ³ee keÀe³eM&eeUlse menYeeieer Peeueus³eevbee celm³eMelsee®r³ee eJfeeJfeOe ÒekeÀejeebJfe<e³eer ceeieo&Mev&e keÀjC³eele Deeues. [e@. Òemeeo keÀefCe&keÀ ³eebveer menYeeieeRvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. l³eebvee efMeuHee efMejJee[keÀj efnves mene³³e kesÀues.

Je=#ejesHeCe keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 18 petve jespeer He. o. ceb[Ueves ieCesMe cebefoj mebmLeeve, [eWefyeJeueer ³esLes Je=#ejesHeCe keÀuee DeeefCe Meðe keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve kesÀues nesles. keÀe³e&MeeUsle menYeeieer Peeuesu³eebvee Debpevee osJemLeUs ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Je=#ejesHeCee®eer iejpe, keÀesCel³ee peeieer keÀesCeles Je=#e ueeJeeJes, Je=#ejesHeCee®³ee He×leer DeeefCe Meem$e ³eeefJe<e³eer l³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. LECTURE ON SCIENCE OF PLANTATION : On 18th June, Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal organized Informative lecture on Art and Science behind Plantation at Ganesh Mandir Sanstha, Dombivali. Mrs. Anjana Devsthale was the resource person. She explained about selection of plants for the particular area, need, methods and techniques of plantation.

DebkegÀj Leerce Heeke&À Yesì ë efo. 28 petve jespeer ceneje<ì^ yee³ees[e³eJnjefmeìer yees[e&®es meom³e Depe³e efHeuueejermesþ ³eebveer He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee keÀUJee ³esLeerue DebketÀj Leerce Heeke&Àuee Yeìs eofuee.r ³eeJeU s er Yejle iee[ s eybe,s DeeJfeveeMe Yeiele DeeeCfe eMfeuHee eMfejJee[keÀj ³eevbeer eHfeuueejemreþs ³eebveer He.o.ceb[Ue®³ee efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀuHe DeeefCe GHe¬eÀceeb®eer ceeefnleer efoueer. VISIT TO ANKUR THEME PARK : On 28th June, Mr. Ajay Pillariseth (Member of Maharashtra State Biodiversity Board) visited PDM's Ankur theme park. Bharat Godambe, Avinash Bhagat and Shilpa Shirvadkar introduced and showed them the entire working projects of Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal.

DeeHeueb peibeue GHe¬eÀce ë he³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[ b U meb®eeefuele ûeeceerCe He³ee&JejCe MeeUs®³ee Jeleerves `DeeHeueb pebieue' ne GHe¬eÀce efo. 2 peguew Heemetve megª Peeuee. ³ee GHe¬eÀceebleie&le efpeune Heefj<eo MeeUe yeebiejJee[er, keÀu³eeCe ³esLeerue efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer Ssve DeeefCe ceesne®³ee Pee[eb®eer jesHes le³eej kesÀueer. ³ee jesHeeb®eer SkeÀ Je<e&Yej keÀeUpeer IesC³eele ³esCeej Demetve veblej ³ee jesHeeb®eer ueeieJe[ ieeJee®³ee Heejfmejele keÀjC³eele ³eCseej Deen.s He.o. ce[bUe®³ee Yejle iees[ebyes ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

OUR FOREST ACTIVITY : P.D.M.'s Gramin Paryavaran Shala starts it's OUR FOREST activity from 2nd July. The students from Z.P. school, Bangarwadi, Kalyan prepared saplings of Terminalia tomentosa and Madhuca indica. Bharat Godambe guided the students.


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DebkegÀj Leerce Heeke&À Yesì ë efo. 30 petve jespeer þeCes ³esLeerue HeesÎej Fbìjve@Meveue mketÀue®³ee 6Jeer DeeeCfe 7Jee®r³ee eJfeÐeeL³eev¥eer keÀUJee ³eLseeure DekbeÀgj Leerce Heeke&Àuee Yesì efoueer. ³eeJesUer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee jesHes ueeJeCes, l³eeb®eer keÀeUpeer IesCes lemes®e HeÀgueHeeKeª GÐeeveeeJfe<e³eer ceeenfleer oCs³eele Deeueer efMeuHee efMejJee[keÀj DeeefCe ©Heeueer ceneuee ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

VISIT TO ANKUR THEME PARK : On 30th June, students from Podar International school, Thane visited Ankur Theme Park. Students were guided about Poly bag filling , vermi compost , soil mixture. Ms. Shilpa Shirwadkar and Rupali Mahala guided the students.

Je=#ejesHeCe keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 29 petve jespeer DeefYeveeJe efJeÐeeue³e, keÀu³eeCe ³esLes Je=#ejesHeCe keÀe³eM&eeU®ses Dee³eepseve keÀjC³eele Deeues nelse.s ³eeJeU s er MeeUlseeure 5Jeer les 10 Jee®res 400 eJfeÐeeLeea GHeefmLele nesles. He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues DeeefCe efveÿe jeTle ³eebveer ueIeeg®fe$eeHfeÀlee®r³ee ceeO³eceelevte jeHses ueeieJe[ DeeeCfe l³ee®beer keÀeUpeer keÀMeer I³ee³e®eer ³ee®es ceeieo&Mev&e keÀsue.s TREE PLANTATION AND PRESENTATION : On 29th June, Tree Plantation Presentation was done at Abhinav Vidyalay, Par Naka, Kalyan. 400 Students of 5th to 10th were attended. Mrs. Rupali Shaiwale and Mrs. Nishtha Raut from Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal guided the students how to plant saplings and how to take care of them.

