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KOUKAROUDIS PANAGIOTIS PORTFOLIO | M.Sc. DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CHALMERS ARCHITECTURE


ARK172 _LOCAL CONTEXT PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MARIESTAD, SWEDEN

EXAMINERS & SUPERVISORS: LENA FALKHEDEN (CO-ORDINATOR) BJÖRN MALBERT ASSISTANT TEACHER: LISA ÅHLSTRÖM COURSE ASSISTANT: AMANDA WERGE


ANALYSIS 1 GEOGRAPHICAL INVENTORY OF MARIESTAD: AREA 4 |GREEN SPACE AND RELATION | The theme for the design studio is planning and design for sustainable development in the small Swedish town of Mariestad, located about 170 km north east of Göteborg. The layout of residential buildings and houses in this area reflects the wish of creating ‘islands’ surrounded by nature in different scales, varied from neighborhood to single house.

NATURE INSIDE

NATURE AROUND BACKYARD WAY OUT

AROUND GREEN PUBLIC BACKYARD

WAY OUT

INSIDE GREEN PRIVATE

NATURE AROUND NATURE INSIDE

WAY OUT

NATURE INSIDE NATURE AROUND BACKYARD Sweden

NATURE AROUND

BACKYARD WAY OUT

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ANALYSIS 2 PERSPECTIVE IN A BROADER CONTEXT | EUROPEAN CONTEXT | In this assignment, the intention was to study and reflect upon Mariestad, and the future development in the small town, in a sub-regional (the sub-region Skaraborg and the Vänern region), regional (Region Västra Götaland), national, European and global context. In addition, this analysis was about identifying and reflecting upon some of the development trends in the surrounding world, in different areas of society and at different levels, and the driving forces behind these trends – trends and driving forces which might have impact on the future situation and development of Mariestad. The main sources were documents and surveys by Eurostat and Eu-policy. The applied tool-method was the E.P.I.S.T.E.L.M. one.

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION

TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

MOBILITY INTENSIFICATION OF TIME-USE

EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONALISING

OVERCONSUMPTION LOW BIRTHRATE GROWING TOURISM

TECHNOLOGICAL ADDICTION

AUTOMATION

URBAN SPRAWL

AGEING POPULATION

CENTRALISATION

COMMUTING

URBANISATION POLLUTION

ECONOMIC CRISIS MIGRATION INCREASING ENERGY DEMAND

LEGISLATION LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY

CURRENCY

EDUCATION

EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONALISING

FLEXIBILITY

CLIMATE CHANGE

EXTREME WEATHER

TRENDTRACKS

MOBILITY

OUTSOURCING

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

INDIVIDUALISATION

INCREASING DEBT

OVERCONSUMPTION COMMERCIALISATION

CLIMATE CHANGE

UNEMPLOYMENT

RENEWABLE ENERGY

SEGREGATION

OVERCONSUMPTION

ECONOMIC CRISIS

URBANISATION

MOBILITY

TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

CLIMATE CHANGE

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION

EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONALISING

RENEWABLE ENERGY

ACCELERATION

RENEWABLE ENERGY

ECONOMIC CRISIS URBANISATION

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 4


ANALYSIS 3 S.W.O.T. ANALYSIS | STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS|

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

Small Scale makes physical distances shorter. Cultural Heritage in the sense of the built environment

Car Dependent implying a hierarchy for car oriented

Location

Dependent on Third Parties for energy, food and

Natural Resources like the water, the fertile lands, the

Economic Vulnerability regarding decision making

University Connections with University of

Lack of Public Life especially in the winter, evenings

Sense of Community in the various associations, a

Undeveloped Public Spaces such as the harbor,

and its traditions.

strategically between Stockholm and Göteborg, by the river outlet into Vänern. forests etc.

Gothenburg, the municipality and the community.

safe and familiar city.

infrastructure and oversized parking over bikers and pedestrians. waste disposal.

and employment.

and weekends.

coast line, various parks.

Undefined Identity Physical and Mental Barriers such as Tidan, the

industries, the main roads, the segregation between locals and others and housing styles within the areas.

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

Eco Tourism

Climate Change - rising water level, extreme weather

for the Biosphere area of Vänerkulle and

the old town.

events and stress on ecosystems.

