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Òeefleefove HeeC³ee®eer GHeueyOelee keÀceer nesT ueeieu³eeves meJe&$e ³ee Gvneȳeeleerue HeeC³ee®eer eE®elee nUtnUt J³eeHet ueeieueer Deens. ³ee®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve®e cegK³eceb$³eebvee keÀesj[îee nesUer®es DeeJeenve keÀjeJes ueeieues DeeefCe yengleebMe pevelesves ³eeJej efìkeÀe ve keÀjlee les HeeUues. MenjebceOetve-ceneveiejebceOetve Meg× kesÀuesu³ee efHeC³ee®³ee HeeC³ee®³ee iewjJeeHejeyeÎue pevepeeie=leer keÀjC³ee®eer ner ³eesi³e JesU Deens. HeefjefmLeleercegUs DeeHeu³ee HeeC³ee®³ee owvebefove JeeHejekeÀ[s ue#e efou³eeveblej l³eeceOeerue JeeHej-iewjJeeHej Je ®ewve ³eeceOeerue HeÀjkeÀ keÀUC³eeFlekeÀer megyeg×er ceeveJeeuee Deens. DeeHeCe HeÀkeÌle peeefCeJepeeie=leer keÀje³e®eer Deens. Heg{u³ee oesve ceefnv³eeb®³ee keÀeUele DeMeer peeefCeJepeeie=leer keÀjCeeN³ee mJe³ebIeesef<ele peueotleeb®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. ³ee peuemee#ejlesceOetve Heg{erue keÀeUele peueJeeHeje®³ee meeceeefpekeÀ meJe³eeRceOeerue yeoue DeeefCe `HeeCeer' ³ee vewmeefie&keÀ m$eeslee®ee meg³eesi³e JeeHej ns®e DeeHeues meeO³e Deens. efJeMJe nJeeceeve efJe%eeve efovee®³ee efveefceÊeeves YeefJe<³eeuee eE®eleece³e yeveefJeCeeN³ee G<Ce, keÀesj[îee DeeefCe peuece³e DeMeer leervener ÒekeÀej®³ee JeeleeJejCeeuee DeeHeu³eeuee meeceesjs peeJes ueeiesue ³ee®eer peeCeerJe Peeueer. iueesyeue Jee@efce¥ie®³ee PeUe DeeHeu³eeuee peeCeJet ueeieu³ee Deensle. Jew%eeefvekeÀ ÒeieleercegUs l³ee PeUeb®es efJeefJeOe HeefjCeece cnCepes JeeoUs, ®e¬eÀerJeeoUs, DeefleJe=äer lemes®e og<keÀeU ³ee®es HegJee&vegceeve meg×e Meke̳e Deens. Hejbleg ³ee HetJee&vegceeveevegmeej DeeHeCe meJee¥veer efMemleye×HeCes l³ee l³ee vewmeefie&keÀ DeeHeÊeeruee leeW[ osC³eemeeþer®es ÒeefMe#eCe cee$e DeeHeu³ee pevelesuee veener. les osC³ee®eer meJee&le ceesþer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee efvecee&Ce Peeueer Deens. efJeMJe Jeveefovee®³ee (JeveMeem$eefovee®³ee) HeeMJe&YetceerJej HeeC³ee®³ee mebkeÀìeves ûeemeuesu³ee peveles®es pebieueebkeÀ[s HeÀej ue#e iesues veener. HeCe Deepe®es peuemebkeÀì ns JeveefJeveeMee®³ee ceeveJeer ÒeJe=Êeerletve®e pevceeuee Deeues Deens ns keÀesCeerner veekeÀejle veener. lejerner Deepe DeeHeu³ee DeLe&mebkeÀuHee®eer DeeefCe Òeieleer®eer efoMee JeveefJeveeMeeletve Menjeb®³ee Je DeÐe³eeJele mceeì& efmeìer®³ee efveefce&leerJej®e DeeOeejuesueer Deens. efJeMJe peueefovee®es keÀe³e&¬eÀce HeeC³ee®³ee DevegHeueyOeles®³ee HeeMJe&YetceerJej ceesþîee mebK³esves nesle Deensle. mejkeÀej®³ee DeeosMeeves Je pevemeeceev³eeb®³ee GlmHetÀle&lesves ¿ee keÀe³e&¬eÀceebveer HeefjJele&ve ³esle Deens. SefÒeueceOeerue JemegbOeje efove DeeefCe cesceOeerue pewJeefJeefJeOelee efove DeeHeu³eeuee DeMee®e peeieeflekeÀ mebkeÀìe®eer peeefCeJe keÀªve osCeeje. cnCepes He=LJeerHeemetve ceeCemeeves nkeÌkeÀ cnCetve efkeÀleer ÒekeÀej®³ee Jemlet Je efkeÀleer ÒeceeCeele I³eeJ³eele ³ee®eer peeefCeJe keÀªve osCeeje. meJe& peiee®es DeLe&keÀejCe ns kesÀJeU DeLe&Je=×er®³ee efoMesves OeeJeleevee vewmeefie&keÀ mebmeeOeveeb®³ee meceeve JeeìHeeJej DeeOeejerle peeieeflekeÀ DeLe&efveleer ns GÐee®³ee sustainable living ®ee DeeOeej þjeJee Demee efJe®eej ceeb[C³ee®eer iejpe Deens.


Wetlands are an integral part of Cultural and Biodiversity landscape of India. The inland Wetland is a habitat for threatened birds like the Painted Storks. (shooted at Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary, Karnataka.)

Yeejlee®eer mebmke=Àleer DeeefCe pewJeefJeefJeOelee mece=× keÀjC³eele HeeCeLeU peeiee cenÊJee®eer YetefcekeÀe yepeeJeleele. keÀvee&ìkeÀeleerue jbieveefLeÆè ³esLeerue DeMee®e SkeÀe He#eer DeYe³eejC³eeleerue HeeCeLeU peeieer efìHeuesues ns otefce&U jbieerle keÀjkeÀes®es...

meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe

cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer

efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj

keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë meew. keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj English Editor : Prof. Clara Correia

mebHeeove mene³³e ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë megjefYe JeeueeJeuekeÀj ceO³eHe=ÿ ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

Yeeie ë 12 ~ DebkeÀ ë 11

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee yeguebo DeeJeepe - uee efJn³ee keBÀHesefmevee ~ meblees<e eEMe$es keÀUHe ÒeeC³eeb®es ~ [e@. efveefuecee kegÀuekeÀCeea ceebies LeeHCeer - ieesJ³ee®ee ceiej ceneslmeJe ~ Heefjef#ele met³e&JebMeer jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs Demes ceuee Jeeìles... legcneuee? ~ [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë ®esJeCeer ~ Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j cegbyeF&peJeU efomeuesues HeengCes He#eer ~ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele HueeefmìkeÀ [yes, yeeìu³eebceOeerue ìe@efkeÌmemeerìer ~ [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer ÒeMve legce®ee... GÊej efJe%eevee®es ~ [e@. megOeerj ceeW[keÀj

7 9 11 14 16 18 23 24 25 26 27

Trees for Earth I Clara Correia

28

Water Crisis I Shubhda Kushwaha

30

5

Potential Causes of

ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer Je Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer Þeer efÒebìme&, S-117, Deceji³eeve Fb[mì^erpe efÒecee³emesme efue. Sme. ìer. JekeÀ&Mee@He meceesj, KeesHeì, þeCes (He) ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, KeejìCe jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. mebHeke&À ë 022-25411633 ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

www.paryavaran.org apalaparyavaran@gmail.com vaw.paryavaran@gmail.com

Wetland Bird Population Trends I Clara Correia

31

Green Souls I Sweedle Cerejo-Shivkar

33

Thane Creek Exibition

34

A Healthy Living

I

Avinash Bhagat

I Shreelata Menon

35

A Colorful Journey I Akhil Menon

36

Green Careers I Dr. Prasad Karnik

37

Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400 ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800 Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

Yearly : Rs. 400/2 Years : Rs. 800/5 Years : Rs. 1800/-

DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.


5

efJeMes<e uesKe

MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee yeguebo JewefMJekeÀ DeeJeepe ë uee eqJn³ee keBÀHesefmevee meblees<e eEMe$es

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98220 12948

Jeiee&meeþer, Þeercebleebmeeþer®e yeveJeues iesues Deensle. DeveglHeeokeÀ cnCetve mejkeÀejb DeeeCfe GÐeeiseOeobs p³ee íeìsîee ÒeceeCeeJej®³ee Melseeuree keÀe[ b ele keÀe{leele, leer Kejb lej OeejCee#ece DeeefCe He³ee&JejCeHetjkeÀ Deens.'' ûeeceerCe Yeeieeleueer ieefjyeer DeeefCe efJe<ecelee ³eemeeþer meejeefien yengbleeMe oes<eer þjJelees, les yengje<ì^er³e je#emeer kebÀHev³ee DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee OeesjCeebvee. ³ee OeesjCeebcegUs ueeskeÀ DeeefCe He³ee&JejCee®ee efJeveeMe nesle peeTve J³eeHeejGoerce DeeefCe Devveefveefce&leer ³eeb®eer SkeÀ ke=Àef$ece, meHeeìerkeÀjCe Peeuesueer J³eJemLee efvecee&Ce nesles Demeb l³eeb®eb cnCeCeb. Jeu[& yeBkeÀ DeeefCe Dee³eSceSHeÀ ( Fbìjve@Meveue cee@vesìjer HebÀ[) p³ee He×leerves Deepe peuem$eesle DeeefCe Dev³e vewmeefie&keÀ ceutem$eelse evfe³eeb$fele keÀjle Deenlse, lee®se ceU g ele SkeÀ keÀe@Hees&jsì JemeenleJeeo Deens. ns l³ee®eb cnCeCeb lees KetHe DeY³eemeHetCe& efjleerves ceeb[lees. l³eeleueb yejb®e,b Deepe®³ee Yeejleeueener ogozJeeveb pemeb®³ee lemeb ueeiet Deens. ``les legce®eer pebieueb DeeefCe legce®³eekeÀ[®ee keÀesUmee efnmekeÀeJetve Iesleele. HeCe legce®³ee osMeeuee les l³ee yeou³eele keÀener olse veenelre. Gueì peecfevee®re yeUkeÀeJeleele.'' Fb[esvesefMe³eeleueb mene oMeue#e nskeÌìj pebieue lees[tve l³eepeeieer Heece®eer ueeieJe[ kesÀueer iesueer. l³eeHeemetve efceUeuesueb Heece®eb lesue, eJfeeJfeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee meHgejceekeÀxì GlHeeoveecbeOe,s ekEeÀJee ceie `yee³eees[ f Peuse' GlHeeoveemeeþer®e keÀeceer Deeueb; mLeeefvekeÀ Devve, JeveGHepe ³eeb®³ee GlHeoveeSsJepeer. uee eqJn³ee keBÀHesefmeveeveb 1996 ceOes `Devve (efveJe[eR®eb) mJeeleb$³e' ner mebkeÀuHevee peieeHeg{s ceeb[ueer. DeeHeueer OeveOeev³e GlHeeove J³eJemLee vekeÌkeÀer keÀe³e DeeefCe keÀMeer DemeeJeer, ns þjJeC³ee®ee nkeÌkeÀ mLeeefvekeÀ ueeskeÀebvee DemeCes, Demeb ³ee mebkeÀuHeves®eb Lees[ke̳eele JeCe&ve keÀjlee ³esF&ue. ne cegÎe meejeefien®³ee ®eUJeUerveb peeieeflekeÀ He[ÐeeJej lej DeeCeuee®e HeCe Deelee JnsvesPegSuee, yeesefueeqJn³ee DeMee keÀener osMeebveer lees keWÀêer³e OeesjCe efveefM®eleerleuee SkeÀ cegÎe cnCetve Iesleuee Deens. ³egjesHeceOes Depetve l³eeuee HeÀejMeer ceev³elee efceUeuesueer veener. DeeefCe Yeeb[Jeueer peie meJe& mecem³eebvee pes GÊej osleb, `yeepeejHesþ', efle®eer DeHe³eMenber ner ®eUJeU HejgMsee leekeÀoevres cee[ b le.s Heece leusee®³ee ekfeÀbceleer Deelbejjeäe^³re yeepeejHeþ s lse Fleke³Ìee He[ueus³ee, keÀceer Deenlse keÀer l³eelevte


6 MeslekeÀN³eeb®³ee efJeJeb®evee mebHeu³ee veenerle®e DeeefCe l³ee®e peefceveerJej DevveOeev³e GlHeeove nesT MekeÀueb Demeleb lej lemebner Peeuesueb veener. 12 petve 2013 jespeer pekeÀelee&le uee efJn³ee keBÀHesefmeveeveb YeeJeer peieemeeþer SkeÀ cenÊJeHetCe& peenerjveecee Ieesef<ele kesÀuee. keÀe@Heexjsì kebÀHev³eebveer nenekeÀej ceepeJetve pees efJeveeMe ®eeueJeuee Deens, l³eeuee ³ee ®eUJeUerveb megmHeä efJejesOe kesÀuee. `nefjle DeLe&J³eJemLee' peieYej DebefiekeÀejueer peeJeer, Demeb DeeJeenve kesÀueb; Devve mJee³eÊeleskeÀ[s Jeeì®eeueer®ee Hegvne SkeÀoe efveOee&j J³ekeÌle kesÀuee. `De@ûees-FkeÀe@uee@peer' cnCepes meä=eMreem$e DeeeCfe Melsee®ree SkeÀ$e ÒeJeeme®e peieeuee lee© MekeÀsue ³eeJej þece eJfeMJeeme J³ekelÌe keÀsuee. Deepener MelsekeÀjer keÀjlees leer Melsee,r ceeveJeer (³eebef$ekeÀ veJns) keÀewMeu³eHetCe& jerleerves kesÀuesueer ceemesceejer DeeefCe OeejCee#ece HeMegHeeueve ns®e DeeHeu³ee Devvee®es cegK³e m$eesle Deensle. ³eeleu³ee DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®³ee mLeeefvekeÀ JewefJeO³ee®eer peHeCetkeÀ - ceie leer efJeefJeOe mLeeefvekeÀ leb$e%eeveebceOeueer Demesue eEkeÀJee Òeef¬eÀ³eebceOeueer - leer peHeC³eeJej keBÀHesefmevee Yej osles ns þeceHeCes ceeb[ueb. `De@ûeesìe@eqkeÌmevme' Jej®e DeJeuebyetve jenCeb mebHeJeCes, DeewÐeesefiekeÀ He×leerves HeMegHeeueve ve keÀjCes, Hegveefve&cee&Ce#ece Tpee¥®ee Mesleerle JeeHej keÀjCes DeeefCe GlHeeefole Oeev³e eEkeÀJee Devve Deejesi³eeuee IeelekeÀ vemeu³ee®eer nceer osCes ³ee meieȳee®ee meceeJesMe De@ûees-FkeÀe@uee@peer ³ee mebkeÀuHevesle neslees. ne®e peenejrveecee ®eUJeUe®reer meeceeepfekeÀ v³ee³e, nJeeceeve (yeoue) efJe<e³ekeÀ v³ee³e, efJeefJeOe peesKe[ebHeemetve cegkeÌleer, eEnmesHeemetve DeeefCe

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peibeuepeeJreve

keÀUHe ÒeeC³eeb®es [e@. veerefuecee kegÀuekeÀCeea drneelimakulkarni@gmail.com

ceve<g³e hee´C³eehec´eeCes keÀener hee´Ceer keÀUheele jenleele. ce{Wîee, yekeÀN³ee, ueecee, Pesye´e, nefjCe, Deebefìueeshe Demes ceeskeÀȳee cewoeveele DeeefCe kegÀjCeele ®ejCeejs DeveskeÀ hee´Ceer keÀUhe yeveefJeleele. hee´C³eebceO³es cegK³eleë one meeceeefpekeÀ ieì Dee{Uleele. keÀener SkeÀìs®e jenleele, keÀener pees[erves, keÀener kegÀìgbyeele jenleele, keÀener njsce yeveefJeleele, keÀener ieìebceO³es ceele=meÊeekeÀ he×le Demeles lej keÀeneRceO³es vej DeeefCe ceeoe oesIeebvee meceeve DeefOekeÀej lej keÀener ieìebceO³es veer®e les G®®e Demee ÞeCseeyreObe. Kejs cnCepes leer l³ee®beer iejpe Demele.sDeLeel&e yej®seoe JeiseJeiseUs hee´Ceer SkeÀe eJfeeMfeä he³eeJ&ejCeele mJele$beheCes DeekeÀe<|ele nelseele pemes keÀer DeVee®ee meeþe DeLeJee hejpeerJeYe#eer he´eC³eeheemetve Demeuesuee OeeskeÀe. he´eC³eeb®es SkeÀ$e ³esCes Demeles ns vewmee|iekeÀ efþkeÀeCe®³ee hee´LeecfekeÀlecseU g .s keÀUhe keÀjCes ner SkeÀ meeceeefpekeÀ J³eJemLee Deens Demes cnCelee ³eFsu&e. hee´C³eecbeOeeure vemweei|ekeÀ keÀUhe keÀªve jenC³ee®eer meJe³e Jee{emre ueeieueerDemeeJeer leer efJeMes<e keÀejCeeves - DeLee&le l³eeleerue DeveskeÀefJeOe HeÀe³eÐeecbeU g ®se! memleve hee´C³ee®bee eJfe®eej keÀjlee Demes eofmeles keÀer keJÌee®fele keÀener he´eCeer keÀUhe ve keÀjlee pees[erves efkeÀJee ueneve ieìele jenleele. meJem&eeOeejCeheCekseÀUheele SkeÀe®e hep´eelee®res hee´Ceer jenleele hejlbeg venscee®re Demes Demeles Demesner veener. keÀUhe menpe, vewmee|iekeÀheCes le³eej neslees.

megjef#elelesmeeþer, efMekeÀej keÀjC³eemeeþer, SkeÀceskeÀeb®eer meeLe-meesyele efceUefJeC³eemeeþer, DeVe menpeheCes efceUefJeC³eemeeþer DeeefCe meJee&le cenÊJee®es cnCepes Deeheuee meeLeeroej efceUefJeC³eemeeþer. he´eC³eeb®³ee meeceeefpekeÀ mlejeb®eer ceeefnleermeg×e keÀªve osleele ns keÀUhe. Deelee he´Mve Demee he[lees keÀer keÀener he´eC³eebceO³es keÀUheele jenC³ee®eer iejpe keÀe evfeceeC&e Peeueer DemeeJee? r ner JeeieCekteÀ keÀe Je keÀMeer Gl¬eÀelbe Peeuee? r keÀUheele jenC³ee®ee meJee&le ceesþe HeÀe³eoe cnCepes hejepeerJeYe#eer hee´C³eehbeemevte DemeCeeje OeekseÀe keÀceer keÀjC³eeme neCseejer ceole! cnCepe®se hejepeerJeYe#eer he´eC³eeuee Deeheues meeJepe efìheC³eele ³esCeejer De[®eCe. keÀejCe keÀUheele meeOeejCeheCes ceO³eYeeieer Demeleele efheuues, Deepeejer he´eCeer DeeefCe ceeoe ³eeb®³eeJej keÀesCeer nuuee kesÀuee lej l³ee keÀUhee®³ee YeeJseleer meMeÊeÀ vej eMEeie jeKsevte SKeeÐee mejb#ekeÀ keÀ[îeehec´eeCes DeeKeCeer keÀjleele ! keJÌee®fele les eMfekeÀeN³eeJej SkeÀe$feleheCes nuueeme× g e ®e{eJfeleele DeeefCe keÀUheeleerue SKeeÐee he´eC³eeuee efMekeÀej nesC³eeheemetve Jee®eefJeleele. cnCepes®e keÀUhe keÀªve jenCes ner efvemeie& efveJe[er®³ee ®e¬eÀeletve efveJe[ueer iesuesueer meJe³e,Jele&CetkeÀ DemeeJeer ! hee´C³ee®b³ee keÀUhee®ee eJfe®eej keÀjleevbee DeLeJee l³ee eJfe<e³eer mecepevte Iesleebvee `mesuHeÀerMe n[& efLe³ejer' ®ee efJe®eej keÀje³euee nJee. nsceeruìve ³ee Meem$e%eeves 1971 ceO³es ne efJe®eej ceeb[uee. l³eehetJeea, ³ee DeMee


