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BANGKOK THE COMPREHENSION OF THE CITY THROUGH ITS URBAN LAYERS

UP-SIDE DOWN INTERVENTION-STRATEGY FOR THE INBETWEEN-SPACE GERALDINE BORIO CAROLINE WÜTHRICH MASTER THESIS ARCHITECTURE EPFL 2007


BANGKOK THE COMPREHENSION OF THE CITY THROUGH ITS URBAN LAYERS

UP-SIDE DOWN INTERVENTION-STRATEGY FOR THE INBETWEEN-SPACE GERALDINE BORIO CAROLINE WÜTHRICH MASTER THESIS ARCHITECTURE EPFL 2007


BRUTALITY


CONTRAST


COMPLEXITY


DISRUPTION


CONFRONTATION


FOREWORD METHODOLOGY

02 04

DECOMPOSE INTEREST ZONE MIXITY GLOBAL/LOCAL WATER NETWORK ROAD NETWORK ROAD HIERARCHY CONJUNCTIONS OF UNIVERSES

06 08 10 12 14 16 18

SYNTHESIZE LAYERS NAPPE_elemental layer MEGASTRUCTURES_irrigation at urban scale BUILDINGS_punctual density

20 22 34 44

RECOMPOSE MORPHOLOGICAL ENCOUNTERS PROGRAMMATICAL ENCOUNTERS NAPPE/BUILDINGS BUILDINGS/MEGASTRUCTURES NAPPE/MEGASTRUCTURES

56 58 60 66 72

DETERMIN THE PROBLEMATIC OF ENCOUNTERS

76

STRATEGY SITE CARACTERISITCS PROGRAMS PROGRAM STRATEGY RULES

84 94 98 102

PROJECT PLANS SECTIONS IMAGES

118 120 125


CHINA Hanoi MYANMAR

Luang Prabang

VI M

NA

ET

Vientiane

Chiang Mai

OS

LA

Rangoon THAILAND

BANGKOK CAMBODIA Phnom Penh GULF OF SIAM

ANDAMAN SEA

Ho Chi Minh City

Phuket

SOUTH

CHINA

SEA

IA

YS

LA

MA

Kuala Lumpur

SINGAPORE SUMATRA INDIAN OCEAN

Kuching

BORNEO INDONESIA


«BANGKOK» official name country language coordinate nbr. of districts population nbr of expatriates surface foundation religion

Krung Thep Thailand Thai 13°45′N 100°31′E 50 6,5 mio 65’000 1’568 km2 1782 buddhism (92%), muslim (6%), christian (2%)


01


02

To confront ourselves to an asian city, is driven by the motivation to experiment without any a priori a different form of urbanity. Bangkok is a young city of 230 years and aspires to become one of the important asian metropoles. With its encreasing number of highrise constructions the image of the city undergoes a radical change. As architects we are interested in the understanding the phenomena such a accelerated urban evolution. Bangkok represents therefore an ideal field to observe these phenomena. However as Occidental we are initially bothered by the apparent chaos of this city and the brutality of certain urban situations. In this study we will try to understand if there are nevertheless specific rules which generate the morphology of the city and have a particular regard to the resultant urban situations of this process of evolution. Willing to explore this urban condition, we will in the next phase use the architectural project to test such a specific site. This present theoretical work will determin the caracteristics of the environnement in which the project will take place.


03


04

For understanding the complexity of the city of Bangkok, it is necessary to shape our research tools. We will read the city through these 5 steps: 1.

decompose the city into its major caracteristics

2.

synthesize the programmatical and morphologic specificities

3.

recompose them to observe their phenomena of encounter

4.

determin the problematic

5.

define an intervention strategy

METHODOLOGY


05

interest zone high density FAR 10 medium density FAR 4-5 low density FAR 1-3 agriculture FAR 1-2 institutional zone Chao Phra Ya River

km

01

5

10


Bangkok 179.5 km 2

Paris = 86.9 km 2

ÂŤinterest zoneÂť surface

179.5 km2

nbr. of inhabitants 2.11 mio (37% of Bangkok)

The perimeter of the BMA (Bangkok Metropolitain Area) represents the political limites of the city and still integrates a high number of agricultural and fragmented built zones. Interested in the urban phenomena, an interest zone is consequently restricted to the densest built part of Bangkok, where a maximum of morpholocigal and social interactions are provoked and can be guaranteed.

INTEREST ZONE

DECOMPOSE

06


07 appartment

health

business

culture

education

leisure

religion

shopping

everthing everywhere


DECOMPOSE

08

To understand Bangkok’s urban condition, it is first necessary to consider its caracteristics in term of programmatical repartition and its groundorganisation. In Bangkok all functions are spread out homogeneously over the city and are represented in high density. This dispertion of the different programs reveals a first portrait of the city. Bangkok is not organised according to one or several centers. Everything can be found everywhere.

