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Technical Requisites Pantelis Charalambides wsa 5

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Contents

Introduction...................................................................................................3-5 Social/Urban Strategy................................................................................6-8 Accessibility.................................................................................................9-10 Fire Safety Strategy.................................................................................11-12 Spatial Organization Startegy.............................................................13-15 Low Carbon Strategy.............................................................................16-23 Material Strategy......................................................................................24-26 Structural Strategy................................................................................27- 34 Environmental Strategy........................................................................35-44 Lighting Studies......................................................................................45-54 Tectonics/Architetcural Experience..................................................55-57

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Introduction

Introduction: Thesis Title: Infuences of Cypriot Vernacular architecture on contemporary Buiding Design. During my dissertation research, the observation that contemporary buildings in Cyprus neglect their context in a variety of aspects such as historical, social, environmental and technical emerged. As a result, this has yielded architecture which is often inappropriate for its context. The thesis behind my project is to use principles of Cypriot vernacular traditions in a building that will respond to its historical, social and environmental context uisng contemporary building technologies/techniques.

Site & Programme: The building will be located in the historic city centre of Limassol in a prominent site facing the coast. It will be part of the newly established Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) which has set a goal to turn the historic city centre into a network of buildings that students will be able to access comfortably as pedestrians. Having pedestrianized paths on the northern and eastern sides of my site makes it a suitable choice for the wider startegy of the university which will be part of. The building’s programme will be a college for indegenous construction and material research and it aims to educate people in new construction methods of using the locally available material which is limestone.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Introduction

Materials: The expensive extraction cost and the scarsity of the limestone in the recent decades has forced many local architects to stop using this material in their designs and as mentioned above this has yielded architecture which often doesn’t respond to its context. However, 20% of the daily limestone production are by-products which are never used and stay in the quarries as infill materials. Therefore, my thesis aim is to explore ways of using the various types of limestone by-products throughout the building. The smaller crushed rocks (aggregate) will be used in the concrete mixture of the structural elements of the building such as the foundations, columns and slabs/roofs , the medium sized rocks will be used in the partition walls of the building and the bigger rocks in the perimeter walls. The two latter will be used in the form of gabion walls. Historical and Social Response to Vernacular Traditions: Vernacular buildings featured internal courtyards which developed as a traditional desire for locals to connect with outside during the Ottoman empire when fear and oppression prevented them from using the streets. However courtyards became an integral part of Cypriot architecture even after the Ottoman rule as their use had proven to be beneficial in other apsects such as social interaction. They became the meeting places for socializing between the inhabbitants of a settlement and they were in constantly in shade something important given the hot climate of the island. Like in vernacular buildings, the project will feature a series courtyards which will reflect the rich context of the site. One of them will reflect the architectural heritage of the city centre another the sea and another the urban park opposite the site.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Introduction

Environmental Reponse to Vernacular Traditions: These courtyards will be constantly in shade (9:00-17:00) during the three summer months (1st June- 31st of August). The arrangement of the different canopies (one canopy corresponds to each time of the day) will be positioned at various heights which are analogus to sun angles of each time of the day during the summer period. The use of different heights of canopies also make the link between sun geometry and roof geometry very evident for the inhabbitants when they experience the building. Vernacular Dwelling Environmental Analysis

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

strategy of using internal courtyards. This allowed for the building to use the whole footprint of the site in plan providing a very efficient use of the prominent site leaving no wasted spaces.

Social/Urban Strategy

Social Issues: Efficiency of Land Use Plan: The fact that the historic city centre is densely-built was a determinant factor to the design

Site Strategy Experimentation: Maximisation of Land Use

Section: In section the building respects the existing density with the majority of the buildings being 2-4 storeys. The highest point of the building reaches 13.5 metres. 3.5 storeys

3.5 st. 2 st.

6-6.5 storeys 3.5-4 storeys

3.5 storeys

3.5 storeys

3.5 storeys

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The ‘entrance courtyard’ opens up into the eastern pedestrianized street. The courtyrad is intentionally pushed right onto the north-eastern edge of the site to connect with the pedestrianized street. The fact that the cafe opens up into the the ‘entrance courtyard’ also encourages public/non-students to use the cafe of the building enhancing the pedestrinized public life of the area. The existing bike racks on the northern side of the site allows easy and safe access to the bicycle users to access the building.