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keÀUheele jenC³ee®³ee Jele&CetkeÀer®³ee Gl¬eÀeble nesC³eele kesÀJeU SkeÀceskeÀebvee efceUCeeje HeÀe³eoe- ne SkeÀ®e cegÎe DeOeesjsefKele kesÀuee peele Demes. hejbleg `mesuHeÀerMe n[& efLe³ejer' ves ne cegÎe Kees[tve keÀe{uee Deen.s ³ee eLfe³ejevremgeej keÀUheeJej hejpeeJreYe#eer hee´C³eekeÀ[vte neCseeN³ee nuu³eele yeensjerue yeepetuee Demeuesueer peveeJejb vesnceer®e Ye#e nesT MekeÀleele. ne OeeskeÀe keÀUhee®³ee ceO³eYeeieer keÀceer keÀceer nesle peelees. peemle heY´eeJeMeeueer DeeeCfe leekeÀoJej hee´Ceer vensceer mJeleëuee keÀUhee®³ee ceO³eYeeieer þJseleele. o³g³ece ÞeCsee®r³ee hee´C³eevbee venscee®re yeenjseure yeepemte jeneJes ueeieles DeeefCe l³eecegUs l³eeb®³ee peerJeeuee peemle OeeskeÀe Demelees.keÀUheeleerue he´eC³eeb®³ee neue®eeueer DeeefCe peeiee ³eeb®es heCe keÀener ef v e³ece Demeleele. ns c eer u ìve®³ee cnCeC³eehe´ceeCes,keÀUheeleerue he´eCeer Deeheu³ee peJeU®³ee he´eC³ee®³ee efoMesves mejkeÀleele. keÀUheeleerue he´eCeer mebhetCe& keÀUhee®³ee peeies®ee efJe®eej keÀjleele. ner efLe³ejer keÀener he´eC³eeb®³ee keÀUhee®³ee yeeyeleerle JesieUer DemeeJeer Demes efomeles. keÀUhee®³ee DeekeÀejceeveecegUs, l³eeleerue DevekseÀ hee´C³eecbeU g s pemee keÀUhe heìkeÀve eofmelee,s lemes®e keÀUheeleerue DeveskeÀ [esUs JesieJesieȳee efoMesves keÀe³e&jle Demeu³eecegUs, Oeeske̳ee®eer peeCeerJemegodOee ueJekeÀj nesles. keÀUheeleerue he´l³eskeÀ he´eC³eeuee meejKes Jej-Keeueer heneJes ueeiele veener, meejKes ue#e þsJeeJes ueeiele veener. ³eecegUs KeeC³eemeeþer peemle JesU efceUlees. keÀUheeleerue he´eC³eebceO³es Dee{UCeejer DeeCeKeer SkeÀ ieesä cnCepes `emEe¬eÀevWeeFp[ eyfee´[ E ie'. l³ee®ee DeLe& keÀUheele SkeÀe®e Je³ee®eer DevekseÀ, yengoe, meJe& efheuues DemeCes. JeeFu[ yeerm쮳ee keÀUheele meJe& efheuues meeOeejCeleë SkeÀe®e JesUer pevceeuee ³esleele. ³ee®ee HeÀe³eoe Demee keÀer SKeeos efheuuet pejer Ye#³e þjues lejer efhe{er heg{erue Jeeì®eeue keÀjC³eele ³eMemJeer nesles. keÀejCe eEmen, lejme efkeÀJee keÀesuns efMekeÀej keÀjleebvee SkeÀe®e he´eC³eeJej nuuee keÀjleele.hetJeea meebefieleu³ee he´ceeCes, njCeeb®ee keÀUhe ne SkeÀe®e he´peeleer®ee lej Pesye´e DeeefCe Jeeru[j yeermì ³eeb®ee SkeÀef$ele keÀUhe Demelees. ns he´eCeer SkeÀe efþkeÀeCeentve ogmeN³ee efþkeÀeCeer efveIeuesues Demeleele. keÀUheeleerue he´eC³eeb®eer mebK³ee DeeefCe l³ee®es DeekeÀejceeve yeouele Demeles. Pesye´e®ee keÀUheeleerue he´eCeer pesJne DeVe Oegb[eUle Demeleele, ®ejle Demeleele lesJne SkeÀ he´eCeer efMekeÀeN³eeJej ue#e þsTve Demelees. OeeskeÀe peeCeJeu³eeme lees SkeÀ efJeefMeä he´keÀej®ee DeeJeepe keÀe{vte meJeev¥ee meeJeOe keÀjlee.s keÀener keÀUhe SkeÀe$fele jenleele, lej ieJ³eeb®ee keÀUhe SKeeoe efMekeÀejer De®eevekeÀ meceesj ³esTve GYee

jeefnuee lej heUeheU keÀjlees. ³ee heUeheUerle SKeeos efheuuet peKeceer neCs³ee®eer Meke³Ìelee oKseeure Demele.s ceeþ s s keÀUhe keÀjCeeN³ee hee´C³eecbeO³es le©Ce (Je³eeves ueneve)Demeuesues vej DeeefCe ceeoe mJele뮳ee heeuekeÀebvee mee[ s vte veJeevre ieì le³eej keÀjleele. ³ee®ee HeÀe³eoe®e nelsee,s keÀejCe ³eeceU g s `Fveye´eReE[ie' ìeUlee ³esles. ceesþîee Deebefìueeshe®³ee keÀUheeceO³es Jeeì®eeue keÀjleebvee l³ee he´osMeeleerue keÀUhee®eer nÎmegodOee þjefJeueer peele.s keÀUhee®es J³eJemLeeheve JeiseJeiseȳee hee´C³eecbeO³es Jeiseȳee hek´eÀej®es Demeles. JeeFu[ yeermì ®³ee keÀUheele ceesþs MeÊeÀerMeeueer vej meJee&le yeensjerue yeepetme Demeleele DeeefCe Deepetyeepetuee GodYeJeCeeN³ee Oeeske̳eeheemetve keÀUhee®es j#eCe keÀjleele.

ns Peeues he´eC³eeb®³ee vewmee|iekeÀ keÀUheeyeÎue! he´eC³eebhe´ceeCes ceeCemes megodOee keÀUhe, ieì keÀªve jenleele. ns keÀUhe DeLeJee ieì keÀener efJeefMeä nsletves kesÀuesues Demeleele. l³ee®es HeÀe³eosner Demeleele, hejbleg ner ieìyeepeer ceeCemeeuee keÌJeef®ele ceeCegmekeÀer heemetve ueebye vesleebvee efomeles. ceeCemes he´eC³eeb®es Devewmee|iekeÀ keÀUhemegOOee le³eej keÀjleele. yengleskeÀ JesUens Demeles mJeleë ®³ee HeÀe³eÐeemeeþer!keÀUheeleerue he´eC³eebkeÀ[s ue#e osCes meeshes Demeles DeeefCe l³ee heemetve efceUCeeje HeÀe³eoe ceesþe Demelees. Demees. keÀUhe keÀjC³ee®eer he´sjCee,vewmee|iekeÀ efveJe[ osles DeeefCe l³eemeeþer keÀjCeerYetle Demeles les efMekeÀeN³eeheemetve efceUCeejs j#eCe, vewmee|iekeÀ efveJe[erves he´eC³eebvee keÀUhe keÀjC³eeme he´eslmeenve efoues les cegK³eleë keÀUheele jenC³ee®³ee HeÀe³eÐeecegUs! cnCepes MeJseìer hel´³ekseÀ peeJre ue{e olsee,s eJfeeMfeäheCes Jeeielee,s ³ee®ee meybeObe Demelees vemweei|ekeÀ evfeJe[eMreer DeeeCfe l³eeJej DeJeueybevte Demeueus³ee mJele뮳ee DeeqmlelJeeMeer !


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efJeMes<e uesKe

ceeibes LeeHCeer ... ieeJs³ee®ee ceiej cenelsmeJe Deeveboe ye@vepeea ë DevegJeeo - Heefjef#ele met³e&JebMeer parikshitsuryavnshi.blogspot.in

ieeJs³eeleeure ne heejhbeejfkeÀ Oeeec|ekeÀ eJfeOeer SkeÀe Del³elbe mekbeÀìiem´le he´peeleeruee Jee®eefJeC³eemeeþer ceesuee®eer YetefcekeÀe efveYeeJelees Deens. Deecneuee Jeeìsle SkeÀ íesìemee veeuee ueeieuee. lesLes SkeÀ efoJe[ (®eskeÀ[& efkeÀuyeskeÀ veeJee®ee meehe) Deieoer efvemleyOe yemeuee neslee. keÀoeef®ele ne efyeveefJe<eejer meehe lesLes SKeeÐee he´Jeenheeflele yes[keÀe®eer eEkeÀJee ceeMee®eer Jeeì heenle Ye#³emeeOevee keÀjle DemeeJee! ogheej®³ee leUhel³ee Gvnele, veejUe®³ee Pee[eb®³ee meeJeueerletve, ef®eKeue leg[Jele Deecner l³ee yeebOekeÀece meg© Demeuesu³ee Iejehe³e¥le heesnes®euees. veeceoJsejeJe ³ee mLeeevfekeÀ ceemecseejeuee Yeìse³euee Deecner ieeJs³eeleeure PegDeejer veoer®³ee keÀeþeJej Jemeuesu³ee ogYee&ì ³ee ieeJeele Deeuees neslees. veeceosJejeJe DeeefCe l³eeb®es veelesJeeF&keÀ SkeÀ efJeefMeä DeMeer Oeee|cekeÀ heejbheefjkeÀ hetpeeefJeOeer keÀjleele efpe®³eele ceiejer®eer hetpee kesÀueer peeles. ³ee efJeOeeruee keÀeskeÀCeerle ceebies LeehCeer cnCeleele. keÀener ceepseke³Ìee MelsekeÀjer DeeeCfe ceemecseej kegÀìgbefye³eebkeÀ[tve heej hee[uee peeCeeje ne efJeOeer ceeCemeeb®es ceiejeRheemetve mebj#eCe JneJes ³ee GefÎäeves meg© keÀjC³eele Deeuee. iesu³ee Je<ee®a³ee peugew ceenfv³eele ieeJs³eeleeure ueekseÀehfe³´e yeer®e, ceespeeaceJej SkeÀ ceesþer ceiej efHeÀjle Demeu³ee®ee HeÀesìes Jne³ejue Peeuee neslee. heneìs®e cee@e\veie Jee@keÀuee iesuesu³ee SkeÀe J³eÊeÀevres lees keÀe{uee nelsee. Demes Demeues lejer ³eeJeªve ieeJs³eeleeure ceiejeyReÎue ueekseÀecbeO³es efkeÀleer De%eeve Deens ns®e efometve ³esles. Yeejleele ceieje®r³ee leevre hep´eeleer Dee{Uvte ³esleele l³eebhewkeÀer SkeÀ ner ieesJ³eeleerue iees[îee heeC³eeleerue ceiej. ogmeN³ee oesve he´peeleer cnCepes mecegêeleerue/KeeN³ee heeC³eeleerue ceiej DeeefCe Ie[er³eeue. ceeveJeJebMeMeem$e%e DeeefCe Jev³epeerJe le%eeb®³ee celes ceebies LeehCeer meejK³ee heejhbeejfkeÀ hepgeeeJfeOeeÜRejs Kee[elreeure ceiejevRee pes cenÊJe eofues iesues Deens l³eecegUs HeÀÊeÀ ³ee mebkeÀìie´mle he´peeleer®es®e mebj#eCe nesC³eeme ceole nelses Demes veener lej leJse{îee®e mekbeÀìiem´le heejfemqLeleelre Demeueusee

efle®ee DeefOeJeeme, KeejHegÀìer®³ee pebieueeb®es osKeerue mebj#eCe nesles. oYgeeì&ceO³es ojJe<eea hee<we DeceeJeem³eusee ceeibes LeehCeer meepejer keÀsueer peeles peer meeOeejCeheCes peevesJeejer®³ee heefnu³ee DeceeJem³eeuee ³esles. ³ee Je<eea leer 10 peevesJeejeruee nesleer. Yeejleeleeure Flej keÀener YeeieecbeO³es oKseeure DeMeehek´eÀej®eer ceiejheptee nelse Demeu³ee®³ee veeoWer meehe[leele p³eele iepgejele (keÀ®í DeeeCfe oe#feCe iegpejele), cenejeä^ DeeefCe heeq½ece yebieeueceOeerue oef#eCe 24 hejieCee ³eeb®ee meceeJesMe Deens. ieesJ³ee®eer ceebies LeehCeer SkeÀ heejbheefjkeÀ Oeee|cekeÀ efJeOeer cnCetve DeepeoKseeure eìfkeÀtve Deens FlekeÀs®e veener lej ceeveJe-Jev³epeeJre meIbe<eel&e eofJemeeWofJeme Jee{ nelse Demeleevbee (meJbeOev&eeleeure elfe®³ee ³eeiseoeveeceU g )s leer eJfeÜevee®bes DeeeCfe Jev³epeeJre meJbeOev&e #e$seele keÀece keÀjCeeN³eeb®es ue#e JesOetve Iesle Deens. ner hetpee `Kepeeve' ³ee cegK³elJes celm³eheeueve eEkeÀJee Mesleermeeþer Jeeheju³ee peeCeeN³ee mLeeefvekeÀ efkeÀveeN³eebJej®e kesÀueer peeles. ³ee ef J eOeer ® ee leheMeer u e meeb i eleeb v ee veeceosJejeJeeb®ee Glmeen Deesmeb[tve Jeenle neslee. meJe&he´Lece les veoer efkeÀveeN³eeJejerue ef®eKeueeheemetve SkeÀ ceesþer ceiej yeveJeleele. veeceosJe Deeheu³ee Jeef[ueebkeÀ[tve ne efJeOeer efMekeÀues. MebKe DeeefCe eEMeheu³eeb®es KeJeues DeeefCe [esUs Demeuesueer ner ceiej les 20 efceefveìeble yeveJeleele, Demesner l³eebveer Deef Y eceeveeves meeb e f i eleues . ³eeveb l ej ³ee ef ® eKeuee®³ee ceiejer u ee MeW o t j , Heg À ues , DeiejyeÊeer Fl³eeoeRveer mepeJeleele. hee´Lev&ee meceejense®³ee JeU s e,r p³eele HeÀÊeÀ heg©<eebvee®e menYeeie Ieslee ³eslees, veejU, iegU DeeefCe cegjcegN³ee®³ee efveJeoemeesyele SkeÀ keÀeWye[er®eb efheuuet DeeefCe SkeÀ Deb[ ³ee ceiejer®³ee heesìele oeyetve ìekeÀleele. cneosF& mebMeesOeve keWÀêe®es DeO³e#e DeeefCe ieesJee jep³e Jev³epeerJe meuueeieej ceb[Ue®es meom³e efvece&ue kegÀuekeÀCeea cnCeleele, `SkeÀe


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oblekeÀLesvegmeej pesJne peJeU®³ee mecegêe®es heeCeer Yeeleeb®³ee Mesleele ³esle Demes lesJne mecegêeuee Meeble keÀjC³eemeeþer ieeJekeÀjer ceiejeR®eer hetpee keÀjerle, p³eeb®eer mebK³ee l³eeJesUer efJehegue nesleer. ojJe<eea peevesJeejerleerue DeceeJeem³es®³ee efoJeMeer, p³eeJesUer YeelekeÀe{Ceer®ee nbieeceosKeerue Demelees, ne meesnUe heej he[lees. ieeJekeÀN³eeb®ee Demee efJeMJeeme Deens efkeÀ l³eeb®³ee ³ee hetpescegUs®e ceiej l³eeb®es keÀesCeles®e vegkeÀmeeve keÀjle veener DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee kegÀìgbyeer³eebJej nuueeosKeerue keÀjle veener.' veeboflee keÀ=<Cee, me®beeuekeÀ, meehreeD r eej, SvJne³evec&eìWue Sp³ekgeÀsMeve meWìj, ³eeb®³ee celes, ceebies LeehCeer ne efJeOeer ieesJ³eeleerue eEnot ieew[ ³ee SkeÀe DeeeofJeemeer peceeleekreÀ[vte keÀsuee peelee.s Je©Ce oJsee®³ee [eiWeje®eer hetpee kesÀu³eeves lees he´mevve neslees DeeefCe Yeelee®³ee Mesleeb®es j#eCe keÀjlees DeMeer Þe×e l³eeceeies Deens. ³eeyeeyeleerle DeeCeKeerner keÀener Jesieȳee keÀLee meeebifeleu³ee peeleele. ceiej ner eMfekeÀejer ceeMeevbee Keele,s p³eeceU g s ceemesceejebvee KeeC³ee³eesi³e ceemes DeeefCe keÀesUbyeer ceesþîee he´ceeCeele ecfeUleele DeMeer ceev³elee ieeJs³ee®³ee ceemecseejecbeO³es ueekseÀehfe³´e Demeu³ee®es cnìues Deens. ³eeleueer cepes®eer yeeye DeMeer efkeÀ ieesJ³eele heejbheefjkeÀefjl³ee ceiejer®eer hetpee pejer nesle Demeueer lejer ner ceiej keÀener cegU®eer ieesJ³ee®eer veener, leer efleLeu³ee veÐee, Kee[er eEkeÀJee he´eCeerpeielee®ee Yeeie veJnleer! 500 Je<ee¥hetJeea efyepeehetj®ee MeemekeÀ DeeefoueMene ³eeves ieesJ³eeleerue Kee[erle ³ee ceiejer mees[u³ee. heesleg&ieerpe Dee¬eÀcekeÀebvee IeeyejJetve ieesJ³eeheemetve otj þsJeC³eemeeþer l³eeves ner keÀuhekeÀ jCeveerleer Jeehejueer nesleer. Demes cnìues peeles ekfeÀ, DeuHeÀemWees [er DeuyekgeÀkeÀ& ³ee meecee´p³eJeeoer heesleg&ieerpe pevejueuee Men osC³eemeeþer DeeefoueMeneves ceeb[esJeer DeeefCe PeDgeejer Kee[evRee pee[ s CeeN³ee keÀgcyepeD&gee keÀeueJ³eele iee[ s îee heeC³eeleeure ceiejer mees[u³ee nesl³ee. ogYee&ì l³eeJesUer SkeÀ Jeo&Uer®es yeboj nesles, pes DeuyegkeÀke&Àves Deeu³eeveblej ueJekeÀj®e nmleiele kesÀues. DeeefCe 1510 ceO³es DeuyegkeÀke&Àves DeeefoueMenekeÀ[tve eflemeJee[er (³eele kegÀcyepeg&Dee yesìemen 30 JemeenleeR®ee meceeJesMe neslee) eEpeketÀve Iesleues. keÀener mebMeesOekeÀeb®³ee celes ³ee mLeeefvekeÀ ceiejer cnCepes ®eesjeJe®es yesì DeeefCe l³ee®³ee Deemeheeme®es KeejHegÀìer®es pebieue. ³esLes hetJeea ceesþîee hec´eeCeeJej Demeueus³ee ceieje®R³ee ceKg³e pevemeKb³e®see®e SkeÀ Yeeie ne³se. keÀeUe®³ee DeesIeele iees[îeeheeC³eeleerue ³ee ceiejeRveer ieesJ³eeleerue #eej³egÊeÀ heeC³eeMeer pegUJetve Iesleues DeeefCe ³esLeerue KeejHegÀìer pebieue heefjmebmLesle Deeheueer YejYejeì meeOeueer. Deepe kegÀcyepeg&Dee keÀeueJee ne pebieueer ceiej heenC³eemeeþer ne@ìmhee@ì cnCetve DeesUKeuee peelees. ³eemeeþer jep³e mejkeÀej®³ee he³e&ìve efJeYeeieekeÀ[tve peuehe³e&ìveeuee hee´lsmeenvener eofues peele Deen.s ceiej ner SkeÀ mekbeÀìiem´le hep´eeleer Deen.s efleuee osMee®³ee Jev³epeerJe (mebj#eCe) keÀe³eÐeebleie&le meJeex®®e opee&®es

