MSC IN INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF BATH
NESTAâ€™s Innovation Hub An analysis based on network theory
Pedro Parraguez Ruiz April 2010
Abstract: This paper presents a description and analysis of the publicly visible networks of the UK National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts (NESTA). A set of specific theories pertaining to the field of innovation in networks and advance network visualization tools, is used to help in the understanding of how NESTA has transformed itself into one of the most important British Innovation Hubs. Keywords: Innovation, NESTA, Networks, Hub, Open Innovation, Network Theory, UK.
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Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3
About NESTA ................................................................................................................... 4
NESTA as an Innovation Hub ........................................................................................... 6 3.1
Description of the Methodology............................................................................... 6
Descriptive view of the network by source. .............................................................. 7
Mapping of the inbound and outbound links to nesta.org.uk ............................ 7
Visualization of relationships by mapping twitter accounts ............................... 8
Integrated mapping of the extended network of relationships. ......................... 9
Discussion of the graphical representations ........................................................... 13
Theoretical Framework and analysis ............................................................................. 14 4.1
The concept of an Innovation Hub ......................................................................... 14
Open Innovation .................................................................................................... 15
Systems of Innovation ............................................................................................ 16
The IMP interaction model and the network theory ............................................... 17
An integrated theoretical approach........................................................................ 18
External and internal forces interacting in NESTAâ€™s innovation hub .............................. 19
Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 20
References ................................................................................................................... 21
Appendixes ................................................................................................................... 23 8.1
Appendix 1: Methodology ...................................................................................... 23
Appendix 2: Description of the Relationship Categories ......................................... 24
Appendix 3: Tables areas, categories and relationships .......................................... 25
Appendix 4: Additional Network Diagrams ............................................................. 28
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1 Introduction The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the UK National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) innovation hub. The aim is to examine how innovation occurs in the networks that NESTA has pulled together and understand the interorganizational relationships that have been forged since its creation. To accomplish this goal, a theoretical framework based on network theory is applied as a tool to describe the relationships and draw conclusions. Literature from the IMP group explaining business interactions, Henry Chesbrough’s open innovation model, systems of innovation and NESTA’s own research and reports guide the analysis of the findings. An integral part of this document is the empiric description and analysis of NESTA’s networks. This research has lead to the discovery of 381 industrial relationships between NESTA, internal projects, spin-offs, clients, investments, funding agencies, external partners and other first and second-degree relationships. Having constrained time and resources, cost effective strategies that require a minimal intrusion in the organization where required to perform this research. An innovative approach based on the use of a wide array of digital tools was designed, incorporating state of the art visualization and network discovery methods such as website inter-organizational link mapping, twitter real time network visualization and document data analysis to extract implicit information about relationships out of publicly available sources. The discovered relationships are in no way comprehensive, but they represent a good start point to understand the complexity of the industrial relationships present in NESTA’s networks. This document will be presented to NESTA to share the findings and as a way of providing them with a snapshot of their visible network that is portrayed online. If there is interest in pursue further analysis and a refinement of the findings, this research would continue and form part of my final dissertation on open innovation and technology transfer. This document is structured starting with a brief description of NESTA, following with a description and analysis of NESTA’s network, the presentation of the theoretical framework applied, a review of one of their main achievements; building a fully functional open innovation organization and finishing with conclusions about NESTA’s present and future as an innovation hub. Page 3 of 30
2 About NESTA The following information has been extracted and compiled from NESTA’s website, annual reports and presentations, all quoted in the reference section.
NESTA is the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts - an independent body with a mission to make the UK more innovative. The endowment status means that it operates at no current cost to the UK taxpayer and enjoys budget independence from the government although it is accountable to parliament. NESTA was established by Act of Parliament in 1998. It was given an initial £200 million endowment from the National Lottery and used this income to run its operation and implement programmes in different areas of public interest to “make innovation flourish” in the UK. NESTA invests in early-stage companies, informs policy, and delivers practical programmes that inspire others to implement innovative solutions to current and future world challenges. To accomplish this, NESTA depends on the strength of its partnerships with innovators, policymakers, community organisations, educators and other investors. Thus, networks are a critical asset in their operation and one of the most important areas to manage. A key fact that illustrates the relevance of its networks is that for every £1 of NESTA investments it manages to leverage an average of £10 in private funding, therefore multiplying its financial impact to the economy by ten. This has been achieved by the creation of strong ties with venture capitalist, institutional money, high potential start ups, companies in the high-tech and creative industries, research partners and the government; all based on a robust base of research and influential reports, innovation projects, political and corporate independence. This way of operating has lead to credibility and respect as a valuable and trusted partner that translates into a distinctive and valuable position at the centre of an unusually wide network. To facilitate the understanding of NESTA’s network presented in the following sections, a couple of diagrams with NESTA’s functional areas and an overall structure of the relationship levels that were created for the purpose of this study is provided on the next page (Figures 1 and 2).