MIXITY


09

local

global


Seeing that all functions are homogeneously dispersed over the city, one point is chosen as a representative example to understand if this phenomena is also valid on a more restricted area. Analysing the functions which are present on this zoomed perimeter we can distinguish two groups which are related to a local and a global level of action. global programs: programs functions which are related to the city or to the world. Programs which act on a global network. (ex.: international enterprises) local programs programs: functions which act at a smaller scale. They are principally linked to their surrounding area. (ex.: noodle shops) In the same way as the different functions, the global and local programs are mixed on the territory. The combination of these two scales everywhere in the city gives the user a plenty of opportunities to choose between a big diversity of services. Consequently mixity is present at all scales and represents a strong caracteristic of Bangkok.

GLOBAL / LOCAL

DECOMPOSE

10


11

1860 water network

01

5

km

10


DECOMPOSE

12

To go into detail of the non-centralized organisation of Bangkok, the city will be seen in regard to its networks. It is necessary to understand that its organization is intimately linked to the structure of its ground. The city emerged 230 years ago on an overflowed plain with a water level 30cm below the ground. Before the first occupation of the territorries, a whole system of waterdrainage had to be set up. (1782) Large canals were dug perpendicularly to the Chao Phraya River and linked to an entire network by a smaller canal system. Irrigating the whole territory, these canals were the original transport network of the city and defined the basic structure of its ground.

WATER NETWORK


13

2006 road network water network 01

5

km

10


DECOMPOSE

14

Through the evolution, a large number of canals were progressively covered to set up a road network. As the ground was already occupied by houses, this posterior network had to find its position in a existing urban fabric and was therefore clearly traced on the logic of the water irrigation system. The small streets still reveal its fractal system. This original drainage pattern who influenced strongly the structure of the road network, did favour Bangkok’s non-centralized organisation. As the big axis of the street network irrigate the territory regularly, all districts profit from the same accessibility. The expressways which were established as the last network follow this same logic.

ROAD NETWORK


15

interstice 1m wide soi 3m wide soi 6m link axe 12m wide m

0

100

500

main axe 40m wide


Bangkok expressway

Paris expressway

A strong variation of accessibility is however readable at a smaller scale.The large axis are used as main roads for the car traffic and are linked by smaller secondary connections. The majority of Bangkok’s traffic is condensed on these two typs of roads. The “soi” which is the most common typology of streets in Bangkok is not allways a connecting street. A high percentage of them finish with a dead end and give only access to a housing area. Owing to their particuliar typology the sois are often difficult in access by car. On an even finer level, the interstice assure the deeper access to the houses. They can only be used by foot and assure the smallest connection in a neighbourhood. This fact has however no influence on the mixity of functions in the city. On the contrary, it produces an other quality of Bangkok which is the conjunction of universes.

ROAD HIERARCHY

DECOMPOSE

16


17


The specific organization of Bangkok’s road network has a deep impact on the spatial organization of the urban fabric. The majority of Bangkok’s traffic is concentrated on its large impassable main axis. In contrast, the smaller streets are that winding that they are avoided by cars. Put together, this rough superposition of differents networks makes that there exists no gradual mediation from the path to the boulevard. As a result, very distinct universes can be experienced within a small perimeter. These abrupt conjunctions can be found all over Bangkok and emphasize the feeling of being in a non-centralized city. In relative proportions, the qualities of the metropolis and those of a small village are present everywhere. Besides, this phenomenon is an indispensable characteristic which brings quality into urban life of Bangkok.

Indeed because of these abrupt meeting points (conjuction of univers) but also because of the presence of all scales of functions in a point, social mixity is much more allowed than in gradually planned urban situations. These qualities make Bangkok being a real cosmopolitan city in therm of the mixture of all sort of people from all stations in life.

CONJUNCTION OF UNIVERSES

DECOMPOSE

18


19


After having seen the qualities of Bangkok according to its divers criterias of mixity, we will now try to understand its morphological caracteristics. With a precise regard Bangkok can be devided into three morphological layers. Each of them is composed by elements responding to the same typology and morphology. They are homogeneously distributed over the territory and have a strong visual and phisical impact on the city. The elements will be synthesized into the following 3 groups: NAPPE MEGASTRUCTURES BUILDINGS In the urban landscape each layer is related to a specific level of action. In addition their elements are characterized by specific dimensions and built units, by their programs and their relation to the ground. A synthetization of these layers which compose the city will enable to understand the major morphologic and programmatic issues of each group and clarify in which term they have a specific contribution to the city.