(Mes[îetue 1) mebj#eCe he´ehle Deens. Demes Demeues lejer vepeerkeÀ®³ee keÀeUele ³ee he´peeleerJej DeLeJee efle®³ee mebK³esJej ieesJ³eele keÀesCel³ee®e hek´eÀej®es meJex#eCe Peeuesues veener. efvece&ue kegÀuekeÀCeea DeeefCe l³eeb®eer ìerce jep³eeleerue ceiejeR®eer ieCevee keÀjC³eemeeþer MeemeveekeÀ[tve hejJeeveieer efceUC³ee®eer Jeeì heenle Deensle. Deepe ceebies LeehCeer HeÀÊeÀ ogYee&ì he³e¥le®e ce³ee&efole jeefnuesueer veener. mJe³embeJseer membLee SAWE (mì[er De[ B DeJeD s ejvemse DeeH@eÀ JeeFu&[ueeFH&eÀ DeB[ SvJne³eve&ceWì)®es ®ejCe osmeeF& meebieleele keÀer, Deepetyeepet®³ee ieeJeebceO³esner le©Ceebheemetve les cneleeN³eebhe³e¥le meJe&®epeCe ³ee efJeOeerle menYeeieer nesle Deensle. osmeeF& ns ieesJ³eeleerue heeW[eceOeerue ceeveJe-ceiej mebyebOe ³eeJej keÀece keÀjle Deensle. l³ee®eyejesyej ceiejeR®es DeeqmleÊJe Demeuesu³ee 21 ieeJeebleosKeerue ³ee yeeyeleerle osKejsKe keÀjle Deensle. ogYee&쮳ee veeceosJejeJehe´ceeCes®e vepeerkeÀ®³ee leueJueer ieeJeele legkeÀejece cegUerkeÀ iesu³ee 30 Je<ee¥heemetve ceebies LeehCeer meepejer keÀjleele. les ne eJfeOeer ceKg³elJes ceiejehReemevte mejb#eCe ecfeUeJes DeeeCfe l³eevbeer Deeheu³ee Yeelee®³ee Mesleele ³esT ve³es ³eemeeþer keÀjleele. cegUerkeÀ cnCeleele, `yeebOeeJej DeeefCe Mesleele Deecner ceeskeÀUsheCeeves efHeÀjlees. Deecneuee ceieje®Reer Yeelreer Jeeìle veene.r hel´³e#e ceemecseejer ekEeÀJee Melseer keÀjelre vemeues lejer peemleerpeemle le©Ce Deelee ³ee efJeOeerle menYeeieer nesle Deensle.' cegUerkeÀ mJeleëner ceemesceejer eEkeÀJee Mesleer keÀjle veenerle. les keÀeWkeÀCe jusJecseO³es veekseÀjeuree Deenlse DeeeCfe l³eevbeer l³ee®beer peceevre Yee[lseÊJeeJej efoueer Deens. lejerner SkeÀ hejbheje cnCetve les ne efJeOeer ojJe<eea ve ®egkeÀlee heej hee[leele. leueJueerleerue®e SWMeer®³ee Iejele Demeuesues efJeþt cnCeleele efkeÀ, `peefceveerJej DeeefCe heeC³eelener Deece®es j#eCe keÀj, Deece®³ee efnlee®eer keÀeUpeer Ie,s DeMeer hee´Lev&ee Deecner ceeibes (ceiej) uee keÀjlee.s ceiejehReemevte mejb#eCeemeeþer hee´Lev&eysejeysej®e Deecner ³ee eJfeOeelrevte evfemeieeh&el´eer Deece®ee Deeoj oKseeure J³eÊeÀ keÀjlees keÀejCe l³ee®³eeJej®e Deece®ee GojevfeJeen& DeJeuebyetve Deens.' Deepe KeejHeÀgìe®res peibeue DeeeCfe leLses jenCeejer ceKg³e hep´eelee,r ceiej oesIesner ceeveJeer nmle#esHeecegUs ceesþîee mebkeÀìele meehe[ues Deensle. ieesJ³ee®³ee efJekeÀemee®³ee Peheeìîeeves lesLeerue KeejHegÀìer®eer pebieues ceeþsîeehec´eeCeeJej KeeTve ìekeÀueer Deenlse DeeeCfe leLseeure veÐeener heo´et<fele kesÀu³ee Deensle. Deelee Oeee|cekeÀ DeeefCe meebmke=ÀeflekeÀ keÀce&keÀeb[s lejer ieeJs³eeleeure ceiejevRee DeeeCfe elfeLeu³ee peibeueevbee Jee®eJet MekeÀleeure keÀe³e ns heneJe³ee®es.


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jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie

JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJejerue peerJemecetn ... uesKeebkeÀ 11 Jee [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs ë 93225 07685

p³ee efþkeÀeCeer efkeÀveejHeÆer obletj Demeles DeLeJee DeeHeleìer³e #e$seele JeeuekgeÀemleg (Sand Bar) Demelee,s p³eeceU g s ueeìe®b³ee DeeoUCe yeuee®ee (Energy of Surf) DeHeJ³e³e neslees, DeMee efþkeÀeCeer ueeìeb®ee Deûe-KeUeU (Forward wash) DeJemeeoer keÀCe efkeÀveejHeÆerkeÀ[s {keÀuelees. HeCe Hegvne mecegêekeÀ[s Dees{t MekeÀle veener Je JeeuegkeÀece³e DeLeJee jslee[ HegUCe le³eej nesles. ueeìeb®³ee Deûe KeUeUe®es Je Hejleer®³ee KeUeUe®es yeU efkeÀleer Demeles ³eeJej JeeUgb®³ee keÀCeeb®ee DeekeÀej-ÒekeÀej DeJeuebyetve Demelees. meeceev³eleë ns yeU Je JeeUt®³ee keÀCeeb®ee DeekeÀej ³eeb®³eele mece ÒeceeCe Demeles. ns keÀCe keÀHe®³ee, ieesìs, Yej[ JeeU,t yeejekreÀ JeeUt Je ieeU (silt and clay) ³ee DeekeÀej ÒekeÀeje®bes Demeleele. JeeUt®es keÀCe veÐee Je Flej iees[îee HeeC³ee®es ÒeJeen, [eWiej Je peecfeveekreÀ[vte meceêgekeÀ[s ueeìsvte DeeCeleele. l³ee®e ÒeceeCes leUeleeure Ke[keÀeb®es #ejCe (erosion) nesTve osKeerue les yeveleele. meeiejer peeJree®b³ee keÀbkeÀeuee®bes (skeletons) eJfeKe[ b ve neT s ve DeeeCfe meceêgeleeure #eejeb®es jemee³eefvekeÀ DeJe#esHeCe (precipitation) Peeu³eevesmeg×e JeeUt®es keÀCe le³eej neT s MekeÀleele. DekeÀeyev&eer #eeje®bes yenJgeeejfkeÀ (polymets of inorganic salts) keÀesCel³ee Oeelet cetueêJ³eeb®³ee meb³egieebveer yeveues Deensle l³eeJeªve l³eeb®es jbieªHe þjles Je JeeUt®ee/jsleer®ee jbiener keÀesCel³ee keÀCeeb®es l³eele ÒeeOeev³e Deens ³eeJeªve þjlees. mej pee@pe& mìeskeÌme ³ee Òeefme× ieefCelep%eeves keÀCeebJejerue HeeC³ee®eer Dees{ ner l³ee keÀCeeb®³ee J³eemeeJej Je ueeìe/ÒeJeen ³eeb®³ee JesieeJej DeJeueybevte Demeles ns emfe× keÀsues Je leer ceepseC³ee®es meceekreÀjCener yeveJeue.s ³ee meceerkeÀjCeele jsleer®es keÀCe mejU js<esle®e Dees{ues peeCes DeHesef#ele Oejues. HeCe Òel³e#eele cee$e efJe<eceleue He=ÿYeeieeJej keÀCeeb®eer neue®eeue nesle Demeu³eeves Ie<e&CeeceOetve keÀener yeue J³e³e nesleb. JeeUt®es ceesþeues

keÀCe DeLeJee ieesìs ueeìeb®ee Jesie 100 mes.ceer. Òeefle meskebÀoeHes#ee DeefOekeÀ Demesue lej®e {keÀueues peeT MekeÀleele. lej ne Jesie 20 mes.ceer. Òeefle mekseÀbo He³el¥e keÀceer nelsee®e les Keeueer yemeleele. JeeU®t³ee yeejekreÀ keÀCeevbee (fine sand particles) l³eeceeveeves menpe ®eeuevee efceUles. HeCe ieeUkeÀCe (silt and clay) cee$e SkeÀoe mee®eues keÀer l³eeb®es ®eueve peJeUHeeme DemebYeJe Demeles. DeLee&le DeJe©× (stagnant) DeLeJee Del³eble mebLe HeeC³ee®³ee efþkeÀeCeer®e ieeU-keÀCe mee®etve l³eeb®ee meekeÀe yevelees. JeeoUer JeeN³eebcegUs ueeìeb®³ee Deûe KeUeUe®es yeue Jee{les DeeefCe DeHeleìer³e DeJemeeo efvecve-Jesueeb®eueer #es$eekeÀ[s {keÀueuee peelees Je ueeìe HegUCeerJej DeefOekeÀ ceesþîee #es$eeJej Hemeªve yee¿e Jesueeb®eueer #e$seeleeure JeeUt Ke®sele Jeusee®beueer #e$seele DeeCeleele. emfLeleer HeJteH&eoeJej ³elseevee JeeU-tkeÀCee®beer neue®eeue yejeysej Gueì ÒekeÀejs neT s ve ekfeÀveeje HetJe&Jele neslees. JeeoUer JeeN³eeyejesyej keÀesj[îee Peeuesu³ee JeeUt®³ee LejebceOetve ieeU-keÀCe (silt and clay) GOeUues peeTve OetU-{ieeb®³ee mJeªHeele peefceveerkeÀ[s Jeentve vesues peeleele. ceO³ece DeekeÀeje®es keÀCe JeeN³eeyejesyej PesHeeJele otjJej vesues peeleele lej Yej[, ceesþs keÀCe ie[ie[le Lees[s otjHe³e¥le®e Heesn®et MekeÀleele. ³eecegUs JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJejerue IeìkeÀ keÀCeeb®es ÒeceeCe JeeoUeveblej yeoueu³ee®es efometve ³esles. JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeR®es #eHeCe ë MeskeÀ[es -npeejes Je<ex DeMee He×leerves ieþve Peeuesu³ee jslee[ HegUCeeRJej meJee&le Jej®ee pee[ Lej iesu³ee keÀener oMekeÀeble meeþuesu³ee JeeU®tee, l³eeKeeueer npeejes Je<eeH¥eJteea meeþueus³ee JeeU®tee Lej Je l³eener


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Keeueer leUMeeruee (bed rocks) Demee Deeke=ÀleeryebOe efomelees. Jesueeb®eueer Je efvecve Jesueeb®eueer #es$eelener meJee&le Jej®ee Je pee[ Lej iesu³ee keÀener oMekeÀeble meeþuesu³ee JeeUt®ee, l³eeKeeueer menm$eeJeOeer Je<ee¥Heemetve meeþle Deeuesu³ee JeeUt®ee pee[ Lej Je l³eener Keeueer leUMeeruee Demeu³ee®es Dee{Ules. DeHeleìer³e Je ceO³e-YetKeb[ceb®eer³e #es$eele iesu³ee keÀener oMekeÀeble meeþuesu³ee JeeUt®ee Lej ¬eÀceMeë keÀceer Gb®eer®ee nesle iesuesuee efomelees lej ue#eeJeOeer Je<ex meeþuesu³ee JeeUt®ee Lej YejHetj pee[er®ee Je l³eeKeeueer leUMeeruee Demee Deeke=ÀleeryebOe Dee{Ulees. YetKeb[ceb®ee®³ee GJe&jerle Yeeieer les mecegê leU, ³ee Yeeieele iesu³ee keÀener oMekeÀeble meeþuesu³ee JeeUt®ee HeeleUmee Lej, ue#eeJeOeer Je<ee¥Heemetve meeþle Deeuesuee KetHe®e pee[ JeeUt®ee Lej Je l³eeKeeueer DeJemeeoe®es IeveerkeÀjCe nesTve le³eej nesle DemeCeeN³ee DeJemeeoer-DeMceeb®ee Lej Je l³ee®³eener Keeueer leUMeeruee DeMeer ªHejsKee efomeles. efJeefJeOe KeesueeRJejerue JeeUt/DeJemeeoer LejebceO³es Dee{UCeeN³ee efíêevegJeleea (foraminiferan) ®³ee DeY³eemeeletve l³ee Leje®³ee yeveC³ee®ee keÀeU þjJelee ³eslees. meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes Depem$e ueeìe ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej JeeUt HegUCeerkeÀ[s mejkeÀJeleele. oj leemeeuee ceesþîee DeekeÀejceevee®eer JeeUt ueeìeb®³ee KeUeU #es$eele Jeentve DeeCeueer peeles lej ieg©lJeekeÀ<e&Ce Je Hejleer®³ee ueeìe ³eeb®³eecegUs peJeUHeeme l³ee®e Jesieele JeeUt Hegvne meceêgekeÀ[s Dee{ s ueer peeles p³eeceU g s JeeU®tes eJfelejCe Deens l³ee emfLeleelre jeKeues peele.s JeeU®tes ue#eCee³re DeekeÀejceeve keÀeCsel³eener JeU s er HeeC³eele G®euetve Oejuesu³ee efmLeleerle jentve meeiejer ÒeJeen, GOeeCe-efmLeleer, JeeN³eeb®es yeue DeMee IeìkeÀebJej DeJeuebyetve JeeUt®eer neue®eeue nesle jenles. peJeUHeeme 20 ì^keÀ Yejleerue SJe{er JeeUt ®eesJeerme leemeele Demee ÒeJeeme keÀjles. meceMeerlees<Ce keÀìeryebOeele (temetare region) $eÝlet DeefOekeÀ megmHe<ì efomeleele. efnJeeȳeele JeeoUer JeeN³eebcegUs KeesueJejerue JeeUt efkeÀveeN³ee®³ee efoMesveer Kes®eueer peeTve JeeuegkeÀemlet (sand bars) le³eej nesleele. Hejleer®³ee ueeìe HegUCeerJejerue yeejerkeÀ JeeUt DeMee JeeuegkeÀemlegbHe³e¥le Kes®etve DeeCeleele Je HegUCeeRJej Yej[ JeeUt ceeies jenles. ûeer<ceele mecegê Meeble Demelees lesJne ner JeeUt HegveM®e HegUCeerJej lemes®e Keesue mecegêele vesueer peeles. oj efoJeMeer HegUCeer®³ee mJeªHeele yeoue Ie[leevee efomele vemeuee lejer JeeUt®eer ue#eCeer³e neue®eeue cee$e nesle®e Demeles. ueeìe pesJne efJeefMeä keÀesveele efkeÀveeN³eeuee efYe[leele lesJne jsleer®es keÀCe Hejleer®³ee ueeìebyejesyej HegUCeer®³ee Keeue®³ee Debieeuee Hemejle jenleele. jslee[ HegUCeeRJejerue peerJemecegn (Sandshore Community) JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJej met³e&ÒekeÀeMe cegyeuekeÀ ÒeceeCeele efceUlees. ÒekeÀeMeekfeÀjCe Mee<sevte JeeU®tes keÀCe leeHeleele Je eofJemee JeeU®tes leHeceeve nJes®³ee/HeeC³ee®³ee leHeceeveentve DeefOekeÀ jenles. ns leHle JeeuetkeÀCe

G<Celee menpelesves HeeCeer DeLeJee nJeskeÀ[s megHeto& keÀª MekeÀle Demeu³eeves je$eer JeeUt®es leHeceeve HeeCeer/nJes®³ee letuevesle keÀceer jenles. JeeU®t³ee keÀCeecbeOevte HeeCeer lJejvses ePfejHele Demeu³eeves HeeC³ee®eer HeeleUer Keeueer peelee®e He=ÿYeeieeJejerue JeeUt keÀesj[erþeCe nesles. HeCe Lees[s Keesue peelee Deesueer JeeUt Je DeefOekeÀ KeesueerJej HeeCeer ueeieles. Deesues Demeleevee HejmHejebvee ef®ekeÀìtve jenCeejs JeeUt®es keÀCe keÀesj[s neslee®e efJeueieleele. p³eecegUs JeeUt efmLej DeOeëmlej (substratum) osT MekeÀle veener. efMeJee³e JeeUt®³ee keÀCeeb®es HeeC³eeyejesyej GlLeeHeve Je DeOeëmLeeHeve nesle Demeu³eeves Deesu³ee JeeUtJejner mepeerJeebvee efmLej jenCes DeMeke̳e nesles. HeCe JeeuegkeÀCeebceOeerue HeeskeÀȳeebletve nJee Je HeeCeer menpe KesUles jent MekeÀle Demeu³eeves He=ÿYeeieeHeemetve Deele efJeefJeOe mepeerJe Jeeme keÀjleevee Dee{Uleele. Ke[keÀeU HegUCeeRJej nceKeeme Dee{UCeejs efKeUJeCe Demeuesues MewJeeue JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJej cee$e Deefpeyeele efomele veenerle. l³eeSsJepeer met#ce, HeeC³eele HeebieCeejer, SkeÀHesMeer³e MewJeeues efJeHegue ÒeceeCeele JeeUtbceOeerue HeeC³eeyejesyej He=ÿYeeieeHeemetve KeesueJej nsuekeÀeJeleevee Dee{Uleele. `Heesne, HeesKeje eEkeÀJee JeeUtyejesyej ueesìues pee' DeMee HeefjefmLeleerle leie OejC³eemeeþer ÒeeC³eebvee efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®eer DevekgeÀtueves DeeJeM³ekeÀ þjleele. meJeel&e evfel³ee®es DevekgeÀtueve cnCepes HeeC³ee®³ee jIseyseenjs jenCes ekEeÀJee jlseer HeeKseªve HeeCeer GHeueyOe Demeuesu³ee KeesueerJej jenCes. yengleebMe ÒeeCeer HeeC³eeleerue DevvekeÀCe ieeUtve Hees<eCe efceUJeleele. jsleerle KeesueJej Jeeme kesÀu³eeves ÒeeC³eeb®es Ye#ekeÀ ueeìe®bee ceej, ÒeKej ÒekeÀeMe, G®®e leHeceeve, Me<gkeÀlee ³eeHbeemevte mebj#eCe efceUles. Hejblet JeeUtle jenC³ee®ee meJee&le ceesþe leesìe cnCepes Devvee®eer keÀcelejlee. Deenseìse®r³ee keÀeUele eJfeeJfeOe He#ee,r íeìss memleve ÒeeCeer, mejerme=He Je keÀerìkeÀ jsleerJejerue Je jsleerceOeerue Ye#e MeesOeleele. lej Yejleeryejesyej ceemes, KeskeÀ[s, keÀesUbyeer, ³eebmeejKes Ye#ekeÀ ³esleele. HeÀkeÌle meg#ce HeeokeÀ-HueJekeÀebveer mebMuesef<ele kesÀuesues Devve DeHegjs þjles Je l³eecegUs JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJej Dee{UCeejs DeveskeÀ ÒeeCeer meWêer³e/