Hue@efmìkeÀ efJejesOeele DeefYe³eeve ë efo. 3 peguew jespeer He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[U, Tpee& HeÀeTb[sMeve DeeefCe eqJnpeve [eWefyeJeueer ³eeb®³eeJeleerves ceeveHee[e jes[, [eWefyeJeueer ³esLes Hue@efmìkeÀ efJejesOeer DeefYe³eeve Dee³eesefpele keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ³eeJesUer ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues DeeefCe Þeer. YeeieJele ³eebveer ceeveHee[e jes[ ³esLeerue ogkeÀeveeoejebvee `mes vees ìt Hue@efmìkeÀ'®eer Heesmìme& Jeeìueer DeeefCe Hue@efmìkeÀ®ee JeeHej ìeUC³ee®es DeeJeenve keÀjC³eele Deeues. PLASTIC AWARENESS PROGRAMME : On 5th July, Antiplastic Campaign was organized by Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal, Urja Foundation, Vision Dombivali at Manpada Road, Dombivli. Rupali Shaiwale and Mr. Bhagwat distributed the posters in shops and requested shopkeepers not to use plastic bags and not give plastic bags to the customers.

Hue@efmìkeÀ efJejesOeele DeefYe³eeve ë efo. 5 peugew jepseer He³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[ b Ue®³ee Jeleevres [eWefyeJeueer ³esLeerue efìUkeÀ efJeÐeecebefojeleerue efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee Hue@efmìkeÀ JeeHejeefJejesOeele ceeieo&Mev&e keÀjC³eele Deeue.s ³eeJeU s er Peeueus³ee ®eej me$eebceO³es F³eÊee 5Jeer les 10Jeer®³ee megceejs 800 efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee Hue@efmìkeÀ®ee JeeHej ìeUC³ee®es ceeie&oMe&ve ueIegef®e$eefHeÀleerÜejs keÀjC³eele Deeues. ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

PLASTIC AWARENESS PROGRAMME : On 3rd July, Plastic Awareness presentation was organised at Tilak Vidya Mandir, Dombivali. Approx. 800 students from 5th to 10th standerd attended. Rupali Shaiwale took the sessions and explained to the students about plastic its definition, advantages, disadvantages and importance of use of cloth bags as per presentation.


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SPECIAL ARTICLE

DANCE OF THE BEES Prof. Clara Correia clarac_02@yahoo.com

The ‘waggle dance’ might not sound like the most scientific name in the world. This is the primary way bees talk to one another. The dance that a bee performs can let other bees know where the best flowers are, the new water sources to drink from or even a new home. Karl Von Frisch, was the pioneering scientist who first discovered the waggle dance and was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work and research. The waggle dance is made up of a circuit, comprising of a figure of eight and a straight line. Bees can repeat this circuit once, twice – or even one hundred times! Different movements in the dance mean different things. The longer the waggle, the further away the item of interest (such as nectar) is. Different angles mean different things and even the speed of the waggle can change the meaning. Bees also release pheromones – special hormone with a distinct smell – to help pass on the information to their friends. Another type of dance is the ‘tremble dance’. If you think of the waggle dance as a way to tell other bees where things are, the tremble dance is a form of bee recruitment. Forager bees (the ones who find food) will perform the tremble dance to their friends to get them involved with collecting nectar for the colony. Karl Von Frisch observed that when a bee did a tremble dance for his friends, they all stopped what they were doing and went to help!

Image : Girish Ketkar

Honey facts….. Do bees get all their food from flowers? Honey bees, like humans, need carbohydrates and protein to survive, and they get both of these from flowers. The carbohydrates come from flowers’ nectar and the protein comes from pollen. Nectar is the base of all honey – it contains about 80% water, along with complex sugars. If left in its natural state, nectar would ferment, so in order to store the sugars to use during the winter, bees convert the nectar into honey. The hive bee takes the converted honey and caps it off in a beeswax cell, sealing the honey into the honeycomb so they can eat it later. How do bees survive the winter? Bees stay in their hive in winter and form a cluster around the queen. A cluster is basically a ball of bees that means the bees on the inside of the cluster always stay warm. The bees on the outside will switch places with bees on the inside, so they take turns at being warm. In this way, the bees can survive the cold. There are no flowers around in the winter months and therefore no nectar for the bees to eat in the winter. So that is why they make honey, so they have something to keep them going through the colder months.