LAYERS

DECOMPOSE

20


21


SYNTHESIZE

22

ÂŤnappeÂť surface

146.3 km2 (81.5% of interest zone)

nbr. of inhabitants 1.94 mio (92% of interest zone)

The nappe is the elementary layer of Bangkok. All over the city the nappe represents a dense and continuous layer of buildings. It is relatively low built mass, where houses rarely pass the limit of 4 stories (app.15m). Having its level of action (+0) situated at the same level as the street network and having evolved simultaneously, they are closely related to each other. The small units which compose that layer can be synthesized into two very distinct typologies. They are organized with a clear systematic around the networks and occupy the majority (81.5%) of the surface of the interest zone. NAPPE elemental layer


23


SYNTHESIZE

24

«compartment» property

private

% of «nappe»

79%

(115.5 km2)

% of inhabitants «nappe»

86%

(1.67 mio)

As the urban population of Bangkok is principally working in the commercial sector, the first and most frequent typology which is called compartment, is a logical transcription of their needs into architecture. This typology integrates space of inhabitation and space for trading or production in the same volume. It is present all over the city and can be declared as a traditional typology. The compartment has strict dimensions and represents a building-unit. Put together, they create a continuous fabric in which this unit is constantly repeated. Depending on the needs there is the possibility to build one or a multiple of them.

NAPPE typology


25 2.8m

3.5m

3.5m

3.5m

4.0m

12.0m

3.8m

3.8m

8.50m

6.0m

5.3m

7.00m

11.5m

3.5m


SYNTHESIZE

26

«single house» property

private

% of «nappe» % of inhabitants «nappe»

21%

(30.8 km2)

14%

(0.27 mio)

The single house is the second typology of the nappe and is not characterized by strict rules as the compartment is. The aspect of the building varies a lot depending on the living standard of the owner. This typology of houses is always detached from its neighbouring buildings. However compared to the compartment-typology, the single house has the capacity to adapt itself to the constraints of its physical environment.

NAPPE typology


27 compartiment single house m

0

5

25

50


SYNTHESIZE

28

Each of these two typologies has its distinct position in the city. The way they are organized around the transport axis shows a clear systematic and hierarchy. The compartments create a built front along the street network of the nappe. The houses which are detached from the streetfront are principally from the type of the single house-typology. They occupy the space without following a clear rule. The acces to these houses is only guaranteed by a few narrow paths.

NAPPE connection to network


29


SYNTHESIZE

30

The built front to the street guarantees the notion of built continuity in Bangkok. As their ground floors are systematically used for public programs, they benefit from the flow of people passing by which represent their potential clients.

NAPPE connection to network


31

shops

living

living business

business

restaurant


SYNTHESIZE

32

The functions which are situated in the nappe can be grouped under the mentioned notion of local programs. They cover the daily needs of the inhabitants and are principally used by the close neighbourhood. Noodelshops, little stores or small businesses are representative programs of the nappe. They are principally family businesses. In accordance to the logic of the spatial organization of the two typologies, it gets obvious that all these public programs occupy the ground floor of the compartiments, the upper floors being kept for living. The single houses however are just used as dwellings. These programs situated in the nappe cover the biggest part of all daily needs of the inhabitants of Bangkok.

NAPPE functions


33


SYNTHESIZE

34

The layer of the megastructures represents a characteristic morphological element in the city of Bangkok. These transport infrastructures irrigate the whole city through an elevated network. Their hight which is at the same their level of action (+15 m) is generated in regard to the hight of the nappe. These huge structural elements which are present everywhere in the city have a strong impact on the pedestrian who is constantly visually and physically confronted to them. Most of the megastructures were built only a few years ago but already can be seen as an identity of the city. They are the result of a necessity to irrigate the city as fast as possible. In addition, a huge number of new irrigation lines are planned for the future years.

MEGASTRUCTURES irrigation at urban scale


35

skytrain

expressway


SYNTHESIZE

36

ÂŤskytrainÂť dimensions property

8m / app. 15m gouvernment

(w/h)

The skytrain is the mass transit system of Bangkok. It is plannified by the government. The basic structure is composed by heavy pillars and horizontal platforms for the tracks. The typology of the stations is variable. At interchange stations the platform is devided into two floors on which trains arrive. The platform is enlarged from the normal 8 meters to the weidth of the street on which the megastructure is superposed. Stairs reach the sidewalks on both sides of the street.

MEGASTRUCTURES typology


37 skytrain 2.5m

12.0m

25.0m

expressway 3.0m 25.0m 12.0m

3.5m 9.0m 30.0m

30.0m

12.5m 12.0m

12.0m


SYNTHESIZE

38

ÂŤexpresswayÂť dimensions property

26m / app. 15m gouvernment

(w/h)

The expressways are built at the same hight as the Skytrain tracks. The basic typology is similar to the one of the skytrain however the dimensions change. The platform which always gives space for 4 lanes in both directions has a weidth of 26m. The ramps for the acces to the expressways are always outfit with a toll.

