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The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as   appropriate  technology  for   household  cooking  in  the  Logone   Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)   Francesco  Vitali   CeTAmb  (Research  Centre  on  Appropriate  Technologies     for  Environmental  Management  in  Developing  Countries)   Università  degli  Studi  di  Brescia  

Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011   Smart  Cooking   International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Impacts of    traditional  solid  fuel  (wood,  biomass)  use  

2 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Household energy  interventions:   range  of  objectives   ‡

Reduced levels  of  IAP  and  human  exposure  

‡

Increased fuel  efficiency  (combustion  and  heat  transfer)  

‡

Reduced time  spent  in  collection  fuel  and  cooking  

‡

Reduced stress  on  the  local  environment  (forest  cover,  erosion  and   soil  fertility)  

‡

Reduced global  warming  emissions  

‡

Increased opportunities  for  income  generation   Bruce  NG,  Rehfuess  EA  and  Smith  KR,  (2011)  Household  Energy  Solutions  in  Developing  Countries.   In:  Nriagu  JO  (ed.)  Encyclopedia  of  Environmental  Health,  v  3,  pp.  6275  Burlington:Elsevier,  2011.   Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

3


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Why an  improved  stove?  

4 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Why an  improved  stove?  

5 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Project and  study  area  

‡

Project location:  Bongor  and  Yagoua  (rural  area)  in  the  river   Logone  valley  

‡

Partner:  ACRA  NGO  (Milan)  

‡

Projet de  gestion  participative  des  ressources  forestieres  dans  la   vallee  du  Logone  ENV/2006/114-­‐747  funded  by  EU   Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

6


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The issue  

Deforestation of the rural areas at the border between Chad and Cameroon 7 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The household  energy  crisis  in  Chad   ‡

Since January  2009  the  government  banned  the  production  and   sale  of  charcoal  (primary  household  energy  source)  

‡

Alternatives available  in  Chad  are  wood  and  gas    

‡

Gas is  too  expensive  for  most  of  the  users  (both  for  investment   costs  and  usage  costs),  it  is  not  appreciated  (it  does  not  fit  the  local   cooking  practices)  and  it  is  not  enough  to  supply  all  the  needs   (available  only  in  urban  areas)  

‡

Wood comes  from  the  same  production  chain  of  charcoal,  but  its   price  is  continuously  growing  (reduced  offer,  increasing  demand)   8 Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The household  energy  crisis  in  Chad   Collection and transport

Sale at local markets Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

9


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The household  energy  crisis  in  Chad  

Combustion in low efficient and smoky stoves

10 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The household  energy  crisis  in  Chad   Survey  among  161  households  using  questionnaires:   ‡ 115  rural/  46  urban,  9  people  per  family   ‡ monthly  average  income:  63000  francs  CFA  

‡ 156 use  wood,  58  use  also  biomass  (crop  residues)   ‡ in  91%  cases  woman  is  responsible  for  fuel  supply   ‡ 111  use  a  3  stone  fire  or  a  rudimental  fireplace   ‡ monthly  fuel  expenditure:  9000  francs  CFA  (14%)   ‡ 96  cook  indoor  (154  during  the  rainy  season)  

Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

11


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The household  energy  crisis  in  Chad   Within  the  project,  the  activities  aim  at  the   reduction  of  wood  consumption  at  household   level  by  means  of  dissemination  of  appropriate   technologies  

In  particular  the  study  deals  with:   ‡ Increasing  the  efficiency  of  traditional  cooking   systems,  comparing  different  technology  options   ‡ Experimentation  of  new  technologies  for  the   recovery  of  wasted  materials  as  alternative   energy  sources  

12 Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The Centrafricain  stove   Stove supports Combustion chamber

Insulation belt

Fuel feeding opening

Air inlet

External drum 13 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

The Centrafricain  stove  

Profiles provided  to  the  trained  handicrafts   in  order  to  guarantee  an  easy  reproduction   and  a  standardized  sizing  of  the  stove   14 Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Activities -­‐  project   Improved stove dissemination Main  project  results:   ‡

2 stove   models   (ceramic   and   Centrafricain)   introduced   and   tested   by   CeTAmb;   writing   of   production  manuals  

‡

36 handicrafts  (directly)  trained  

‡

3724 improved  stoves  sold  

15 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improves  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Activities -­‐  project  

Awareness of the population and trainings for local handicrafts Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

16


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Activities -­‐  research   Comparison  (according  to  recognized  scientific  methods)  of   the   performances   of   several   stove   models   for   household   cooking     ‡  Water  Boiling  Test   ‡  Controlled  Cooking  Test   ‡  Kitchen  Performance  Test        

17 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco  Vitali  

The  Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­�Cameroon)  

Activities  -­�  research  

Water boiling tests comparing traditional and improved stove models Bongor1œ'MDPHQD &KDG Yagoua (Cameroun) 18 Varese  ʹ  6-­�30-­�2011  -­�  Smart  Cooking  -­�  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: Water  Boiling  Tests   units

Fuel used 1. High power (cold start) Time to boil Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific consumption Power 2. High power (hot start) Time to boil Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific consumption Power 3. Low power (simmering) Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific consumption Power

improved stove

Ceramic improved stove

Gas stove

Ganoum traditional fire

Wood

Wood

Butane gas

Doum nut

3-stone fire

Centrafricain

Wood min g/min % g/L watt

23 39 17 196 12066

24 32 16 159 9721

24 31 18 161 9438

19 5 61 22 4284

25 31 18 158 7314

min g/min % g/L watt

20 43 16 179 13247

18 40 17 153 12470

19 44 16 161 13641

20 4 75 13 3024

-

g/min % g/L watt

19 17 245 5696

13 26 166 3897

11 27 157 3499

3 58 32 2285

14 46 150 3171

Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

19


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: Water  Boiling  Tests  

‡ C. Collivignarelli, A. Mazzù, M. Vaccari, F. Vitali (2010) Comparison of biomass stoves as appropriate technologies for household energy in developing countries. In Proceedings Venice 2010, Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy; 8-11 November 2010. Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  