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keÀeyev&eer DeJeMe<seeJbej evfeJeen& keÀjleele. yenlgekseÀ eMEeHeer (clams) Je KekseÀ[s (crabs) HeeC³eeleerue HueJekesÀ Je meWêer³e keÀCe ieeUtve l³eeJej peieleele. Deesues JeeUt®es keÀCe DemLee³eerHeCes SkeÀceskeÀebvee ef®ekeÀìle Demeues lejer DeMee JeeUtle HeesKejuesueer efyeUs menpe®e keÀesmeUleele DeeefCe cnCetve®e He<gkeÀUmes HeeKsejCeejs ÒeeCeer e®fekeÀì êeJe m$eJevte l³ee®es ueHseve yeeiseÐee®³ee Deeleerue eEYeleerJej keÀjleele p³eecegUs ner efyeUs keÀesmeUle veenerle. HeeC³ee®³ee js<esHeemetve peefceveer®³ee efoMesves p³ee KeesueerJej HeeCeer GHeueyOe nelses leer Keeuseer Jee{le peele Demeu³eeves HeeKsejCeeN³ee ÒeeC³ee®bes vemweeifek&eÀ #es$e efJeYeepeve nesleevee efomeles. pes ÒeeCeer DeefOekeÀ KeesueJej HeesKeª MekeÀle veenerle les efvecce Jesueeb®eueer #es$eekeÀ[s lej pes ¬eÀceMeë DeefOekeÀ ueebye veȳee yeveJet MekeÀleele Demes ÒeeCeer HegUCeer®³ee efoMesves DeefOekeÀeefOekeÀ DeblejeJej meeHe[t MekeÀleele. l³eeb®³ee Mejerjer®³ee DeekeÀejeJeªve JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJej Dee{UCeejs ÒeeCeer met#ce ÒeeCeer (microfauna) , ueneve ÒeeCeer (meiofauna) yen = oÒeeCeer (macrofauna) ³ee ieìelbe cee[ s leele. l³eeHekweÀer keÀesCel³ee mecegneleerue ÒeeCeer DeefOekeÀ ÒeceeCeele meeHe[Ceej ns l³ee eþ f keÀeCe®³ee JeeUkteÀCee®b³ee DeekeÀejeJej þjle.b ieeUkeÀCee®bes (silt and clay) DeefOeke̳e Demelee keÀCeebceOeerue HeeskeÀȳee KetHe ueneve Demeleele Je me#tce DeLeJee ueneve ÒeeCeemreceng leJse{s DeMee eþ f keÀeCeer Dee{Uleele. pesLes veoer®es cegKe mecegêele GIe[les DeLeJee pesLes efkeÀveeN³eeuee ueeìeb®³ee DeeoUCeeHeemevte mejb#eCe ecfeUeueuses Demeles elfeLes ieeU-keÀCee®bes ÒeceeCe DeeOfekeÀ Demeles Je peJweeJfeeJfeOelee leugevevses keÀceer Demele.s ceO³ece ÒeeC³ee®b³ee DeekeÀejeJej (meiofauna) Yejleer-Deesnesìer®ee DeefOekeÀ HeefjCeece nesleevee efomelees p³eecegUs JeeUgceO³es l³eeb®es GYes mLeueeblej (vertcal migration) Yejleer-Deesnesìer®³ee ®e¬eÀevegmeej nesleevee efomeles. ueeìebveer Jeenvte DeeCeueuses meêWe³re/keÀeyev&eer keÀCener ieeU keÀCee®b³ee®e DeekeÀeje®es Demeleele Je les meeceev³eleë JeeUtletve efPejHetve DeefOekeÀ KeesueerJej efmLejeJeleele. ³ee KeesueerHe³e¥le nJes®es DeefYemejCe keÀceer nesles DeeefCe efJeIeìveemeeþer ÒeeCeJee³et ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej JeeHejuee peeTve FLes ÒeeCeJee³et efJejnerle #es$e le³eej nesles. efJevee@keÌmeer efJeIeìveele efJe<eejer Jee³et le³eej nesTve pewJeefJeefJeOelee lemes®e pewJe-Ievelee Ieìles. peJeUHeeme meJe&®e ÒecegKe lemes®e ieewCe (major and minor) peeefleJe=Êeeb®es (phylums) ÒeefleefveOeer JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeeRJej Dee{Ut MekeÀleele. ³eeceO³es DeeefopeerJe (protozoa) , Jeue³eebefle®e ke=Àceer (annelides) , ieesue ke=Àceer (nematodes) mebefOeHeeo (arthropods) , ce=otkeÀe³e (molluscs) , kebÀìkeÀer®eceea (echimoderms), Meer<e&jppegceeve (cephalochordates) He=ÿJebMeer³e (vertebrates) Jeie& ³eeb®es ÒeefleefveOeer Demeleele. HeU g CeeJrej p³ee eþ f keÀeCeer keÀsJeU HeÀgìCeeN³ee ueeìe®bes le<geej®e leJse{s Heens®eleele DeMee yee¿eJeusee®beueer #e$seele eJfeeYfevve JeeuekgeÀeyeObekeÀ (sand

binding) JevemHeleer Jee{leevee efomeleele. keÀeskeÀCe-ieesJee-keÀvee&ìkeÀ-

kesÀjU efkeÀveejHeÆerJej Dee³eHeesefce³ee yee³eueesyee®es Jesue jsleer®³ee ìkseÀe[eJbej Jee{leevee Dee{Uleele. ³eeKejsepre eJfeeJfeOe ÒekeÀej®es ieJele, meg[e, mesmeteqJn³ece ³eemeejK³ee JevemHeleer osKeerue ³ee #es$eele Jee{leele. JeeleYebpekeÀ (wind breackers) JevemHeleer jslee[ HegUCeeR®³ee yeensj®³ee keÀ[ebJej ueeJeu³ee Demelee JeeUt peefceveerkeÀ[s HewÀueeJele veener Je HegUCe #es$ee®es #ejCener jesKeues peeles. megª eEkeÀJee ke@ÀMegefjvee®eer Pee[s ³eemeeþer Yeejleele DeveskeÀ jslee[ HegUCeeRJej ueeJeC³eele Deeueer Deensle. ³ee JevemHelee®R³ee DeeOeejs DevekseÀ YepteeJremecenge®es ÒeelfeevfeOeer jlsee[ HeU g CeeJbrej Jeeme keÀjleele. l³eele efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®eer HegÀueHeeKejs, HeWiegU, ìeskesÀ (weevils) leg [ leg [ s (beach hoppers), ®eleg j , DeeHeejHeeo (millipeds), GYe³eHeeo (amphipods) , HeeCe He#eer (acqatic birds), Pee[er He#eer (scrub birds), mej[s, meeHe, ueneve memleve ÒeeCeer

Fl³eeoeR®ee meceeJesMe Demelees. Jesueeb®eueer #es$eele efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®es JeeuegkeÀe KeskeÀ[s (sand crabs) keÀener peJeuee®bes ÒekeÀej (shrimps), yen=oJelb=e Jeue³eeebkfeÀle keÀ=ceer (polychaete annelids), leg[leg[s (beach hoppers), efJeefJeOe eEMeHeer Je MebKeeb®es ÒekeÀej, leeje ceemes, jsleer-ceesnesje (sand dollars), mecegê keÀekeÀ[îee (sea cucumbers) ns cegyeuekeÀ ÒeceeCeele Dee{Uleele. efvecve Jesueeb®eueer Je DeHeleìer³e #es$eele mecegê HegÀues (sea anemones), ieeefue®ee HegÀues (carpet anemones), Dee@keÌìesHeme, efkeÀjerì-ceemes (crinoids) , mecegê uesKeC³ee (sea pens) DeMee DeveskeÀ Òepeeleer Dee{Uleele. JeeuegkeÀece³e HegUCeer ÒeJeeMeebvee Del³eble efÒe³e Demeleele. iesu³ee uesKeebkeÀele DeMee HegUCeeR®es megj#es®³ee ¢äerkeÀesveeletve kesÀues peeCeejs JeieeakeÀjCe DeeHeCe Heeefnues. ÒeJeeMeeb®³ee efve<keÀeUpeerHeCeecegUs DeMee HegUCeeR®es Òeot<eCe DeefOekeÀ ÒeceeCeele nesle³e. pejer DeMee He³e&ìveeletve #es$eer³e Je jeä^er³e DeLe&J³eJemLesuee yeUkeÀìer efceUle Demeueer lejer, peeCeerJeHetJe&keÀ mebJeOe&ve-mebj#eCe GHee³e ³eespeCes Del³eeJeM³ekeÀ Deens.


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efJeMes<e uesKe

Demes ceuee Jeeìle.s..! lecgneuee? [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs nstekale@gmail.com : 98696 12531

keÀeJeUe ne He#eer ceuee ceeP³ee Dee³e<g³ee®³ee ®eej ìHH³eele eJfeeJfeOe ªHeele Yesìle iesuee. ueneveHeCeer ®esäs®ee efJe<e³e, Meeues³e peerJeveele ngMeejer®es GoenjCe cnCetve, ceneefJeÐeeue³eerve keÀeUele Lees[emee DeY³eeme DeeefCe SkeÀebefkeÀkesÀ®³ee ceeO³eceeletve DeeefCe veblej®³ee ìHH³eele meMbeeOseveeevfeecfeÊe. ceePee SkeÀ ceecee JeCeev&es KeHte®e keÀeUe nelsee; ®ekekÌeÀ keÀeJeȳeemeejKee®e. l³ee®es veeJe G®®eejC³eemeeþer KetHe®e DeJeIe[ Demeu³eecegUs Deecner l³eeuee keÀeUtceecee cnCele Demet. KetHe ÒesceU Demeuesuee ceecee l³eecegUs Deece®³eeJej SkeÀoemeg×e jeieeJeuee veener. Deepeesyeebveer SkeÀoe Deecneuee ieesäerªHeele ceeCemeeb®³ee jbieªHeeHes#ee mJeYeeJe DeeefCe iegCeeme peemle cenÊJe Ðee ns meebefieleu³eeveblej Deecneuee lees ceecee peemle DeeJe[t ueeieuee. l³ee®³eeceOeerue jbiee®es J³ebie Deecner efJemeªve iesuees. Meeues³e peerJeveele jebpeCeeceO³es íesìs íesìs oie[ ìeketÀve HeeCeer Jej DeeCeCeeje keÀeJeUe ceer Depetvener efJemejuesuees veener. cesuesues peveeJej Dee{ s vte ceeUjeveeJej velseevee meeysele ®eeueueuseer keÀeJeȳee®beer keÀeJekeÀeJe Je l³eeletve efieOee[ebvee efceUCeejs mebosMe ceer peJeUtve DevegYeJeues. ceneefJeÐeeue³eerve keÀeUele ceer ³ee He#³ee®ee Jner.ìer. mìsMeve les þeCes ³ee ueekseÀue ÒeJeemeele ueiepse®³ee [y³eemeeysele keÀeU s er m$ee³ree®b³ee ceeM³ee®b³ee ìesHeu³eebmen þeC³eeHe³e¥le Je lesLetve yeepeejeHe³e¥le DevegYeJeuee Deens. ®eej KesUe[tb®eer oesve npeej ceerìj HeUC³ee®eer Me³e&le DeMeer®e lej Demeles. ceneefJeÐeeue³eerve ÒeeO³eeHekeÀ Demeleevee Deecner `ie®®eerJejerue DeìBvsee®³ee ìekseÀeJej yemeueus³ee keÀeJeȳee®b³ee MeHseìecreOeeure SkeÀ Heemre' ner SkeÀebefkeÀkeÀe mHeOexmeeþer meeoj kesÀueer nesleer. DeeblejceneefJeÐeeue³eerve mHeOexle efleuee ogmejs Heeefjleesef<ekeÀ efceUeues nesles. SkeÀebefkeÀkesÀ®³ee HeÀkeÌle veeJeele®e Yesìuesuee ne keÀeJeUe veblej cee$e ceeP³ee mebMeesOevee®ee SkeÀ efJe<e³e®e þjuee. keÀyeglejeHes#ee DeekeÀejeves Lees[e ceesþe Demeuesuee ne He#eer ceevesYeesJeleer®ee keÀj[e jbie mees[uee lej mebHetCe& keÀeUe Demelees,

cee$e DeefleMe³e ngMeej. Devve efYepeJetve KeeCes, pebieueer yeoecee®eer HeÀUs jml³eeJej ìekeÀtve iee[e®r³ee ®eekeÀeKeeueer HeÀgìu³eevelbej Deeleeure Heeew<fìkeÀ yeoece DeLeJee l³ee®ee ®egje ns DeeHeCeeme vesnceer®e HeneJe³eeme efceUles. ye[ s´ ®es lekgeÀ[s meceêgekfeÀveejer HeeC³eele ìekeÀtve ceemes ceìkeÀeJeCeejs `keÀekeÀ' ngMeej veenerle Demes keÀmes cnCeCeej? keÀeJeȳee®ee ceWot Meefjje®³ee leguevesle ceesþe Demelees, cnCetve ner ng<eejer. keÀeJeUe ne ceeCemee®³ee JemeenleerpeJeU HeCe Iejele ve ³esCeeje He#eer. DeefleMe³e ®eueeKe, meeJeOe, ®eHeU. KeeC³eemeeþer ®eesKeboU vemeuesuee ce=leYe#eer Deens. efMeUb me[uesueb Devve, ce=l³etHebLeeme ueeieuesues ÒeeCeer-He#eer, DeMekeÌle, MekeÌleernerve peerJe ns meJe& keÀeJeȳeebvee DeefleMe³e eÒfe³e. [eeJfev&e®³ee emfe×elbeeJej Heeìs YejCeeje ne He#eer evfemeieel&eeure meHeÀeF& keÀeceieej Je me¢{ He³ee&JejCee®ee j#ekeÀ Deens. SkesÀkeÀeUer ne He#eer ûeeceerCe Yeeieele MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee efce$e neslee. veebiejìerceeies efHeÀªve peefceleerueer GHeêJeer keÀìkeÀ KeeTve lees Mesleer®es j#eCe keÀjle Demes. efkeÀìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®³ee DeefleJeeHejecegUs ³ee He#³ee®eer GHeemeceej nesT ueeieueer DeeefCe l³eeb®ee cegkeÌkeÀece MenjekeÀ[s JeUuee. cebefoj DeeefCe YekeÌle ceb[Uer ³eeb®eb pemeb ¢{ veeleb Demeleb lemeb®e MenjebceOetve Deesmeb[tve JeenCeeN³ee keÀ®ejekegbÀ[îee Je l³ee meYeesJeleer®³ee DemebK³e keÀeJeȳeeb®es Demeles. DeeHeues Menj efkeÀleer IeeCe Demet MekeÀles ns Menjele Jee{CeeN³ee keÀeJeȳeeb®³ee mebK³esJeªve keÀUles. ceneHeeefuekesÀ®³ee keÀce&®eeN³eebveer keÀ®ejekegbÀ[er efjkeÀeceer keÀjC³eeDeeOeer l³eeb®es yejs®emes keÀece DeeHeu³ee Menjeleerue ceeskeÀeì peveeJejs, MJeeveJeie& Je l³eeb®³ee HeeþerJej yemetve keÀeJeUs keÀjle Demeleele. keÀener Je<ee¥HetJeea keÀ®eje Jeentve vesCeeN³ee iee[îeeybejeysej Hee®e-Hevveeme keÀeJeUs DevekseÀ GHeveieje®bee ÒeJeeme keÀªve [efcHeie ûeeTb[ He³e¥le peele. ueeskeÀue ÒeJeemeeleerue ieoea peMeer Deesmeb[t ueeieueer leMeer®e keÀ®ejeiee[er yejesyej ÒeJeeme keÀjCeeN³ee `keÀekeÀ'®eer ieoea Jee{t ueeieueer. ³eeJej GHee³e cnCetve yebo iee[îee Deeu³ee DeeefCe ³ee He#³ee®ee efJeveeeflekeÀerì ÒeJeeme Leebyeuee. Yeejleeleerue 19 ìkeÌkesÀ ueeskeÀmebK³ee DeOe&Heesìer Demeleevee MenjeceOeer u e keÀeJeUs keÀ®ejekeg b À [er l eer u e yeb o Hueemìer k eÀ®³ee HeeefkeÀìebceOeerue ®eJeoej MeekeÀenejer Je ceebmeenejer HeoeLee¥Jej mekeÀeUer mene les Deeþ SkeÀeHeeþesHeeþ SkeÀ YeespeveeJeUer Gþle Demeleele. ceeP³ee ie=nmebkegÀuee®³ee Heefjmejele Heneìs Hee®eHeemetve®e keÀeJeȳeeb®es `Devve ns HetCe&yeï´e! menpe nJeve nesles peeefCepes ³e%ekeÀce&' cnCetve meecegefnkeÀ keÀekeÀ iee³eve megª nesles. MenjeceOeerue mìej ne@ìsume ceOeues je$eer®es Gjuesues Devve mejU [efcHeie ûeeTb[Jej peeles DeeefCe lesLes npeejes keÀeJeȳeebvee vekeÀUle Devveoeve keÀsues peele.s ceeveJeevfeecfel&e ne Deenej keÀeJeUs DeeeCfe