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Figure 1: NESTA's areas of work, image created based on their corporate areas as defined in www.nesta.org.uk. The colour code used will be maintained in the subsequent visual network analysis.
Figure 2: Own description of the different level of relationships, from the corporate level, project level and to the 1st and 2nd degree external relationships level. This description is embedded in the network diagrams provided in the next sections.
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3 NESTA as an Innovation Hub In spite of its relative size and only 12 years of existence, NESTA has manage to position itself at the centre of the innovation activity in the UK, effectively becoming a hub where connectivity between a large number of independent foundations, companies, start-ups other organizations and individuals is cultivated. To test and prove this assumption, in this section NESTA’s network is uncovered in a novel and graphical way. In the following section, based on these discoveries, a framework for theoretical analysis is proposed as a guide to evaluate this and other innovation hubs of similar nature. To start, the research methodology to reconstruct the network will be presented first, followed by a descriptive view of the network.
3.1 Description of the Methodology To map the diversity and vastness of NESTA’s relationships is not an easy task, especially in the context of an individual piece of work with constrained resources and limited time. Considering those limitations, an innovative approach was taken to identify and recreate NESTA’s network, incurring in a minimal intrusion in the organization and making use of most of the publicly available resources. A detail of this methodology is provided in appendix nº1 as well as the raw data used to build the graphs. In appendix nº2 a brief description of the generated relationship categories is also available for further reference.
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3.2 Descriptive view of the network by source. 3.2.1 Mapping of the inbound and outbound links to nesta.org.uk
Figure 3: Web mapping of the network, produced using TouchGraph browser
As shown in figure 4 just by mapping the most relevant inbound and outbound links to nesta.org.uk, is possible to visualize a significant amount of important relationships. For example is clear the link with The Wellcome Trust (left corner), which is one of NESTAâ€™s strategic alliances, The Young Foundation (Top right), Demos (Top left), RSA (right side, TheRSA.org) and others. Relationships that appear intermediated by other nodes mean indirect mentions from websites pointing at a partners website that in turn is mainly related to NESTA. Special situations that are quickly spotted in a graph like this one is the case of the node circled in red pertaining to the Research Council UK (rcuk.ac.uk). Here the Research Council does not link directly to NESTA, but links twice to other websites that do link directly NESTA. This means that, from the online point of view, this relationship could be easily Page 7 of 30
improved. It also helps to identify potential areas that might echo in the offline world or be sign that more work could be done to strength this relationship. 3.2.2 Visualization of relationships by mapping twitter accounts There are two important twitter accounts related to NESTA, the NESTA corporate account and the â€œ100% Openâ€? account. 100% Open is an open innovation consulting firm, spun out from NESTA, is importance lie in the fact that it holds some of the most important efforts made by NESTA in Open Innovation and it concentrates significant strategic partners (A map of the main 100% Open network is provided in figure 10).
Figure 4: NESTA's twitter network visualization. Created using Asterisq online tool.
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Figure 5: Open 100%'s twitter network visualization. Created using Asterisq online tool
From this two twitter visualizations is important to note the participation of The Guardian twitter account and â€œZopaâ€? (an innovative finance network based on social lending as an alternative to regular banks). These two interesting relationships are difficult to find in other sources but can be easily seen in the open conversations carried on in twitter. Another thing that is interesting is the nature of the conversations; showing prominent topics such as collaboration, innovation, open data, linked data, social innovation, media, supply2gov and other issues clearly interconnected, making it easier to argue in favour of the understanding of NESTAâ€™s hub as an innovation hub. 3.2.3 Integrated mapping of the extended network of relationships. The following network maps show the result of putting together the 381 industrial relationships identified, clustered into areas and characterized by category of the relationship. In the next pages, these diagrams are shown from the widest, more general view, to specific close-ups that allow a more focused description of the nodes and their connections. In appendix 4 additional close-ups are provided to enrich the descriptive view. Page 9 of 30
Figure 6: Broad Network Visualization using TouchGraph Navigator Software
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Figure 7: Detailed view of the full network, including links and relative amount of relationships displayed as size of the "halo"
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Figure 8: Direct Relationships between NESTA's corporate level and its first-degree nodes. The size of the halo and the numbers in red represents the amount of connections that the node has with other members of the network.
Figure 9: Close up example between NESTA and its spin off 100%Open
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3.3 Discussion of the graphical representations Having started with raw data in Excel (Tables 4 and 5), accumulating hundreds of relationships with patterns difficult to spot, especially when it comes to interconnectivity and clusters, the value of integrated visualizations of the data is clear; it provides a better way for navigating and displaying the data quickly and efficiently, in a form not possible by other means like tables. Moreover as discussed by Brandes (1999) the graphical visualization of for example policy networks, can have important positive impacts, helping the own organization understand better its position in the network and the easiest path to reach any member of it. In research, it also helps to analyse the decisions made by the different organizations and eventually prescribe more effective organizations of the interactions and ways to increase the connectivity. Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 show from the most general view to a specific view the different connections between the nodes, their group affiliations and relationships with the corporate level of NESTA. Interesting things to note are:
Most of the nodes do not correspond to clients but instead to partners, co investors, internal projects or members of shared networks/projects. This is consistent with the idea of an innovation hub that will be explained further in the next section.