MEGASTRUCTURES typology


39


SYNTHESIZE

40

The Skytrain structures are systematically superposed with a major axis of the street network of Bangkok. The pillars create a strip which separates the lanes of street underneath. The Expressways however, are either built over a existing street or put into the existing nappe which provoques the destruction of a huge number of buildings.

MEGASTRUCTURES connection to network


41 public transport

billboard

road traffic

shops


As megastructures are principally infrastructures, only a few programs are related to them. Nevertheless they can be destinguished into three types of programs: _The transport is the most obvious function. It belongs to the global programs because this network is directly connected entire transport network of Thailande. _The adjunct programs for the skytrain stations are a commun type of functions. The successive platforms which are inbetween the tracks and the ground are occupied by programs which offer more than just usual station programs. Functions which cover daily needs of a metropolitain polpulation are present in these places. _The huge billboards which border the expressways have the goal to reach the users of the highway with its informations and is related to the global network in the sense that they are built at the size and at the reference level of the megastructure.

MEGASTRUCTURES functions

SYNTHESIZE

42


43


SYNTHESIZE

44

«buildings» surface

33.2 km2 (18.5% of interest zone) nbr. of inhabitants 0.17 mio (8.0 % of interest zone)

The highrise buildings form the layer of ponctual density all over the city. The elements which constitute this layer are not a contiguous fabric but they establish visual relations between eachother and raise the third dimension of the urban landscape. They represent the vertical demonstration of the urban evolution. By their uniform dispersion, due to the original agricultural pattern of the gound, they reinforce the notion of Bangkok’s non-centralization.

BUILDINGS punctual density


45


SYNTHESIZE

46

The buildings which represent the punctual density layer are mainly vertical structures. In Bangkok, a rule defines the number of parking lots in proportion to the floor area of the building. This rule is transcribed into a functionnal and reccurent typology of towers with a parking basement. Because of the presence of water in the ground, this parking basement is always built over it, and implicates that the reference level of the towers is systhematicaly situated at +25 meters.

BUILDINGS typology


47

104.0m

94.0m

38.0m

34.0m

35.0m 40.0m 35.0m

32.0m

30.0m


SYNTHESIZE

48

«building» property

private/government

% of «interest zone»

18%

% of inhabitants «interest zone»

8%

(33.2 km2) (170’000)

This typology shows two variations: _the parking lots occupy all the basement. Only a functional access brings peoble to the main program which starts above the parking. The main hall is systematically situated at the reference level. _a shopping center occupies a part of the basement. At the back nevertheless a parking is always present.

BUILDINGS typology


49


SYNTHESIZE

50

Even if the position of the building is dependent of the accessibility by the network the developing plan does not restric their construction on the main axis of Bangkok. The result is, that different relations to the street can be observed. _the tower is intergrated into the built front along a main axis. _The tower is set back from the street front and detaches itself from its built context. _The tower is positionned away from the main roads. It is only accessible through a narrow soi network.

BUILDINGS connection to network


hotel-rooms

restaurant pool spa

conference lobby

appartments

entrance

shops

parking

parking

pool

business

51

entrance


SYNTHESIZE

52

The basement and the tower are two basic structures in which combine a big variety of functions. In accordence with their main program they contain parking lots, shopping center, hotel, spa, dwellings, restaurents and fitness centers in order to assure the opportunity to the user to profite of a large choice of activity on one point.

BUILDINGS functions


53


Having now understood the characteristics of the components, the issue is to observe the way they encounter and form the urban fabric. By recomposing the layers by couples their interaction will be observed. As it has been seen, in each layer fonctions and morphology have a strong relation. The morphology of the elements are driven by a functionalist thinking. For this reason, the analyse of each type of encounter will be observe in regad to these two themes - the morphology and the programs. Moreover these encounters being a spacial phenomenon, it is essential to understand these meetings in three dimensions.

ENCOUNTERS recompose the urban fabric

RECOMPOSE

54


55


56

The homogeneous repartition of buildings comes from the simple fact that a persons willing to build a tower will raise it on the parcels he already owns. Furthermore there exist no planning regulations which would block this phenomena. On the other hand the expressways serve to irrigate the territory in accordance to the needs of connecting areas. Therefore an en enormeous number of places in the city are confronted with the encounter of these layers. As each of these encounters manifests itself punctually and concerns its near surroundings, the lecture will be made by ÂŤzoomingÂť to concrete urban situations.