Social/Urban Strategy

Social Issues: Enhancing The Pedestrianized Realm

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Situated on one of the busiest roads in the city the building is very well connected with the public means of transport. This ensures that the building is connected and easily accessible for students outside the city.

Social/Urban Strategy

Social Issues: Links to public Transport

Central Bus Station Bus Routes of the City

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Flat, Pedestrianized access: The building is istuated in flat site avoiding the use of any stairs/steps to access it and it was part of my strategy to keep it accessible for disabled by keeping the access to the building flat. Moreover the site features a large parking lot right next to it that belongs to the government in which disabled parking spaces are allocated.

Accessibility

Access for all:

university buildings

secondary entrance

main entrance

parking

entrance Pedestrian courtyard route

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Accessibility

Access for all: WIthin the building there are a number of ways that the disabled access has been thought during the design process: 1) width of doors : minimum 1000mm 2) width of circulation spaces: minimum 1800 3) provision of lift: car size1200x1500mm 4) disbaled sanitary provisions on all floors

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The building features two fire- protected staircases which increases the travel distances to reach the escape routes to 45o each. Each of the staircases have clear width of 1100 mm. The staircase which wraps around a lift is enclosed in a fire protected route to avoid spread of fire between floors from the lift shaft. all the fire protected routes are signaled and lit with appropriate equipment.The firefighting staircase is accessible from the street for easy access to the fire brigade. Both limestone and concrete are highly fire resistant materialsvv. However, both of them include steel either as reinforcement or as gabion baskets. In both cases the steel will be painted with fire resistant coating.

Fire Safety Strategy

Fire Safety:

Means of escape:

Fire Protected Route

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Fire Safety Strategy

Fire Protected Route

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Ground Floor

First Floor

and the theoretical activities on the first floor:

Spatial Organisation Strategies

Organogram: The activities are separated into two types: The practical activities on ground floor

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

offices and the teaching spaces on the first floor look into the architectural heritage courtyard. The activities which are more related to relaxation and peace such as the cafe on the ground and the library on the first floor are looking into the water and greenery courtyards. The IT room on the first floor is the mediation between the two as it related both to the library and the teching spaces.

Spatial Organisation Strategies

Organisation in plan: The three courtyards where key to the spatial organisation in plan. The activities such as the workshop on ground floor and the tutor’s

Ground Floor:

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Spatial Organisation Strategies

First Floor:

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The main material used throughout the building is limestone by-products from the local quarries. Limestone used to be the main building material in Cyprus but in the recent years its scarsity and the expensive extraction cost has significantly restricted its use as merely a cladding material. The by-products from the production are unexploited at the moment as they are used as infill materials in the quarries. However, these by-products account for the 20% of the daily limestone production which nobody uses, making them effectively a free material.

Low Carbon Strategy

Low Carbon: Economy of Means

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

kg/m3 (value given by limestone producer) Calculation of Limestone by-product Requirements: 1) Slabs/Roofs and columns:

Low Carbon Strategy

Limestone Unit Weight: 2100

The roofs, slabs and the columns will be made out of concrete and will use limestone aggregate in the mixture ensuring cheaper cost of the concrete elements of the building. The concrete slabs/ roofs will be made using bubble deck technology which reduces signifigantly the amount of concrete reqiured for every slab/roof.

Total aggregate needed for roofs/ slabs: 1376m3 Aggregate by-products available: Infinite as it is used as infill material in the quarries

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The internal/partion walls will be made out of gabion walls and will use the medium sized rocks from the by-products (40mm-150mm). In cases where sound or thermal insulation is needed such as the walls looking into the courtyards and spaces that need sound insulation between them they will be double-layered with insulation in-between them

Low Carbon Strategy

2) Internal/Partition Walls:

Total stone (40-150mm) needed for partition walls: 427m3

Amount of medium sized rocks by-products from daily limestone production: in Ipsonas: 28-35T (4050% of daily production)

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The external walls will be made out of gabion walls and will use the large sized rocks from the by-products (150mm-150+mm). The depth of the gabion baskets will decrease according to the height and will vary from 1000mm (base) to 400mm (top) to reduce weight and waste of material

LOw Carbon Strategy

3) External Perimeter Walls:

Total stone (150mm-150+mm) needed for external walls: 676.3m3

Amount of medium sized rocks by-products from daily limestone production: in Ipsonas: 35-42T

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Low Carbon Strategy

Total Volume of stone needed: 8771m3 18419.1T (total)/70 (/day) = 264 days of by-products

Source:(http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/mines/minesSrv.nsf/ dmlquarries_en/dmlquarries_en?opendocument )

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Walls: The gabion walls contain low embodied energy as the gabion baskets can be produced and filled off-site and the travel distances to reach the site are kept minimal to reduce emobied energy. Moreover the robustness of limestone and the low maintanance cost make its life cycle span big without the need for any maintenance.