The network is big in terms of players but compact (high interconnection between members). This is a good sign because it facilitates collaboration and innovation.
Spin offs such as 100% Open seem to be a good way to increase the reach and power of the network. In appendix 4 more details are provided about another important spin-off: FutureLab
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4 Theoretical Framework and analysis The descriptive analysis of the network presented in the last section, was required to make sense of and give an adequate context to the theoretical framework and analysis that will be presented in this section. This need arises from the infrequent position of NESTA as a facilitator of innovation in Britain, covering explicitly areas such as early stage investing, innovation policy research and recommendation as well as a practical implementer of innovation projects and programmes. The combination of these complex activities, as we have seen, has created a rich network with players from every area imaginable related to innovation in the UK producing the opportunity to use concepts from open innovation theory, innovation hubs and systems of innovation simultaneously. As explained in the introduction, this paper makes use of different branches and concepts from industrial network theories in order to understand and visualize the networks that compose and make NESTA’s innovation hub possible. Herewith, the key concepts and theories are introduced along with the analysis of the findings.
4.1 The concept of an Innovation Hub Although “innovation hub” is not a term widely used academically when talking about inter-organizational networks, its use has increased when describing specific kinds of organization or arrays of organizations with the goal of foster innovation, technology and knowledge transfer. Relevant examples of its use are the nine regional innovation hubs created by the UK NHS between 2004 and 2005 (www.innovations.nhs.uk), South Africa’s innovation hub and science park in Pretoria (www.theinnovationhub.com), the case study realized by Youtie and Shapira (2008) about Georgia Tech’s knowledge and innovation hub, and the interpretation from Baark and Sharif (2005) of Hong Kong going from a trade hub to an innovation hub for China.
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Besides those empirical uses for the concept of Innovation Hub, Baark and Sharif (2005) also discuss the basic characteristics that define an innovation hub as such. Some relevant points that they find are:
In the most basic understanding, a hub should be a central point or main part of an activity or interest. In network terms, an entity that concentrates most of the relationships, therefore having an advantage to reach with the minimal amount of intermediation any member of the network, naturally becomes a hub of it. In the graphs is possible to see effectively the central position of NESTA, reaching almost all relevant innovation agents in the UK.
An innovation hub differs from other hubs, such as trade or financial ones, in the amount of innovative activity that predominates in the network in which it is participating. It is expected that the organization that is described as the innovation hub actively participates and facilitates the innovation activity, otherwise it would be difficult to maintain its central position over time since the other players would try to capture that position for themselves. NESTA’s programmes point exactly into this direction, providing platforms to facilitate others projects and connect them to the rest of the network.
An innovation hub could be a physical place, as some science parks, a completely virtual online entity, like an open innovation website, or a mix between a set of online and offline activities. What is important is the value that it delivers to the rest of the members. Since 1998 NESTA has led in the organizational uses of internet but also with on the ground practical, this strengthens its position on both fronts and helps in the delivery of value.
Usually a precursor of innovation is knowledge, thus it is expected that an innovation hub also acts as a knowledge hub. This is certainly the case of NESTA and its important efforts to produce influential research and reports, helping to have a common language and theoretical resources to manage innovation.
4.2 Open Innovation Henry Chesbrough’s open innovation model (2003), describes an open form of interactions in industrial networks, with the aim of facilitating knowledge and technology transfer. In Page 15 of 30
essence, his view is that to capture the benefits of R&D and world knowledge production in a competitive economy, it is necessary to have permeable organizational walls allowing the flow of ideas and technologies from one organization to the other while incurring minimal transactional costs and creating win-win commercial relationships. This inter and intra-organizational view of R&D is critical to understand complex innovation networks, because they only exist and develop in the presence of cross company “fertilization” of ideas and efficient exchange of scarce resources. Having this in consideration, is clear that an effective innovation hub, which promotes and makes use of the open innovation paradigm, is a powerful enabler for the competitiveness of the network in which it participates. (Fichter, 2009) NESTA’s efforts since its conception have been to push open innovation models for collaborative inter-organizational work. Their latest effort is Open 100%, developed as a specialized world-class consulting firm in open innovation, which not only provides best practices and programmes to external organizations but also contributes to strengthen NESTA’s expertise in this area.