28

SPECIAL ARTICLE

THE ‘STING’ FACTOR Prof. Clara Correia clarac_02@yahoo.com

Bees belong to the order of insects called Hymenoptera, which also includes ants, wasps, and hornets. There are over 20,000 known species of bees, but only 5 percent are social bees. Often, social bees occur in large colonies and can be a possible stinging threat. The most common social bees are honey bees and bumble bees. It is due to their abundance and close proximity to human habitation, they are more of a stinging hazard than other bees. Bees are closely related to wasps but have many microscopic, feather-like hairs that give them a hairy or fuzzy appearance. These hairs are concentrated on the bee’s abdomen and help them collect pollen. Well let me tell you that bees are more interested in your flowers not you! It’s wasps you have to be wary of. If you can identify the differences between bees and wasps, you will decrease your chances of getting stung. So here are some hints to help you tell them apart… The looks and behaviour of bees and wasps are completely different and each of them is unique, even though their coloration may appear similar. If you consider their body shape the bees have hairy bodies and legs. Their abdomen and thorax are round and their legs are flat and wide. The wasps have smooth bodies and legs. Their abdomen and thorax are cylindrical and connected with a severely tapering waist. Wasps’ legs are round and waxy. Bees are known as pollinators. This is because they visit flowers to collect pollen and sip on nectar which they use to make honey. You will rarely see a bee investigate a human habitat unless there are flowers in the vicinity. Wasps in contrast are predators. They eat other insects such as caterpillars and flies. Occasionally, they may also sip on nectar. Wasps are drawn to the smell of human food, especially sugary beverages and beer! Wild honey bee nests are very rare, you can recognise

it’s a bee hive if you can see the wax cells the bees stack on top of one another. A wasp’s nest looks like a large rounded comb made of a grey, papery pulp made of clay and they’re usually found in out of the way places, like under roof overhangs, or in dark crevices. If you see one of these nests, make sure you never disturb it! Generally, bees will use the venom in their stinger as a last resort to protect themselves and their hives when they feel threatened. If you deliberately disturb their hives without calming them first with smoke, you will soon be stung by their barbed stingers. It is because of this barbed stinger of a honeybee; it will stay in your skin after you are stung. The stringer is ripped from the thorax of the honeybee and this stress eventually causes its death. Wasps being predators, are naturally more aggressive. With very little provocation, sometime only by brushing one away, you may be stung. The stinger of a wasp is smooth and easily comes out of your skin. If you injure a wasp that is near to its nest, it will release pheromones that alerts its family, who will then come out and attack you! So next time you hear a buzz look again…… What to Do When Stung • Wash sting site and apply ice pack to minimize • swelling. • Apply baking soda and meat tenderizer in a water • paste to reduce venom spread and swelling. • Take antihistamine to lessen swelling and mild allergic • responses. • If serious reactions (i.e., dizziness, asthma, nausea, • blood pressure drop, etc.) occur, seek a doctor • IMMEDIATELY. Only the immediate injection of • epinephrine will combat this life threatening reaction.


29

SPECIAL ARTICLE

THE HONEYGUIDE BIRD Prof. Clara Correia clarac_02@yahoo.com

The Honeyguide birds(Prodotiscus insignis) are almost all drab colored birds, with a few species having some bright yellow in the plumage with white, light colored outer tail feathers who love honey, but did you know they require help! So they take assistance from the ‘Ratel’ a Honey Badger ( Mellivora capensis) a mammal. Ratel is the Afrikaans name for the honey badger — derived from the Dutch word for a honey comb, raat.Ratel Genus scientific name; Mellivora is derived from the Latinwords mel or mellis(honey) and voro (devour), hence “honey eater”. How do they do this? Honeyguides usually exhibit loud calls and chattering that attracts the Badger’s attention, it then flies ahead towards the bees’ nest making sure that the badger is following. The badger who loves honey tears open the bees nest and feasts on the bees wax, honey and larvae, and the honeyguide then feasts on the left over a payback for showing the location. Honey-guides feed regularly on bee eggs, larvae, pupae, wax worms, beeswax, caterpillars of Galleria mellonella, spiders, flying and crawling insects. Theyare among the few birds that can digest wax because its symbiotic stomach bacteria enable it to digest beeswax, honey guides are the only vertebrate known to do it.They also scavengers and feed at abandoned hives raided by other animals (African bees abandon their hives). They are confined to Sub-Saharan Africa with a few species in Asia and they are also known as indicator birds or honeybirds. The Yellow-rumped Honeyguide (Indicator xanthonotus) is a sparrow-sized bird found in the Himalayas of India, Pakistan, Bhutan and Nepal and is a resident breeder. The males are known to defend giant honey bee (Apis dorsata) hives and chase away juveniles and females during the non-breeding

season. Females have been seen at 1500m in the same area far away from any rock bee hives during the nonbreeding season. There is very little known about this species’ natural history due to their restricted and often inaccessible distribution. Humans have a long history of spotting superior abilities in other animals, and then training those animals to use those abilities to advance our own interests.The greater honeyguide is known to guide people to the nests of wild bees. One study found that use of honeyguides by the Boran people of East Africa reduces their search time for honey by approximately two-thirds. To attract the birds, the Borans call them with a penetrating whistle (known in the Boran language as Fuulido) that can be heard over a distances of greater than a kilometer and that is made by blowing air into clasped fists, modified snail shells, or hollowed-out palm nuts. Comparably, hungry honeyguides flag down humans by flying up close, moving restlessly from perch to perch, and emitting a double-noted, persistent “tirr-tirr-tirr-tirr” call. The joint food expedition commences when the honeyguide flies briefly out of sight and then returns to a nearby, conspicuously visible perch. When the human companion approaches this perch, the honeyguide takes off, displaying its white outer tail feathers, and flies to a new resting place a short distance away, calling loudly when it lands. The Boran partner then approaches the new perch and the bird flies off again, repeating the pattern. As the Borans work with the bird, they whistle and shout to keep the bird interested in guiding.The honeyguides signal the path and distance to the bee colony. Humans indeed learn fast and some of the tribals even imitate the grunts of the honey badger, which attracts the bird! Photo Source : animalia-life.com