Low Carbon Strategy

Embodied Energy in Materials:

Roofs/Slabs, And columns: The bubble deck concrete slabs and the concrete columns will contain a fairly high embodied energy as for its production it will involve high energy consumed on site. Similar to above, the raw materials are locally sourced minimising travel distinces to the site and subsequently the embdied energy. Moreover, bubble deck has less embodied energy than conventional concrete slabs as many of the components arrive on-site prefabricated (such as its prefebricated concrete underside deck). In addition bubble deck uses much less concrete than conventional concrete slabs which means much less concrete mixing on site and subsequently less energy used.

Selected data from the Inventory of Carbon and Energy (‘ICE’) prepared by the University of Bath (UK), and available at http://perigordvacance.typepad.com/files/inventoryofcarbonandenergy.pdf

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The map below shows all the limestone quarries on the island with a travel distance radiation. The small size of the island allows for small travel distances from whichever quarry the limestone will be sourced. The longest travel distance from the site is from the kornos quarry which is around 50 minutes.

Low Carbon Strategy

Distances traveled:

Ipsonas quarry accounts only for the 5% (354 T) of the daily limestone production however, its production is sufficient to provide enough by-products for the building to be built within 264 days which is a realistic completion time.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

As mentioned above the main material used throughout the building is limestone by-products from the local quarries in various forms and sizes (aggregate, medium-sized rocks and large-sized rocks), and each form is used in defferent building components. Even though these materials have never been used before they are waste products and in these sense they are recycled in my building. Moreover, in case that this material are neeeded elswhere for whatever reason they can be reused by simply removing them from the gabion baskets making them a highly recylcable solution.

Quarry

Low Carbon Strategy

Recycled/Recyclable Materials:

Site/Building

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The roofs, slabs and the columns will be made out of concrete and will use limestone aggregate in the mixture ensuring cheaper cost of the concrete elements of the building. The concrete slabs/ roofs will be made using bubble deck technology which reduces signifigantly the amount of concrete reqiured for every slab/roof.

Material Strategy

1) Columns, Slabs and Roofs:

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The internal/partion walls will be made out of gabion walls and will use the medium sized rocks from the by-products (40mm-150mm). In cases where sound or thermal insulation is needed such as the walls looking into the courtyards and spaces that need sound insulation between them they will be double-layered with insulation in-between them Internal/Partition Walls on Ground Floor:

Material Strategy

2) Internal Partition Walls:

Internal/Partition Walls on First Floor:

Double Layered Gabion Single Layered Gabion

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Exterior Walls on Ground Floor:

Material Strategy

3) External Perimeter Walls: The external walls will be made out of gabion walls and will use the large sized rocks from the by-products (150mm-150+mm). The depth of the gabion baskets will decrease according to the height and will vary from 1000mm (base) to 400mm (top) to reduce weight and waste of material

Exterior Walls on First Floor:

perimetrical concrete beams

600x1032x1032mm 800x1032x1032mm 1000x1032x1032mm

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Reinforced concrete skeletal frame casted in-situ with infiill gabion walls Reasons for choosing concrete frame: 1) Can be locally sourced 3) High thermal mass properties 4) Big lifespan 5) Albedo effect: The high reflective qualities of concrete means more light is reflected and less heat is absorbed, resulting in cooler temperatures 6) Energy efficiency in production (1.4 GJ/t compared to 30 GJ/t for steel and 2GJ/t for wood) 7) Low maintenance 8) High Fire-resistances

Structural Strategy

Structural Strategy:

The structural strategy of the building will be separated into five different different elements: 1) Perimetrical buttressed reinforced concrete columns 2) Perimetrical reinforced concrete beams on the buttressed columns 3)Internal reinforced concrete columns 4) External L-profiled steel columns infilled with gabion baskets 5) Concrete bubbledeck slab/ roofs 854 x 350mm Profilile dimensions on the top

20mm Steel Reinforcement bars

3o Inclination

1450 x 350mm Profilile dimensions on base

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

These beams will be part of the perimetrical structure that will hold up the gabion infill panels. They will be at 3100mm intervals. The depth of these beams will be smaller on the upper parts of the colums as the gabion walls will be smaller and the weight that needs to be supported is much smaller.