Regional Cooperation in Skaraborg, in Västra

Ageing Population - fewer tax payers and higher

Self Sufficiency - production of organic food and

Regional Competition - leaving Mariestad left out. Centralisation - causing a third party dependency (on

Götaland and around Vänern.

renewable energy.

IT-Connectivity - ability to live in a different place than the one you work in.

Immigration - balances the negative demographic

costs for the welfare system.

energy, employment, legislation) on an even higher level.

Globalisation of Economy - jobs moving abroad.

trends like the ageing population, emigration of young people and the low level of higher education.

INDIVIDUAL TASK phase 1 GROUP TASK phase 2 COMMON TASK phase 3

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STRATEGIES PLANNING AND DESIGN STRATEGIES SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Eco-friendly commuting within Mariestad as a tourist Sustainable Traveling for tourism Transforming touristical buildings into green buildings in terms of performance Slow Travel Ecotourism in conjunction with Ekudden preserved area and shore lake

BIOPHILIC SHORELINE

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

An alternate proposal for a “biophilic” harbor/ Harbour Farming The central shoreline as a place of leisure Label the beaches with Blue Flags Certification Small boat line in Tidan - Connects Mariestad with the Cities of Vänern

ENRICH PUBLIC LIFE Music festivals - Ekudden + camping in the fields that exists there Creation of a cafe-restaurant on the harbor Micro-brewery is built within the industrial area Flexible outdoor harbour faming market Recurring competitions of graffiti and skate/inline tournaments

STRENGTHEN CULTURE & TRADITION Changing the use of cultural heritages to combine them with public life Handicraft / Traditional techniques should not be limited to the campus Festivals and markets are effective methods to strengthen the spiritual atmosphereof tradition.

Climate change: Food and Energy Tourism, Identity and Branding Transport and Planning People and Planning Built environment

NATIONALLY KNOWN Website to introduce the touristic character of Mariestad

JOB OPPORTUNITIES Develop harbor into mix-used area for tourism, where houses and places will be given to young people at a cheap price allowing them to use their knowledge and creativity.

Business and Education

GROUP PROJECT 6


IN - DEPTH PROJECT 3/3 HARBOR The area of development is located on the northern of the city center. Almost the entire area is surrounded by water, except for the southern part which borders People’s Karlshome park. The area has enormous potential for creating a close relationship between the town and the water, emphasizing Mariestad’s identity as a port. The location is outstanding, with views over theTorsö islands, Östersundet and Viknässundet. The name of the project “3/3 Harbor” expresses its major aim to unite 3 main functions in one complete entity of mix uses, public activities, trade, tourism and sustainable living. There are 3 zones, each of them is approximately 1/3 of the whole developed area named according its main characteristics.

Supporting inward movement from the outskirts to the city center and the harbor.

3/3

HARBOR

of Mariestad

Legend Surfaces Green Asphalt Gravel pavement Wooden deck Stone pavement Water Rip raps Bridges- ground floor top Bridges- first floor top Buildings ExisƟng buildings Green house Ground floor containers First floor containers Second floor containers 1. Warehouse 2. Climbing wall 3. Green house and living machine 4. Restaurant 5. Pool bar and lockers 6. Tidal pool/ Ice skaƟng circuit 7. Saunas 8. Sharing car parking 9. Boat parking/ Camping lots 10. Public Boat stop 11.Public Bus stop 12. Children playgrounds 13. Wind mils 14. Sailing club 15. Container building Scale 0 10m

0

GROUP PROJECT Angelina Georgieva Panagiotis Koukaroudis

1km

35m

N

7


IN - DEPTH PROJECT 1/3 HARBOR The first zone is called “Harbor “, because its main function is to support the boat transportation, storage and maintenance. In this zone the existing warehouse, navigation workshop and sailing club are preserved to keep the identity of the Harbor. In the winter the harbor will be used as boat lay- up and in the summer it will function as a camping site with a lot of water sport activities.

1/3

BIRD VIEW OF THE HARBOR

CLIMBING AND GRAFFITI WALL

BOAT LAY-UP IN WINTER

CAMPING SITE IN SUMMER

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IN - DEPTH PROJECT 1/3 PUBLIC SPACE The second zone “Public space” consists mainly of open space available to Mariestad residents and tourists with a lot of possibilities for recreation,cycling and walking. From the entrance to the middle it is designed as a green space with wooden deck alleys which takes the visitor to the water, so that they can enjoy the view from a distance as well as in immediate closeness to the water.