4.3 Systems of Innovation A third piece of the theoretical puzzle that is strongly related with NESTA’s work and the other two theories, is what has been defined as “systems of innovation” and clearly characterized in the Oxford Handbook of Innovation by Edquists (2006). These systems explain at the macro level, usually national, the relationships, process and interactions between multiple private and public innovation agents, governmental policies, regulations, industrial assets and educational systems. Here, the role of the different innovation hubs existent in the country is crucial because they can influence and guide strategic country decisions and create new clusters of competitiveness. The key points here are the interactions between, for example The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and the ability to influence its policies and programmes. So far NESTA has shown significant impact in this area having multiple points of contact with BIS and other national level innovation agencies.
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4.4 The IMP interaction model and the network theory To decode the rich network behind NESTA’s interactions in a more intuitive and useful way, benefiting from the proposed parallels existing between the concepts and ideas found in the Science of Networks (SON) literature (Barabasi, 2002; Albert et al, 1999; Buchanan, 2002) and IMP literature (Sutton-Brady and Donnan, 2003 and 2004) a hybrid approach and analysis has been taken. Based on the IMP basic levels of analysis: interaction, relationship and network (Ritter, 2003), was easier to break down what was happening in the network and interpret its graphical representations. With formal network theory, in particularly the studies of social networks, was possible to technically characterize the different components of the network. The elemental components and concepts (Scott, 2000) that have been in consideration for the purpose of this study are:
Node: it represents an individual entity connected with at least another node (precondition to be part of a network). In our case, the nodes are NESTA’s internal projects (they are understood as an entity that has relationships with others), NESTA’s spin-offs, first and second-degree external relationships composed by private and public companies, institutions and any other organization.
Centrality: This metric gives an indication of the social power of a node based on how they connect with the rest of the network, a high amount of connections of 1 st and 2nd degree will create better centrality.
Relationship Degree level: It represents the number of intermediaries required to reach a given node in the network, a first degree relationship means a direct relationship while a second level relationship represents an indirect relationship mediated by one direct relationship with another node.
Reach: Is the “easiness” by which a member of the network can reach other members of the network and it is directly dependant on the interconnectivity of the members of the network.
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4.5 An integrated theoretical approach After having briefly described a set of theories and concepts that are implicit in the past analysis and descriptions, a graphical representation of their integration is provided in figure 10 as an attempt to consolidate a more comprehensive understanding.
Figure 10: Proposed integrated theoretical approach.
As illustrated in this figure, the proposal was to use a holistic approach to the study, using these different models on specific dimensions based on the scale of the network that is analysed. This by no means implies that each of these theories work only at the proposed level, but is rather a simplification to integrate them in an structured way that takes the best descriptive and prescriptive part of each of them. Under these circumstances, the IMP interaction model in conjunction with network theory provides a solid tool to analyse and describe what is happening in each layer, from the smallest level of analysis of a dyadic relationship to the level of national innovation systems. This because in network theory, the basic levels of analysis and entities are valid in spite of the size of the network. In this paper, due to space constrains, only the general ideas were drawn, nevertheless it is expected to follow and refine this approach in extenso in further research.
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5 External and internal forces interacting in NESTA’s innovation hub In this document is proposed that the network surrounding NESTA can be considered as an innovation hub, and indeed has been catalogued as such in different instances by NESTA itself. This innovation hub can also be considered as an organizational innovation, where a novel approach to the promotion of innovation in UK has been successfully tested in the market, producing new value to a broad set of stakeholders. The adoption and introduction of the open innovation paradigm as an innovative approach to manage NESTA’s networks is one of the results of this process and it is interesting to dig into some of the main motivations, enablers, difficulties and barriers that this innovation found in its development:
Motivations: A need for a cost-effective and lean approach to foster innovation in a non bureaucratic space that is consequent with its mission of “making innovation flourish”
Enablers: New communication technologies like the internet (in particular web 2.0 and 3.0) and a set of emergent new theoretical approaches to innovation like open innovation. All of these developed in parallel in different parts of the world.
Difficulties: Being originally funded by a governmental initiative but with relative independence and the status of an endowment it was not always easy to equilibrate the development of a fast-paced innovative organization and the requirements, expectations and timings of the government and its agencies.
Barriers: Open innovation requires an important degree of openness in the culture, R&D and many other activities. Legal barriers such as inadequate intellectual property definitions or old-fashioned ways that many companies still keep when it comes to manage their intellectual assets, slow down the process and inhibit the creation of some connections.
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6 Conclusions In this paper, it has been intended to provide a quick overview of what has been called NESTA’s innovation hub, a rich network of relationships that has the UK National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts at its centre. The value of this networks based on “softer” relationships, like consulting, partnerships, co-investments, joint ventures and research, as opposed to traditional transactional relationships based on more specific exchanges of products and services, is a feature that provides interesting material for further research focused in “innovation networks”. Projecting how this organization will continue with its role of influencing innovation in the future is challenging considering the fluid environment from which it is part. Some of the current trends in information technologies, technology transfer and open innovation added up to NESTA’s areas of work suggest that the following scenarios of organizational development are possible:
With the increased sophistication and massification of online social networks like LinkedIn, the power of reach of central nodes increases dramatically. Considering NESTA’s central position and experience with information technologies it is likely that new ways of exploiting their reach and power of brokerage will be developed internally.