Structural Strategy

2) Perimetrical Cocrete Beams:

225 x 600mm reinforced concrete beam 450 x 800mm reinforced concrete beam 500 x 1000mm reinforced concrete beam

3 x Gabion Baskets

600 x 1200mm reinforced concrete beam

800 mm depth concrete platform

pile foundation 28


Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

These columns will consist the internal columns of the building. They will be placed on a 5x5 metre grid. The grid size was chosen according to the spatial organisation of the space. Having a small grid distance allowed for the columns to be relatively small in section. Similar to the buttressed columns the concrete mixture will consist of limestone aggregate and will be left unrendered to expose the agregate.

Structural Strategy

3) Internal reinforced concrete columns:

Visible limestone agrregate

Grid spacing: 5x5 metres

350x300mm

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

These columns will be used in the courtyards where there is no partioning wall determining the size of the column. They are used in all the courtyards as a more expressive means to use the limestone compared to the concrete ones. The steel vertical profiles will have horizontal bracings at 1032mm intervals to hide the connections betwen the gabion baskets making it the gabion infill look like like a single uninterrupted basket.

Structural Strategy

4) External L-profile columns with gabion baskets infill:

150x150mm L-shaped steel profiles

Gabion infills

600x600mm overall size

Horizontal bracing @ 1032 mm intervals

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The concrete slabs/roofs will use the bubbledeck technology. This essentially creates a formwork for the concrete to be poured in and create a grid of two-directional I-section concrete beams. In addition, the bubbles within the slab decrease the amount of concrete needed resulting in svaings of concrete, and weight at the same time without compromises in the strucutral integrity of the slabs/roofs.

Structural Strategy

5) Roof/Slabs:

Benefits of Using Bubbleck over conventional concrete slabs:

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Structural Strategy

Bubbledeck Slab End Detail

Bubble sizes and arrangement

Coonection to concrete column

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Structural Strategy

Bubbledeck

Bubbledeck on site process

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Structural Strategy 34


Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

One of the main initial aims was to design the building in such way so as to make it work passively throughout the year. The island’s warm climate as well as the microclimate of my site were both benificial factors in acheiving this without the need of any mechanical aids. This was achieved through a series of design decisions that were taken throughout the project all of which are expressed and are evident when inhabbiting the building. The aim was to make the building work passively on its own without the user’s need to do anything for the building to work other than to enjoy the rich experiences it offers through the above.

Environmental Strategies

Environmental Strategy:

1)Use thermal mass to provide stable/comfortable internal temperatures: 1_a: External/Perimeter Wall stratetgy: The externall walls are thick to increase the capacity of heat to absorb the strong southfacing sun

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Night time: 14-25oC The thermally massive gabion walls are coolled down from the lower night time temperature by leaving the windows looking into the courtyards open. In daytime where the outside temperature is high the gabion walls reamain cold due to the insulation.

Environmental Strategies

1_b: Walls Looking Into the courtyards: Thinner double layered insulated walls

Day time: 33-40oC+ The heat comming from outside and the internal gains (people, computers, etc) is absorbed by the thermally massive insulated gabion walls which were cooled down at night when the temperature falls.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 uvalue01.xls

U-value calculation: Roof:    

U­value calculator      

Conditions

   

Details of structure

1

Roof

 

Severe

 

 

Temp C

RH %

Internal:

25

50

External:

35

90

 

Layer

 

 

Element and exposure Element: Exposure:  

Internal surface

Thickness Conductivity (mm)  (W/mK)

Resistance  (m2K/W)

Condensation risk?    