1/3

THE TIDAL POOL IN WINTER

THE SAUNA HOUSES AND THE BRIDGE- PLATFORM

THE TIDAL POOL IN SUMMER

VIEW TO THE GREENHOUSE AND TO THE WIND TURBINES

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IN - DEPTH PROJECT 1/3 NEIGHBORHOOD The third zone “Neighborhood” is dense mix-used built up area with a unique appearance, because the buildings are constructed of shipping containers. It is predicted to house approximately 280people and has the characteristics of a sustainable neighborhood as it provides a variety of public services for its resident. Nevertheless, it is attractive and welcoming place for visitors all year round.

1/3

INSIDE THE NEIGHBORHOOD

DOUBLE CONTAINER MODULE

Interior dimensions of a container L:12.056m W:2.347m H:2.70m Floor: 28.29sq.m

=

+

= 28.29 sq.m + 28.29sq.m =56.59 sq.m x 118 = 236 containers for houses

or

x 118 = 280 (approx.) people’s capacity

10


PUBLIC PRESENTATION

INDIVIDUAL TASK _ Repsonsible for Graphics | Flyer | CD covers | Poster 11


ARK465_SUSTAINABLE BUILDING SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014_FRANCE_PARIS_VERSAILLES

EXAMINERS & SUPERVISORS: JONAS LUNDBERG, MAGNUS PERSSON, CHARLOTTE ERDEGARD, ANGELA SASIC ASSISTANT TEACHER: FRANS MAGNUSSON, STIG ANTON NIELSEN, ANNA MARIA ORRU COURSE ASSISTANT: ANNA SOFIA WANNERSKOG


PROJECT A.01

INDIVIDUAL TASK

UNCONVENTIONAL NEW PRODUCTION PROCESS

UNEXPECTED

The project A.01 consists of two parts. The first is to select materials and productions processes which could be inspiring and adopted to the following design projects. From the unexpected building materials DuraPulp and FoamPulp were chosen and applied to the project A.02 entitled BoldFold. A pleated portable shelter was designed as a lightweight structure which could be an addition on rooftops, standing alone or as alternative facade material. From the unconventional building materials E.T.F.E. was chosen and applied to the project B.01 entitled O2. An innovative building envelope was designed to cover our row house proposal for the Solar Decathlon Competition 2014 France- Versailles.

TRADITIONAL

MATERIAL DATABASE AND PRODUCTION PROCESSES

STONE

COB

FABRIC

E.T.F.E.

STRAW

BAMBOO

BEETLE SKIN

SELF HEALING CONCRETE

DURA_PULP FOAM_PULP

3D PRINTING OF GRADED MATERIALS

FORGED COMPOSITE CARBON FIBRES

FRACTAL GEOMETRY 13 1


PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | EXPLORATION | FOLDING PAPER | The main task of the project A.02 is to develop a concept for the Team Sweden entry in Solar Decathlon 2014 Versailles France. (duration 3 weeks) The project entitled BoldFold and is a pleated canopy designed as a lightweight, easily transportable, assembled and disassembled structure. BoldFold mainly can stand alone and as an addition on rooftops or alternatively as a new facade on old buildings. The adopted fabrication techniques are folding, interlocking and laser cutting.

The principle for this prototype is having a flat surface which is hinged and create a form by erecting the structure made of identical shapes.

The principle for this prototype is having a flat surface which isn’t hinged in advance. The elements aren’t identical , hence a more interesting structure is formed.

GROUP PROJECT Mariya Hasamova Philip Hettinger Panagiotis Koukaroudis Francesca Tassi Carboni 14


PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | FABRICATION TECHNIQUE | Robotic hot wire cutting can be used to create the triangular volumes with their predefined angles. Moreover the lego negative and positives can be shaped by this process. The shapes where solar panel are placed can be made of the same proces by creating their rigid frame.

0.16

LAYOUT OF THE PLEATED SHELL STRUCTURE WHEN FLATTEND

Rigid - Waterproof Exterior DuraPulp Layer : 5mm Insulation FoamPulp Layer : 1500mm Rigid - Waterproof Interior DuraPulp Layer : 5mm Predefined Angle

INTERLOCKING-PVS’ FRAME

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PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | BUILDING PRODUCTION | The prefabricated lightweight triangular sandwich elements and window frames are hinged together forming arches which are erected on site using a crane. These arches are connected together forming the outer shell of the house.This construction system makes for a fast and easy assembly of the house with the need of only a minimal amount of builders.