Open innovation promise of shared R&D and intellectual resources is yet to be fulfilled, especially in SMEs (Lee, 2010). The creation of more physical and virtual spaces, as well as new intermediated business models, to enable more collaborative work and provide institutional and legal frameworks might be some of the roots followed to increase OI in British SMEs
An internationalization of the network would be a natural step to gain access to new opportunities and create scale for open innovation process like crowdsourcing. Finding other innovation hubs around the world and create a sustainable interaction model will be difficult but potentially highly rewarding in terms of access to new markets and approaches.
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100% Open Corporate website, available from www.100open.com [accessed April 2010]
Albert, R., Jeong, H. and Barabasi, A-L, 1999. “Diameter of the World Wide Web”, Nature, 401, p130-131.
Baark, A and Sharif, N, 2006. From trade hub to innovation hub: the role of Hong Kong's innovation system in linking China to global markets. Innovation: management, policy & practice. 8 (1), p193-209.
Barabasi, A, 2002. Linked, the New Science of Networks, Perseus Publishing, Massachusetts.
Brandes, U, 1999. “Explorations into the Visualization of Policy Networks”. Theoretical Politics, 11, (1), p75-106
Chesbrough, H, 2003. “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology”, Harvard Business School Press Books.
Edquist, C, 2006. Systems of Innovation, Perspectives and Challenges. In: Fagerberg, J and Mowery, D The Oxford handbook of innovation . Oxford: Oxford University Press. p181-208
Fichter, K. 2009. Innovation communities-the role of networks of promotors in Open Innovation. R&D Management. 39 (4), p357-371.
Lee, S, 2010. Open innovation in SMEs—An intermediated network model. Research Policy. 39 (1), p290-300.
NESTA’s Annual Report 2008-2009, available from http://www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/annual-report-0809.pdf [accessed April 2010]
NESTA’s Corporate Website, available from www.nesta.org.uk [accessed April 2010]
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NESTA’s report on “Connect, collaborate, innovate“, June 2007, available from http://www.nesta.org.uk/assets/documents/connect_collaborate_innovate [accessed April 2010]
NHS innovation hubs website, available from http://www.innovations.nhs.uk/ [accessed April 2010]
Ritter, T. and Gemunden, H-G. (2003), Interorganizational relationships and networks: An overview, Journal of Business Research, 56 (9), p691-697.
Scott J, 2000. Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. Sage, London, 2nd edition.
Sutton-Brady, C and Donnan, M, 2004. The edge of time: can Graph Theory be used to analyse relationships in B2B networks?. IMP group paper. 1 (1), p1-22
Sutton-Brady, C. & Donnan, M, 2003. “Nexus Nonsense or is it?” Conference, Proceedings, 19th Annual IMP Conference, Lugano, Switzerland September 2003.
The Innovation Hub corporate website, available from www.theinnovationhub.com [accessed April 2010]
Youtie, J and Shapira, P, 2008. Building an innovation hub: A case study of the transformation of university roles in regional technological and economic development. Research Policy. 37 (1), p1188-1204.
***TouchGraph Browser and TouchGraph Navigator was used for the graphical representation of the networks.
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8 Appendixes 8.1 Appendix 1: Methodology The following steps were followed to characterize NESTA’s network: 1. Identify the key areas where NESTA works, using them as one of the grouping categories to later explore the network. These areas can be seen in figure 1. 2. Review NESTA’s key public documents, such as their corporate website, blog, researches and annual reports, looking for potential relationships, including projects, investments, spin offs, clients, etc. Every time a relationship appears it is listed along with its originating node (organization/institution or internal project), area, and a descriptive category of the relationship. In case the node can be associated with more than one functional area or category, only the main one is kept to ensure simplicity and comparability. A node can be associated with multiple other nodes in different functional areas and categories. 3. The main nodes (those that are named the most or highlighted in the website) are explored in depth, this means looking into their respective websites and list their relationships (2nd degree relationships for NESTA). 4. Making use of online analysis tools, NESTA’s website is scanned with the touchgraph browser in search for all the links that points to external websites as well as external websites pointing to www.nesta.org.uk. The result of this is a network image of others organizations websites that implicitly shows relevant external relationships. The same methodology is used in the case of twitter, mapping cross twits coming from and into NESTA’s account. After this process is finished the additional filtered results are incorporated into the main list of relationships. 5. Finally and after consolidating the different sources if information and revising the categories all the relationships and clusters are feed to the software to produce a network visualization useful for analysis.