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l³eeb®eer yeeUs ³eebvee kegÀHeesef<ele keÀjle Deens. cesuesues Gboerj, Flej ce=le ÒeeCeer ³eeb®³eekeÀ[s keÀeJeUs Deelee {gbketÀvemeg×e Heenle veenerle. keÀejCe l³eebvee YejHetj HeÀjmeeCe, ef®eJe[e, HeeHe[er, efyemkeÀerìs, leJ³eeJejerue leepeer HeesUer KeeT IeeueCeejs ueeskeÀ Deepe DeeHeu³ee Menjele `MeekeÀenejer keÀeJekeÀeJe' peemle Jee{Jele Deensle Devvee®³ee MeesOeele keÀeJeUe SkeÀìe efHeÀjlees. cee$e mee³ebkeÀeUer ne He#eer mecegneceO³es SKeeÐee ceesþîee Pee[eJej efveêeOeerve neslees. keÀeJeȳeeb®eer ner mecegn PeesHe npeejes les ueeKeeW®³ee mebK³esle Demeles. keÀeJeȳeeb®eer Pee[s þjuesueer Demeleele; DeveskeÀÒemebieer HeÀeboermeg×e. Òel³eskeÀ kegÀìgbyee®eer SkeÀ HeÀeboer Demes cnìues lejer JeeJeies þª ve³es. efveês®³ee DeeOeerve nesC³eeDeeOeer peeiesmeeþer, Pee[emeeþer ³eeb®³eeceO³es yejs®eoe ceejeceejer nesles. keÀuekeÀueeì megª Demelees. keÀeJeȳeeb®eer MeeUe ns veeJe ³ee®eJeªve He[ues Deen.s l³ee®b³ee Pee[eJbej Flej He#³eevbee ÒeJesMe Demelees. cee$e ceekeÀ[emeejKee ÒeeCeer Deeuee keÀer, l³eeb®ee keÀuekeÀueeì peemle Jee{lees. ceekeÀ[eb®es DeekeÀmceele Menjele IegmeCes ³eemeeþer ne He#eer vesnceer®e oMe&keÀe®es keÀece keÀjlees. ÒeCe³ejeOevesceO³es keÀeJeUe ne keÀyeglejemeejKee efveueepeje He#eer veener. ne He#eer Je³e Je<ex leerve les Hee®e ojc³eeve efceueveemeeþer ³eesi³e þjlees. vej-ceeoer mecepeCes lemes keÀþerCe Deens. efceueve GlmegkeÀ Demeuesuee keÀeJeUe SKeeÐee Pee[eYeesJeleer DeekeÀ<e&keÀHeCes ieesue ®ekeÀje ceejlees. vej-ceeoer SkeÀ$e Deeu³eeJej Pee[eJej Deboepes 10 les 15 HegÀì Gb®eeJej Iejìs yeebOeleele. 90 ìkeÌkesÀ Iej vej yeebOelees Je MesJeì®ee Yeeie ceeoer mepeJeles. efceueve Peeu³eeJej vej-ceeoer Dee³eg<³ee®³ee DebleeHe³e¥le SkeÀ$e®e jenleele. Deb[îee®eer mebK³ee leerve les Hee®e Demeles. l³eeceO³es keÀesefkeÀUemeg×e mJeleë®es Deb[s yesceeuegceHeCes efcemeUles. 40 les 60 efoJemeele Deb[er GyeJetve efHeuues Iejìîeeyeensj He[leele. Deb[er GyeJeC³ee®es keÀece ceeoer He#eer keÀjles. Iejìs yeebOeC³eeHeemetve les efHeuueeb®es j#eCe keÀjC³eeHe³e¥le keÀeJeUe Je l³ee®es HetJeea®es kegÀìgbye cnCepes cegues-cegueer, keÀekeÀe, ceecee, oeoe meJe& p eCe meef ¬ eÀ³e Demeleele. ef H eueeb v ee G[C³eemeeþer efMekeÀJeC³eeceO³es DeeF&-Jeef[ueebyejesyej®e l³eeb®³ee peJeU®³ee veelesJeeF&keÀeb®eener menYeeie Demelees. IejìîeeceOetve efHeuet Pee[eKeeueer Deeu³eeJej Flej YeeTyeob l³ee®eer keÀeUpeer Ielseele. DeMeeJeU s er ueneve cegues DeLeJee ceesþer ceeCemes, ÒeeCeer l³ee Pee[epeJeU DeLeJee DeemeHeeme iesueer lej keÀeJeUs DebieeJej ³esleele. Òemebieer [eske̳eeJej yemetve ®ees®e ceejleele. ³ee®ee DeLe& keÀeJeȳee®es eHfeuet peJeUHeeme Deens Demee I³eeJee. ³eele DeMegYe Demes keÀener veener. keÀeJeUe eMfeJeuee keÀer DeeIbeeU s keÀjeJeer ner DeObeÞe×e Deen.s SKeeoe keÀeJeUe De[®eCeerle Deeuee, De[keÀuee, peKeceer Peeuee lej Flej keÀeJeUs keÀeJekeÀeJe keÀªve l³eeuee ceole keÀjleele. DeeHeCe cee$e DeHeIeeleele meeHe[uesu³ee J³ekeÌleerme ceole keÀjC³ee®es mees[tve l³ee®ee le[HeÀ[tve ÒeeCe mees[C³ee®ee eqJn[erDees keÀe{tve Jne@ìdmeDeHeJej meieȳeebvee MesDej keÀjlees.SefÒeue les petve ne keÀeJeȳeeb®ee efJeCeer®ee keÀeU Demelees. keÀeJeȳee®es Pee[eJejerue Iejìs keÀceer Gb®eerJej keÀer

ìeskeÀeuee ³ee®ee HeeTme Je og<keÀeUeMeer keÀenerner mebyebOe veener. vejceeoer SkeÀ$e Deeu³eeJej Iejìs yeebOeleele Je veblej efceueve nesles. cee$e yeeObeueuses Iejìs cee[ s ues DeLeJee He[ues keÀer les JeiseUs nelseele. Hejle veJeevre menkeÀeN³ee®ee MeeOse meª g nelsee.s SkeÀe menkeÀeN³ee®es DeekeÀemqcekeÀ evfeOeve Peeues lej og m eje menkeÀejer yeje®e keÀeU SkeÀìe®e jenlees . ceeCemeebÒeceeCes®e keÀeJeȳeeb®³ee oesve JesieJesieȳee kegÀìgbyeele melele neCeeceejer ®eeuet Demeles. ceeoer Deb[îeeJej yemeueer Demeleevee vejHe#eer efleuee Devve HegjJelees. DeeCeuesues Devve HeeC³eele efYepeJetve DeeCelees. l³eecegUs efle®eer HeeC³ee®eer lenevemeg×e Yeeieles. DeveskeÀJesUe efYepeJeuesues Devve Ieje®³eepeJeU oesve-leerve efoJeme þsJetve l³eeJej yegjMeer DeLeJee DeebyeJeC³ee®eer ef¬eÀ³ee Peeueer keÀer ne Heewef<ìkeÀ Deenej nesCeeN³ee DeeF&uee veJejs yegJeekeÀ[tve efouee peelees. DeeF& pesJne G[tve peeles lesJne Je[erue Deb[er DeLeJee efHeueeb®eer jeKeCe keÀjleele. ³ee He#³ee®³ee YeesJeleer DeveskeÀ DebOeÞe×eb®es YejYekeÌkeÀce eEjieCe Deens. eEHe[oeve, eEHe[eme keÀeJeUe efMeJeuee keÀer Deelcee cegkeÌle nesCes, efHele=HebOejJe[îeele DeelceeªHeele keÀeJeȳeeb®es DeeHeu³ee IejepeJeU ³esCes, ie@uejerle yemetve keÀeJe keÀeJe kesÀues keÀer, Iejer DeekeÀeqmcekeÀ HeengCes ³esCes ³ee meJe& DebOeÞe×e®e Deensle. vejmeesyee®³ee Jee[eruee ceer oneJ³ee®³ee keÀe³e&¬eÀceemeeþer iesuees neslees. DeveskeÀ oMeef¬eÀ³ee efJeOeer ®eeueuesues. keÀeJeUs cee$e oesve-leerve®e. He³ee&³e cnCevte oYee®&ee keÀeJeUe le³eej Demee³e®ee®e. MeeOse Ielseuee leJsne eofmeues keÀer lesLeerue Heb®eiebiee Je ke=À<Cee veoer®³ee Òeot<eCeecegUs DeveskeÀ ueneveceesþs ceemes keÀeþeJej, HeeC³eeJej ce=le efomele. DeeHeuee ne vewmeefie&keÀ Deenej mees[tve keÀeJeUe eEHe[e®³ee MeesOeele keÀe ³eeJee? veoer Meg×erkeÀjCeeHes#ee eEHe[ cenÊJe Jee{Ces ³ee®es ns efJeoejkeÀ ¢M³e Òel³eskeÀ efleLe&mLeeveer Dee{Ules. HetJeea ceePes Deepeesyee pesJeCeeDeeOeer leeìeYeesJeleer HeeCeer efHeÀjJetve ®eej Yeelee®eer efMeles leeìeueiele yeensj þsJele. veblej meJe& Devvee®eer ®eJe Demeuesuee SkeÀ Ieeme leeìele®e yeepetuee þsJetve HetCe& pesJeCe keÀjle. l³eeb®es pesJeCe nesF&He³e¥le Deeþ-one cegbi³ee HeesìYej HeeCeer efHeTve leer Yeelee®eer eMfeles IeT s ve peele. DeeHeu³ee HeJtep&ee®b³ee keÀ=Hevses Deepe DeeHeCe ns megûeeme Yeespeve Iesle Deenesle. pesJeCeeHetJeea ke=Àle%elee cnCetve ne Ieeme yeepeugee. Deepeeysee®bes les Dee®eejeJfe®eej ceuee keÀsJe{lsejer membkeÀej DeeeCfe efJe%eeve efMekeÀJetve iesuee. p³ee leueeJe Heefjmejele keÀeJeUs efomeleele lees leueeJe DeefleMe³e DemJe®í DeLeJee ce=le Demelees ns ceuee þeCes Menjeleerue 19 leueeJeebveer eMfekeÀJeue.s p³ee ien=mekbeÀgueele keÀyelgejs peemle elfeLes keÀeJeUnser Demeleele. ie=nmebkegÀuee®³ee DemJe®íles®es keÀeJeUe ns oMe&keÀ Deens. DeeHeCe DeeHeueer meoevfekeÀe mJe®í þJselee.s ceie Heejfmej keÀe vekeÀe? s keÀeJeȳeevbee ceeveJeefveefce&le Deenej osC³eeHes#ee l³eeuee l³ee®ee vewmeefie&keÀ Deenej ecfeUJevte Ðee. Deemse[ b vte JeenCeeN³ee keÀ®ejekeÀbg[epreJeU keÀeJeUe eofmeCes ns Menje®es DeeWieUJeeCes ªHe Deens. ³eele yeoue JneJee Demes ceuee Jeeìles... legcneuee? ¬eÀceMeë cee®e& 2016 ceO³es ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee ³ee meojele JeìJeeIegUe®ee GuuesKe He#eer Demee Peeuee neslee... lees `memleve ÒeeCeer' Demee Jee®eeJee...


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DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee...

SkeÀe íeìsîeeMee Pejekse³Ìeelevte.... (®eH@ìj 13 - Yeeie 4) mee³eueWì efmÒebie - uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve

yesvPeerve nskeÌmeekeÌueesjeF&[ (yeer S®e meer) efkebÀJee efueb[sve ner jmee³eves pesJne JevemHeleerJej JeeHejC³eele Deeueer lesJne l³ee JevemHeleeR®es mJeªHe je#emeer Je efJekeÀ=le Peeues DeeefCe cegUebpeJeU jesiee®³ee ieeþermeejKeer (ìîetcej) metpe Deeueer. HesMeeR®ee DeekeÀej ceesþe Peeuee DeeefCe iegCemet$eebvee metpe ³esTve l³eeb®eer mebK³ee ogHHeì Peeueer. ns ogHHeì nesCes HesMeeR®³ee efJeYeepeveeyejesyej ®eeuet®e jeefnues. FlekesÀ keÀer ³eeHeg{s HesMeeR®es efJeYeepeve nesCes l³eeb®³ee j®evee³eb$eCesvegmeej DeMeke̳e Peeues. JevemHeleerJej JeeHejuesu³ee 2-4[er ³ee leCeveeMekeÀevesmegOoe ìîetcej meejKeer Jee{ efomeueer. iegCemet$eeb®eer ueeybeer Keìbguee,r leer pee[ Peeueer DeeeCfe SkeÀ$e ³es T ve l³eeb ® ³ee ieg { ȳee Peeu³ee. HesMeer efJeYeepevee®es keÀe³e& Ye³eevekeÀHeCes cebo Peeues. cnCepes meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes meieUs HeefjCeece peJeUpeJeU #e ef k eÀjCeeb c eg U s nesCeeN³ee HeefjCeeceemeejKes®e Deensle Demes cnìues Heeefnpes. ner keÀsJeU keÀener Lee[ s er GoenjCes Peeuee.r Depevtener keÀener oeKeeJfelee ³esleerue. Depetvener keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®³ee HeefjCeeceeves nesCeeN³ee peeJreMeem$ee³re yeouee®bes (c³eìgMseve) Heejf#eCe keÀjC³eemeeþer keÀeCsel³eener ÒekeÀej®ee meJem&eceeJeMsekeÀ DeY³eeme Peeueusee veene.r Jej GO¢le keÀsueuseer JemlegefmLeleer ns MejerjefJe%eeveMeem$e DeeefCe DevegJebMeMeem$e ³eeb®³ee HeMseeJRej®³ee meMbeeOseveelevte evfeIeeueuses evfe<keÀ<e& Deenlse. leele[e®reer evfekeÀ[ keÀe³e nesleer, lej ³ee mecem³esJej meceesªve nuuee keÀjCes. keÀener Meem$e%eeb®eer ns mJeerkeÀejC³ee®eer le³eejer Deens keÀer He³eeJ&ejCeeleeure ekfeÀjCeelsmeieec&eU g s ceeveJeeJbej HeÀej ceeþ s e HeejfCeece neT s MekeÀlees. leLeeefHe l³eebvee ÒeMve He[uee Deens lees Demee keÀer peerJeMeem$eer³e HeÀsjHeÀej keÀª MekeÀCeeN³ee jmee³eveecbeU g s (c³eìgepeesvfekeÀ) lemee®e HeejfCeece nelsees ns eJfeOeeve J³eJene³e& Deens keÀe! GoenjCeeoeKeue ekfeÀjCeelsmeiee®&³ee ceceY&eoser MekelÌeer l³eevbeer oeKeeJfeu³ee. Hejlbeg l³eevbee MekbeÀe nelseer keÀer jmee³eves yeerpeHesMeeRHe³e¥le Heesnes®et MekeÀleerue. Hegvne SkeÀoe leer®e De[®eCeer®eer HeefjefmLeleer meceesj Deeueer Deens. ceeveJee®³ee mecem³esmeboYee&le Òel³e#e mebMeesOeve DeefleMe³e keÀceer ÒeceeCeele Peeues Deens. lejerner He#eer Je memleve

mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs

ÒeeC³eeb®³ee peveveûebLeeRceO³es ceesþîee ÒeceeCeele meeHe[uesues [er[erìer®es DeJeMe<se ns YekekÌeÀceHeCes emfeOo keÀjleele keÀer keuÌeejsevreìs[ s ne³e[e^kseÀeyev&med kesÀJeU MejerjYej efJemle=leHeCes Hemejerle veenerle lej les peveveûebLeer efkebÀJee pevegkeÀer³e DeJe³eJeeb®³ee mebHekeÀe&le megOoe ³esleele. HesvemesuJnsefve³ee ³egefveJnefme&ìer®es ÒeesHesÀmej [sJner[ F& [sJnerme ³eebveer nuueer®e mebMeesOeve keÀsues Deens keÀer HeMseeerJfeYeepeve LeeybeeJfeC³eemeeþer pes MeekqelÌeMeeueer jmee³eve JeeHejues peeles, l³eeb®ee ke@Àvmej®³ee GHe®eejemeeþer ce³ee&efole®e GHe³eesie Deen.s HeCe l³eeceU g s He#eecbeO³es JeePbeHeCee ³eT s MekeÀlee.s ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ ÒeceeCeeleeure jmee³eveebcegUs peveveûebLeerleerue HesMeeR®es efJeYeepeve Leebyet MekeÀles. ÒeesHesÀmej [sJnerme ³eebvee ³ee #es$eele Òel³e#e kes À ues u ³ee ®ee®eC³eele Lees [ s ³eMe efceUeues. meenefpekeÀHeCes Òel³eskeÀ peerJee®³ee peveveûebLeer He³ee&JejCeeleerue jmee³eveebHeemetve megjef#ele Deensle, ³ee DeeMesuee efkebÀJee efJeéeemeeuee HeÀej®e Lees[er peeiee Deens. iegCemet$eebmeboYee&leerue efJeke=Àleer®es / Devewmeefie&keÀles®es veJ³eeves Peeuesues JewÐekeÀer³e mebMeesOeve DeefleMe³e ue#eCeer³e DeeefCe DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Demes Deens. 1959ceO³es efkeÀl³eskeÀ efye´ìerMe Je ÖeWÀ®e mebMeesOevekeÀl³ee& ieìebveer l³eeb®³ee DeeHeeHeu³ee mJeleb$eHeCes kesÀuesu³ee DeY³eemeeletve les ¿ee®e efve<keÀ<ee&Òele Deeues keÀer – ceeveJepeelee®res keÀener Deepeej ns ieCgeme$tee®b³ee meJem&eeOeejCe meKb³ecseOeeure ieeOWeUeceU g ®se nelse Deenlse. keÀener eJfeeMfeä DeepeejecbeO³es pesJne iegCemet$eeb®³ee Devewmeefie&keÀles®ee DeY³eeme pesJne ³ee mebMeesOekeÀebveer kesÀuee lesJne Òel³eskeÀ JesUsme meeceev³e mebK³esHes#ee JesieUer®e mebK³ee efveoMe&veeme Deeueer. GoenjCeeLe& meeceev³ele: ns ceenerle Deens®e keÀer meieȳee efJeMes<e DevegJeebefMekeÀ DeJ³eJemLes®³ee ue#eCemecetnele (ceeBieesuee@F&[med) SkeÀ DeefOekeÀ Demes iegCemet$e Demeles. ÒeemebefiekeÀle: les ogmeN³ee SKeeÐee iegCemet$eeuee ef®ekeÀìles cnCepes iegCemet$eeb®eer vesnceer®eer 46 ner mebK³ee efmLej jenles. HeCe efve³eceevegmeej ns DeefOekeÀ®es iegCemet$e JesieUs Demeles, l³eecegUs ceie leer mebK³ee 47 nesles. DeMee ÒekeÀej®³ee J³ekeÌleerceOeerue oes<ee®es cetU keÀejCe keÀoeef®ele ns Demesue keÀer HetJeea®³ee efHe{erle keÀOeerlejer mJeªHe yeoueues iesues Demesue.