ENCOUNTERS morphological incounters

RECOMPOSE

Each of the morphological layers is related to a successive period in time. The building- and megastructure-layer are a recent phenomena and were superimposed on the nappe which stands for the original fabric of Bangkok. They represent the process of the accelerated evolution of the city and manifest the fact that Bangkok still develops itself on its existing urban fabric.


57


As each layer has a homogeneous repartition of its specific programs, the superposition of them generates Bangkok’s urban quality of “all over”. Through the distribution of the programs in accordance to their relative layer a stratification of global and local is however observable. By analysing simultaneously the morphological and programmatical encounters, we will try to understand the relation between them and see what kind of relations are established.

ENCOUNTERS programmatical encounters

RECOMPOSE

58


59


There can be distinguished three types of meetings between the building- and the nappe-layer: _The building is detached from its context. Occupying the centre of a parcel, the building takes a setback from the street as from the neighbouring buildings. It acts as a strange object in its surrounding. _The building tends to integrate with its built context. By using dimensional rules like the typological unit of the compartment, the building maintains the existing structural proportions on the streetlevel and is not percieved as a foreign object within the nappe. It establishes a link between the two opposite scales of the nappe and the building-layer.

NAPPE/BUILDINGS morphological encounter

RECOMPOSE

60


61

+25m

0m


_This third type of buildings was forced into the existing nappe, without paying any attention to its context. It occupies the totality of its parcel and creates a strong proximity with the small constructions of the nappe. The original fabric of the undergoes a brutal and strongly readable cut. The building does not adopt any of the properties of the nappe and breaks any relation with its architectural surroundings.

The non-communication of these two layers is also manifested by the extreme hight difference of their level of action. The nappe is communicating at the ground level wheather the level of action of the buildings is situated 25 meters above it.

NAPPE/BUILDINGS morphological encounter

RECOMPOSE

62


63

living living

parking living


Programmatically seen the two layers have a very distinc field of action. The buildings contain clearly the global programs and the nappe the local ones. The strong punctual physical proximity provoques however an intense interactions between these two programmatical scales. This conjunction represents the opportunity for the user to profit constantly from both levels. In every point of the city there are services which cover the daily needs in proximity. This quality hides however a problem. As the architectural expression of the programs is a result of the functionality, the morphological rupture between the layers get reinforced. As an example compartments are directly confronted to parking units.

NAPPE/BUILDINGS pragrammatical encounter

RECOMPOSE

64


65

+25m +15m


RECOMPOSE

66

_In this first typology of encounter the two elements do not share a common interest. These encounters between buildings and megastructure are characterized by a strong proximity, the elements however are not physically related. This proximity leads to the fact that the reference level of the building is systematically kept at the same or a higher level than the level of action (+15) of the expressway.

BUILDINGS/MEGASTRUCTURES morphological encounter


67

+25m +15m


_A second type of encounter is caracterized by a direct relation between the megastructure (skytrain-structure) and the building. This type of physical encounter is a sort of interest realtion. By a footbridge the megastructure is connected to the building and makes it accessible on its reference level which is in that case brought down to the one of the skytrain (level +15). It is one of the rare connections which is made on an other than the level 0. This specific meeting influences more the morphology of the megastructure than the one of the building. To connect them this way, the footbridges of the skytrain has sometimes to extend itself on several tens of meters in order to reach a building.

BUILDINGS/MEGASTRUCTURES morphological encounter

RECOMPOSE

68


parking

tr

af

fic

69

parking


RECOMPOSE

70

Programmatically seen, the layer of buildings and the one of the megastructures have a very specific encounter. At most skytrain stations, this relationship of interchange provoque a huge potential for the emergence of programs which can profit from these crossing between global and local.

BUILDINGS/MEGASTRUCUTRES programmatical encounter


71


The megastructure and the nappe have 2 major ways to encounter: _The megastructure are superimposed on a major axis of the ground road networks of Bangkok and avoids to touch directly the built fabric of the nappe. The megastructure doubles up the ground-transport system and creates together with the street underneath one entity. In this case the houses have already taken a set back from the existing road and are not really concerned by the megastructure. This is the case for all skytrain tracks but does not act as a systhematic for the expressway.

NAPPE/MEGASTRUCTURES morphological encounter

RECOMPOSE

72


73 +15m

0m


_In this second case the megastructure breaks the nappe. The government, building the expressway, expropriates the inhabitants of the concerned land where they plan the construction and clear it from any houses. The layer of megastructure is put into the nappe without taking care of the existing. This action is a radical rupture into the urban fabric. After finishing the construction this rupture situation remains as the ground under and next to it stays totally untreated. Indeed the result of this encounter is a waste ground under the expressway. The houses which are prior to the megastructure are now confronted to this resultant space and the presence of this disproportioned structure.