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8.2 Appendix 2: Description of the Relationship Categories
Figure 11: Relationship categories
Partner: Involved at a similar level in an specific project/programme
Network: Part/member of a shared network. The relationship is weaker than with a partner
Client: Products of services are sold. More transactional relationship
Co-investor: Investing in the same project(s)
Project: Internal project inside NESTA
Investing in: The organization has received investments from NESTA
Networks: Additional networks, these nodes usually do not represent one entity but many.
Fund Manager: The relationship of NESTA with the node is established because NESTA is fund manager for that specific node
Research Partner: NESTA is doing research in collaboration with that node.
Spin Off: Organization/project originally inside NESTA that is spun-out gaining organizational independence.
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8.3 Appendix 3: Tables areas, categories and relationships
Table 1: NESTA's areas with the number of nodes per area
Table 2: Relationship Categories with the number of nodes per category
Table 3: Example of breakdown of the categories in the case of the spin-offs
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Creative B usiness Catalyst Imperial Co llege B usiness Scho o l. FutureLab Creative B usiness Catalyst Derbyshire B usiness Scho o l, University FutureLab o f Derby. Creative B usiness Catalyst Sheffield University B usiness Scho oFutureLab l. Creative B usiness Catalyst Inspiral Ltd FutureLab Creative B usiness Catalyst EM IN Enterprise So lutio ns FutureLab Creative B usiness Catalyst Cultural Industries Develo pment A gency FutureLab (CIDA ). Creative B usiness Catalyst Higher Educatio n Funding Co uncil foGames r England M ento (HEFCE) ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkP A CT Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkA gency Inc Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkA irlo ck Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkA vatar P ro ductio ns Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkA xis A nimatio n Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkCitySo cialising Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkCo nnected P ictures Games M ento ring Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkDESQ Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkDistilled Ltd. Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkGlasshead Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkHo tspur and A rgyle Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkJaso n B ruges Studio Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkKindle Entertainment Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkLambent P ro ductio ns Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkLo ve P ro ductio ns Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkM ammo th Screen Limited Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rknameless media gro up ltd Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkNo varising Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkOcto ber Films Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkOTP L Wo rldwide Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkQue P asa Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkRo ughcut Televisio n Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkThe Neighbo urho o d Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkThinkP ublic Health Launchpad Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rkTraffic Digital Health Launchpad Creative Credits A rts & Humanities Research Co uncil Health Launchpad Creative Credits The Eco no mic and So cial ResearchHealth Co uncil Launchpad (ESRC) Creative Credits M anchester City Co uncil Health Launchpad Creative Credits No rthwest Regio nal Develo pment AHealth gency Launchpad Cro sso ver Labs Unexpected M edia Health Launchpad Cro sso ver Labs Screen Yo rkshire Health Launchpad Cro sso ver Labs Skillset Health Launchpad Cro sso ver Labs Lo ndo n Develo pment A gency Health Launchpad Cro sso ver Labs Yo rkshire Fo rward Health Launchpad Cro sso ver Labs Wellco me Trust Health Launchpad Dare to be Digital A bertay University Health Launchpad Dare to be Digital Outso urce M edia Health Launchpad Dare to be Digital Co deplay Health Launchpad Dare to be Digital Wo nky Films Health Launchpad Design Lo ndo n Imperial Co llege Lo ndo n Inno vatio n in the A rts Design Lo ndo n Ro yal Co llege o f A rt Inno vatio n in the A rts Fashio n P ilo t A lliance and Wo rkshoCentre p fo r Fashio n Enterprise (CFE)Inno vatio n in the A rts Fashio n P ilo t A lliance and Wo rkshoThe p M anufacturing A dviso ry ServiceInno (M A vatio S) n Index Fashio n P ilo t A lliance and Wo rkshoThe p B ritish Fashio n Co uncil (B FC) Inno vatio n Index Inno vatio n Index
