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installations and formed an annual international event.

Urban inhabitants worldwide recognize the need for new appr to making the urban landscape, and realize that converting segments of the automobile infrastructure—even temporaril alter the character of the city. From public parks to free health from art galleries to demonstration gardens, PARK(ing) Day parti have claimed the metered parking space as a rich new territ creative experimentation and activism.

The event continues to expand virally, over the Internet and by w mouth. Since its inception in 2005, PARK(ing) Day has blossomed global experiment in remixing, reclaiming and reprogramming ve space for social exchange, recreation and artistic expression. The 1

See Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking, (Amer. Planning Assn., 2011)

Originally invented in 2005 by Rebar, a San Francisco based art and design studio, PARK(ing) Day challenges people to rethink the way streets are used and reinforces the need for broad-based changes to urban infrastructure. “In urban centres around the world, inexpensive curbside parking results in increased traffic, wasted fuel and more pollution,” says Rebar ’s Matthew Passmore. “The planning strategies that generated these conditions are not sustainable, nor do they promote a healthy, vibrant human habitat. PARK(ing) Day is about re-imagining the possibilities of the urban landscape.”

issuu.com/ PARKingDAYperth

REBAR http://rebargroup.org LaurenKlein, July 24, 2013

Since 2005, the project has blossomed into a worldwide grassroots movement: PARK(ing) Day 2012 included 975 “PARK” installations in more than 160 cities in 35 countries on six continents. This year, the project continues to expand to urban centres across the globe.

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Perth, Western Australia, 20 September, 2013

www.watoday.com.au

In cities around the globe today, artists, activists and citizens will temporarily transform metered parking spaces into public parks and other social spaces, as part of an annual event called “PARK(ing) Day."


“The PARKlet installation has been fully designed and coordinated by the students... the project allows an excellent opportunity for students to interact with one other and build relationships across year levels.” Professor Blackwell. This year, the City of Perth have allocated two PARK(ing) bays on the corner of William and Hay Streets in the centre of the city. The pulic will be invited to vote for their favourite PARK. For City of Perth’s PARK(ing) Day, UWA’s student team will also represent the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) and UWA. The team is made up of 13 landscape architecture students from 2nd to 4th year as well as UWA staff representative Winthrop Professor Tony Blackwell and AILA representative Annalise Delfos of landscape architecture firm EPCAD. The team is lead by project manager Michael Alderman, a 4th year landscape architecture student.

nathan slawinski


The design of the AILA/UWA Parking Bay, entitled ‘The Living Room’, highlights the need to actively encourage more residents in to Perth’s central city to invigorate the CBD. It is essential to increase the number of residents in Perth’s city centre to create a safe, vibrant city which is occupied 24 hours a day. It is also very important to recognise the need to improve amenity in order to provide for the needs of this increased population.

‘The Living Room’ has been developed through an intensive design workshop process over the past two weeks. Student project manager and 4th year landscape architect Michael Alderman states, “It’s been a great challenge and a valuable learning experience to design and implement a built outcome within such a short timeframe.” Student team member Rosemary Halsmith, a 4th year landscape architecture student, adds “Designing the AILA/UWA PARKlet has provided us with a great chance to highlight an important urban issue while creating a fun, interactive space.”

As well as inviting passersby to sit and experience the city from a new vantage point, the AILA/UWA PARK(ing) bay aims to inspire consideration of this issue. michael alderman


“In a motorised city, on average 30% of the surface is devoted to roads while another 20% is required for off-street parking.” 1

A team of University of Western Australia (UWA) Bachelor of Landscape Architecture students from 2nd to 4th year are currently designing a temporary urban PARKlet to be constructed as a part of City of Perth’s

PARK(ing) Day. 1

The Geography Of Transport Systems by Dr Jean-Paul Rodrigue image source:https://maps.google.com.au

The following pages document that experience in readiness to occupy the bay.


in conjunction the City of Perthin PARK(ing) is open and at your own risk. AILA If you choose with to participate Day, you will be acting independently of ARebar Group, its owners, WOULD YOU LIKE TO EARN FEW DAYS WORKInc., EXPERIENCE? employees, offiAILA cers, directors, members, volunteers, agents, assigns and in conjunction with the City of Perth are hosting two parking bays as part of the annual PARKing Day event. partners, none of whom are liable for your actions.

DAY for the parking bay so you can imagine y (WA) will provide a PARKing budget By participating in PARK(ing) Day, you voluntarily and entirely assume the risk of injury to yourself or others, assume all legal liability related day) shments will be provided on the to your PARK(ing) Day installation, and agree to indemnify and hold in conjunction with the City of Perth are hosting two parking bays as part of the annual harmless RebarAILA Group, Inc., and its owners, employees, officers, direcPARKing Day event. tors, members, PARKing volunteers, agents,event assigns partners. also the agree Day is an international that aims and to 'reclaim' public spaceYou and celebrate natural environment in urban spaces. The original PARKing Day concept was created by Rebar to obey the law(www.rebargroup.org) and the directives of any duly-authorized law enforcein the US. The City of Pertht ook part in PARKing Day last year in partnership the Planning Institute of Australia WA division. This year, AILA WA has been given two parking ment officer. with spaces on William Street near the corner of Hay Street to convert into public parks for the day."

images courtesy of rebargroup.org/parking-day images courtesy of rebargroup.org/parking-day

WOULD YOU LIKE TO EARN A FEW DAYS WORK EXPERIENCE?

images courtesy of rebargroup.org/parking-day

PARKing Day is an international event that aims to 'reclaim' public space and celebrate the natural environment in urban spaces. The FRIDAY original PARKing Day concept was September 20 created by Rebar (www.rebargroup.org) in the US. The City of Pertht ook part in PARKing Day last year in partnership AILA in conjunction with the City of has Perth with the Planning Institute of Australia WA division. This year, AILA WA been given two parking spaces on William Street near the corner of Hay Street to convert into public parks for the day."

.P. Remember, PARK(ing) Day is a worldwide act of generosity and playful nka Sack (tinka.sack@uwa.edu.au) as soon as possible as spac activism intended to serve the broader public good. Expressions of Interest: Tony Blackwell, Landscape Architecture Chair, ALVA and Annalise Delfos, AILA Executive Member will lead a team of students to strategies, create and execute one of two parking bays as part of this event. We are enlisting expressions of interest from students who have the drive and creativity to help AILA (WA) with this event.