Programmatically seen, there is no communication between the two layers.

NAPPE/MEGASTRUCTURES morphological encounter

RECOMPOSE

74


75


76

However this analyse points out that in certain situations an adaptation between two layers can be observed. In this case a programmatical interest provokes their relation. * “A devloper is not required to obtain planning aproval instead there is a requirement to obtain building approval where the use of the building is considered in relationship to the approved plan for any given area of the city.” (town and country planning Act. 1975) (“Emerging Urbanity - Global urban Projects in the Asian Pacific Rim”, Richard Marshall, Spon Press, London, 2004)

THE PROBLEMATIC OF ENCOUNTERS

DETERMIN

Having recomposed the three layers, the issue of the problematic of encounter gets obvious. Ruptures of scales and morphological specificities, ruptures of programs and, to the extreme, rupture zones are concrete results of this urban development. Different factors provoke this phenomenon. There exists allmost no plannification strategy of the city or specific construction rules*. The political power for each layer is in the hand of different people (nappe-inhabitants/megastructure-government/buildings-private or government) who do not collaborate. It results that the layers are simply superimposed without paying any attention to their environnement. This phenomenon gets reinforced by the fact that the built elements are strongly generated by functionalism. Therefore no interest is given to the contextualisation.


77 0 0.25

     



 

          

 



    

 

1.25

km 2.5


The rupture zones under the expressways is the most problematic situation resulting of this phenomena of encounter. This situation that we call “in-between� concerns not only a single point in the city, but is a recurrent problematic. 42% of the spaces under the megastructures are affected. In addition, the construction of buildings and megastructures represent a recent and accelerated phenomenon in Bangkok. That makes this problematic topical to the city. People have yet not had the time to react to this phenomenon. No appropriate way of using these spaces was actually elaborated. These rupture zones in the nappe are left over and steril urban spaces and provoke instability in the territory. Moreover the urban fabric is fragmented by the sum of those imprints. They have a strong impact on the territory and mark the city very visibly by the void and their scale difference.

THE PROBLEMATIC OF ENCOUNTERS

DETERMIN

78


79


80

These vacant spaces however hide a strong potential.

the in-between spaces are put under a enormeous number of constraints. These sites, which are instable and indetermined places which are continuously submitted to frictions and tensions, contain therefore a constant triggering of change and need a strong and appropriate reaction. Either a compartment, a single house or a conventional building can be the adequate answer to such a space.

THE PROBLEMATIC OF ENCOUNTERS

DETERMIN

Through - their confrontation to different universes - their confrontation to different type of life - their clear physical limits - their strong visual presence within Bangkok


81


82

However each site has a similar morphological situation, their programmatical context can change. To establish an adapted programmation it is therefore important to start by understanding the specific caracteristics of each site and its context.

STRATEGY

As these sites are spread out over the whole city of Bangkok and ÂŤtouchÂť various different areas, a strategy at the urban scale hides even more potential than multiple punctual solutions.


83 0 0.25

stock gardener snack

taxi gardener stock taxi playground noodle shop stock billard

playground snack

noodle shop

foot

noodle shop

snack

stock market temple taxi stock stock

taxi stock

foot stock playground taxi shop stock noodle parking park market

foot noodle shop snack

snack noodle shop noodle shop snack

foot

1.25

km 2.5


These sites represent not only an important physical rupture in the urban fabric but also a programmatical one. One of their main problems is the lack of occupation and a resulting steril atmosphere. A programmatical vision is therefore the first step of the strategy in order to reactivate theses sites.

SITE CARACTERISTICS existing programs

STRATEGY

84


85


86

SITE CARACTERISTICS existing programs

STRATEGY

Also if mainly inoccupied, a light appropriation of some sites can be observed. Principally open air programs as noodle shops, parkings and football fields benefit allready today from the expressway as a shelter.


87 high accessibility medium accessibility

0 0.25

1.25

km 2.5

low accessibility


A second changing caracteristic which distinguishs one site from the other is their level of accessibility. It can range from a high accessibility which means that the site is easally accessible from all over the city (public transport) as much as from the near surrounding to low accessibility which means that it is only connected to its near context. With this factor some sites could be determined as having a potention at global scale (whole city) and others more at local scales (neighbourhood).