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SPECIAL ARTICLE

FASCINATING WORLD OF HONEYBEES Dr. Neelima Kulkarni (drneelimakulkarni@gmail.com)

Insects are the most ancient beings of the living world which are considered to be successfully adapted to the changing environment of the Earth. About 80% of all living beings on Earth are insects. The most fascinating among them all are social insects like honey bees. The world of honey bee can be explored in many places including Mahabaleshwar where in honey bees are reared. There are many people who have the skill and technique of bee keeping. It is commercially viable small scale industry. It is believed that the original habitats of the honey bee are tropical climates and heavily forested areas.Honey bees can thrive in natural or domesticated environments. Honey bees originated in Africa and then spread in Europe, India, china and America. However, honey bees have been domesticated to produce honey for human consumption, and so they are now found all over the world in different habitats. They have their own language for communication and some of them show altruism at its peak. They form a closely knit society in the form of hive. They are outstanding engineers in nature with their unique life style. Bee hive is an efficient industry where individuals and castes are with their assigned duties for the hive. The workers are the sterile females who have sacrificed their right to reproduce for their

kin, while drones are fertile males, which are larger than workers and their duty is to mate with the queen and fertilize the eggs. The males have very short life span and they die after mating. However they help in bringing new life to the hive. Workers form the most numbers in the hive. Natural bee hive has closely packed hexagonal cells or units which are used to store the food and to house the brood in the form of eggs, larvae or pupae. In a bee hive, there are three types/ castes of honey bees.The queen, the drones and the workers.Usually the queen is largest in size and present in the center of the hive and her duty is to lay eggs in specially formed egg laying cells. Sometimes due to some reason, hive may need new queen. In such conditions, extra royal jelly (food) is fed to selected larvae. The one which emerges first from pupa ,destroys other prospective queens. New queen takes up mating flight for about 5-10 days and returns back to the hive. By this time the old queen leaves the hive. What a calculated and efficient way to hand over the hive to the new queen!!! New queen then start expanding the empire by recruiting workers and the drones. Bees make honey from a sugary juice present in the flowers, called nectar. Once collected by an insect, nectar is stored in a special part on its appendage. The collected nectar is literally handed over to indoor bees mouth-to-mouth. During such a journey, the nectar content is reduced to about 15 to 20% and honey is formed. Ready honey is mixed with pollens which are collected by special bees which exclusively collect the pollen. Honey and pollen together form â&#x20AC;&#x153; honey breadâ&#x20AC;? which is fed to the larvae. Typical tropical honeybee, Apismelliferaadansonii , lives a unique, sophisticated social life similar to that of its counterparts in Europe and elsewhere. There are two sexes, the female and the male, but the former is subdivided into two castes. In the average colony, there are 1) one fertile queen, whose main activity is egg laying. Each queen produces a queen substance, called a pheromone, by which many activities of a colony are controlled. In absence of a queen or a pheromone, the


31 workers transform some worker cells containing young larvae into queen cells and start to rear new queens. 2) about20 000 to 80 000 sterile female worker bees, which do almost everything that needs to be done in the colony. The workers in the hive have multiple duties like feeding the brood, caring for the queen, making orientation flights , comb building , ventilating the hive, collecting nectar, packing pollen, water, nectar or honey into the combs andperform other tasks to preserve the survival of the colony. The average life span of worker bees is approximately six weeks. Workers bees are of two types, a) field bee b) house bee. c) about 300 to 800 fertile males, generally called drones.In addition, there are about 5 000 eggs and 25-30 000 immature bees in various stages of their development, called the brood. Of these, some 10000, newly hatched, are the larvae, which have to be fed by the workers. After the larval stage, they are sealed into their cells (pupa) by the workers to mature. They are called the sealed brood. The nestof a bee colony consists of a number of vertical combs whichhang parallel to each other. The combs, about 25 mm wide, are composed of hexagonal cells. There are two types of comb cells: the smaller, called worker cells, and the larger, called drone cells. In the worker cells in the lower part of the comb, the bees rear worker brood; in the upper part of the comb, they store pollen and honey. In the drone cells, the bees rear drones. Occasionally they build a third type of cell, the queen cells, in which queens are reared. Comb building provides the needed â&#x20AC;&#x153;roomsâ&#x20AC;? in the hive, in the form of hexagonal cells. They are meant for two main purposes: storing food and rearing brood. Beeswax, the material for the construction of comb, is secreted by the workerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wax glands, which are best developed and productive when the bee is 12-18 days old. The wax, which emerges from the glands as a liquid, hardens quickly and appears in the form of oval flakes similar to small fish scales. The bee must consume large amounts of food (honey and nectar) to produce these wax flakes. Bees engaged in building combs usually hang themselves near the site of the building operation. They hang quietly while their digestive organs transform the contents of