Tinka’s Obey the law and have fun!email to all ALVA landscape students on Tuesday 3 September as an invitation to be part of team AILA

Students will be signed off on three to four days of work experience for their participation.

City of Perth will again be hosting their PARKing DAY on Friday 20th of September. Two car bays have been nominated on William Street near the corner of Hay Street. The public will be invited to vote for their favourite PARK.

cation: About Rebar Rebar is an interdisciplinary studio working at the intersection of art, uccessful listBased ofin San team members design and ecology. Francisco, the studio was founded inwill be notified by Friday 6th Septem Expressions of Interest: Cost: Tony (WA) Blackwell, Landscape Architecture Chair, ALVA and Annalise Delfos, AILA Executive AILA willAILA provide a budget for the parking bay so you canas imagine your park space! Member WA would like to invite you, a landscape will lead a team ofbe students to strategies, and execute one of two parkingDay, bays as part of this (refreshments will provided on the day)create architecture major, to partake in the PARKing event. the 20th of September. Details on the project are R.S.V.P. There is a budget WeTinka are enlisting expressions of interest from who have$500, the drivethe and creativity To Sackbelow. (tinka.sack@uwa.edu.au) asstudents soonofasabout possible as spaces are limited.to help AILA (WA) with this event. for gaining work experience days and the potential Notification: opportunity to work with the profession. There is Students will be on threewill to be four days of for their participation. The successful listsigned of teamoff members notified bywork Fridayexperience 6th September

2004.

AILA has had interest from design firms to 'park up' one of the bays and we would like to extend the offer to an LA student group from ALVA to transform one of the parking bays on this day. AILA will provide a small budget to the students to transform the bay , what we need is a group of 6-10 students that would like to participate, who have creative drive to recreate this space and would be available to execute it on the day with representatives from AILA? Perhaps there is an opportunity for the students to sign off on 'one days work experience' if they partake?

little time so Tony Blackwell, UWA and Blackwell

Associates, and Annalise Delfos, EPCAD, have Cost: AILA (WA) willvolunteered provide a budgetto for work the parking you canofimagine your park space! withbaya so group you in (refreshments will be provided on the day)

PARK(ing) Day began organising. in 2005 and is an open-source Rebar invention They have been copied in to this email. created by hundreds of independent individuals and groups worldwide. R.S.V.P. To Tinka Sack (tinka.sack@uwa.edu.au) as soon asinpossible as spaces are limited. Are you interested participating? Rebar has received generous support for PARK(ing) Day over the years Notification: from these top-notch organizations: If you are, can you please register your interest with The successful list of team members will be notified by Friday 6th September VALUE OUR LANDSCAPE | PROTECT ENHANCE REGENRATE | DESIGN WITH RESPECT Tony as soon as possible! This is a great opportunity DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE | EMBRACE RESPONSIVE DESIGN

to work together with the profession and have a built

The Trust for Public Land -outcome. tpl.org As well as gaining some valuable work experience points!I hope the semester is going well. Black Rock Arts foundation - blackrockarts.org Public Architecture - publicarchitecture.org Best regards, The LEF Foundation - lef-foundation.org Catharina Sack Landscape Architect

VALUE OUR LANDSCAPE | PROTECT ENHANCE REGENRATE | DESIGN WITH RESPECT DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE | EMBRACE RESPONSIVE DESIGN

“PARK(ing) Day” is a registered servicemark of Rebar Group, Inc. This Manual is Copyright ©2009-2011 by Rebar Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Photos by Andrea Scher and Jeff Conlon.

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A date for the initial meeting is set for Thursday 6th September. We are asked by Annalise to acquaint ourselves with the PARK(ing) project through Rebar ’s manual.You will find a copy of the manual in the back pages of this book. Tony asked that we consider our site, at the intersection of Hay and William Street and.bordered by the 5000m2 Central Park. Eighteen students attend this first meeting, double the expected number.

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EIGHTEEN EAGER PARTICIPANTS STARDUST LOUNGE ROOM (G+3) ALVA 6:00PM cr isp s i n p las tic di she s students Soo Ching Ngu Asha Dilkes-Hoffman Anna Gregory Vanitha Jayakumar Mitchell Ledger Andrew Lewin Effie Cooke Nathan Slawinski Nikolinka Zheleva Hamish Firth Rosemary Halsmith James Hodgins Nicholas Monisse Nicholas Rose Patrick Sims Susan Stevens Xin Kai Tham with Annalise Delfos, LA, EPCAD & Winthrop Professor Tony Blackwell

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RECOMMENDATIONS

Bring in more residents 88

B rensure i nand gthat i ntheremareo people r e rinethe s icity d e24nhours ts a RECOMMENDATIONS day provide a more authentic urban character. B r i n g i n m o r e r e s i d e nts The residential population has increased since 1993 in Perth,

michael alderman

RECOMMENDATIONS

Bring in more residents

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Invite more people to live in the city centre to ensure that there are people in the city 24 hours a day and provide a more authentic urban character.

After discussion about the PARK(ing) Day philosophy, our city site - a 27500 x 500mm bay - and budget constraints, we divided into teams to worshop a design concept. This process generated multiple possibilities with most relying on the re-use of wooden pallets or plastic milk crates. Themes were drilled down to ‘The Living Room’, ‘The Outdoor RECOMMENDATIONS Room’ and ‘The Recycled Room’. Another well B r i n g i n m o r e r e s i d e n t s recieved idea was to intergrate an interactive element into the installation. For example, pedestrians Invite more people to live in the city centre to passing by could respond to a question such as ensure that there are people in the city 24 hours a day and provide a more authentic urban character. ”I love Perth because...” The responses would residential population has increased since 1993 in Perth, represent a change in the installation across the day The but compared to other cities the residential density of the centre is still very low. The city centre has a large amount so that they could be read, perhaps as coloured ties city of daily visitors but few permanent residents, although this on an elevated element such as a washing line. The is increasing. achieve an attractive, safe and lively city centre, inviting Living Room’ was agreed upon as a central concept, Toresidents will be the key, as they will help to populate and the city centre outside office hours and during allowing us to focus on a cuurent urban issue - the activate weekends. Residents also inhabit the city in different ways visitors and ensure regular footfall for local stores and need to attract more residents into central Perth to tosustain after-hours services. contribute to a vibrant, twenty-four hour city.

The residential population has increased since 1993 in Perth, but compared to other cities the residential density of the city centre is still very low. The city centre has a large amount of daily visitors but few permanent residents, although this is increasing.