R EL B R EL A University o f Sheffield Inno vatio n Index University o f Westminster Inno vatio n Index University o f Ulster Inno vatio n Index Lo ndo n Co llege o f Fashio n Inno vatio n Index Helen Sto rey Fo undatio n Inno vatio n Index Demo s Inno vatio n Index Inno vatio n Unit Inno vatio n Index 3M RT Inno vatio n Index A ngils Inno vatio ns in M ental Health B arby A sante Inno vatio ns in M ental Health A tticmedia Inno vatio ns in M ental Health B B C Natural Histo ry Unit Inno vatio ns in M ental Health B TL Inno vatio ns in M ental Health Cambridge-Hitachi M etho ds o f So cial Inno vatio n Cambridge A ssessment Natio nal Theatre Live Cimex Natio nal Theatre Live Cisco Systems Natio nal Theatre Live DESQ Natio nal Theatre Live Electro nic A rts NESTA Graham Oakes Ltd NESTA Hewlett-P ackard Labo rato ries NESTA Highlands and Islands Enterprise NESTA Ho dder Headline NESTA Huveaux NESTA I A m The M ighty Jungulato r NESTA Imaginary P ro ductio ns Ltd NESTA Immersive Educatio n NESTA ISFE (Interactive So ftware FederatioNESTA n o f Euro pe) Jiva Techno lo gy Ltd NESTA Lucy Kimbell NESTA Lateral Visio ns NESTA Learnthings NESTA M icro so ft NESTA M indWeavers NESTA M o uchel NESTA A dam Nieman NESTA Oxfo rd University P ress NESTA P earso n Educatio n NESTA P erso nalised Educatio n No w NESTA P ro methean Techno lo gies Gro up NESTA RM Gro up NESTA Rages NESTA Sibelius So ftware NESTA Skanska NESTA Skybluepink Interactive NESTA So da Creative NESTA Squidso up NESTA Stakeho lder Design NESTA Steljes NESTA Take-Two Interactive So ftware NESTA theWo rksho p NESTA Tribal NESTA Two fo ur Learning NESTA The Eco no mic and So cial ResearchNESTA Co uncil (ESRC) ELSP A NESTA TIGA NESTA Investments Gamewo rld 7 NESTA Investments Co ho rt Games NESTA Investments Tag Games NESTA Investments do ublesix NESTA Investments Dynamo NESTA Investments Kempt NESTA Investments The Yo ung Fo undatio n NESTA Investments B aring Fo undatio n NESTA Investments Edge NESTA Investments Esmee Fairbairn Fo undatio n NESTA Investments Ingeus NESTA Investments M o rgan Stanley NESTA Investments A cto n Shapiro NESTA Investments A ge Co ncern, B rent NESTA Investments B irmingham East and No rth P CT NESTA Investments B rent P CT NESTA Investments Centre fo r Inno vatio n in Health M anagement NESTA Investments Centre o f A pplied P o sitive P sycho loNESTA gy, University Investments o f East Lo ndo n Department o f Health NESTA Investments Fo undatio n Trust Netwo rk NESTA Investments Havering P CT NESTA Investments Health Wo rks, Newcastle NESTA Investments Hertfo rdshire Co unty Co uncil NESTA Investments Kings Co llege Lo ndo n NESTA Investments Kingsto n P CT NESTA Investments Leeds University NESTA Investments M cKinsey and Co mpany NESTA Investments NHS A lliance NESTA Investments NHS Institute fo r Impro vement and Inno NESTA vatioInvestments n Natio nal Inno vatio n Centre Centre fo NESTA r Studies Investments o f Incentives (Health) Office o f the Third Secto r NESTA Investments So cial E-valuato r NESTA Investments Sustainable Develo pment Unit NESTA Investments The Tavisto ck Centre NESTA Investments ThinkP ublic NESTA Investments To wer hamlets P CT NESTA Investments University Co llege Lo ndo n Ho spitalsNESTA Investments NHS NESTA Investments The Ro yal Shakespeare Co mpany NESTA Investments Demo s NESTA Investments The Cultural Leadership P ro grammeNESTA Investments Department fo r B usiness, Inno vatioNESTA n and Skills Investments (B IS) OECD NESTA Investments HM Treasury NESTA Investments
R EL B Office fo r Natio nal Statistics (ONS) Euro pean Co mmissio n - P RO INNO Euro pe Techno lo gy Strategy B o ard (TSB ) Universities UK The Ro yal So ciety A IM Research Inno vatio n Unit The Yo ung Fo undatio n M ental Health Fo undatio n M ental Health M edia M ind Rethink Sainsbury Centre fo r M ental Health The Yo ung Fo undatio n Natio nal Theatre P ictureho use Odeo n Cinewo rld 100%Open Starter fo r 6 Creative B usiness M ento r Netwo rk Creative B usiness Catalyst The Inno vatio n Research Centre Inno vatio n Index FutureLab Carbo n Crucible Health Launchpad Inno vatio ns in M ental Health B ridges So cial Entrepreneurs Fund UnLtd A dvantage So cial Enterprise A ccess to Investment (SEA TI) B ig Issue Invest Regio nal Inno vatio n Funds M etho ds o f So cial Inno vatio n A ge Unlimited Co -pro ductio n Co llabo rative Wo rking Template Take 12 Natio nal Theatre Live P lay To gether Games M ento ring Dare to be Digital Cro sso ver Labs Fashio n P ilo t A lliance and Wo rksho p Creative Credits Creative B usiness Catalyst Inno vatio n in the A rts Design Lo ndo n Co nnectio ns in Synthetic B io lo gy Free Radicals Web Science Research Initiative So cial Inno