their honey sacs into energy and beeswax. The wax is removed with the spines of the hind legs and is then manipulated with the mandibles to build the comb cells. Maintenance of bee hive or colony by human is called beekeeping. Honey bees are sensitive to odors, tastes and colors. They communicate the location and nature of food sources, adjust their foraging to the times at which food is available and they even form cognitive maps of their surroundings. Honey bee dance is symbolic in many respects. A particular type of dance in honey bee indicates the distance and the direction of food source from the hivewhile the other kind of dance conveys the nature of food. The dance language is one of the means of communication in honey bee. Honey bee is an economically important insect. Honey is used as a sweetener and source of calories as it contains large quantity of carbohydrates. It has medicinal applications

in several conditions such as cough, wounds and burns. The bee wax is used in many cosmetics, paints , inks, as polishing agent, in making of candles, models and molds in printing industry and for block preparation in in study of tissues through microtomy. Honey bees are good pollinators and their body size enables them to pollinate flowers of many different shapes and sizes. Their social world, their disciplined life, altruism at its peak and their communication systems based on tastes, odors, dances and colors are amazing. More and more information and understanding of communication in insect groups in general and honey bee in particular, fascinates intelligent and highly evolved brain of the animal world. Photo source : cardiff.ac.uk


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THE LIFE OF THE BEE Shubhda Kushwaha shubhda.shubhs@yahoo.com / 9594348821

“If the bee disappears from the surface of the Earth, man would have no more than four years left to live?…….how true is this dramatic quotation about the dangers of environment ? So the answer is as simple as this - No more bees, no more pollination, no more plants, no more animals and no more man. Honey bees, one of the most popular bees, represent only a small percent of bee species. Honey bees are the only surviving group of bees from the Apini tribe, which is under the Apis genus. They are known for producing and storing honey as well as building impressively large nests using wax secreted by workers in a particular colony. Very few people know what is going on with the world’s bee population and the effect they have on our food supply. Bees feed on pollen and nectar produced by plants. Female bees collect pollen to feed their larvae, storing it in pollen baskets in their legs or on branched hairs on their body. As they go from flower to flower they inevitably lose some of the pollen they have collected. Some of this pollen may land on the female parts of other flowers of the same species, resulting in cross pollination. Bees therefore are known to produce “one third of human food” directly through their role in pollinating crops. Honey bees are also essential to the feed production of “animals that make up another one third of our diet”. Just as much as bees have a role in ensuring the survival of humanity, we also have roles in ensuring their survival. This way, we can ensure that the symbiotic relationship we have with bees will endure for many more human generations. Honey bees are social animal with colony containing three adult castes – egg-laying queens, sperm-producing male

drones and non reproductive female workers. The life cycle of honey bee starts with the hatching of egg. Different individuals in a family develop over varying time duration. Within each colony, a single queen rules her workers and drones. The queen honey bee lays up to 1,500 eggs per day, and may lay up to 1 million in her lifetime. After a week of emerging from her queen cell, the new queen flies from the hive to take her nuptial flight and mate with the male. A male drone will mount the queen and insert his endophallus, ejaculating semen. A drone mates seven to ten times during the mating flight. After ejaculation, a male honey bee pulls away from the queen, though his endophallus is ripped from his body, remaining attached to the newly fertilized queen. Thus once the males have fulfilled the purpose of mating, they die. Queen honey bee holds five to six million sperms in the spermatheca which she uses throughout her lifetime to fertilize the eggs. Honey bee queen controls sex of the offspring. As eggs pass through the ovary into the oviduct, a queen can determine whether a particular egg is fertilized or not. Unfertilized eggs become drone honey bees, while fertilized eggs develop into female workers and queens. Female workers do not mate, but they can lay infertile eggs, which in turn become male honey bees. Queens emerge from their cells in 15-16 days, workers in 21 days, and drones in 24 days. Queen honey bee lay their eggs in structural ovalshaped cells, which stick to the nest ceiling. Eggs are laid throughout the life. In addition to this, queen bee also secretes pheromone to keep the other females in the colony sterile. Worker honey bees fill these cells with royal jelly to prevent larvae from falling. Soon-to-be workers are fed royal jelly during the first two days, while future queens are given royal jelly throughout the entire larval period. No other insect has served the needs of man like the honey bee. The connection between honey bees and human society is limitless. Beyond the pollination services and honey that contribute immensely to our economy, honey bees also produce beeswax that can be used in candles, pollen (as a dietary supplement), royal jelly, propolis (bee glue used in cosmetics), and bee venom. .... Page 34


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THE PLANT LIFE : STEM Sweedle Cerejo-Shivkar

The first trace of a stem is seen in the epicotyl region below the plumule (first set of leaves) in the seedling. It steadily grows into a mature stem which is a link (connection) between the root and other parts of the plant. Its main function is to transport water, minerals and food to and fro. Leaves are held up towards the sunlight while flowers and fruits are endorsed to the pollinators and seed dispersal agents respectively. The architecture of a plant which in turn is responsible for the shape and lifestyle of a plant is mostly dependent on the stem - the structural axis of a plant. The stems do perform photosynthesis when they are green. Generally, the stem remains green in herbs, becomes woody when mature in shrubs and trees. The exceptional Kapok tree like very few, has a green trunk.