A consistent, connected bicycle network is establishing an attractive alternative to vehi

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• Spread housing over the city centre. The Waterfront and

• Develop more opportunities for recreation in the city centre

Northbridge Link projects provide great• GEHL opportunities for • RECOMMENDATIONS and improve the quality of existing recreational space. PERTH PUBLIC SPACES PUBLIC LIFE 2009 ARCHITECTS developing various types of housing.

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Another side relates to the more aesthetic i PERTH PUBLIC SPACES PUBLIC LIFE 2009 • GEHL ARCHITECTS • RECOMMENDATIONSuncoordinated cycle parking can have a seri effect on streets and squares, hamper pede block entrances to eg. train stations. Regula indicate if there is a sufficient amount of pa much bicycle parking have been provided.

P ro v i d e fa c i l i t i e s a n d o p e n s p a c e t h a t m a ke c i t y l i v i n g m o re a tt ra c t i ve • Develop functions that support housing and improve the quality of living in an area.

• Laneways provide a great potential for establishing more housing as do the many buildings with under-used upper floors found in for instance the Malls.

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E n c o u r a g e m o re re s i d e n t i a l d e ve l o p m e n t • Be creative and use every opportunity to increase the number of residences, including affordable housing and student housing.

• Locate new residential development strategically so that lights from the windows of the dwellings gives the pedestrian routes that are used at night a friendly and safe character. Develop housing to ensure that main pedestrian links have functions that overlap in time.

• Include requirements regarding different types of housing in the policy.

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A bicycle network should invite all user gro and elderly people. Therefore, safety is abso

• Spread housing over theshould city centre. The Waterfront andmotori be physically separated from Northbridge Link projects lines provide great opportunities for lanes painted is a start. Raised bicycle E n c o u ra g e mtypes o re re icreating d e n t i bicycle a l d e routes. ve l o p On m eone-way nt e ve l o p a c l e a r v i requirements sion • DInclude minimum regarding new developing various ofofshousing. stre • Be creative and use every opportunity to on increase • Set a goal for will live in the centre developments inhow the many policy.residents For example retail atcity ground should always be placed the left the hand si of including housing and by 2020 andl ocreate goal. of travel. floor, residences (30% the floor space in the • number Locate development E n cnew o uresidences, raresidential g e m o re re s i d eaffordable n t i a lstrategically d e ve l o p mso ent D e ve pabove a cal strategy e a r vof i sto i oreach ntotalthe student housing. building), offiaces at for thehow top.many residents will live in the city centre that lights from the windows of the opportunity dwellings gives the • Be creative and use every to increase th • Set goal • Develop regulations and incentives make it attractive pedestrian routes are used at night a affordable friendly andhousing safe number ofthat residences, including an by 2020 and create a strategy to that reach the goal. • Spread housing over the centre. Waterfront and to buildrequirements housing. • Include regarding different types of housing character. Develop housing to city ensure thatThe main pedestrian student housing. Northbridge Link that projects great fore n t B i cprovide ycinl etime. f ri e n dopportunities l y e n v i ro n m in the policy. links have functions overlap • Develop regulations and incentives that make it attractive developing various typesover of housing. • Include minimum requirements regarding new • Spread housing the cityforcentre. Waterfront an to build housing. Safe streets cyclistsThe are either when the developments in the policy. For example retail at ground • Laneways provideLink a great potential forcars establishing more traf separated from or when motorised Northbridge projects provide great opportunities • vLocate new so above oor space Develop a clear vision E nflcoor, o u•residences ra gInclude e m o re re s(30% i d e n of t irequirements athe l dtotal e ve fl lo pm e n t in the new P ro i ddeveloping easfado c ithe l i t various iresidential e s a nbuildings d odevelopment pof eatnhousing. s p aunder-used c e strategically t hasa tcyclists. m a ke housing many with upper streets similar speed Comple types minimum regarding that lights from the windows of the dwellings gives the building), offi ces at the top. • Set a goal for how many residents will live in the city centre • Be creative and useinevery opportunity to increase cfloors i t y lfound i v i n gin m re a tt ra c t dedicated i ve foroinstance the Malls. with bicycle lanes with bicycle fri developments the policy. For example retail the at ground routes that are atdevelopment night a friendly andthe safe doos by 2020 and create a strategy to reach the goal. numberfloor, of residences, including affordable housing and in the • pedestrian Develop functions thatresidential support housing and improve so used it’s possible to take the bicycle from • Locate new strategically residences above (30% of the total floor space should be able to go to all major city destina character. Develop housing to ensure pedestrian • Include requirements student housing. quality of living in an area. that lights from the windows ofthat themain dwellings gives th building), offices atregarding the top. different types of housing areas. links pedestrian have functions thatthat overlap in time. in the policy. • Develop regulations and incentives that make it attractive routes are used at night a friendly and sa to build housing. • Spread housingrequirements over the cityregarding centre. The Waterfront • Develop more opportunities for recreation in the centre character. Develop housing to ensure thatcity main pedestria • Include different typesand of housing Trafficpotential calming measures that reduce the am • improve Laneways aofgreat fortime. establishing more Northbridge projects provide great opportunities for and theprovide quality existing recreational space. links have functions thatspeed overlap in in theLink policy. traffi c can be used to improve housing as do the manyand buildingsof with under-used upper • Include minimum requirements regarding new developing various types of housing. for cyclists. Traffic calming can be done in tw floors•found in for instance the Malls. developments in the policy. For example retail at ground • Develop a series of small, human scaled environments Laneways provide a greattraffi potential establishing mot changing c rules,for or through changing floor, residences above (30% of the total floor space in the that make the city attractive live in. Provide excellent upp • Locate new residential development strategically so housing asmore do the many to buildings with under-used building), offices at the top. intimatefloors spaces veryinclose to the residential lights from the windows of the dwellings gives the found for instance the Malls.developments, 88 that PERTH PUBLIC SPACES PUBLIC LIFE 2009 • GEHL ARCHITECTS • RECOMMENDATIONS places for sitting, for children to play etc. Introduce pedestrian routes that are used at night a friendly and safe • Include requirements regarding different types of housing pocketparks and explore the potential of the laneways. character. Develop housing to ensure that main pedestrian in the policy. links have functions that overlap in time. B i c yc l e p a rk i n g • Provide private outdoor space in direct relation to the parking has two sides.-One side rela apartments and with visualBicycle contact to public space front • Laneways provide a great potential for establishing more need for a safe and convenient way of parki gardens, balconies, roof terraces. housing as do the many buildings with under-used upper desirable distance from the end point of the fl oors found in for instance the Malls. 88 PERTH PUBLIC SPACES PUBLIC LIFE 2009 • GEHL ARCHITECTS • RECOMMENDATIONS

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E n c o u ra g e m o re re s itransport. d e n t i aOnce l d e the ve lnetwork o p m e has n t reached a size, opportunity cycling becomes a very attractive • Be creative and use every to increase the way e.g. homeaffordable and work. housing and number of residences, including student housing.

