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DNAPL APPLICATIONS Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL) (DNAPL), which include: PCB, PCP, TCE, DCB, Pesticides, Pesticides etc. are present in the environment as a result of accidental spills or releases that have impacted the soil and groundwater. groundwater Due to the nature of their chemistry they are generally considered very toxic to humans. s. This has prompted a need for innovative in-situ and ex-situ situ remediation techniques techniques. ®

Ivey-sol Surfactant Technology is comprised of several patented and preparatory non non-ionic ionic surfactant formulations that have the unique ability to selectively desorb and liberate sorbed (i.e., absorbed and adsorbed) petroleum hydrocarbons (LNAPL), chlorinated solve solvents nts (DNAPL), and certain heavy metal contaminants from soil and bedrock ® surfaces during in-situ or ex-situ situ treatment. The addition of Ivey Ivey-sol to the substrate can aid in the controlled dede ® sorption of the contaminants making them more ‘available’ for in in-situ or ex-situ situ treatment. The Ivey-sol Ivey surfactants make the contaminants more miscible in the aqueous phase allowing for their improved mass recovery and/or improved treatment by many other remediation techniques. ®

SER Surfactant Enhanced Remediation is an ex-situ soil washing application process to liberate contaminants ® making them more ‘hydraulically-available’ available’ for mass removal and and/or treatment. SER significantly improves ex-situ ex soil washing type applications for treating both LNAPL and DNAPL type contamination including PCBs. PCB

PCB APPLICATIONS APPLICATION This photograph shows DNAPL (PCB), which is denser than water at the bottom of the jar (Left), then it’s made miscible in the water following addition of Ivey-sol®.

When HOC (hydrophobic bic organic compounds), such as PCB PCBs, are absorbed on a soil grain, water alone will not remove them from the surface. This is a function of the hydrophobi hydrophobic characteristics ristics of the HOC, which repels the ® ® water at its surface and its inherent low water solubility. With the addition of Ivey Ivey-sol surfactants, the Ivey-sol Ivey hydrophobic grouping is repelled by the water but attracted to the HOC on the surface. At the same time, the Ivey® sol hydrophilic grouping is attracted to the water molecules. These opposing forces loosen the HOC (PCB) from the surface of the soil matrix and suspend it in the water phase. Once dissolved, the suspended PCBs are more ‘hydraulically-available’ for removal by a mechanical soil washing process. ®

“Ivey-sol surfactants can increase the water solubility of PCB by > 900%” Ref: Dr. David Craft, University of Alberta


The mechanism of how the Ivey-sol technology desorbs and liberates the sorbed PCB’s from soils surfaces is illustrated above. Once liberated the desorbed contaminants have increased physical ‘availability’ for ex-situ ex remediation by methods including conventional soil washing techniques. Ivey International Inc. ©