Identification : A stem is characterised by nodes and internodes. A node is a point of growth from where branches, leaves, flower buds and fruits emerge. The region between two nodes is called as internode. As the plant matures, the stem sends out branches which may be differentiated into primary, secondary and tertiary and smallest are called as twigs or branchlets. There are few species which lack stem or are reduced as in onions, garlic, some species of orchids and so on. Variety : Stems may be fragile, flexible, thorny, strong, durable and seen in various shapes and sizes..... They grow above the ground (aerial), but are also seen trailing on the ground or thriving below the ground.


34 Shrubs and trees have aerial stems. The mature stems in trees are called as trunks. The height of a tree species is decided by the length of a stem which is immensely important in a forest ecosystem. The competition for sunlight is vital for their survival. The outer covering of a trunk is called the bark. It exhibits diversity like flakiness (Taman or Queen’s Pride, Eucalyptus); fissured/cracked (Ain or Crocodile bark tree); smooth (Arjuna); shining (Kandol or Ghost tree); with leaf scars (Toddy Palm); prickly (Kaate saavar or Red Silk Cotton Tree, Asana) – an important diagnostic feature to identify many of the tree species. In shrubs, the main stem starts branching at a very low level, it neither remains green as in herbs nor it can be called as a trunk. This is one of the features that separate shrubs from trees. Species like Roses, Bougainvilleas, Gardenias are good example of shrubs. While woody climbers like Entada (Garambi), Moullava (Waghati) also called as lianas, travel through the canopy of forest trees. Their stems are very strong, help them ascend and grow from few metres to cover some kilometres. The creepers and trailers are seen growing close to the ground, the stems in this case are weak and need support if they at all want to climb upwards. The climbing members of the morning glory and gourd families are ideal examples. Specialised types Some stems have evolved to store food for future use and propagate through vegetative reproduction. These functions have developed some much specialised types of stems. The stem of the grasses like the bamboo, cereals is called a culm. The culms can be hollow or solid. They exhibit different varieties, shapes and ornamentations in bamboos which place them at significant position in the world of gardening and horticulture. Another group - the Palms mostly have unbranched, straight singular stem. The long erect stem sprout leaves at the other end. Cacti have flattened modified stem called phylloclade, performs the function of photosynthesis which is usually carried out by the leaves. Plants that creep on the ground have fragile stems are called as runners, stolons, offsets on different occasions. These cover the surface of the ground in sunny areas where there is not much tree cover. The stems grow roots at intervals to give rise to new plants, hold their ground and aren’t displaced very easily. There is as much variety in the underground stems. A

stem of a Banana is present below the ground and is called as sucker. The pale green stem-like pillar above the ground is actually, the multiple layer of sheath of leaves called as a pseudostem. The suckers perform the important function of vegetative propagation. This strategy is fostered by the species to multiply by not completely relying on the sexual reproduction. The Potato stem is called a tuber, while that of onion and garlic is called the bulb. The delicious yams are the corms again an underground stem. All of them evolved for vegetative propagation and to store reserves of food. The medicinal and aromatic ginger stems are called rhizomes. The stratagems employed are marvellous and that’s why we see myriad types of plants surviving in the wild as well urban landscape.

THE LIFE OF THE BEE Contd... The olfactory power of honey bee was once used to detect illegal substances at airports.Recent studies indicate that we are losing this group of insects rapidly. The major reason being the loss of food source followed by increased pollution and urbanization. Additionally conventional agricultural practices and the varroa mites are also posing serious threat to the winged beauties. This is an alarming situation and if it continues, we will no doubt be hearing more depressing news about our own health, our environment and collapse of vulnerable species in future.


35

FESTIVALS OF INDIA Ms. Kalpana Malani

Most Indian festivals mark the cycle of sowing and reaping. They play an important part in community building and instill a feeling of brotherhood among the people. Some of the Festivals which show our connection with nature and land: Makar Sankranti is a harvest festival celebrated in almost all parts of India. In Tamil Nadu it is celebrated as Pongal, In Punjab as Lohri, in Assam as Bihu, in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar as Khichdi. Sesame or til is eaten and given away in daan.”Sesame is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, healthy oils. It contains calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, zinc, fiber, thiamin, vitamin B6 and folate. It is also a good source of protein.” Vat Purnima : It is evident that life on earth depends on trees. If the blind destruction of trees remains unchecked, the life on earth may not be existent. Then how can ladies complete their wishes of keeping their husbands alive by worshipping the Banyan trees. Vat Savitri teaches us the importance of protection of trees along with keeping us alert towards the environment. Holi or Rang Panchami : The spring season, during which the weather changes, is believed to cause viral fever and cold. The playful throwing of natural coloured powders has a medicinal significance: the colours are traditionally made of Neem, Kumkum, Haldi, Bilva, and other medicinal herbs prescribed by Ayurvedic doctors. For wet colours, traditional flowers of Palash are boiled and soaked in water over night to produced yellow coloured water, which also had medicinal properties. Unfortunately the commercial aspect of celebration has led to an increase in the use of synthetic colours which, in some cases, may be toxic. Dasara is also known as Navaratri, as in the first nine days the Divine Mother Goddess Durga is worshipped and invoked in different manifestations of her Shakti. Essence of the navaratri celebration at social level is to remind &