• Develop regulations and incentives that make it attractive to build housing.

• Include minimum requirements regarding new developments in the policy. For example retail at ground floor, residences above (30% of the total floor space in the building), offices at the top.

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to visitors and ensure regular footfall for local stores and sustain after-hours services.

D e ve l o p a c l e a r v i s i o n • Set a goal for how many residents will live in the city centre by 2020 and create a strategy to reach the goal.

• Develop regulations and incentives that make it attractive to build housing.

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of daily visitors but few permanent residents, although this To achieve an attractive, safe and lively city centre, inviting is increasing. residents will be the key, as they will help to populate and activate the cityancentre outside hours during To achieve attractive, safe offi andcelively cityand centre, inviting weekends. Residents inhabit the city different ways and residents will be also the key, as they willinhelp to populate to visitors andthe ensure regular outside footfall for localhours stores and activate city centre office and during sustain after-hours services. weekends. Residents also inhabit the city in different ways

D e d i c a te d b i c y c l e l a n e s

Develop a clear vision • Set a goal for how many residents will live in the city centre by 2020 and create a strategy to reach the goal.

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but compared to other cities the residential density of the city centre is still very low. The city centre has a large amount morebut people to live residents, in the city centre of Invite daily visitors few permanent although thisto ensure that there are people in the city 24 hours a is increasing. day and provide more authentic character. Invite more apeople to live inurban the city centre to To achieve an attractive, safeare andpeople lively city inviting ensure that there in centre, the city 24 hours a The residential increased 1993 incharacter. Perth, residents will be population the key, as they will helpsince to populate and day and provide ahas more authentic urban but compared other outside cities theoffi residential of the activate the city tocentre ce hours density and during city centre is still verypopulation low.inhabit The city centre has asince large1993 amount weekends. Residents also the city in different waysin Perth, The residential has increased daily but few permanent residents, although thisof the to of visitors and ensure footfallthe forresidential local stores and butvisitors compared toregular other cities density is increasing. sustain after-hours city centre isservices. still very low. The city centre has a large amount

To achieve an attractive, safe and lively city centre, inviting residents will be the key, as they will help to populate and activate the city centre outside office hours and during weekends. Residents also inhabit the city in different ways to visitors and ensure regular footfall for local stores and sustain after-hours services.

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Invite more people to live in the city centre to PERTH PUBLIC SPACES PUBLIC LIFE 2009 • GEHL ARCHITECTS • RECOMMENDATIONS

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• Develop a series of small, human scaled environments that make the city more attractive to live in. Provide excellent intimate spaces very close to the residential developments, places for sitting, for children to play etc. Introduce pocketparks and explore the potential of the laneways. • Provide private outdoor space in direct relation to the apartments and with visual contact to public space - front gardens, balconies, roof terraces.

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Ad va n t a g e s f o r c y c l i s t s

In order to make cycling an attractive transp increase travelling speeds, certain measure into place where cyclists get advantages ea through the city. In Copenhagen cyclists are second head start at intersections and gree travelling at 20 km/h have been introduced routes.

Easing wayfinding for new cyclists and visit important for cyclists as well as for pedestr distances and proposing possible routes are The bicycle system should also be well inte transport meaning that bicycles should be a buses.


living room elements living room elements COUCH PLANTS MAT TREES COFFEE TABLE GRASSES TELEVISION LIGHTING READING MATERIAL

alternative design idea ILLUSTRATE NEED FOR URBAN AMMENITY WITH INCREASED RESIDENTIAL + LOCATE EXITING AMMENITY IN MAP IN GROUND PLANE

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alternative design idea

sketch concepts asha dilkes-hoffman

In this meeting, options for a primary construction material were discussed. Then the strongest idea to emerge was to construct our installation from a modified sea container. Whilst some were daunted by the effort required to chop into such a container for entry points (and meet safety standards) Nina assured us it was viable. In the end it was cost that ruled this option out - well above our allocated budget. However, it did spark discussion regarding the importance of enclosure to maximise the legibility of our desin for ‘The Living Room’. For our PARK(ing) installation to be read as a room it would have to include a suggestion of walls. Additionally the idea was broached that perhaps crates and pallets, even if they were used as the building blocks for gabion walls, wouldn’t make the grade. Having liked the container, we decided to aim high. To create the volume of a room, the idea of scaffolding was suggested. By chance scaffold elements became available to us . Being borrowed meant there was zero cost and that they would be returned, reused and not wasted, perfectly aligned with the ethos of PARK(ing) Day. It was also suggested that the installation could be installed in another location after the event for example in a UWA carpark.

modify sea container CREATING LIVING ROOM WITH POSSIBILITY OF VERANDAH + ROOF GARDEN AERIAL ASPECT nina zheleva

Guys My sea container contact advises me that the size of sea container we are chasing is a less common size and there was a bit of a run on second hand ones in that size at the beginning of the year and that there are no more second hand ones available (or at least not with them - but she didn't think anyone else would have them either). A new one is $3,600, ie slightly above our budget and it defeats the purpose anyway, ie of recycling. There might be other suppliers out there but will have to hand that back to you guys if you want to pursue that direction. Regards Tony Blackwell | Winthrop Professor Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Visual Arts

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alternative design idea Constraints and opportunities presented by use of scaffolding were discussed at length. It was decided that we would move forward with scaffolding as our primary structural element. This decision allowed the group to make some concrete design decisions through individual and group workshopping. Susan explained the dimesions and workings of the scaffoding to the group. Ideas for ‘The Living Room’ were then workshopped with these parameters in mind. Individual ideas were then combined in a group discussion, with the decision made on the form our scaffolding structure would take.