STEP 1 Organizing the prefabricated pieces

STEP 2 Fixating the pieces together with hinges. An industrial strength tape will waterproof the structure.

STEP 3 Constuct the arches using a crane.

STEP 4 Assembling the arches together to form the shape of the house. 16


PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | MATERIAL FABRICATION | The production of a new composite material DuraPulp begun by Södra Cell in Värö in April 2008. This cellulose-fibre based material has huge potential as an alternative plastic: it is renewable, biodegradable, highly water resistant and very strong in the same time. The same company in 2009 together with industrial research institute SIK started developing FoamPulp, a cellulose fiber based material similar to DuraPulp. With small changes in the production process they aim to produce a paper that is light as well as insulating against heat, cold, and with high acoustic performance.

CH2OH C O

WET CELLULOSE PULP

C

CH2OH O

H OH

H

C

H

H

OH

C C H

O

C

CH2OH O

H OH

H

C

H

H

OH

C C

O

C

H

PLA, BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MADE FROM CORNSTARCH

O

H OH

H

C

H

H

OH

C H

O

WET CELLULOSE FIBRES

STARCH

HEAT THE MIX TO 167°C

HEAT THE MIX TO 100°C

WATER STEAM EXPANDS

DURA_PULP

FOAM_PULP

WATER RESISTANT NOT AFFECTED BY AIR HUMIDITY HIGH DIMENSIONAL STABILITY HIGH BENDING STIFFNESS HIGH MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

SOUND INSULATION THERMAL INSULATION

BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE SANDWICH STRUCTURAL COMPONENT

17


PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | URBAN SCENARIO | BoldFold is a building with short life span 5-15 years. Taking into consideration the contemporary way of living , people move more often due to work or study. Our building addresses the demands of the this nomadic way of living and aim to meet the need of the inhabitants for 5-15 years. Then, it can be recycled. Refurbishment is not one of our goals due the short life span. BoldFolf comes as an urban parasite in mainly in urban voids creating small urban villages or urban camps. Secondary it can be added on rooftops with additional exterior stairs.

URBAN IMPLICATIONS ROOFTOPS

URBAN VOIDS

INHABITANTS + CLIENTS STUDENTS YOUNG COUPLES

GREEN STAIRS

TRANSPORTATION BICYCLES

TRAM

BUS

EMERGENCY

BUILDING QUALITIES BOATS

BIODEGRADABLE

TEMPORARY

ECONOMIC

ADAPTABILITY

SHARED SPACES LAUNDRY

GREENHOUSE

of

fic

e

gym ting

bu

ild

ing

s exi

b stoike ra ge

ai ret

e tor l s

Jテ、rntorget

REAL LIFE SITUATION | Gテ傍EBORG

ex

ng isti

t rke ma

ne car la

ne car la

N

18


PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | ARCHITECTURE | ROOF | The roof is a self load bearing shell, based on the folding concept. It’s entirely made out of cellulose-fibres based materials, so that the structure can be light, cheap and easy to assemble.

BATHROOM MODULE

FURNITURE | The project investigates minimum space in our daily activities: the four modular pieces of furniture could be opened according to each moment of the day, revealing everything it’s needed.

KITCHEN MODULE

BEDROOM MODULE

LIVING ROOM MODULE

N

5.7

9.5

7.9

PLAN | The interior layout is generated by the arrangement of the modules, and for this reason can vary following the needs of the inhabitants.

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PROJECT A.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | CONCEPT | BOLD_FOLD | INNOVATION | MATERIALS | The paper-cellulose based materials, DuraPulp and FoamPulp are rigid and could be used as waterproof covering, thermal and sound insulation respectively.

BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL COMPONENT DURA_PULP & FOAM_PULP

P

PORTABILITY | means that we designed a house which can fit in 1 shipping container or one truck, is flat when is being transported, can be easily assembled by a small group of inexperienced people. The bathroom is a “plug and play” prefabricated module.

ADAPTABILITY | Windows and solar panels can be embedded on the canopy after the assembling by changing the corresponding triangle. Natural illumination can be achieved and energy production can be optimized.

MINIMISING TRANSPORTATIONS BY MODERATING THE HOUSE KIT

O

S

R

L

T A

IA R E

T A M

i

B IL

CANOPY MODULES

IT

KITCHEN MODULE BEDROOM MODULE

BATHROOM MODULE

LIVING ROOM MODULE

Y

ADAPTABILITY

EASY MODIFICATION OF THE CANOPY BY CHANGING THE CORRESPONDING TRIANGLES. NO CUTS, NO DEMOLISHIONS. EASY REPLACEMENTS.