5

0.10

50.000

0.00

Steel

Polyurethane

100

0.025

4.00

Concrete, Innner

450

1.280

0.35

0

­

0.00

0

­

0.00

0

­

0.00

0

­

0.00

­

0.00

0.02

 

External surface 

 

U­VALUE

Environmental Strategies

5/25/13

4.47

Total resistance

0.22

W/m2K

*

m2K/W

   

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Technical uvalue01.xls

5/25/13

Wall:    

U­value calculator      

Wall

   

Conditions

   

Details of structure

1

Element and exposure Element: Exposure:  

Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Severe

 

 

Temp C

RH %

Internal:

25

50

External:

35

90

 

Layer

Thickness Conductivity (mm)  (W/mK)

Resistance  (m2K/W)

Condensation risk?    

0.12

50.000

0.00

Steel

50

Stone

700

1.300

0.54

Steel

50

50.000

0.00

Glass

10

­

0.00

Glass

10

­

0.00

*

Polyurethane

100

0.025

4.00

*

0

­

0.00

­

0.00

0.03

Internal surface

   

External surface 

 

4.69

Total resistance

U­VALUE

www.vesma.com/tutorial/uvalue01/uvalue01.htm

0.21

W/m2K

m2K/W

   

1/1

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Floor:

5/25/13

   

uvalue01.xls

U­value calculator      

Floor

 (not in contact with the ground)

Normal

 

   

Conditions

   

Details of structure

1

Element and exposure Element: Exposure:  

   

Temp C

RH %

Internal:

25

50

External:

35

90

 

Layer

Thickness Conductivity (mm)  (W/mK)

Resistance  (m2K/W)

Condensation risk?    

70

0.14

1.280

0.05

Polyurethane

100

0.025

4.00

Concrete, Outer

800

1.400

0.57

0

­

0.00

0

­

0.00

0

­

0.00

0

­

0.00

­

0.00

0.04

Internal surface

Concrete, Innner

 

 

External surface 

 

U­VALUE

4.81

Total resistance

0.21

W/m2K

m2K/W

   

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

2_a) Stack effect: The courtyards allowed for the stack effect to happen within the building

Environmental Strategies

2) Provide sufficient air flow/ventilation throughout the building using stack effect and cross ventilation: The building is designed in such way to avoid the need of mechanical ventilation. The fact that the site is located near the coast where cool breezes are coming from contributed to this.

2_b) Cross Ventilation: The openings in the courtyards allow for flexibility in the air flow throughout the building.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Water Courtyard:

Environmental Strategies

3) Provide cooling environment in the courtyards by introducing water:

Relative HImidity Extremes: 40-80%

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Greenery Courtyard:

Environmental Strategies

4) Provide trees in one of the courtyards to enhance air movement and provide shade:

Channellling breezes into the courtyard theought the aid of the tree canopy

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Continuity of insulation:

50 mm Rigid Insulation

Environmental Strategies

5) Provide a solid thermal envelope to keep the strong sun’s heat outside.

Double Glazing

Double Glazing 100mm Rigid Insulation

100mm Rigid Insulation

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Shadow analysis of a courtyard during the whole summer. (sceenshots taken for 21st June-the hottest day of the year)

Environmental Strategies

6) Provide courtyards which are constantly in shade during the summer season (1st June- 31st of August)

Each Canopy Corresponds to each time of the day to ensure all the courtyards are constantly in shade during the 3 summer months where the temperatures get extremely high

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

One of the main design drivers from early in the project was the protection of the building and especially the internal courtyards throughout the summer from the strong sun during the peak hours which were also the times when the building will be mostly in use (09:00-17:00). The main aim was to make the form of the building expressive of this central idea to the project. To do this a series of form experimentations where made using ECOTECT in order to find ways to achieve this:

Lighting Studies

Lighting Studies:

1) Form Experimentations:

The main aim was to make the form of the building expressive of this central idea to the project. To do this a series of form experimentations where made using ECOTECT in order to find ways to achieve this: 1_a) 3 storey-high walls surrounding the courtyard: As mentioned above the majority of the buildings in the context are around three storeys. Therefore, the initial idea was to erect 9 metre walls around the courtyard and test whether they were enough to shade the courtyard throughout the summer (1st of June- 31st of August):

Results: Due to the steep summer sun angles the courtyard was almost never in shade.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Lighting Studies

1_b) 40 meter walls in the southwestern side and 18 meter walls in the northeastern side: The tallest building around the site is the one right next to my site (eastern side which is round 40 metres high. Therefore this variaton was doen to check whether I can shade the courtyard while respectng the heights of the buildings in the context.