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CONCEPT WOODEN PALLETS WITH PAINT BUCKETS ATTACHED, PAINT BRUSHES TIED TO BUCKET WITH STRING SO THAT PEOPLE MAY PAINT ON THE PALLETS INSIDE A DETERMI NED CIRCUMFERENCE, CREATING COLOURFUL PATTERNS Andy Lewin

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5:45PM alternative design idea utilise scaffold components but ACENTUATE THE DIAGONAL CROSSING FROM THE HAY STREET MALL TOWARDS CENTRAL PARK nic monisse

Anna Gregory Soo Ching Ngu Asha Dilkes-Hoffman Vanitha Jayakumar Nikolinka Zheleva Nathan Slawinski Rosemary Halsmith Susan Stevens Patrick Sims Nicholas Monisse Hamish Firth Annalise Delfos Professor Blackwell

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C R E AT I N G PALLETS verses SCAFFOLD

PALLET FORM

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WHAT TO DO WITH LEFT OVER PALLETS?

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CUT MODULE

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Rosemary Halsmith Susan Stevens Patrick Sims Nicholas Monisse Hamish Firth Annalise Delfos Professor Blackwell

With the primary structure agreed upon, discussion returned to our concept. Within our scaffolding structure, how would we communicate elements of a domestic living room while also showing our idea of a green, growing 'living' room? The domestic living room: Couches and side tables were agreed on as a vital part of communicating an impression of the domestic living room. The importance of hanging a window frame in one of the suggested walls of our structure was also discussed. The green, growing, 'living' room: Options for plant species to borrow from Lullfitz were discussed. Lomandra was agreed upon, with further suggestions of Agonises in 5 litre pots. Astroturf, as carpet and as a representation of grass, would contribute to both definitions of ‘The Living Room’. Discussion returned to an idea presented in meeting one – an interactive element to invite passing pedestrians in to the installation. The group agreed that people passing ‘The Living Room’ installation could be invited to answer the question ‘I Love Perth because ….” The answer could be written on builders’ tape and then tied to the wall of our structure. This lead to the consideration of an additional material to affix to a wall of our structure. The material would ideally be one which would be easy to work with and could have builders’ tape tied to it throughout the day. Arc-weld mesh was agreed upon as the most desirable material. A small group committed to a scaffolding test the following morning, weather permitting.

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After a delay, including an extreme weather warning a small team finally tests the scaffold. The scaffold was errected in the configuration developed during meeting three


Erecting the scaffold is swift. removing the glass panels from the window frame takes a little more effort. Hamish, Andy and Nathan take turns accross an hour or so. A fixing is created for the window to make installation straightforward on PARK Day

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issuu.com/ PARKingDAYperth Rebar http://rebargroup.org/ PARK(ing) Day http://parkingday.org/ UWA School of Architecture, Landscape and Visual Arts http://www.alva.uwa.edu.au/ Australian Institute of Landscape Architects http://www.aila.org.au/ Lullfitz Nursery http://www.lullfitz.com.au/ City of Perth http://www.perth.wa.gov.au/ issuu.com/ PARKingDAYperth

THANKS TO ANNALISE DELFOS, PROFESSOR TONY BLACKWELL, GEORGE LULLFITZ AND PAUL COTTER

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THE PARK(ing) DAY MANUAL A Primer on User-Generated Urbanism and Temporary Tactics for Improving the Public Realm

Introduction: The Ideas Behind PARK(ing) Day The vast majority of outdoor urban space is dedicated to the private vehicle, while only a fraction of that land is allocated to open space for people. In urban centers around the world, inexpensive curbside parking results in increased traffic, wasted fuel and more pollution. The strategies and values that generate these conditions are no longer sustainable, nor do they promote a healthy, vibrant urban human habitat.1 It’s time to rethink the way streets are used and to re-imagine the possibilities of the urban landscape! A metered parking spot is an inexpensive short-term lease for a plot of precious urban real estate. What is the range of possibilities for creativity in a space usually dedicated to the storage of a private vehicle? Motivated by the desire to activate the metered parking space as a site for creative experimentation, political and cultural expression, and unscripted social interaction, Rebar offers PARK(ing) Day as a prototype for open-source urban design, accessible to all. In response, thousands of people around the globe—working independently of Rebar but guided by common core principles—have created hundreds of “PARK” installations and formed an annual international event. Urban inhabitants worldwide recognize the need for new approaches to making the urban landscape, and realize that converting small segments of the automobile infrastructure—even temporarily—can alter the character of the city. From public parks to free health clinics, from art galleries to demonstration gardens, PARK(ing) Day participants have claimed the metered parking space as a rich new territory for creative experimentation and activism. The event continues to expand virally, over the Internet and by word of mouth. Since its inception in 2005, PARK(ing) Day has blossomed into a global experiment in remixing, reclaiming and reprogramming vehicular space for social exchange, recreation and artistic expression. The project 1

See Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking, (Amer. Planning Assn., 2011)


Disclaimer This Manual is intended for educational purposes only. Nothing contained in this publication should be construed or relied upon as legal advice or an invitation to break the law. Participation in PARK(ing) Day is open and at your own risk. If you choose to participate in PARK(ing) Day, you will be acting independently of Rebar Group, Inc., its owners, employees, officers, directors, members, volunteers, agents, assigns and partners, none of whom are liable for your actions. By participating in PARK(ing) Day, you voluntarily and entirely assume the risk of injury to yourself or others, assume all legal liability related to your PARK(ing) Day installation, and agree to indemnify and hold harmless Rebar Group, Inc., and its owners, employees, officers, directors, members, volunteers, agents, assigns and partners. You also agree to obey the law and the directives of any duly-authorized law enforcement officer. Remember, PARK(ing) Day is a worldwide act of generosity and playful activism intended to serve the broader public good. Obey the law and have fun!

About Rebar Rebar is an interdisciplinary studio working at the intersection of art, design and ecology. Based in San Francisco, the studio was founded in 2004. PARK(ing) Day began in 2005 and is an open-source Rebar invention created by hundreds of independent individuals and groups worldwide. Rebar has received generous support for PARK(ing) Day over the years from these top-notch organizations: The Trust for Public Land - tpl.org Black Rock Arts foundation - blackrockarts.org Public Architecture - publicarchitecture.org The LEF Foundation - lef-foundation.org “PARK(ing) Day” is a registered servicemark of Rebar Group, Inc. This Manual is Copyright ©2009-2011 by Rebar Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Photos by Andrea Scher and Jeff Conlon.