SITE CARACTERISTICS accessibility

DETERMIN

88


89 0 0.25

business business shopping

condominium business education

entertainment education

condominium

condominium

business

business shopping

business

business shopping

hotel business hotel hotel

entertainment

condominium business culture

condominium business

education business condominium business condominium

1.25

km 2.5


Another variable condition of the context is the presence of different major programs which influence the atmosphere of the different areas. Understanding this changing factor will help to determin which kind of major programs could occupy each site and could be able to benefit from its particular conditions. SITE CARACTERISTICS area programs

STRATEGY

90


91 0 0.25

1.25

km 2.5

chatuchak 197'320 m2

gM 

gM 

gM

gM

gM

gM

gM

rca 49'770 m2

gM   M gM gM M

siam square 114'610 m2 gM

suan lum 46'930 m2

gM

gM gM gM gM


92

Considering the fact that Bangkok is a quite dense city, the large size of the sites makes that those empty spaces have a strong impact on the urban fabric.

Their size is compareable to the size of the sites under the expressways.

SITE CARACTERISTICS size comparision

STRATEGY

As it was mentionned above the repartition of the programs in Bangkok can be caracterised with the word <all over>. However, partly because of the dense car traffic and the difficulty to move within the city, large-size infrastructures where people can spend their whole day are a more and more emerging phenomenon in Bangkok.


93 «chatuchak market»

«siam square»

shopping/market integrated programs informal programs

shopping major attached programs integrated programs informal programs houshold

fish & aquarium

handicraft

pets & accessories

home & decor clothes

furniture

antiques

plants & gardening

books & art


94 «program relations» weekend market integrated programs

cafes restaurants

shopping

+

performance

informal programs

siam square major attached programs

food vendors travelling vendors

cinemas bowling event space hotel

shopping

+

cafes

integrated programs

restaurants internet

informal programs

food vendors travelling vendors

PROGRAMS examples of infrastructures in bkk

suan lum market

STRATEGY

royal city avenue

As the examples show, this «infrastructures»-typology is used for different kinds of programs. However they have all similarities. The area is a clearly defined zone which is not accessible by cars. There is allways a main «theme» (as shopping or nightlife) to which various different secondary and informal programs are attached. This mixity of programs and mixity of size is a very important caracteristic. Ideally the area is actif during the day as it is during the night.


95 «royal city avenue»

nightlife major attached programs integrated programs informal programs

«suan lum market»

shopping major attached programs integrated programs informal programs

fresh food

pets houshold antique

thai products clothing

deco

houshold

clothing

furniture


96 ÂŤprogram relationsÂť royal city avenue

cinemas cybercafe

major attached programs

exhibition space shopping center event space

nightlife

+

integrated programs

cafes restaurants

informal programs

suan lum market

noodle shops travelling vendors

beergarden

major attached programs

exhibition center puppet theater education center event space game space

shopping

+

cafes

integrated programs

restaurants restaurants noodle shops travelling vendors

PROGRAMS examples of infrastructures in bkk

STRATEGY

informal programs


97 0 0.25

tai chi

stock

golf court gardener

majong club

gardenerr

playground snack noodle shop

echec

big wheel

snack taxi

park

stock playground taxi club noodle shop stock billard noodle shop

karaoke

tai chifootball snack badminton cybergame karaoke

stock

exhibition space market

noodle shop

temple taxi stock parking stock

car showroom

art space night clubfootball sportt

taxi cybergame park stock spa

park

tennis court basketball

snack noodle shop

spa

taxi stock

japanese restaurent

karaoke

thai boxing

aerobic

bbiergarten

stock playground

noodle shop parking

concert hall market

karaoke majong club

park stock

biergarten snack

noodle shop

snak noodle shop

musculation football

football snak noodle shop

1.25

km 2.5


98

Based on the different site caracteristics and the specificities of the analysed infrastructures, a programmation scenario was established.

Moreover the longitudinality of the spaces and their continuity can be seen as a huge potential for a sort of «leisure walk» (sheltered from the rain and sun).

PROGRAM STRATEGY «public infrastructure» _ scenario

STRATEGY

The notion of «public infrastructure» is particularly appropriate to the new status of Bangkok as one of the «major asian metropoles». The population growing quickly, the city needs to adapt its offer of public services.


99

night club

spa

art space

golf

big wheele

lounge

thai boxing stage

japanese restaurant

event space

park

small restaurant

food vendor

lounge

eating place

cybergame

snack

travelling vendor

tai chi

terrasse

fruit vendor

restaurant

coffee shop

biergarten

karaoke

internet


100

city

programs with a large scope of action

programs related to a major specific function of the area

local programs

secondary programs

PROGRAM STRATEGY «public infrastructure» _ scenario

STRATEGY

informal programs


101

-

aerobic

art space

football

cinema -

b

-

night club storage playground playground

s taxi

p noodle shop parking storage

karao


102

On the following pages the programmatical strategy will be explained on a section of 2km. The goal is to guarantee a public space with various social interactions. For that, programs with different scopes of action and different functions are mixte on the same sites. This connects these spaces as much tu the entire city as to the near local context.

rule no.2 Sites with a high level of accessibility, get occupied by a major program with a big scope of action.