respect all the women, who are the guardians of the family, culture, and national integrity, to take lead in times of crisis to guide the humanity towards the path of social justice, righteousness, equality, love, and divinity. Dasara coincides with the period of rest & leisure of the farmers after their strenuous hard work in their farms & fields, hence they invoke blessings of Durga in order to have a rich harvest in the next coming season. In India the harvest season begins at this time and as mother earth is the source of all food the Mother Goddess is invoked to start afresh the new harvest season and to reactivate the vigor and fertility of the soil. Van Mahotsav : Van Mahotsav was started in 1950 by K.M.Munshi, the then Union Minister for Agriculture and Food to create enthusiasm among masses for forest conservation and planting trees. It is a week-long festival, celebrated on different days in different parts of India. In its original aim, every citizen of India is expected to plant a sapling during the Van Mahotsav Week. Awareness campaigns about benefits and protection of trees and the harm caused by cutting down of trees are held. It is the festival of life. The ‘Van Mahotsav’ festival of trees is a beautiful initiative to save the environment, to which we owe a lot. Generally, native trees are planted as they readily adapted to the local conditions, integrate into eco-systems and have a high survival rate. Besides, such trees are helpful in supporting local birds, insects and animals as well. Bibliography: http://www.ecosensorium.org/2012/05/environmentalimplications-of-vat.html http://www.ariseindiaforum.org/significance-andimportance-holi/ http://panditjiusa.com/dasara_info.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_Mahotsav


36

ACTIVITY

PARYAVARAN SHALA Mukul Muzumdar

In our previous article we saw how Paryavaran Shala was started by itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s founders and some of the core projects initiated by this team. Now let us see how Paryavaran Shala has expanded itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s horizons over the years. Paryavaran Shala decided to tackle the menace of pollution caused by celebration of different Indian festivals. The team at Paryavaran Shala researched and came up with environment friendly alternatives for celebrating our festivals. Workshops were conducted to educate the masses in this regards. Teams were also sent to various schools, organizations and housing societies to conduct such workshops and educate the masses. These workshops are conducted till date before every major festival viz. Vat Pournima, Naag Panchami, Rakshabandhan, Ganeshotsav, Diwali, Holi. Both children and adults are made aware about the damaging impact of current day celebration of our festivals. Paryavaran Shala propgates the use of Shadhu Mati idols during Ganeshotsav as Shadhu Mati is bio degradable and dissolves in water easily. Paryavaran Shala popularizes the concept of Vrukshabandhan for celebrating Rakshabandhan. Children are encouraged to adopt trees in their locality, thus promoting nature conservation. Workshops for making natural colours from different flowers and other natural ingredients are conducted to celebrate Holi in an eco friendly manner. Paryavaran Shala also conducts awareness campaigns to celebrate various international environmental days viz.

World Earth day, World Bio diversity Day, World Environment Day, World Wildlife Week, World Mangroves Day, World Water Day, World Wetland Day and many more. World Mangroves Day, Water Day and Wetland Day are celebrated to draw the attention of the citizens towards local concerns like diminishing wetlands, their importance and their pollution. Thus, the team at Paryavaran Shala is constantly on it toes to keep a vigil on our local environment and makes every effort to promote healthy living through a healthy environment. For any further enquiries, you may contact Paryavaran Shala at 022 25380648 / 9869033583 or email at paryavaranshala1@gmail.com.


37

THE LONGEST GRASS THAT ADORNS THE WRIST Shreelata Menon

India is a land of festival and in today’s era, festivals mean mindless celebrations. Be it Ganpati, Diwali, Christmas, Eid or Holi festivals have become synomous to pollution. This pollution may range from dumpingdecorative waste material, serving dishes, glasses and spoons, wastage of electricity and not to forget all the noise pollution caused by loud speakers,dhols etc. Each and every festival is celebrated by individuals, societies, mandalsetc and thus the multiplying effect of waste. The Green Shoppe decided to address this issue under its first banner of eco-friendly festivals. Under this banner it has included four most popular festivals vizRaksha-bandhan, Ganpati, Diwali and Holi.Though Rakshabandhan is the least polluting of all, the four festivals are celebrated by all religions alike and the materials used for the rakhis are mostly non-biodegradable. Gone are the days when the same rakhi was used year after year. Thus after the festival the rakhi finally finds its way to the dumping ground and adds to the waste. TheShoppe thus started looking for eco-friendly alternatives. As usual the answer lay on one grassroot NGO – the tribals working in the heart of Melghat. The burning problem of the NGO was the heavy migration of the locals to the nearby towns and cities in search jobs with very meagre pays. As aresult the standard of living of these people and especially children worsening daily, making it one of the most malnourished areas of Maharashtra. A committed couple Mr.Sunil Deshpande and Ms Nirupma Deshpande decided to change this situation. Leaving their