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rebargroup.org parkingday.org


now occurs annually in hundreds of cities in dozens of countries on every permanently-inhabited continent on earth. Rebar invites you to participate. Your installation is limited only by your imagination—and the future of this grassroots movement is in your hands. While PARK(ing) Day may be temporary, the image of possibility it offers has lasting effects and is helping to shift the way streets are perceived and utilized. We challenge you to explore the full dimensions of urban social ecology, experimental design and creative vision in the humble parking spot. In deciding how to develop your PARK installation, and how best to participate in this event, we encourage you to investigate the range of social, cultural or ecological deficiencies in your particular urban setting. What is missing from your city or neighborhood? Perhaps you have enough public parks, but there’s an intersection that is dangerous for pedestrians and needs traffic calming. Maybe you’d like to see more community gardens, citywide composting, dignified services for the homeless, or more poetry readings. Perhaps your city just needs more space to sit, relax and do nothing. We hope PARK(ing) Day will cultivate your sense of civic pride, and we invite you to consider the role of you—the citizen—in conceiving, building and improving your local urban environment. In an encouraging turn of recent events, PARK(ing) Day has begun to have its desired effect: pioneering civil servants in cities like New York and San Francisco have taken the message of projects like PARK(ing) Day to heart, and have adapted temporary tactics as a method for incubating new urban programs and evolving the way we think about the design and craft of urban placemaking.

PARK(ing) Day occurs annually in hundreds of cities in dozens of countries on every permanently-inhabited continent on earth.

It All Took Place in a PARK(ing) Space: a wedding ceremony a productive landscape a free head & neck massage a free worm composting demo a pedal powered smoothie a solar panel demonstration a DIY lemonade stand a public park a free health clinic an ecology center a public back porch an urban farming display a glass recycling center an interactive sculpture a political campaign an outdoor classroom a fingerpainting studio a public kiddie pool a public safety demonstration a national park

While this is a heartening trend, there is still much work to do. It is still, in large part, up to us—the artists and designers, the activists and urbanists—to take action, to demonstrate the vast possibility embedded in every metered rectangle of asphalt, to help our cities become healthier, more comfortable, more creative and more successful outdoor human habitat . . . at least until the meter runs out. Rebar San Francisco, August 2011 2

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a free bicycle repair shop a memorial glen a croquet tournament a public dog park a PARKcycle a notebook to elected officials a chess tournament an open poetry reading a barbecue a lawn bowling course a marshland an art gallery a pirates’ cove a hula a dinner party a public reading room a public beach a public picnic a chicken coop and your _______________.


1.2 Building Materials The fundamental elements of a good outdoor public space are seating, shade, a place to watch people and view scenery, and a sense of relaxation.

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For Rebar’s first PARK(ing) project in 2005, we installed 200 sq. ft of lawn, a 24” box/15’ tall tree, a rented park bench and an enclosing boundary. We also produced signs to indicate to the public that this space was created for their use and enjoyment and to invite them to pay the meter to keep the “PARK” open.

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The more seating you provide, the greater the chance of unplanned interaction among PARK(ing) Day visitors. Good used park benches can be borrowed, obtained on the Internet or rented from a film/theater prop rental shop.

Symbolic Groundcover Although Rebar’s original PARK used living sod, we do not recommend using real grass, unless you have a place to permanently install it immediately after your PARK(ing) Day event. Instead, we suggest you try something more creative and symbolic—a groundcover that will transform the hard concrete or asphalt into a more comfortable and visually impressive space. Bits of nature other than living sod that may work are potted plants, sand, or anything that feels good to bare feet. Other PARK(ing) Day participants have used quilts, pools, gravel, carpets and astroturf. With all these items, though, please consider where you will reuse them after PARK(ing) Day.

A word on using live sod: Don’t! Please avoid using living sod grass or turf. Sod is a very petrochemically-intensive monocrop, and it tends to die quickly, thus becoming a waste product. There are numerous other options for providing comfortable groundcover for your PARK visitors. If you must use live sod, please have a plan to re-use it after PARK(ing) Day!

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If you want to use living plants to provide shade, some nurseries will lease trees by the day or week. Check with your local nursery to find a sturdy tree with abundant foliage for shade. Bamboo or a large indoor plant may work in your climate. Other options include flags, sails or large pieces of fabric. Or, check in with your friends and neighbors. Is one of them planning to buy a tree you could first use for PARK(ing) Day?


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Enclosure - Safety First! Plastic bollards (a.k.a. traffic tubes) linked with rope, potted plants, or any self-supporting boundary is important to provide a sense of enclosure and safety for visitors to your PARK.

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Signs A sign or signs indicating that this space has been transformed from a parking spot to a PARK(ing) Day installation for free public enjoyment. Feel free to invite visitors to pay the meter to keep the PARK open. Your sign should welcome everybody! 8

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Spare change Don’t forget to bring change to pay the meter to get things rolling before your visitors arrive. Many meters now only accept quarters or credit/debit cards.


1.3 Planning Planningthe theEvent Event 1.3

5a.Explaining ExplainingPark(ing) Park(ing)Day Day 5a.

Thingsyou youshould shouldconsider considerorganizing organizingininadvance advanceare: are: Things

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Sourcingessential essentialmaterials materialstotoprovide provideshade, shade,groundcover groundcover Sourcing andseating seatingatatleast leastaaweek weekorortwo twoininadvance, advance,and andlive liveplants plants and fewdays daysininadvance advance aafew

Youare arepart partofofaaworldwide worldwidemovement movementtotoimprove improvethe thequality qualityofofthe the You publicrealm realmand andreclaim reclaimthe thestreets streetsfor forpeople. people.Your YourPARK PARKisisalso alsoaa public uniqueexpression expressionofofyour yourown ownideas, ideas,creativity creativityand andidentity. identity.Think Thinkahead ahead unique to how you will easily explain what’s happening to curious, skeptical to how you will easily explain what’s happening to curious, skeptical oror appreciativeaudiences audiencesyou’ll you’llencounter encounterout outthere. there. appreciative

Remember:You Youare areacting actingininthe thepublic publicinterest interesttoto Remember: addtotothe thehealth, health,comfort comfortand andvitality vitalityofofyour yourcity! city! add

Transportationfor forthe thematerials materialstotoand andfrom fromthe thesite. site.Use Use Transportation bicyclesand andbike biketrailers trailersififyou youcan. can.For ForPARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day Day2006, 2006, bicycles Rebartransported transportedthe thematerials materialsfor foraasingle singlePARK PARKtoto55different different Rebar locationsaround aroundSan SanFrancisco, Francisco,using usingonly onlypedal-powered pedal-powered locations transportation.Maybe Maybenext nextyear yearwe’ll we’lltake takethe thebus! bus! transportation.