RULES programmation rules

STRATEGY

rule no.1 All existing programs are kept on the sites and not modified.


103 hotel

billard massage

hotel

coffee shop

biergarten

bowling yoga restaurant

university

cybergame

thai boxing internet association club badminton skate park

condominium

sport

night

res

cyberg sp

business

snack

business business

association club business

park thai chi tennis

karaoke

fitness

te

hotel

business

hotel

majong

hotel

billard

business

spa

business

ma

karao

hotel

condominium

internet

b


104

rule no.4 Secondary programs as snack bars, coffee shops and restaurants get linked to these major programs.

RULES programmation rules

STRATEGY

rule no.3 As the goal is to attract a larg flux of people the major programs in the surroundings are seen as high <attractors> and determine the type of major programs that coult be linked with them.


en

105

billard

art space

cinema aerobic

biergarten

football massage bowling yoga thai boxing internet

night club

restaurant storage

association club skate park badminton playground

playground

cybergame sport

f shop coffee association club taxi

park thai chi tennis

noodle shop fitness parking

storage majong

karaoke spa

billard

internet


These different steps lead finally to the scenario of a ÂŤpublic infrastructureÂť. A large range of programs with different caracteristics and sizes are put together in one space and benefit one from the other. RULES programmation rules

STRATEGY

106


107

billard

cinema art space

aerobic

football biergarten massage snack bowling yoga thai boxing internet

night club restaurant storage playground

cybergame sport park thai chi tennis

storage majong

karaoke billard

art spa

night clu

association club skate park badminton playground

cybergam

spo coffee shop association club taxi

par noodle shop fitness parking internet

spa

karaoke spa


As Bangkok is a 24 hour-city it is necessary to assure a day and night activity whith an adapted programation. The mixity of day and night programs emit a variation of use intensity and modify hour per hour the expression and use of theses sites.

RULES programmation rules

STRATEGY

108


109


110

rule no.1 Elevate the built volume from the ground level to assure a fluid ground connexion between the surroundings and to maintain the strong longitudinal continuity of the sites.

RULES morphological rules

STRATEGY

In order to articulate physically these various programs in this specific urban condition and not to saturate the space, the second step is to establish a certain number morphological rules.


111


112

Where buildings are standing to near to the limit of the expressway the built volume is set back to assure a certain distance to the public infrastructure. RULES morphological rules

STRATEGY

rule no.2


113


114

rule no.3

The programs get organised around the paths and streets crossing the site on level 0 and act as a crossing bridge.

RULES morphological rules

STRATEGY

All the programs are devided into two types: surface- and volume-programs. Surface programs are kept on the ground level as they physically do not saturate the space. The volume-programs instead are elevated under the espressway.


115


116

In areas without a presence of volume-programs, the structure is interrupted. Surface programs and the continuity of the circulation are instead maintained and provide a 3 dimensional fluidity of the space.

RULES morphological rules

STRATEGY

rule no.4


117


PROJECT

118

2nd level 1st level ground level

PLANS


119


PROJECT

120

SECTIONS


123

313

12

307 375

12

12 50 50


50 26

450

12

450 12

1470

570

570 12

50 16 22

200

200

92

150 100

PROJECT

50

124

CONSTRUCTIVE SECTIONS


_ “ E2: Exploring the Urban Condition”. Jacques Cadilhac, Antoine Santiard, Christophe Poussielgue, Cédric Cornu. Benoît Santiard, Julien Attard. Ed.groupe e2, 2002. _ “ Made in Tokyo”. Momoyo Kaijima, Junzo Kuroda, Yoshiharu Tsukamoto. Kaijima Institute Publishing Co.,Ltd, 2001. _ “ The Asian City : Processes of Development, Characteristics and Planning”. Ashhok K.dutt, Frank J.Costa, Surinder Aggarwal and Allen G. Noble, ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. (p. 206, 159-177) _ “ Cité d’Asie “. Les Cahiers de la Recherche Architécturale 35-36. Pierre Clément, Sophie Clément-Charpentier, Charles Goldblum. ed. Parenthèses,1995. (p.107-120) _ “ Emerging Urbanity : Global Urban Projects in the Asia Pacific Rim “. Richard Marshall. Ed. Spon Press, 2003. (p.67-82) _ “ Bangkok : Forme du commerce et évolution urbaine“. Davisi Boontharm. Ed. Archithèses, éditions Recherches/Ipraus, 2005.

** this text about the Art Scene in Bangkok is an extract of an article published in the thai review «art4d - architecture/design&art».

BIBLIOGRAPHY


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Up Side Down_Bangkok  

Urban intervention under the elevated expressways of Bangkok.

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