17

p³eebvee éesleHesMeeR®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®ee (u³egkesÀefce³ee) oerIe&keÀeueerve $eeme Deens, DeMee DecesjerkeÀe Je ûesì efye´ìve ³ee oesvner efþkeÀeCe®³ee DeveskeÀ ªiCeebceO³es JesieJesieȳee keÀe³e&ÒeCeeueerves keÀece nesle Demeleevee efomeles. l³eeb®³ee keÀener jkeÌleHesMeeRceOeerue iegCemet$eebceO³es melele efJeke=Àleer efometve ³else.s DeMee Deepeejer ceeCemee®b³ee keÀele[e®r³ee HeMseelre meJem&eeOeejCeHeCes iegCemet$eeb®eer HetCe& mebK³ee Demeles. ³eeletve ns efveoxefMele nesles keÀer p³ee yeepreHeMseevReer J³ekelÌeeuree meekeÀejues l³ee HeMsee®R³ee ieCgeme$teele (¬eÀecseemseecsme)d keÀener oes<e veJnlee. Hejbleg Demes efveoMe&veeme ³esles keÀer, J³ekeÌleer®³ee peerJeveele keÀOeerlejer keÀener efJeefMeä HesMeeRvee OeeskeÀe Heesnes®euee Deens. (³ee GoenjCeele keÀoeef®ele jkeÌleHesMeerleerue keÀener HetJe&ieeceer iegCe Demeleerue.) keÀener iegCemet$eeb®eer neveer Peeu³eecegUs keÀoeef®ele ³ee HesMeeRHeemetve l³eeb®³ee (cetU) meeceev³eHeCes keÀe³e& keÀjC³ee®ee DeeosMe®e efnjeJetve Iesleuee iesuee Deens. pesJneHeemetve ³ee efJe<e³ee®es oej GIe[ues lesJneHeemetve Deepeleeiee³ele JewÐekeÀer³e mebMeesOevee®³ee meerceejs<ee Deesueeb[tve, iegCemet$eeceO³es ³esCeeN³ee J³el³e³eeceU g s neCseejs DevekseÀeJfeOe Mejejroe<se Dee½e³ek&eÀejkeÀ Jeiseeves Jee{t ueeieues Deensle. kesÀJeU SkeÀ®e ceenerle Demeuesuee keÌueerveHesÀuìj®ee ue#eCemeceg®®e³e ne SkeÀ uewefiekeÀ iegCemet$e ognsjer keÀjlees. ³eeletve efvecee&Ce Peeuesueer J³ekeÌleer vej Deens. Hejbleg l³ee®³eele oesve #e iegCemet$es Deensle. l³eecegUs meeceev³eHeCes #e DeefOekeÀ ³e ¿ee vej iegCemet$eeSsJepeer l³ee®³eele leerve #e le³eej Peeues, pes Lees[smes Devewmeefie&keÀ Deens. JeejsceeHe Gb®eer DeeefCe ceeveefmekeÀ Demeblegueve ³eemeesyele ³ee HeefjefmLeleercegUs JeebPeHeCee ³esT MekeÀlees. ³eeefJeªOo SkeÀ J³ekeÌleer efpeuee kesÀJeU SkeÀe®e uewefiekeÀ iegCemet$ee®ee ueeYe neslees (p³eecegUs leer #e DeefOekeÀ #e efkebÀJee #e DeefOekeÀ ³e SsJepeer #e DeefOekeÀ Dees yeveles). leer Òel³e#eele ceeoer Demeles. HeCe efle®³eele DeveskeÀ og³³ece uewefiekeÀ ue#eCeeb®ee DeYeeJe Demelees. ³ee HeefjefmLeleeryejesyej DeveskeÀ MeeefjjerkeÀ (DeeefCe keÀOeerkeÀOeer ceeveefmekeÀner) J³ebies ³esT MekeÀleele. keÀejCe DeLee&le®e #e iegCemet$es efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee ue#eCeeb®eer pevegkesÀ Jeentve DeeCeleele. ³eeuee ìve&j®es ue#eCemeceg®®e³e Demes cnìues peeles. oesvner ÒekeÀej®³ee ue#eCe meceg®®ee³eeb®eer ceeefnleer DemeC³ee®³ee yeje®e keÀeU DeeOeer JewÐekeÀer³e meeefnl³eele ¿ee®es JeCe&ve ÒeefmeOo Peeues nesles. iegCemet$eebceOeerue efJeke=Àleer ³ee efJe<e³eeJej DeveskeÀ osMeeleerue keÀece keÀjCeeN³eebveer Òe®eb[ keÀe³e& kesÀues Deens. ³egefveJnefme&ìer Dee@HeÀ eJqnmkeÀee@vqmeveceOeeure SkeÀe ieìeves [e@ keuÌeeTme ³ee®b³ee ceeieo&Mev&eeKeeueer pevcepeele Demeuesu³ee efJeefJeOe J³ebieebJej DeY³eeme keWÀêerle kesÀuee. ³eele yengleskeÀJesUe ceeveefmekeÀ ceefleceboHeCee®ee meceeJesMe kesÀuee peeF&. pesJne ieCgeme$tee®³ee SkeÀ®e Yeeie ongjser yevelee,s peCet keÀener yeepreHeMsee®Reer Ie[Ce nesle Demelee SKeeos iegCemet$e Keb[erle nesles DeeefCe l³ee®es legkeÀ[s J³eJeemfLeleHeCes Hevgne Hemejues peele veenelre - ¿ee®ee HeejfCeece ceelfeceoblelse

nesT MekeÀlees. DeMeer ogIe&ìvee ieYee&®³ee meJe&meeOeejCe efJekeÀemeele De[LeUe DeeCet MekeÀles. meO³ee®³ee keÀeUer Demeueus³ee %eeveevemgeej, SKeeos DeeKKe®se ieCgeme$te DeefOekeÀ le³eej Peeues, lej les yeN³ee®eoe IeelekeÀ þjles DeeefCe l³eecegUs ieYee&®es efpeefJele jenCesner DeMeke̳e nesles. ³ee meJe& HeefjefmLeleerle HeÀkeÌle leerve iees<ìer efìkeÀeJe Oeª MekeÀleerue. DeLee&le®e l³eeleerue SkeÀ Deens leer (cebieesueerPeced efkebÀJee [eTve efmeb[^esce cnCepes DevegJeebefMekeÀ DeJ³eJemLes®es ue#eCe. lej ogmeN³ee yeepetuee SKeeoe iegCemet$ee®ee DeOe&Jeì legkeÀ[e DeefOekeÀ neslees, lesJne les iebYeerjHeCes vegkeÀmeevekeÀejkeÀ þª MekeÀles. HeCe les vensceer IeelekeÀ®e þjles Demes veene.r eJqnmkeÀee@vqmeve ³eLseeure meMbeeOsekeÀe®b³ee celes ner HeejfemfLeleer keÀoee®fele keÀener Keugeemee ve Peeueus³ee ÒekeÀjCeemeeþer YekeÌkeÀceHeCes mHeäerkeÀjCe osT MekeÀles. GoenjCeeLe& pesJne SKeeos cetue DeveskeÀ J³ebieemen pevceeme ³esles lesner yengleskeÀ JesUe l³eeuee ceeveefmekeÀ ceefleceebÐemegOoe Demeles. lesJne Deelee Meem$e%eebvee DeY³eemeemeeþer ns veJes #es$e GIe[ues Deens. ieCgeme$teelbeeure eJfekeÀ=leeMreer meybeebOfele jeiseeMbeer DeeeCfe J³eibeemenelre neCseeN³ee Jee{e®r³ee keÀejCeeebJfe<e³eer lekeÀ&eJfelekeÀ& keÀjelre jneC³eeHe#see l³eevbeer ³eeJej ue#e keWÀêerle kesÀues Deens. ns ie=nerle OejCes cetKe&HeCee®es þjsue keÀer SKeeoer SkeÀ®e ÒeeefleefveefOekeÀ ieesä ner iegCemet$eele efJeke=Àleer DeeCet MekeÀles efkebÀJee HesMeer efJeYeepevee®³ee Deefve³eefcele JeeieC³ee®es keÀejCe Demet MekeÀles. HeCe DeeHeCe ns JeeleeJejCe jmee³eveevbeer Yeªve ìekeÀlees Deenelse ¿ee ieeäsekreÀ[s ogue&#e keÀjCes DeeHeu³eeuee HejJe[Ceej Deens keÀe? ³ee jmee³eveebceO³es iegCemet$eebJej Lesì nuuee keÀjC³ee®eer #ecelee Deens Je l³eecegUs DeMee ÒekeÀej®ee HeefjCeece De®etkeÀHeCes nesT MekeÀlees. cees[ ve ³esCeejs yeìeìs DeeeCfe [embe vemeCeejs memgeppe DeibeCe ³eemeeþer ner ekfeÀbcele peje DeeOfekeÀ®e veener keÀe? Gl¬eÀeble nesle meeOeejCe 200 Deype Je<ee&Heemetve ®eeuele Deeuesuee DeeHeuee Deveg J eeb e f M ekeÀles ® ee Jeejmee Deeef C e ef v eJe[ues u ³ee peerJeveHeOoleerleerue cetU peerJeveOeejs®ee jbienerve ef®ekeÀì HeoeLe& (ÒeesìesHueePeced) pees Heg{erue JebMepeebkeÀ[s Heesnes®eefJeC³eemeeþer keÀener keÀeUeHejglee®e DeeHeu³ee leey³eele Demelee,s ³ee meJeeu&ee Demeueusee OeekseÀe DeeHeueer F®íe Demesue lej DeeHeCe keÀceer keÀª MekeÀlees. Deepe ³ee®eer DeKeb[lee peleve keÀjC³eekeÀjerlee DeeHeCe HeÀej®e Lees[s keÀener keÀjerle Deenesle. Pejer GlHeeoveeleerue efJe<eejerHeCee®eer ®eeb®eCeer IesCes keÀe³eÐeeves peªjer®es Demeues lejer p³ee ®eeb®eC³ee DevegJeebefMekeÀlesJej nceKeeme nesCeeN³ee HeefjCeeceeb®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ keÀªve oeKeJeleerue, DeMee ®ee®beC³ee jmee³evee®b³ee GlHeeokeÀekbeÀjelree keÀsu³ee®e Heeenfpelse Demes veener DeeefCe les l³ee keÀjerlener veenerle. ¬eÀceMeë


18

HeÀgueJee

®esJeCeer ...

Ensete Superbum Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 93245 65060

keÀener Je<ee¥HetJeea cegbyeF&®³ee `ìefce&veue Des 2' efJeceeveleUe®es vegkeÀles®e GodIeeìve Peeues nesles. ìefce&veue Heentve ceer YeejeJetve iesues, les efleLeu³ee yeeiekeÀeceeves! FLeu³ee yeeieebceO³es Pee[eb®eer Glke=Àä ceeb[Ceer lej Deen®se. HeCe SkeÀe eJfeeMfeä Pee[eve,s pes Pee[ ceer keÀsJeU me¿eeêe®r³ee keÀHeeN³eebceO³es®e Heeefnueb nesleb, Deelee les®e Pee[ DeMee DeefueMeeve efþkeÀeCeer yeIetve ceePes [esUs efoHeues. les Pee[ cnCepes ®eJseCeer ekEeÀJee jevekeÀsU.b keÀsUe®r³ee Pee[emeejKe®se HeCe Gb®e ve Jee{lee Heevebb osþepeJeU®e ef®ekeÀìtve jenCeejs. YeJ³e Heeveb, yeìgkeÀe HeCe YekekÌeÀce yeObgee, HeCe SkeÀì.b keÀsUe®r³eeYeeJseleer peMeer DevekseÀ jesHeb HegÀìleele lemes veener; lej ®esJeCeer cnCepes DeeHeuee SkeÀuee ®euees js! jeve kesÀUb cnCepes Ensete Superbum. [eWiejebJej, keÀHeejerle Dee{Uleb. cliff banana kesÀUeruee stolons ³esTve peMeer YeesJeleer efHeuueeJeU nesles, leMeer ³ee®eer nesle veener. keÀejCe ne nonstoloniterous. ¿ee®es Òepeveve HegÀìJ³eebveer ve neslee HeÀkeÌle efye³eebÜejs®e nesles. ³ee®es peeJreve®e¬eÀ leevre les mee[lseevre Je<ee®¥e.s HeÀgueb Deeueer keÀer Dee³e<g³e mebHeles. Gb®eer 1 les 4 ceerìj. Jee{ Deieoer JewefMeäîeHetCe&. yegbOee cnCeeJee Demee peefceveerpeJeU®ee Yeeie HegÀieerj 2.5 les 3 ceerìj®ee Iesj Demet MekeÀlees. Heeveb kesÀUermeejKeer HeCe ceesþer DeeefCe ceO³eYeeieer ueeue. Heeveeb®ee osþ Deieoer DeeKet[. kesÀUHetÀue peemle pee[ DeeefCe keÀe@cHe@keÌì Demeleb. HeefM®ece Ieeìele efpeLes HeeJemee®es ÒeceeCe peemle efleLes ³ee®eer Jee{ YejHetj. cee$e keÀesj[îee IeeìeJej, DeejJeueer HeJe&lejebieebJej ³ee®eer Jee{ Kegpeer®e jenles. [eWiej-keÀHeejeRJej Jee{CeeN³ee DeMee Pee[ebvee Lithophytes cnCeleele. JeìJeeIegUebÜejs HegÀueeb®es HejeieerYeJeve nesTve ceeoer HegÀueeb®es ªHeelbej keÀsUelre nelse.s keÀ=e$fece JeeleeJejCeele Jee{ueus³ee jevekeÀsUe®r³ee efye³ee ©petvener jesHeìer le³eej nesle veenerle. ³ee®es Òepeveve, mebJeOe&ve DeeefCe DeefmlelJe Oeeske̳eele Deens. iesu³ee keÀener Je<ee¥le ³ee Pee[e®ee JeeHej yeeieeb®³ee megMeesefYekeÀjCeemeeþer keÀjC³ee®es ÒeceeCe Jee{ues Deens. ³eemeeþer jesHeb Lesì jeveeletve®e GHeìtve DeeCeueer peeleele. meO³ee YeejleYejeletve yeeieeb®³ee megMeesefYekeÀjCeemeeþer ³ee Pee[e®³ee 50 npeej jesHeeb®eer ceeieCeer Demeu³ee®es mecepeles. ner jesHeb DeMeer®e vewmeefie&keÀ DeJemLesletve GHeìtve DeeCeueer peeleele. keÀeCeer, kegÀefjef®e³eej, Fªuee, Heevfe³eej ³ee JeveJeemeer peceelee®Res ueekseÀ ³ee keÀeceemeeþer ueeJeues peeleele.

³ee®³ee Heeveebveener ceeieCeer Demetve kesÀUHetÀue osKeerue J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ cenÊJee®es Deens. efye³eebvee lej 200 les 400 ©He³es ÒeefleefkeÀuees oj ecfeUlee.s DeeHeu³ee jepse®³ee keÀsȳeecbeO³es yeer vemele.s HeCe jevekeÀsȳeecbeO³es íeve ìHeesjer yeer Demeles. efye³eebmeeþer DeHekeÌJe kesÀUer ieesUe kesÀu³eecegUs veJeevre jeHseb le³eej nelse veenelre. Deens leer jeHseb keÀsȳee®bee Ie[ ueeieu³eeJej ceªve peeleele. cnCevte®e ³ee®beer meKb³ee keÀceer keÀceer nelse ®eeueueer Deen.s ceekeÀ[, nÊeer ns osKeerue kesÀUer efHekeÀe³e®eer Jeeì ve Heenlee leer Keeuu³eeves ³eeb®³ee DeefmlelJee®ee ÒeMve DeeCeKeerve®e iebYeerj nesle Deens. keÀsjUceO³es ³ee Pee[e®³ee DeefYeJe=×ermeeþer DeveskeÀ Òe³elve megª Deensle. efvemeie& mebJeOe&veele ¿ee jevekesÀUer®ee ceesþe neleYeej ueeiet MekeÀlees. DeeHeu³eekeÀ[s DeveskeÀ He[erkeÀ KeeCeer Deensle. efleLeu³ee HeefjefmLeleerle ns Pee[ ®eebieues Jee{t MekeÀles. l³eeletve efvemeiee&®es DeeefCe jevekesÀUer®esner mebJeOe&ve nesTve ognsjer HeÀe³eoe nesF&ue. jevekesÀUer®es efvemeiee&leerue mLeeve Rare, Relict, endangred, threatend and conservation concern species Demes Deens. Good Agricultural and collection practices (GACP) ®³ee Debleie&le ¿ee®ee meceeJesMe JneJee, Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ceO³es ®esJeCeer®es veeJe Ieeleues peeJes, efvemeiee&le Oeeske̳eele Demeuesu³ee IeìkeÀeb®es Red Data Book ceO³es veeJe Ieeleues peeJes DeeefCe l³ee®³ee meJbeOev&eemeeþer Òe³elve keÀsues peeJelse, DeMee me®tevee ³ee ÒepeeleeJrej keÀece keÀjCeeN³ee JevemHeleerlep%eebveer meg®eJeu³ee Deensle. jevekesÀUeR®³ee DeefmlelJeeJej Deeuesu³ee Oeeske̳ee®es cegK³e keÀejCe cnCepes ³ee®es Deew<eOeer cenÊJe. ³ee®eer HeÀUb cnCepes kesÀUer pejer KeeÐe vemeues lejer keÀsUHeÀgue Keelee ³else.b Pee[e®³ee yeObg³ee®bee ieeYee o<gkeÀeUele Devve cnCetve JeeHejlee ³eslees. meJee&le cenÊJee®³ee cnCepes ³ee®³ee efye³ee. lemes Pee[e®es meJe&®e Yeeie DeveskeÀ J³eeOeeRJej iegCekeÀejer þjles. School of Ecological Informatics, Trivendrum ves osMeeleu³ee DeveskeÀ JeveJeemeer pevepeeleeRkeÀ[tve ceeefnleer ieesUe kesÀueer. íHHeve JesieJesieȳee pevepeeleeRveer ³eele menYeeie Iesleuee. l³eeb®³eekeÀ[s Demeuesu³ee HeejbHeefjkeÀ %eevee®eer Yej Meem$e%eeb®³ee DeY³eemeele He[ueer. veT jep³eeble 38 efþkeÀeCeebmetve ³ee®es 22 mLeeefvekeÀ veeJe DeeefCe 19 J³eeOeeRJej®es GHee³e mecepeues. DeHeWef[mee³eìerme, ke@Àvmej, ceOegcesn, MJeeveobMe, efkeÀ[veer mìesve, HeesìogKeer, MJesle Heoj DeMee MeeefjjerkeÀ DeeefCe ceeveefmekeÀ jesieebJej®esner GHee³e mecepeues.