Putforward forwardthe thepositive positiveaspect aspectofofyour youraction actionand andremember remember Put that skeptical critics can turn into key supporters and alliesifif that skeptical critics can turn into key supporters and allies youwin winthem themover. over.Your Yourgenerous generousand andcreative creativeact actcan canset setthe the you tonefor forother otherpeople’s people’spositive positiveexperience experienceofofpublic publicspace, space,soso tone appealtototheir theirbest bestinstincts: instincts:civic civicpride, pride,artistic artisticexpression, expression, appeal and caring for others. and caring for others.

Assemblingfriends friendsororcollaborators collaboratorstotohelp helpyou youplan, plan,arrive arrive Assembling earlyatatthe thesite sitetotohold holdaaspace, space,and andtotohelp helpyou yousetup setupand and early cleanupatatthe theend endofofthe theday. day. cleanup Peopletotophotograph/document photograph/documentthe theevent. event.Contact Contactmembers members People thelocal localpress pressorormedia mediaoutlets. outlets.Locate Locateyour yourPARK PARKwhere whereitit ofofthe will receive good visual exposure. will receive good visual exposure. planfor fortalking talkingtotopeople peoplewho whocome comeby byyour yourPARK. PARK. AAplan Whomight mightwant wanttototalk talktotoyou? you? Who Curiousbystanders. bystanders. • •Curious Potentialparticipants participantsfor forthe thenext nextPARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day. Day. • •Potential • Trafficcand andlaw lawenforcement enforcementpersonnel. personnel. • Traffi Peoplewondering wonderingwhy whyyou’re you’retaking takingup upaaperfectly perfectly • •People serviceableparking parkingspot. spot. serviceable

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5b.Talking Talkingto toAuthorities Authorities 5b.

Research and and understand understand the the laws laws Research governingyour yourcity’s city’sparking parkingspaces. spaces. governing Authorityfifigures guresare areusually usuallyconcerned concerned Authority withsafety, safety,sosobe beprepared preparedtotoshare share with yourplans planstotokeep keeppeople peopleout outofofharm‘s harm‘s your way.We Werecommend recommendappealing appealingtotolaw law way. enforcement’ssense senseofofcivic civicpride priderather rather enforcement’s than antagonizing antagonizing them. them. Remember, Remember, than youare arenot notprotesting—you’re protesting—you’reusing using you your public space to improve the your public space to improve the qualityofoflife lifefor forpeople! people!You Youmay maywant want quality designateone onemember memberofofyou youteam team totodesignate interfacewith withthe theauthorities. authorities.Be Besure sure totointerface this designee does their research and this designee does their research and isis preparedtotospeak speakwith withconfi confidence denceand and prepared respect. respect. 1111


5c. Addressing People’s Concerns If you encounter negativity or hostility from anyone, try to find out what their concerns really are. They may or may not understand what PARK(ing) Day is about. If you are comfortable doing so, engage in a dialogue with them.

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A reminder: there are many legitimate critiques of this project!

Recycle Materials! Find a place to donate any unwanted or extra materials when the project is over. Living plants, turf and/or groundcover can be permanently planted in yards—or better yet donated to schools or neighbors who need them. Use Craigslist or Freecycle to keep materials from entering the waste stream. Re-use first and recycle if you can’t re-use. A well-planned PARK will never end up in landfill!

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Leave No Trace!

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Plan An After Party!

Be prepared to completely, totally, utterly leave your city streetscape in a better condition than you found it. Bring a broom, dustpan, trash bags and a good pair of gloves. Sweep like this is your property, because it is. Help your city erase the trace of others by sweeping the whole block! If you plan to clean up after dark, bring flashlights. If you use bicycles for transportation, remember lights and reflectors.

5d. Generosity and Humor You are the face of PARK(ing) Day. No matter what goes wrong, take it easy, have fun and laugh. You may find you soon have a lot of company.

A TRUE STORY! One PARK(ing) Day group in San Francisco outstayed their two-hour meter and were asked by the parking patrol to move their hanging garden PARK . . . which they did, with the help of a dozen people. They found a new parking space on the same block (and paid the meter of course!)

Once the cleanup is complete, where will you meet up with other PARK(ing) Day participants to celebrate? Use the PARK(ing) Day Network to coordinate with other participants in your city— it’s a great chance to make new friends and share tales of the day, as well as party expenses!

PARK(ING) DAY = CELEBRATING YOUR CITY! 12

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1.4 1.4 Getting Gettingthe theWord WordOut Out

1.5 1.5 Next NextSteps Steps Catalyzing CatalyzingLasting LastingChange ChangeininYour YourCity City

Join Jointhe thePARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day DayNetwork! Network! my.parkingday.org my.parkingday.org The ThePARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day DayNetwork Networkisisthe theopen-source, open-source,user-generated user-generatedliving living archive of the worldwide event. We strongly encourage archive of the worldwide event. We strongly encourageprospective prospective participants participantsand andanyone anyoneinterested interestedininthe theevent eventtotojoin jointhe theNetwork Network totoshare shareand andgather gatherinformation, information,advice adviceand, and,ofofcourse, course,photos, photos,videos, videos, interviews interviewsand andanecdotes anecdotesrelated relatedtotoPARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day Dayinstallations. installations. Websites Websitesand andblogs blogsfor forplanning planningPark(ing) Park(ing)Day Dayalready alreadyexist existininmany many cities. cities. Check Checkthe thePARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day DayNetwork Networkand andmake makesome somenew newfriends! friends! Use Useyour yourNetwork Networkpage pagetotoshare sharephotos, photos,ideas ideasand andstories storiesbefore beforeand and after the event. You may fi nd allies who have more in common after the event. You may find allies who have more in commonwith withyou you than thanjust justPark(ing) Park(ing)Day. Day.