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PROJECT B.01-B.02

21


O2 architecture

PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | ARCHITECTURE | SELECTED_VOTED PROJECT FOR SDE 2014 |

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PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN

AWARENESS

FAIR

DIVERSE

FLEXIBLE

CAR-FREE

ENERGY

DENSE

BUILDING

The urban situation presented for the O2 has the idea of the block association, a type of private housing cooperative. Within the block you have the possibility to own a house and at the same time share several functions and spaces with your neighbors. The building methodology is adapatble to bigger scales and diffrent coditions, for example ETFE membranes span over courtyards or work as additional facades on existing buildings, creating shared inhabitable space underneath. The adaptability of the O2 house and its emphasis to sharing aspects within the block results in a sustainable urban village for both social and environmental services.

COMMUNITY

| O2 HOUSE | ARCHITECTURE | URBAN CONCEPT | PRINCIPLES LOW EMBODIED

REUTILIZED

LIGHTWEIGHT

ENERGY

ENERGY SAVINGS

GREEN ENERGY

USER FRIENDLY

ADAPTABLE ARCHITECTURE

BUILDING A CITY

GROUP PROJECT Anna Esbjรถrnsson Helene Flink James Ford Daniela Gonzalez Hanna Johansson Panagiotis Koukaroudis Ornella Lindmark Patrik Magnusson

TO SHARE

THE CITY ROW HOUSE

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PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | ARCHITECTURE |ON SITE | O2’s urban concept should be visible at the competition site. We present the house in a row house scenario and devices that can be shared among the neighboring houses are placed in a separate technical box that also functions as info spot. Streets and bicycle lanes are included in the plan within the footprint of our building site as well as collective allotments.

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PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | INNOVATION | PNEUMATIC ENVELOPE | As a way of drastically reducintg carbon footprint and of building with low embodied energy, an inflatable building envelope does the work of glazing, structure an insulation. Integrated with an adaptable meshwork of PV cells, the building envelope becomes a power station.

Replaceable PV cells plug into a flexible gridded mesh

Flexible net holds the PV cells and transfers energy.

Polymer press disk Rubber seal

Welded reinforcing patch Tension cords transfer force out of the membrane and control the shape of the envelope

25


PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | SUSTAINABILITY | ON SITE |

The concept of sharing and sustainable consumption are very important in O2, and are part of the experience we want for our visitors. Hence, O2 is shows the business scenario on site, a second-hand boutique. In the greenhouse, visitors can participate in a seedling swap - bring a small plant of your own, and trade it for another. And, recharge their electric bicycles to make the uphill ride home less tedious

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PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | SUSTAINABILITY | FURNISHING | The clt-walls are prefabricated with a perforation of small pre-drilled holes with a distance of 100 mm. Supplemented with small custom made gadgets the wallmounted furniture can easily be moved to different locations in the house without destroying the coating with nails and screws. The perforation is very much a part of the interior aesthetics and makes for endless possibilities of placing the furniture. Instead of beds, O2 has bed-boxes. The bed-boxes are mobile and have integrated blinds to provide just enough privacy. Also the sides of the bed-boxes have the same perforation as the walls. Two bed-boxes can be placed next to each and instantly create a master bed.

PRINCIPLE & DETAIL

PREFABRICATED PERFORATION OF CLT-ELEMENTS

SET OF CUSTOMIZED FURNITURE

27 Chalmers Architecture | ARK 465 Sustainable building | Esbjรถrnsson, Flink, Ford, Gonzalez, Johansson, Koukaroudis, Lindmark, Magnusson


PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | CONSTRUCTION & ENGINEERING | CONSTRUCTION | Here is a collection of the most common connections in the O2 house. Wall and floor elements are designed to self-lock. This ensures air tight joints and decreases the need for steel components. At site floor elements and wall panels are post tensioned by tension cables running through the CLT core of each element. This makes construction and disassembly simple and fast.

