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            

 


        heated to temperatures between 300 and 1000ºC, under low (preferably zero) oxygen concentrations.

stable carbon compound

graphitic structure

aromatic structure

Charcoal is produced for heating and barbeque Biochar for sequestering C in soils and improving soil quality 


      


  


  

(JRC, 2010)


  

                  

    


                         

         

           Fairhead J, Leach M 2009


          

              

              agroforest active midden kitchen garden and seedling village


     • ~ no research on ADE • Few exception: • in Cote d’Ivoire and Togo: savannas  forest and fertile soils: – – – – –

infiltration, more pores from worm, ants and termite activity, change in soil bacteria augmented phosphorous and calcium more productive ecosystem

(Mitja 1990, and Mitja and Puig, 1991, Mondjannagni, 1969, Guelly et al. 1993, O'Neill et al. 2006)


     Ghana • Charcoal production  soil physical properties in the forest–savanna transition zone • Increase in: – – – – –

water conductivity, porosity infiltration, soil pH exchangeable mineral (available Potassium up by 329%)

• Decrease in: – organic C and total N by 9.8% and 12.8% – clay fraction of the soil (Oguntunde et al. 2003, 2008)


           

Treatment Charcaol sites + fertilizer Charcaol sites without fertilizer soils without charcoal + fertilizer

Increase in maize grain yield as compared to soils without charcoal and without fertilizer 276% 91% 78%

(Oguntunde et al, 2003)

  (Oguntunde et al. 2008)


              


                   (Bailey, 1999)


                                            


                    

 


 

        




         


    

Present growingseason average temperature

impacts of 1°C warming on maize yield

impacts of 1°C warming on maize yield in case of drought

Lobell, 2011


                         


          

  


     Most vulnerable areas to climate change: tropical Africa, Asia and America (UNFCCC, 2007)


                    

          


    International Biochar Initiative + Cornell University for the World Bank: > 150 projects in 43 developing countries (June 2011)

        

         

                      


  

 

    

   

    


  

Thea Whitman, 2009

local

regional

global

Environmental issues

Indoor air pollution

Land degradation Outdoor air pollution

Climate change

Socio-economical issues

Fuel cost and production

Stove-Energy SME spin – off

Voluntary carbon credits or CDM


            

                  


                                

  

UK, Belize, the Maldives, Mozambique, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Nevada (USA) and Brazil.

Veneto e il Friuli Venezia Giulia


                                                    


 


    Esperimento di campo con grano duro (Triticum durum L.), Pistoia 2009

Sostanza secca totale 1200

  

Sostanza secca g/m² s.s (g /m 2)

1000

800

B3 600

B6 C

400

200

0

 

16/02/2009

08/03/2009

28/03/2009

17/04/2009

07/05/2009 data

27/05/2009

16/06/2009

06/07/2009


     • 80-90% di Carbonio organizzato in una struttura aromatica : stabilità : non viene trasformata in CO2 B

Tempo medio di residenza del Carbonio nel suolo : • Materia organica del suolo in media : 26 – 40 anni • Biochar : 2000 anni

Carbon remaining (%)

100

Bio-char

50

Un-charred organic matter 10 1

2

3

4

5

Years

Glaser et al., 2007

Lehmann e Rondon,2006


              N2 O Em is s ion 0.800 C B3

-1 -2

B6 0.600 0.500 0.400 0.300

2

  

2/g FlussiN ONfluxes mg/m 2Omg m day

0.700

0.200 0.100 0.000 118

132

154

161

190

GG

 


                        

      

Il biochar secondo Irene Criscuoli  

Relazione di Irene Criscuoli a Smart Cooking.

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