23 ³egJejepe iegpe&j

ë 98921 38338

ekfeÀìkeÀe®b³ee eJfeMJeele

jey@ejHeuÌee³e `epfeJees epfeJem³e epfeJevece'd ³ee evfemeiee&vfe³eceeuee Devemgeªve ekfeÀìkeÀeJbej evfe³e$beCe jeKeC³ee®es keÀece mej[s, heeueer Demes mejerme=he, yes[keÀemeejKes GYe³e®ej Je efJeefJeOe he´keÀej®es he#eer keÀjle Demeleele®e. heCe keÀeìîeeves keÀeìe keÀe{eJee cnCetve yengoe efvemeiee&ves `je@yejHeÌuee³e'meejKes mJepeeleer³e Ye#ekeÀ efvecee&Ce kesÀues Deensle. Pee[e®³ee HeÀeboerJej ner ceeMeer oyee Oeªve yemeles DeeefCe DeJeleerYeJeleer G[Ceejs helebie, ìesU eEkeÀJee HegÀueheeKeª DeMee meeJepeeJej De®eevekeÀ nuuee ®e{Jeles. Deeheu³ee kesÀmeeU hee³eebveer IeÆ hekeÀ[ IesTve leer Ye#³ee®³ee Mejerjele Deeheueer meeW[ Keghemeles. ³ee meeW[sletve heePejCeeN³ee efle®³ee peneue ueeUscegUs Ye#³eeuee yeOeerjlee ³esTve l³ee®³ee Mejerjeleerue hesMeeR®es efJeIeìve megª nesles. ceie keÀener #eCeele®e Ye#³ee®³ee Mejerjeleerue peerJevejme Mees<etve leer l³ee®es ef®ehee[ ìeketÀve osles. `ef[hìsje' Jeiee&le cees[CeeN³ee je@yejHeÌuee³e®³ee peieYejele efceUtve 6727 peeleer Deeleehe³e¥le veeWoefJeC³eele Deeu³ee Deensle. ³ee ceeMeeruee Flej efkeÀìkeÀebhe´ceeCes hebKee®³ee oesve pees[îee vemetve SkeÀ®e pees[er Demeles. ogmejer pees[er l³eeceeies ieeþeR®³ee ªheeves Demeles, peer®ee Ghe³eesie G[leevee leesue meeJejC³eemeeþer neslees. ³ee peeleerleerue ceeÐee Ye#e hekeÀ[C³eele vejebhes#ee DeeIee[erJej Demeleele. keÀenerJesUe lej l³eeb®³ee®e vejeb®eener HeÀ[Mee hee[leele.

Robber Fly The Robber fly is from Order Diptera. These flies are easily distinguished from other insects because they have only one pair of normal wings. The second pair, just behind the first, is represented by two knobbed organs, the halters, used to stabilize the body during flight. Most flies have large compound eyes and mouthparts that are modified for piercing, lapping or sucking fluids. ll over the world there are now 6727 species of robber flies are known. Because of their predatory habits of feeding on other insects and their voracious appetites, they contribute to the maintenance of the natural balance among insect populations. To some extent, they prey consist of plant feeding insects. The size of prey taken varies widely with each species of robber fly. Females also spend more time seeking prey than the males, possibly because of their reproductive requirements. Their general habit is to perch in open sunlit areas where they presumable command a good view of passing insects.

www.yuwarajgurjar.com

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea

ë 88981 01901

keÀe@ceve HeÀeF&JnjeRie Meem$eer³e veeJe - ³eerHLeercee yeeu[gme kegÀue - efvecHe@Àueerpeer GHekegÀue - meìe³ejerveer keÀe@ceve HeÀeF&JnjeRie ³ee HegÀueHeeKeje®³ee Heeb{jì leHeefkeÀjer jbieeJej ie[o leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®³ee Demeceeve GY³ee js<ee Je [esUs me¢Me efþHeke̳eeb®eer ceeU Demeles. HebKeeb®ee efJemleej 55 les 70 ceerceer. vej-ceeoerle HeÀejmee HeÀjkeÀ vemelees. HebKee®eer Keeue®eer yeepet efHeÀkeÀì Heeb{jì leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®eer. l³eeJej GY³ee Deefve³eefcele ie[o leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®³ee js<ee. ceeieerue HebKee®³ee yeensjerue keÀ[sJej, meesvesjer efHeJeȳee jbiee®³ee ieesueele keÀeUs keWÀê DeMee efþHeke̳eeb®³ee leerve pees[îee Demeleele.lemee®e HeCe ognsjer keWÀê Demeuesuee SkeÀ ceesþe efþHekeÀe Heg{erue HebKee®³ee ìeskeÀeJej Demelees. HebKeeb®eer Jej®eer yeepet efHeÀkeÀì efHeJeUmej-Heeb{jì leHeefkeÀjer Demeles. Keeue®³ee yeepetÒeceeCes l³eeJej lemes®e efþHekesÀ Demeleele. HeCe Heg{®³ee HebKeeJej®ee ceesþe efþHekeÀe Je ceeie®³ee HebKeeJej®ee ceOeuee efþHekeÀe mHeä Demelees. keÀesj[îee nbieeceeleerue ªHeele Heg{®³ee HebKeeJej®ee efþHekeÀe mees[uee lej Flej efþHekesÀ eEyeotcee$e efomeleele eEkeÀJee Deieoer HegmeìHeCes DeefmlelJe oeKeJeleele. keÀe@ceve HeÀeF&JnjeRie ns pebieueefveJeemeer HegÀueHeeKeª Demetve les keÀesj[îee Je Deeê& HeeveieUer®³ee pebieueele efomeles. cee$e ³eeuee oeì Pee[er DeeJe[le veener. pebieueeleerue jmles, ceeskeÀȳee peeieebceO³es ns efYejefYejle Demeles. ns HegÀueHeeKeª efnceeue³eele 1820 ceerìj Gb®eerHe³e¥le G[leevee efomeles. ceOegÒeeMevee®eer DeeJe[ DemeCeejs ns HegÀueHeeKeª HegÀueebJej ³esles®e. HeCe Deesuemej peefceveerJej ef®eKeueHeeve keÀjleevee ns efomeles. G[leevee SkeÀe peeieer yemetve HebKe DeOe&Jeì GIe[tve met³e&mveeve keÀje³e®eer ³ee®eer meJe³e Deens. Je<eel&eeure HeÀsyeJg´eejer les Deek@eìÌeysej ³ee ceenfv³eele ³ee®es oMev&e nelse.s Yeejleele ns HeÀgueHeeKeª efncee®eue ÒeosMe les DeªCee®eue ÒeosMe, F&Meev³e Yeejle, oef#eCe Yeejle les iegpejele, ceO³eÒeoMse ³eLses Dee{Ule.s peieele veHseeU, Yelteeve, yeeibeueeoMse, c³eeveceej ³eLses Dee{Ule.s ns HegÀueHeeKeª DeveskeÀ peeleeR®³ee ieJeleebJej Deb[er Ieeueles.

Common Fivering Sc Name - Ypthima baldus (Fabricius) Family - Nymphalidae Sub-family - Satyrinae A striated butterfly of the ‘Brown’ group with a wing span of 3248 mm. Upper side is pale brown or whitish brown with coarse vertical brown striations all over. A prominent band consisting of golden yellow rings with black pupil eye spots on hind wing along the outer wing margin. On the hind wing there six eye spots in three pairs. The last pair of eyespot is smaller. The fore wing has a lone broad and double pupil spot. The fore wing spot and central hind wing spot are distinct, the others are not. In dry season form the spots on both sides of hind wing are reduced to dots, sometimes not visible. Male and female are almost alike. It is very common in dry and moist deciduous forest and shrub land. This nectaring butterfly loves flowers and damp patches for mud puddling. It is found flying up to 1,820 meters in Himalayas. In India it is found in Himachal Pradesh to Arunachal Pradesh, North-east India, South India up to Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. It lays eggs on various types of grasses.


24

ceybgeFp&eJeU eofmeueuses `HeenCge's He#eer

evfeje#reCe

DeefJeveeMe Yeiele ë 98920 61899

evfeueeifejer jeveHeejJee Nilgiri Wood Pigeon íe³eeef®e$e - efnceebMeg ìWyeskeÀj

efþkeÀeCe ë ceeLesjeve

íeìse me³teH&e#eer

Crimson-backed Sunbird

íe³eeef®e$e - keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee

efþkeÀeCe ë YeerceeMebkeÀj DeYe³eejC³e

keÀyelgejeHe#see DeekeÀejeves Lee[ s e ceeþse. HeeMf®ece Ieeìele ÒeoMseevfeÿ Deen.s meoenejfle JeveebceOes HeÀUebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. veä nesle Demeuesu³ee DeefOeJeemeecegUs mebkeÀìûemle ÒepeeleeRceOes meceeJesMe. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e.

ef®eceCeerHes#ee ueneve DeekeÀeje®ee He#eer. HeefM®ece Ieeìele mLeeefvekeÀ Je ÒeosMeefveÿ Deen.s meoenjelre JeveecbeOeeure HeÀguePee[eJbej ceOe, íeìss ekfeÀìkeÀ ³eeJbej iepgejeCe keÀjlee.s ceeoer vejeHes#ee efHeÀkeÀì jbiee®eer Demeles.

A slightly large pigeon. It is resident and endemic to Western Ghats in India. Prefers Evergreen forests. It feeds on fruits. Due to habitat loss classified as threatened. Male and Female look similar.

It is smaller than a sparrow. Resident to Western Ghat. Seen in evergreen forests. It feeds on nectar, insects and spiders. Male and female look different.

evfeȳee [ekse³Ìee®ee keÀmlejg Blue-capped Rock Thrush íe³eeef®e$e - mebpe³e veeieeJekeÀj

efþkeÀeCe ë Deefueyeeie

yeugeyeuge®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee jibeelre He#ee.r HeeMf®ece Ieeìele meJe$&e Dee{Ulee.s meoenjelre Jeves, Deeê& Jeves ³eele peefceveerJejerue efkeÀìkeÀebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. ceeoer®ee jbie ne leHeekfeÀjer Demelee.s

ceeþse Deeueea

Oriental Pratincole

íe³eeef®e$e - Mebleveg kegÀJemeskeÀj

efþkeÀeCe ë ceeCeieeJe

cewves®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee He#eer. YeejleeceOes efnJeeUer mLeueeblej keÀjlees. veefoefkeÀveejs, peueeMe³es Je ceeskeÀȳee HeeCeLeU peeieebceOes efkeÀìkeÀebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele.

Size that of a Bulbul. It is a local migrant. Common to Western Ghats. Found in Bamboo Jungle and light deciduous forests. It is a ground feeder and feeds on insects and worms. Female is brown in colour.

The size of a Myna. Winter visitor to Indian subcontinent. Prefers river banks, dams and other wetlands. Feeds on insects. Male and female look similar

mJeiee³ae velek&eÀ Indian Paradise Flycatcher

lejibe yeokeÀ Eurasian Wigeon

íe³eeef®e$e - ce³egjsMe nWês

efþkeÀeCe ë yeejJeer OejCe

yeugeyeuge®³ee®e DeekeÀeje®ee He#ee.r Yeejleele yenlgekseÀ meJe$&e Dee{Ulee.s HeeveieUe®reer lemes®e meoenjerle JeveebceOes efkeÀìkeÀebJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. vej Heeb{je Je leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®ee ueebye MesHetì Demeuesuee Je ceeoer leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®eer ueneve MesHetì Demeuesueer. The size of a Bulbul. It is a resident in most parts of India. Found in Evergreen and Deciduous forests. It feeds on flies, gnats and other insects. Male shows two morphs, white and rufous and has two long narrow ribbon like feathers on tail. The female is rufous with short tail.

íe³eeef®e$e - DeefJeveeMe Yeiele

efþkeÀeCe ë þeCes Kee[er

Yeejleer³e GHeKeb[ele efnJeeUer mLeueeblej keÀjlees. peueeMe³es, Kee[er Je Flej HeeCeLeU peeieebpeJeU Dee{Uleele. peueJevemHeleeRJej iegpejeCe keÀjleele. ceeoer®³ee [eske̳eeJej jbie leebye[e vemelees. Size of domestic duck. Winter migrant in Indian Subcontinent. Seen in Dams, Reservoir, Creeks and other wetlands. Feeds on aquatic plants. Female looks paler than male without the red head.


25

ìee@kqemÌemeeìrer

hue@eqmìkeÀ [yes Je yeeìu³ee ìe@eqkeÌmekeÀ Deensle keÀe ? [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer ë 98200 37224

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neT s MekeÀlee.s leme®se Mejejreleeure vemweei|ekeÀ Dev@ìeD r eee@kqemÌe[ìbmeJdejner nesT MekeÀlees. huee@mqìkeÀ keÀbìvseme& Leu@eìsceÊgeÀ DeLeJee yeemreeHfeÀveeu@e S ceÊgeÀ Demeues lejer les ceeveJeer Deejesi³eeme hetCe&leë megjef#ele veenerle. keÀener keÀeUeveblej eEkeÀJee DeefOekeÀ leeheceeveeme Del³eble ìCekeÀ hue@eqmìkeÀmeg×e legìles. cnCepe®se l³eeleeure jmee³evee®bes eJfeIeìve neT s ve leer heePejC³ee®eer Meke³Ìelee Demele.s ³ee jmee³evee®bee KeeÐeheoeLeel¥e eMfejkeÀeJe Peeu³eeme, leer jmee³eves Deeheu³ee Mejejrele eMfejkeÀeJe keÀjleele. keÀoee®fele ner jmee³eves Deeheu³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ vemeleeruener; hejbleg JeejbJeej pej leer Deeheu³ee Mejerjele iesueer lej efveefM®ele®e Deejesi³eeJej l³eeb®ee efJehejerle heefjCeece nesT MekeÀlees. cee¬eÀeJseJse meHseÀ huee@mqìkeÀ cnCepe,s cee¬eÀeJseJse®³ee G®®e leeheceeveeuee ³ee Yeeb[îeeb®ee DeekeÀej efyeIe[le veener; hejbleg ³ee G®®e leeheceeveeuee ³ee Yeeb[îeeleerue jmee³eves KeeÐeeVeele YesmeUt MekeÀleele. lemes®e yeepeejeletve hue@eqmìkeÀ®³ee [y³eebceOetve efJekeÀle DeeCeuesues DeVe l³ee®e [y³eebceO³es iejce keÀª ve³es, les Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀles. lemes®e Meelrehe³ses ekEeÀJee heeC³ee®³ee yeeìu³ee®bes leeheceeve TvneceU g s DeLeJee Flej keÀejCeebcegUs Jee{u³eeme l³eeletvener jmee³eveeb®ee DebMe hes³eebceO³es YesmeUt MekeÀlee.s DeMeer he³ses melele h³ee³eu³eeme Deeheu³ee Deejeis³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀleele. ns Dehee³e ìeUC³ee®ee meeshee Ghee³e cnCepes yeepeejele GheueyOe Demeuesu³ee hue@eqmìkeÀ®³ee heeC³ee®³ee yeeìu³eeb®ee hegvne-hegvne Jeehej ìeUeJee. keÀe®es®eer DeLeJee Oeelet®eer yeeìueer heeC³eemeeþer JeehejeJeer. jespe®ee pesJeCee®ee [yee eqmìue®ee DemeeJee. cee¬eÀesJesJeceO³es KeeÐeeVe iejce keÀjC³eemeeþer keÀe®e®seer ekEeÀJee ®eevreer ceelee®reer Yee[ b er JeehejeeJfele. hue@eqmìkeÀ Jesäves KeeÐeeVee®³ee Lesì mebhekeÀe&le ³esT ve³esle ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³eeJeer. Deeheues Deejesi³e DeeheCe®e meebYeeUe³euee nJes.


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ÒeMve lecge®ee, GÊej eJfe%eevee®es nÊeer®es pewefJekeÀ Me=bKeuesle mLeeve keÀesCeles Deens? - peewJfekeÀ MeKb=euelse nÊeeuree cenÊJee®es IeìkeÀ ceeveues peele.s nÊeer keÀUHeeves ®eeuele Demeleevee peecfeveeJrej GieJeueus³ee ieJeleeleeure yenlgeeMbe ekfeÀ[s Jej ³elseele. G[Ceejs He#eer DeMee keÀUHee®ee Heeþueeie keÀjleevee ³ee ieJeleeJejerue efkeÀ[îeebJej DeeHeueer iepgejeCe keÀjleele. DeMeeleNnvses nÊeer -ekfeÀ[-sHe#eer DeMee peewJfekeÀ MeKb=euelse nÊeer®es mLeeve cenÊJeHetCe& þjles. He³ee&JejCeHetjkeÀ nesUer ë vewmeefie&keÀ jbie KesUtve He³ee&JejCeHetjkeÀ nesUer meepejer keÀjC³ee®es DeefYe³eeve He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee Jeleerves iesueer 15 Je<ex ®eeueefJeues peele.s þeCe,s [eeWyfeJeuee,r keÀu³eeCe Deeoer Menjeleeure leme®se ûeeceeCre Yeeieeleeure MeeUecbeOevte efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee vewmeefie&keÀ jbie yeveefJeC³eeme efMekeÀJeues peeles. lemes®e Je=#e lees[ ve keÀjlee HeeueeHee®eesUe, keÀ®eje peeUtve nesUer keÀjeJeer, Òeot<eCe ìeUtve SkeÀ ieeJe SkeÀ nesUer mebkeÀuHevee ³eemeejK³ee efJe<e³eeb®es ceeie&oMe&ve keÀjC³eele ³esles. ³eboe m$eer cegkeÌleer mebIeìvee, veUHee[e HeeqyuekeÀ mkegÀue, %eeveeso³e efJeÐeecebefoj ³ee efþkeÀeCeer ner keÀe³e&MeeUe Peeueer. Eco-freindly Holi Awareness : Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal organise Eco-freindly holi workshops at Thane, Kalyan, Dombiwali and rural Schools for last 15 years. PDM make awareness to make natural colour, avoid cutting trees at holi time, play One Gaon-One Holi to avoid air pollution, etc. This year they conducted sessions at Stee Mukti Sanghatana, Nalpada Public School, Dnyanoday Vidyamandir.

meJe& cetueêJ³eebceO³es eEkeÀceleer cetueêJ³e keÀesCeles? - efvemeiee&le efceUle Demeuesues `Öe@Àefvme³ece' ns cetueêJ³e lJejerle efJeIeìerle nesTve JeeHejele ³esle veener. Demes DeuHepeerJeer 100 ûe@ce Öe@Àefvme³ece le³eej keÀjC³eemeeþer DeypeeJeOeer [eu@eme& ueeieleele. l³eeceU g s l³ee®eer meeceev³eleë eJfe¬eÀer nesle veener. `pesì ue@ie'®ee Jew%eeefvekeÀ DeLe& keÀesCelee? - Deelbejje<ìe^³re eJfeceeveÒeJeemeele oMseÒeJeMseevemgeej mece³e#e$se (ìeFcePeevse) Jee keÀefìyebOe ³eele yeoue neslees. keÀeef³ekeÀ Je yee¿eefJeMJee®es Ie[îeeU ³eeb®³ee JesUeceO³es HeÀjkeÀ Dee{Ulees. l³eecegUs DeMee ÒeJeeMeeb®es keÀeef³ekeÀ meblegueve efyeIe[u³eecegUs, l³eebvee JesUsJej PeesHe Jee peeie ve ³esCes, efoJemeYej PeesHe ve ³esCes, DeeUme, [eskesÀogKeer DeMee ue#eCeebvee meeceesjs peeJes ueeieles. ve@veeskeÀCe ns jesieesHe®eejele efkeÀleHele GHe³eesieer He[leele? HeeSrveSme Dev@[ mee³evme ³ee evfe³elekeÀeeufekeÀeleeure ìejseìbes eJfeÐeeHeeþreleeure Jeej@vse ®evse ³ee®b³ee Òeemfe× JeÊ=eelbeevemgeej oevse keÀkeÀ&jeiseieeþer eYfevve Demeu³eeves jmee³eveeHse®eejkeÀ (keÀsceeLsejsHee)r Dee<weOes eYfevve HeejfCeece oeKeJeleele. yeoue#ece ueIegkeÀCe (ve@vees) ns OeelegkeÀCe Demeleele. les [erSveS Oeei³eeuee pegUtve HeìkeÀve keÀke&ÀjesieHesMeeRJej DeeIeele keÀjleele DeeefCe leer jesieHesMeer DeesUKeC³ee®ee mebosMe osCeeje jsCetner lesLes le³eej neslees. l³eecegUs kesÀmeieUleer, lJe®ee Je Deele[îee®eer neveer ìUles.