Results: The courtyard was in shade early in the morning and in the afternoon however during peak times (9:15-12:45) the courtyard was exposed to the sun.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Lighting Studies

1_c) 145 meter walls in the southwestern side and 35 meter walls in the northeastern side: The surrounding walls where then extruded upwards until the courtyard was fully in shade for the whole summer and during the set times: (09:00-17:00)

Results: The courtyard was in shade during the whole day however, the height of the building is out of scale in relation to its context.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Lighting Studies

1_d) Curved wall simulating the sun’s movement: The key idea was to make the form of the building evident of the intention to protect its internal courtyars from the sun. Therefore this variation attempts to make a curved wall that simulated the sun’s movement in order to protect from teh sun.

Results:

The courtyard was not in shade except very close to the wall.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Lighting Studies

1_e) Extruded curved wall simulating the sun’s movement: The curved wall was then extruded to see the performance of the wall as a mean for shading the site effectively.

Results: The area behind the wall was not in shade except close to the wall.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Lighting Studies

1_f ) Optimum shading device generated by Ecotect: This option was tested to see what form would ecotect generate in order to shade the courtyard duing the assigned period.

Results: The generated shape was too high and peculiarly shaped.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Lighting Studies

1_g) Canopies with open-top courtyard: This variation was generated according to the sun’s movement. Each canopy correspond’s to the position of the sun at a given time. There are 9 canopies (09:00-17:00) and it includes three versions: i) Open-top courtyard ii) 1500mm wall surrounding the opening iii) 6000mm wall surrounding the opening i) Open-top courtyard

ii) 1500mm wall surrounding the opening

iii) 6000mm wall surrounding the opening

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5 Lighting Studies

i) Open-top courtyard

ii) 1500mm wall surrounding the opening

iii) 6000mm wall surrounding the opening

Results: None of the above was sufficiently shading the courtyard. Especially during peak times 52


Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The physical model lighting studies where conducted in the skydome, where the last variation was taken (the series of canopies) and removed the openings from the canopies to see how this variation performed. 09:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

Lighting Studies

Physical Model Lighting Studies:

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

16:00

Lighting Studies

15:00

17:00

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

The form of the building is expressive of its environmental qualities and due to that the tectonics of the building has been influenced by that. Subsequently, the qualities of the space and the architectural experience has also been expressive of that. 1) Canopy reflections: The different height between the canopies has given the chance to allow reflected light into the spaces: i) The roof celebrates the strong summer’s sun’s movement by reflecting a color for each time of the day making the roof effectively a clock ii) The fins on the canopies are spaced and angled such so as to block off the sun angles of the other times iii) The sun angles taken are from the 21st of June and the 31st of August which are the steepest and the shallower respectively for each time of the day iv) The colour and their sequence are selected so as to simulate thre transitions of the sun’s movement v) The area of the canopies which is painted is calculated according the sun angle for each hour from 9:00-17:00 which is when the sun is still high and bright. Moreover these are times whch the building will be occupiedd

Architectural Experience/Tectonics

Architectural Experience/Tectonics:

Diagram with sun angle reflections

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Architectural Experience/Tectonics 56


Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

south facing external wall

Light patterns from the Gaps between the rocks of

Coloured reflections between the concrete roofs

Architectural Experience/Tectonics

2) External Gabions: As mentioned above the perimetre gabion walls use the larger rocks from the limestone quarry by-products. The bigger rocks allowed for bigger gaps between teh rocks within the baskets leeting through in. Therefore the external gabions are acting as light filters for the intense sunlight. Moreover, this works perfectly with the introverted character of a courtyard building allowing for minimisation of openings onto the south as the focal points are the courtyards which all the spaces within the building look into.

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Technical Requisites _ Pantelis Charalambides WSA 5

Bibliography: http://www.BubbleDeck-UK.com http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=VO1ZnYhx6jAC&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=structural+strategy+architecture&source=bl&ots=1DEW58N8su&sig=pAwi4eGD-fN9KhkI4iUIvItipmg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=31GdUb3AMs7c4QSLyoFg&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=structural%20strategy%20architecture&f=false http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/mines/minesSrv.nsf/dmlquarries_en/dmlquarries_ en?OpenDocument http://www.vesma.com/tutorial/uvalue01/uvalue01.htm http://www.wbcsdcement.org/index.php/about-cement/benefits-of-concrete#10

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