vatio n Camp P laymakers A mplified City Leicester NESTA Investments 3i A dvent Venture P artners A lbio n Ventures A lliance Fund M anagers A lvar B io Ventures A pax P artners A rgyll & Islands B raveheart Cambridge A ngels Cambridge Capital Gro up Carbo n Trust Catapult Create Creative Capital Fund Cyllid Cymru Finance Wales E-Synergy Earlybird Enterprise Ventures Finance So uth West Gro wth Fund GEIF Ventures GP B ullho und Highlands and Islands Enterprise Imperial Inno vatio ns Imprimatur Capital IP Gro up Lachesis Lo ndo n B usiness A ngels Lo ndo n Techno lo gy Fund M ercia Techno lo gy Seed Fund M idven Ltd M TI M o rningside P ro vidence Oxfo rd Capital P artners Oxfo rd Investment Oppo rtunity Netwo rk Oxfo rd Techno lo gy P entech Ventures Rainbo w Seed Fund Rising Stars Sco ttish Co -Investment Fund Sco ttish Equity P artners Seedcamp Sigma Capital Gro up So uth West Venture Fund Spark Ventures Swarrato n
Table 4: Relational Tables (Pairs REL A + REL B)
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R EL A
R EL B
NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments NESTA Investments
Tate & Lyle Ventures NESTA Investments LiteThru Tennants NESTA Investments Orthogem Wellcome Trust NESTA Investments OSspray Limited Wyvern Seed Fund NESTA Investments Probe Scientific Kinetique Biomedical Seed FundNESTA Investments ProKyma Kingâ€™s College London NESTA Investments Quotient Diagnostics Queen Mary, University of London NESTA Investments Smart Surgical Appliances Pentech Ventures Fund II NESTA Investments Veryan Medical GP Bullhound Sidecar Fund Play Together TIGA IP Venture Fund Play Together Tapisodes Top Technology Ventures Limited Play Together Tag Games IP Group Playmakers Hide&Seek UMIP Premier Fund Playmakers ThinkPublic Seedcamp Regional Innovation Funds The Young Foundation British Venture Capital Association Regional Innovation Funds NHS British Business Angels Association Regional Innovation Funds Strategic Health Authorities Department for Innovation, Business Social and Enterprise Skills (BIS) Access to Investment Office of(SEATI) the Third Sector (OTS) Immune Regulation Limited Social Enterprise Access to Investment Bridges (SEATI) Social Entrepreneurs Fund Neurotex Social Enterprise Access to Investment Big Issue(SEATI) Invest Odontis Limited Social Innovation Camp The Young Foundation OSspray Limited Social Innovation Camp Headshift Vaxome Social Innovation Camp The creative coop St Andrews Fuel Cells Social Innovation Camp UnLtd Ashe Morris Starter for 6 Cultural Enterprise Office Atmos Starter for 6 Creative Scotland Basekit Take 12 UK Film Council Camfridge Take 12 Huge Entertainment Ceravision Take 12 MTM London Design LED Products Take 12 Illumina Digital Gnodal Take 12 B3 Media Light Blue Optics Take 12 BreakThru Films Meciria Take 12 Film Export UK MMIC Solutions Take 12 Hollywood Classics MMIMI Take 12 Lux Plasma Clean Take 12 Metrodome Distribution Plaxica Take 12 Mosaic Films ProVision Communications Take 12 onedotzero RoBAT Take 12 Revolver Entertainment Scyron Take 12 Vod Almighty Short Fuze Take 12 Warp Films Six to Start Take 12 Zini Limited Skimlinks The Innovation Research CentreThe Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Spiral Gateway The Innovation Research CentreDepartment for Innovation, Business and Skills (BIS) Surface Generation Ltd The Innovation Research CentreTechnology Strategy Board (TSB) Symetrica The Innovation Research CentreCentre for Business Research Thermal Energy Systems LimitedThe Innovation Research CentreUniversity of Cambridge Tideway Systems The Innovation Research CentreImperial College Business School Ultra UnLtd Advantage UnLtd Aquapharm BioDiscovery UnLtd Advantage Barings Foundation BlueGnome UnLtd Advantage Esmee Fairbairn Foundation CellCentric UnLtd Advantage Tudor Trust Cellnovo UnLtd Advantage Lovells Cytox UnLtd Advantage Deutsche Bank Dexela Web Science Research InitiativeMIT Dialog Devices Web Science Research InitiativeUniversity of Southampton Haemostatix Web Science Research InitiativeWorld Wide Web Foundation Lein Applied Diagnostics Web Science Research InitiativeBT Group
R EL A
R EL B
Table 5: (Cont Table 14)
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8.4 Appendix 4: Additional Network Diagrams
Figure 12: Innovation Index Project Network
Figure 13: Health Launchpad Project Network
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Figure 15: Some NESTA's partners
Figure 14: Examples of NESTA's external networks
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Figure 17: NESTA's investments network
Figure 16: Some NESTA's projects
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This paper presents a description and analysis of the publicly visible networks of the UK National Endowment for Science Technology and the...