20


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: Controlled  Cooking  Tests  

21 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improves  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: Controlled  Cooking  Tests  

-15000 FCFA per year

22 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: Kitchen  Performance  Tests   Paired-­‐sample  test  in  8*  households.   On  the  field  main  finding:     Standard   Per  capita  consumption   Per  capita  consumption   adults*   (3stone  fire)   (foyer  Centrafricain)     (p)   (kg/  p  d)   (kg/  p  jd)    Average   6.5   1.04   0.47    *  According  to  FAO  guidelines,  male  adult  =  1  person  ,  female  adult  =  0.8  person,  child  =  0.5  person   Centrafricain  stove  vs  3stone  fire    

-­‐55%   wood  consumption   *   Sample   size   required   to   show   statistically   significant   reductions   in   per   capita   fuel   consumption  (95%  confidence)     23 Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: IAP  monitoring   24h  monitoring  of  CO  and  PM  in  4  selected  households   Average 1h CO Concentration 3stone fire (3p) vs Centrafricain stove (FC)

24 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Results: CO2  emission  savings   Woodfuel  savings  per  stove                                                    1.9  tonnes/year     CO2  emission  avoided  per  stove                                      1.8  tonnes/year      

AMS-II.G.: Energy efficiency measures in thermal applications of non-renewable biomass   25 Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improves  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Main findings   ‰ Huge lacks in energy access at household level have critical impacts on family income, indoor air quality due to poor combustion devices, indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources ‰ High participation of users once the effectiveness of the stove has been proved by the daily use (reduced wood consumption = money saving)

‰ Scarce dissemination in rural areas (where wood is collected) ‰ Self-sustainable market: trained handicrafts producing and selling stoves without incentives; self±organized trainings in other regions ‰ Reduced interest of EU organizations and donors in cook-stove programs (shifting towards renewable energies); renewed interest from international bodies (WHO, UNEP, WB, GACC) and carbon market 26 Varese ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Francesco Vitali  

The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate  technology     for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone  Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)  

Bibliography Bruce  NG,  Rehfuess  EA  and  Smith  KR.  (2011)  Household  Energy  Solutions  in  Developing  Countries.  In:  Nriagu  JO  (ed.)   Encyclopedia  of  Environmental  Health,  v  3,  pp.  6275  Burlington:  Elsevier,  2011.   Collivignarelli  C,  Mazzù  A,  Vaccari  M,  Vitali  F  (2010)  Comparison  of  biomass  stoves  as  appropriate  technologies  for   household  energy  in  developing  countries.  In  Proceedings  Venice  2010,  Third  International  Symposium  on  Energy   from  Biomass  and  Waste,  Venice,  Italy;  8-­‐11  November  2010.   International  Energy  Agency,  UNDP  and  UNIDO  (2010)  Energy  Poverty:  how  to  make  modern  energy  access  universal?   Available  online.   IPCC  (2011)  AMS-­‐II.G.  Energy  efficiency  measures  in  thermal  applications  of  non-­‐renewable  biomass  -­‐  Version  3.0.  In  CDM   Methodologies.  Available  online.   Madine  T,  Mazzù  A,  Vaccari  M,  Vitali  F  (2010)  Foyer  modele  Centrafricain.  Fiche  tecnique  de  realisation.  In  press.   PCIA  (2011)  Stove  Performance  Testing  Protocols.  Partnership  for  Clean  Indoor  Air.  Available  online   Practical  Action  (2010)  WŽŽƌWĞŽƉůĞ͛ƐŶĞƌŐLJKƵƚůŽŽŬϮϬϭϬ.  Rugby,  UK.  Available  online.  

Rehfuess EA,  Bruce  NG  and  Smith  KR.  (2011)  Solid  fuel  use:  Health  Effect.  In:  Nriagu  JO  (ed.)  Encyclopedia  of   Environmental  Health,  v  5,  pp.  150161  Burlington:  Elsevier,  2011.   Sanchez  T  (2010)  dŚĞŚŝĚĚĞŶĞŶĞƌŐLJĐƌŝƐŝƐ͘,ŽǁƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐĂƌĞĨĂŝůŝŶŐƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͛ƐƉŽŽƌ͘Practical  Action  Publishing.     World  Bank  (2011)  Household  Cookstoves,  Environment,  Health  and  Climate  Change.  A  new  look  at  an  old  problem.   Available  online.   27 Varese  ʹ  6-­‐30-­‐2011  -­‐  Smart  Cooking  -­‐  International  Workshop  on  Improved  stoves,  Gasifier  stoves  and  other  cooking  technologies  for  cooperation  projects  


Thank you for your attention. For further information: francesco.vitali@ing.unibs.it http://www.ing.unibs.it/~cetamb/

Improved stove Workshop Yagoua (Cameroon)


The Centrafricain  improved  stove  as  appropriate   technology  for  household  cooking  in  the  Logone   Valley  (Chad-­‐Cameroon)   Francesco  Vitali   CeTAmb  (Research  Centre  on  Appropriate  Technologies     for  Environmental  Management  in  Developing  Countries)   Università  degli  Studi  di  Brescia

In Ciad il progetto di Francesco Vitali del Cetamb  

La presentazione del progetto Cetamb esposta a Smart Cooking a Varese, 30 giugno 2011

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