cushiony life in a city, they settled in Melghat and formed an NGO which provides livelihoods to the locals and started paying them regardless of the fact whether products were sold or not. Since Melghat has a lot of Bamboo they decided to equip the already skilled artisans to make products of utility and thus ‘Sampoorna Bamboo Kendra’ came into existence. Of all their various products the “Shrushti Bandhan” rakhis as they are called started gaining popularity and also found its way to the Green Shoppe. Made very beautifully by quilling and twirling bamboo strips these rakhis along with proving employment, help to conserve resources as they are made from natural regenerative material and also degrade when discarded. From the last two years they have also introduced a “Do it yourself kit” which consist of bamboo strips wooden beads resham strings handmade paper etc so that people especially children can have the joy of making their own rakhis. Along with making one’s own rakhi one would also appreciate how difficult it is to cut or quill bamboo. Sampoorna Bamboo Kendra today employs around 70 people for a span of 4 months only through the means of rakhis and manages to sell around lakhs of rakhis in Nashik, Nagpur, Mumbai and Pune.The figure is slowly growing and the Green Shoppe itself managed to sell around 800 rakhis and around 500 kits last year. “Small purchases, big differences” the Green Shoppe’s tagline once again holds true and we urge all the readers of this article to add to the sale of this exclusively beautiful rakhis. This symbol of love when adorns the wrist, both the person who ties it and the person’s wrist on which it is tied can be happy that they added to some deprived person’s livelihood. For purchase of the rakhis and kits contact : Green Shoppe, Gala No. 15, DadojiKonddev Stadium, Khartan Road, Thane (W) 400601. Phone : 022- 25411633.


38

PROFILE

SILENT GREEN LOVER

Rama Bishnoi - Mumbai. Age 54 is a marketing consultant by profession and avid nature lover. Her goal is to infuse anyone and everyone with the love of nature and to protect, She especially works with children and introduces to them the magic and wonder in nature. She actively takes part in a number of tree walks in and around Mumbai. She is a regular marathon runner and cyclist drawing attention to use alternates. An avid bird watcher participates in conducting trails and takes part in bird races with students only. She involves herself in nature related activities like tree appreciation walks and is an active participant in the activities of BNHS, Sanctuary magazine. She keenly follows various threats to the beautiful natural habitat of the city and lends support to protect them. She is active in the ' Save Aarey Campaign'. She is a true advocate of a sustainable green lifestyle. She has travelled far and wide in India and abroad. True to her name 'Bishnoi' she indeed a protector of nature.

AMAZING NATURE

Image : Avinash Bhagat

Once a carpet of green earth laid here, Only thing remains now is that dark fear. All that chirpity chirp you'd hear is now gone, Ain't anybody since then sighted that jolly little Fawn. Far away you'd see that Black Eagle soaring so high, In their absence now, emptiness fills the sky! And queen of the jungle is trying to make a kill for her cub, But where to hunt, when what's left is not even a shrub!

Onset of monsoon, everywhere grew Ferns, Going away from us are those migratory Terns, Used to feed around was a little Jewel Bug, Now what you'll find here, is not even a slug There's so much that we've already lost, Let's not make this planet go into an eternal frost. This nature is world's biggest fest, After all this is their home and we're just a guest!! : Avadesh Kumar


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ENVIRO VIGIL

ENVIRO VIGIL's

ENVIRO VIGIL

ûeerve Mee@Heer GARDENING : Planning & Designing think green... act green... go green... enjoy gardening

Sustainable gardening Urban farming Special gardens Special visit to theme garden

DeeHeues meJe& meCe-GlmeJe He³ee&JejCeHetjkeÀ meepejs JneJesle ³ee nsletves Deecner Mee[t ceeleer®³ee metyekeÀ DeeefCe DeekeÀ<e&keÀ ieCesMecetleea GHeueyOe keÀªve oslees. DeeHeCe JesUsle veeWoCeer kesÀueer lej DeeHeuee ieCesMeeslmeJener He³ee&JejCeHetjkeÀ meepeje keÀª MekeÀeue. He³ee&JejCemvesner ieCesMecetleeAvee Jee{lee Òeeflemeeo efceUle Deens. l³eecegUs lJeje keÀje Deef]Ce DeeHeu³ee FkeÀes-ÖesÀv[ueer yeeHHee®eer Deece®³eekeÀ[s ueJekeÀjele ueJekeÀj veeWoCeer keÀje.

26th Aug. to 1st Sept. 2016 5 pm to 7 pm (Site Visit -Sunday : 9 am to 5pm)

he³ee&JejCe mebJeOe&veemeeþer `ûeerve Mee@Heer'®ee mebosMe ~ IejesIejer DeeCee Deelee FkeÀes ÖesÀv[ueer `ÞeerieCesMe' ~~

Square feet garden

Enviro Vigil, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Hospital Premises, Behind Boiler House, Kalwa, Thane. Tel : 022-25400012 / 9987334288 Email : greencareercourses@gmail.com Office Time : 10 am to 6 pm (Mon - Sat)

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August 2016  

Aapala Paryavarn Magazine August 2016

August 2016  

Aapala Paryavarn Magazine August 2016

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