So, So,your yourPARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day Dayinstallation installationwas wasaabit bithit. hit.You Youmade madeaatemporary, temporary, positive adjustment to your city and inspired people positive adjustment to your city and inspired peopletotothink thinkcritically critically about abouthow howthe theurban urbanlandscape landscapeisismade. made.You Youopened openedsome someeyes eyesand and minds mindstotothe therange rangepossibilities possibilitiesfor forgenerating generatingurban urbanform formand andcivic civicserservices. vices.Great Greatjob! job! And And. .. .. now . nowwhat? what?How Howdo doyou youconvert convertthe theenergy energyofofPARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day Dayinto into long-term change in your urban setting? Like PARK(ing) Day itself, long-term change in your urban setting? Like PARK(ing) Day itself,the the possibilities possibilitiesare arelimited limitedonly onlyby byyour yourimagination. imagination.And Andthe theobvious obviousapapproaches proachesare areexcellent: excellent:Start Start oror join joinaacommunity communitygroup groupororneighborneighborhood hoodorganization. organization.Volunteer Volunteeratataalocal localpark, park,art artprogram programororcommunity community center. Attend public hearings. Volunteer for political center. Attend public hearings. Volunteer for politicalcandidates candidateswhose whose values valuesyou yousupport. support.Run Runfor foroffi office. ce.Host Hostan anongoing ongoingpublic publicpicnic picnicininfront front ofofyour yourhouse. house.Continue Continuetotocreatively creativelyexperiment experimentininpublic publicspace! space!

1.6 1.6 Parklets Parklets Park(ing) Park(ing)Day DayInspires InspiresPermanent PermanentChange! Change! InInaagrowing growingnumber numbercities citiesaround aroundthe theUnited UnitedStates, States,including includingSan San Francisco and New York, city agencies have created permit Francisco and New York, city agencies have created permitprograms programs for formerchants, merchants,organizations organizationsand andcitizens citizenstotoconvert convertmetered meteredparking parking spaces to permanent plazas, open to the public. These spaces to permanent plazas, open to the public. Theseinstallations— installations— called called“Parklets”—originated “Parklets”—originatedasaspart partofofSan SanFrancisco’s Francisco’s“Pavement “Pavementto to Parks” Parks”program, program,which whichconverts convertsexcess excessroadway roadwayinto intopublic publicplazas. plazas.The The city cityplanners planners(who (whodeveloped developedthe the“Parklet” “Parklet”program programininclose closecollaboracollaboration with Rebar) acknowledge that the program was directly tion with Rebar) acknowledge that the program was directlyinspired inspiredby by PARK(ing) PARK(ing)Day. Day.This Thismovement movementhas hasbegun beguntotocatalyze catalyzestructural structuralchange! change! And Andperhaps perhapsyour yourcity cityneeds needsaaParklet Parkletprogram. program.For Formore moreinformation, information, see seethe theFurther FurtherResources Resourcessection sectionbelow. below.

The PARK(ing) Day Network, 2011 The PARK(ing) Day Network, 2011

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1.1 Choosing the Spot

How to Turn a Parking Spot into A PARK(ing) Space The PARK(ing) Day Assembly Manual So, you took the plunge—you downloaded the Manual. Seems like you’re pretty serious about reprogramming a metered parking space. Nice! Congratulations and thanks for taking an interest in building a PARK(ing) Day installation in your local urban context! To help your PARK project be as successful as possible, we have developed this handy “how to” guide to help you. Please read through it carefully and keep it in your back pocket for easy reference as you go about planning your PARK. But do print sparingly (and maybe in black & white)—paper is precious!

Find a metered parking spot in a location where people will find and interact with it. Consider what public services or amenities are lacking in the area around your site. If you are interested in creating a park-like open space, check online to see if your city planning agency (or other open space advocacy group) has a map of areas underserved by public open space. Other things to consider about location are:

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Type of metered space: is it a 2-hour spot or a 1/2 hour drop-off spot? We do not suggest “No-Stopping” zones, commercial loading zones, commuter lanes, or any place in front of a fire hydrant. People you are trying to serve: downtown office workers, tourists, the down and out, or the highrollers? When will they be around to see and use the space? Documentation: are there nearby spots for you or your friends to take pictures or video of the installation? Other environmental conditions: sun, shade, wind, weather, traffic, construction will all impact your PARK(ing) Day installation.

Participation in PARK(ing) Day and the use of or affiliation with the registered servicemark “PARK(ing) Day” is restricted to non-commercial uses only. For full details, please visit: www.parkingday.org/ src/Parking_Day_License.pdf

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NYC Street Renaissance (New York) nycsr.org Makers of the popular Streestblog and Streetfilms sites. Permanent Breakfast (worldwide, began in Vienna) ritesinstitute.org/permbreak_blog “The continually ongoing breakfast in the open space.” Start one! Public Architecture (San Francisco) publicarchitecture.org Making architecture in the public interest. Recetas Urbanas (“Urban Prescriptions”) (Sevilla, Spain) recetasurbanas.net Between legal and illegal, fusing architecture, art and activism.

Rebar’s pilot “Parklet” on 22nd Street, San Francisco, 2010.

1.7 Further Resources

To inspire you further, we have gathered some of the projects we’ve come across over the years that exemplify creative, innovative approaches to improving urban human habitat. Have a look:

Reclaim the Streets! (worldwide, began in London) rts.gn.apc.org Worldwide quasi-legal street actions. Roadsworth (Montreal) roadsworth.com Re-scripting the grammar of the city.

Bonnie Sherk (San Francisco) alivinglibrary.org The godmother of the PARK(ing) Day concept. “Portable Parks I-III”: public parks on a street corner, a freeway and a city block . . . in 1970.

Roadwitch (worldwide, began in Oxford, U.K.) roadwitch.org.uk Traffic calming at its most creative.

Fallen Fruit (Los Angeles) fallenfruit.org Mapping the fruit that hangs in public space.

San Francisco Pavement to Parks Program sfpavementtoparks.sfplanning.org Making PARK(ing) Day permanent!

Graffiti Research Lab (worldwide, began in New York) graffitiresearchlab.com Creators of LASER TAG graffiti and so much more.

Studio for Urban Projects (San Francisco) Art as a means of advancing civic engagement and public dialogue. studioforurbanprojects.org

Guerilla Gardening (worldwide, began in London) guerillagardening.org Guerilla gardens in neglected public spaces.

Tactical Urbanism Volume 1 Short Term Action/Long Term Change scribd.com/doc/51354266/Tactical-Urbanism-Volume-1

Jane Martin/PLANT*SF (San Francisco) plantsf.org Permeable landscape as neighborhood treasure. Includes a how-to DIY guide.

The Trust for Public Land (United States) tpl.org Conserving Land for People since 1972.

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Park(ing)day Perth