- [e@. megOeerj ceeW[keÀj 98695 75594

neefo&keÀ DeefYevebove ... þeCes Je HeeueIej ³ee efpeu¿eebceO³es 1996 Heemetve DeeefoJeemeer ceefnuee Je yeeuekeÀeb®³ee kegÀHees<eCe efveceg&uevee®es mekeÀejelcekeÀ keÀece keÀjCeeN³ee `veJe¢äe'r ³ee meceepemesJeer mebmLesuee `Jeu[& Jee@ìj efue[jMeerHe' HegjmkeÀej efceUeuee. ³ee HegjmkeÀejemenerle mebmLes®es DeO³e#e, He³eeJ&ejCe o#elee ce[bUe®es SkeÀ me®beeuekeÀ DeeefCe `DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe'®es mlebYe uesKekeÀ [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs...


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Trees for Earth... Prof. Clara Correia

clarac_02@yahoo.com

“No new reafforestation can replace an old forest in energy value” On the occasion of Earth Day, what I hope to show is the immense value of trees to the biosphere. Here are 22 of the best reasons to plant and care for trees. Trees combat climate change : Excess carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) caused by many factors is building up in our atmosphere and contributing to climate change. Trees absorb CO2, removing and storing the carbon while releasing the oxygen (O2) back into the air. In one year, an acre of mature trees absorbs the amount of CO2 produced when one drives a car 26,000 miles. Trees clean the air : Trees absorb odours and pollutant gases (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulphur dioxide and ozone) and filter particulates out of the air by trapping them on their leaves and bark. Trees provide oxygen : In one year an acre of mature trees can provide enough oxygen for 18 people. Trees cool the streets and the city : Average temperatures have risen in the last 50 years as tree coverage has declined and the number of heat-absorbing roads and buildings has increased. Trees cool the city by up to 10°F, by shading our homes and streets, breaking up urban “heat islands” and releasing water vapour into the air through their leaves. Trees conserve energy : Three trees placed strategically around a single-family home can cut summer air conditioning needs by up to 50 percent. By reducing the energy demand

for cooling our houses, we reduce carbon dioxide and other pollution emissions from power plants. Trees save water : Shade from trees slows water evaporation from thirsty lawns. Most newly planted trees need less water. As trees transpire, they increase atmospheric moisture. Trees help prevent water pollution Trees reduce runoff (loss) by breaking rainfall thus allowing the water to flow down the trunk and into the earth below the tree. This prevents storm water from carrying pollutants to the ocean. When mulched (A protective covering, usually of organic matter such as leaves, straw, or peat, placed around plants to prevent the evaporation of moisture), trees act like a sponge that filters this water naturally and uses it to recharge groundwater supplies. Trees help prevent soil erosion : On hillsides or stream slopes, trees slow runoff (erosion) and hold soil in place. Trees shield children from ultra-violet rays : Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Trees reduce UV-B exposure by about 50 percent, thus providing protection to children on school campuses and playgrounds - where children spend hours outdoors. Trees provide food : Fruiting trees that are planted apart from providing fruit for humans, trees provide food for birds and wildlife.


29 Trees heal : Studies have shown that patients with views of trees out their windows heal faster and with fewer complications. Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) show fewer symptoms when they have access to nature. Exposure to trees and nature aids concentration by reducing mental fatigue. Trees reduce violence : Statistics have shown that neighbourhoods and homes that are barren have a greater incidence of violence in and out of the home than their greener counterparts. Did you know that trees and landscaping help to reduce the level of fear? Trees mark the seasons : Is it winter, summer or rain? Just look at the trees! Trees create economic opportunities : Fruit harvested from orchards can be sold, thus providing income. Small business opportunities in green waste management and landscaping arise when cities value mulching and its watersaving qualities. Vocational training for youth interested in green jobs is also a great way to develop economic opportunities from trees. Trees are teachers and playmates : Whether as houses for children or creative and spiritual inspiration for adults, trees have provided the space for human retreat throughout the ages. In India we have always seen and heard that meditation by our Saints and Sages were always under trees. Trees bring diverse groups of people together : Tree plantings provide an opportunity for community involvement and empowerment that improves the quality of life in our surrounding. All cultures, ages, and genders have an important role to play at a tree planting or tree care event. Trees add unity : Trees as landmarks can give our

surroundings a new identity and encourage civic pride. Trees provide a canopy and habitat for wildlife : Peepal, Banyan, Rain trees are among the many urban species that provide excellent canopy urban homes for birds, and squirrels. Trees block things : Trees can mask unsightly views. They muffle (reduce) sound from nearby streets and create an eye-soothing canopy of green. Trees absorb dust and wind and reduce the glare of the sun. Trees provide wood : In suburban and rural areas, trees can be selectively harvested for fuel and craft wood. Trees increase property values : The beauty of a wellplanted property and its surrounding street can raise property values by as much as 15 percent. Trees increase business traffic : Studies show that the more trees and landscaping a business district has, the more business will flow in. A tree-lined street will also slow traffic – enough to allow the drivers to look instead of whizzing by. I am sure some of the above reasons were definitely not in your list. We should not be deceived by the propaganda that promises: “for every tree cut down, a tree is planted”. The exchange of a 50-gram seedling for a forest giant of 50-1200 tonnes is like the offer of a mouse for an elephant. Now that we begin to understand the reasons, we could ourselves look at trees as our essential companions, giving us all the needs of life, and deserving of our care and respect. ... if we clear the trees, what is left but dust?


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Water Crisis Shubhda C. Kushwaha shubhda.shubhs@yahoo.com 9594348821

“There is a water crisis today. But the crisis is not about having too little water to satisfy our needs. It is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people - and the environment - suffer badly.” -World Water Vision Report. Water - the essential ingredient for life on this planet – is becoming an increasingly scarce resource. At this I remember the words of Dr. Rajendra Singh aka Water Man of India, from a conference he addressed, where he quoted “Looking at the present water crisis, there is no time, when the world will fight water war.” Making sense to the very condition of present day scarcity of water all over the country, it is not long that we will become a part of violent struggle in fulfilling our day-to-day needs of water. Maharashtra is facing one of its most severe droughts in recent time’s inspite of the odd 40% dams in the state. Marathwada, in Maharashtra is reeling under the worst drought in recent years. The area pushes hundreds of locals to migrate to cities in search of livelihood. It is even before summers, when wells run too dry to draw water from pitchers; villages in Marathwada lower their very children into the wells

by ropes. This sad state is also of cities all over the state including Mumbai which are facing the crisis of potable and clean water. With rains continuing to evade the city, water levels in lakes supplying drinking water to the city has been sinking day by day. It hits us hard but doesn’t hurt, we are running out of water yet there is little realization about conserving this precious resource. It is sad that our institutions have not woken up to the climate change threat. Conservation has truly got lost to construction. In India, water conservation has never been seriously taken up, even though many parts of India face extensive drought situations over and over again. It is time we start the water literacy drive and reach maximum people. More and more people should be educated about water harvesting. This can only be done if we control the loss of water by evaporation and also by collecting the rain water which simply flows away to the seas. This can help in recharging the ground water and help us in times of adversity. Also the state must keep strict check on wastage of water. A basic change in our attitude to water is needed. Let there be communisation of water and no privatization!


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Potential Causes of Wetland Bird Population Trends Prof. Clara Correia

clarac_02@yahoo.com

In the last and concluding part of wetlands, I will be discussing some of the causes that probably have affected the wetland bird population. Habitat loss and fragmentation : Both the loss and fragmentation (or â&#x20AC;&#x153;breaking apartâ&#x20AC;?) of wetlands can have detrimental impacts on wetland bird populations by influencing habitat use, reproduction, and survival. Invasive species : Some non-native plant species have invaded wetlands (eg. Eichhornia also called Water Hyacinth), causing profound changes in wetland structure, which could make those wetlands unsuitable for some species of birds. Global climate change : Climate can have particularly strong effects on wetland structure if precipitation (rainfall) declines or becomes more variable in the future. Although there is much disagreement in projecting future changes in precipitation, however global increases in precipitation along

with some regional declines occurring due to pole ward shifts in rain belts is predicted. Thus rainfall can affect wetland birds by altering water levels and habitat structure within wetlands. Also, in times of drought, climate can cause habitat loss because smaller, shallower wetlands will become dry, effectively changing into grassland or open habitat. This climate-caused habitat loss has been correlated with annual variation in some wetland birds, including many waterfowls. How can habitat loss influence wetland birds? While evidence has increased for habitat loss and fragmentation affecting bird populations using other habitats, evidence for effects on wetland birds is limited. - Bird abundance and habitat use: Wetland loss can make the remaining wetlands in the landscape less suitable for some species. - Reproduction: Breeding success for some species can


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potentially be lowered near the edges of wetlands than towards the interior of wetlands because many nest predators cannot access deep water habitats within wetlands. These patterns in nest predation not only occur with habitat fragmentation but also with variation in rainfall. During dry periods, wetlands can be more easily accessed by nest predators, potentially resulting in lower breeding success. Although lower breeding success can occur due to water depth in wetlands, it remains unknown if and how anthropogenic habitat loss might further reduce breeding success in wetlands. - Survival: Fragmentation and habitat loss could also influence survival of some wetland birds because some predators. Why worry about wetland birds? If habitat loss is indeed having detrimental impact on wetland bird populations, what implications might these impacts have? Birds play critical roles in wetland systems by acting as herbivores, predators and prey, and being facilitators for plant dispersal â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not to mention providing aesthetic values for bird watchers and other nature enthusiasts. Habitat loss has occurred at devastating rates throughout the world over the past two centuries. Yet these

losses are not all equal, and some environments have been affected more than others. Continued wetland losses probably will cause continued losses of wetland birds. However, recent recognition of the wetland values, and the effects of their losses, has provided incentives to maintain and restore wetlands. Fortunately, a variety of recent state programs have increased wetland protection and provided incentives for habitat restoration. However, has this protection come too late? Conclusion Public perceptions of wetlands have come a long way in the past few decades, yet wetlands are still being lost throughout the country. Habitat loss can directly impact birds using these areas by potentially influencing bird abundance and habitat use, reproduction, and survival. Habitat restoration is one of the only potential solutions in counteracting wetland loss, but it remains unclear if and how restoration influences population dynamics of wetland birds. In addition, we need a better understanding of the ultimate roles birds play in these ecosystems to effectively address ongoing wetland loss and the strategies focused on mitigating this issue.


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Biodiversity of Thane Creek an Exhibition : Avinash Bhagat

Employee Engagement and Team Building Programmes. With many techniques of urban farming in the kitty, Green Souls has been inspiring individuals from different age groups and various professional backgrounds to be small-time farmers. Contribute : Every individual with a curiosity for farming can contribute to this green initiative. One way is to volunteer at the community-based farms. A volunteer can contribute his/her own ideas and learn techniques devised by the Green Souls. Individuals who can’t be present at the farms can fund whole or part of one of the Green Souls projects. Contact : Call on +91 88790 77105 to speak to the green soul and e-mail at community@greensouls.in. Interact and learn about nuances of urban farming from facebook.com/ GreenSoulsMumbai. Photocredits Green Souls Mumbai

It is well known by now that Paryavaran Dakshata Manch (PDM) is an NGO committed to creating awareness and conservation of the Thane Creek. The Government of Maharashtra recently has declared ‘Flamingo Sanctuary’ Status to Thane Mumbra Creek in the Mumbai region. It was more than a coincidence that PDM, for the past 10 yrs, was calling for special status to be assigned to Thane Creek for its conservation and proper natural development. We are very happy that the Chief Minister, Mr. Devendra Phadnavis and his colleagues have taken this initiative. This seems to be the beginning of the dream of ‘Clean Thane Creek’. In continuation with our endeavour to spread awareness, PDM in collaboration with the MPCB Unit of Thane Municipal Corporation organised a first of its kind three day Exhibition on the ‘Biodiversity of Thane Creek’, as we wish that the status of a sanctuary be assigned to the entire Thane Creek and not just part of it. The three day event held at Kala Bhavan – Kapurbawdi was inaugurated by the Mayor of Thane – Shri Sanjay More. The other dignitaries of TMC who were present were Ravindra Sapte, Naresh Mhaske, Adv. Anita Gauri, and Sanjay Bhoir. This event was free and open to all. The exhibition show cased the rich and varied biodiversity of the Thane Creek in the three galleries, situated on the first, second and third floor. All aspects of the Creek such as habitat – then and now, the birds, mangroves, butterflies, insects, amphibians, reptiles and mammals were displayed. There was a section dedicated to the aquatic fauna which included the fish, crabs, prawns and molluscs most of which have disappeared from Thane Creek thereby robbing the fishermen from their livelihood. There were around 300 exhibits by 21 photographers. The entrance had a beautiful ‘Rangoli’ of a Flamingo against the backdrop of the Creek, and a stall of Green Shoppe – an Eco-friendly venture of PDM. There were two ... page 36


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A Healthy Living.... Shreelata Menon

When I decided to write an article about ‘Uger’, the first obvious question which I thought all my readers would have is “What is Uger?” Uger is a Merwari word which means a new beginning. The Green Shoppe has always been looking out for eco friendly alternatives to things that we use in our day to day life and which are polluting. The first thing that we introduced was the Areca Palm plates and bowls as serving alternatives to all the plastic, Styrofoam and thermocol plates. The second popular kit is Clenture- (A Natural toiletry kit of 10 products from 7 NGOs from 5 different states) and this time it is Uger. Being an NGO into environment education and awareness, we are very much aware of the hazards of the disposal of the used sanitary pads and always been looking out for viable alternatives. And then Uger happened to us. A project of an NGO Jatan Santhan in Udaipur, the uger pads are stitched by rural women of the village. When we got introduced to Uger pads in October 2015 the objective was solely to help conserve the environment as we were aware of the health and environmental hazards. We knew that the commonly used disposable napkins do not degrade for more than 800 years. But a closer look and deeper studies into the issue has put light on many aspects to make us realize what we are using is nothing less to a time ticking bomb and many of the female biological problems are associated with it. - The white material in a sanitary napkin is not fabric, but wood pulp which is bleached with chlorine. - The cellulose in this wood pulp can cause cervical cancer the 2nd most leading cause of cancer related death in women - Sanitary napkins contain synthetic material which blocks wetness and temperature leading to the growth of yeast and bacteria.

- On an average a woman disposes 16,800 pads a lifetime. Since these pads are made of 90% plastic they remain in the environment for more than 800 years which is major concern. Well there is another very interesting story to the market of these immortal pads. Incidentally there are around 355 million women in India, but of which only 12% are using the non degradable pads. That means there is a huge 78% out there which is very much Indian and can be potential customers for the big MNCs in this field. Now this explains the importance the advertising agencies have in this field which are continuously brain washing young minds to think no beyond. Another important aspect is that a Sanitary Napkin is not considered as a medical device which gives it the license of not mentioning the ingredients on it. Thus Uger- which means a new beginning is hoping to discuss this very vital issue openly and to accept the more sustainable approach of using reusable pads which is very much Indian and safe too. These are designed to suit the urban environment and go a very long way in helping one’s self and of course the environment. In the long run they turn out to be more economical too. Uger urges higher authorities in companies and workplaces to be more sensitive to the issue and look at providing systems which will make it conducive for the women to use Uger even at workplaces. In the young and adolescent group we urge the parents to encourage their children to use this right from the start and develop pride in it rather than shun it off as old fashioned. Summarizing I wish to say, friends ‘Ignorance is not always bliss’ thus please try to understand the issue better and always remember we Indians have always followed a culture which is very nature friendly and sustainable. So let’s all be proud to be Indians and learn from our traditions, our dear Mother Earth would be a much better place to live in.


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A Colourful Journey.... Akhil Menon – Std IX

Hi, friends, I wish to take you on a colourful journey of birdwatching! My first session of bird watching was in Kerala. I still remember the sweet voice of the Koel, the cool winds of the open terrace and the carefree life of our flying neighbors. I used to spot birds, but did not know anything about it.However, with the judicious use , of the ‘Bible’ of the bird watchers as it is called – Dr Salim Ali Sir’s book and my binoculars ( a gift by my mother) I starting mastering the art of identification of these flying beauties. Another hobby that I developed side by side is photography and this tool has helped me immensely in capturing far off birds and identifying them at leisure. The main thing that attracted me towards bird watching is their sheer variety. Another interesting thing about bird watching is that after observing a bird we come to know more about the habitat it resides in, their migration patterns, feeding habits, roosting behavior and day to day activities. Each bird is strikingly different from the other. All these characteristics are beautifully carved in their little bird brains. Now, you would surely think twice before teasing anyone with less intellect as a bird brain! As I moved along in my journey, I got some wonderful opportunities to go bird watching and also got acquainted with a number of bird experts. One of the best activities that I always look forward to is the bird counting exercise which is conducted in Thane and nearby areas by a group of enthusiastic bird watchers. Till date I have been on 7 occasions of such bird count and have visited different habitats. This is a seasonal activity and helps us in understanding the population patterns. Sighting of new species are encouraging signs. At the same time dwindling numbers can be indicative of some trouble in the area. It is said that the whole issue of encroachment of the Thane East area (which is now a court case) first came to light because of the observations of some regular bird watchers in the area who found a change in the pattern. To know my feathered friends better, I enrolled myself for a Basic Ornithology course ( for beginners by an NGO in Thane called FERN). One thing that I believe is that science makes our soul and mind systematic. In a span of three months I have learnt many things about our feathered bipeds. By the way do you know what does a feathered biped mean?

It is the most scientific and smallest way to define birds. Last but not the least I would appeal to my friends to join the hobby or the movement of bird watching. There are two things that you must remember, firstly always bird regularly and make regular checklists in sites like e-bird and secondly never be discouraged by a few set of people who may call you mad to run after a bird at 6 in the morning. “Be Mast, Be Birdwatchers”. Biodiversity of Thane Creek an Exhibition .... short films of 10 mins duration on Thane Creek that were being shown throughout the day taking the audience through a virtual Creek Safari. On the third day a Creek Safari was organised for 25 people who saw the creek filled with more than 10000 Flamingos and thousands of waders forming undulating clouds over the waters as were the ducks that took flight at the slightest hint of activity. The main aim of this exhibition was to introduce to the people of Thane, the Biodiversity that the Creek has to offer. The underlining fear, that at the rate at which the Creek is being destroyed due to number of reasons, these birds and other animals may not survive or may abandon this degrading habitat. The exhibition had a section of conservation methods that PDM has been conducting relentlessly over the past 15 years. The ‘White Paper’ was kept and a signature campaign in support of Saving the Creek was taken. We intend to show this exhibition to all, so that a feeling of belongingness is achieved which will play a big role in saving this wonderful heritage called Thane Creek.


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April 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine April 2016

April 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine April 2016

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