6. ROOF

1. ROOF/WALL CONNECTION

2. FLOOR - WALL

3. BASE OF WALL - FLOOR

4. FLOOR - FLOOR

5. WALL - WALL 28


PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | CONSTRUCTION & ENGINEERING | SYSTEMS | Heating, cooling and ventilation play major role in O2 project’s comfort performance. As long as our holistic approach is dominant, our aim is to integrate sustainable and efficient passive heating , cooling and ventilation systems with assisting mechanical systems. Our technical room is placed next to our building because the main idea is that one technical room can support more than one house in our urban village context.

BERNULLI EFFECT

PRESSURE [+][-] STACK EFFECT

Air flows from positive to negative pressure areas.

HEATING District heating Underfloor heating Solar gains

HOT DOMESTIC WATER Sollar collectors Water heat exchanger

GREY WATER TREATMENT Flter & water tank Flushing Irrigation WINTER | Mechanical air heat exchanger, Trickle Vents

SUMMER | Cross ventilation Stack effect, Bernulli effect

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PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | MODEL | ROOF_PROTOTYPING _

30


PROJECT B.01-B.02 SOLAR DECATHLON EUROPE 2014 | DETAIL DESIGN | O2 HOUSE | MODEL | ROOF_PROTOTYPING

31


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MASTER’S THESIS

PROPERTIES

2×F(ACADE)

AND

DESIGN GUIDELINES

FOR DOUBLE-SKIN FACADES IN SWEDEN Literature review + Energy Efficiency + Cost + Life Cycle Assessment MASTER PROGRAMM COORDINATOR : LENA FALKHEDEN EXAMINER : KRYSTYNA PIETRZYK SUPERVISOR : YORK OSTERMEYER


2Ă—F(

ACADE)

ABSTRACT Double-skin facades consist of two separate glass skins enclosing an intermediate space where a sunshading system is deployed. The objectives are control of solar radiation, improvement of the thermal insulation and provision of natural ventilation. Architectural firms or researchers, who are positive to double-skin facades, find them responsible for energy savings and use them as a flagship of sustainable design. On the other side there are firms and interdisciplinary teams who are skeptical because double-skin facades might not balance the capital cost with the desirable energy savings that is possible to occur by the implementation of a double-skin facade. The goal of this master thesis is to bridge this gap between architecture and engineering by translating engineering facts in architectural choices, oriented to Swedish climate. Main questions: 1) Can double-skin facades reduce the energy demands of buildings? 2) Which type of double-skin facade is more suitable in Sweden? 3)How does an architect should design a double-skin facade?

PROTECTION AGAINST SOILING

EXTERNAL GLASS FACADE (MAINLY SINGLE GLAZING)

VENTILATION AIR-INLETS

WIND RAIN

AIR-OUTLETS

NOISE VENETIAN BLINDS

DOUBLE SKIN FACADES

INSTALLED SUNSHADING SYSTEM T CE INTERMEDIATE SPACE (CAVITY) NO SUSHADING SYSTEM (RARE) INNER GLASS FACADE (MAINLY DOUBLE GLAZING)

THERMAL INSULATION

WOODEN LOUVERS ROLLER BLINDS

BUFFER ZONE IN WINTER NATURAL VENTILATION IN MID-SEASONS AIR DUCT IN SUMMER

PLANTS VENTILATION OPENABLE WINDOWS

In conclusion, it seems that double-skin facades are very expensive solutions with too little energy savings compared with a refurbished existing envelope. Also, these energy savings is very difficult to balance the initial investment of building a double-skin facade. In Swedish climate conditions the type which is more suitable called airflow window (AFW). Finally, if double skin facades are not properly designed they might cause more problems than resolve.

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2×F(

ACADE)

AIRFLOW WINDOW TYPE IN SWEDISH CONTEXT DSF MADE OF E.T.F.E. MEMBRANE The method I followed in this M.T. consists of a literature review (11 weeks) and a small project (3 weeks) to question the materiality of double-skin facades. The aim of the project is to compare glass and ETFE membrane and the potential reductions of the embodied energy and CO2 emissions between these two materials.

WINTER /MIDͳSEASONS

SUMMER

During winter and mid seasons warm air from the interior is supplied to the cavity and increase its thermal resistance. The heat of the used air is being recovered by a heat exchanger, which warms the fresh air introduced in the building through the ventilation ducts. The inner windows remain closed. The external glazing needs to be well insulated in order to maintain the accumulated heat and avoid condensation on its surface.

During summer, cool air from outside is introduced in the rooms through the system’s ducts. The warm air from the rooms is being introduced into the cavity through the open upper row of windows and due to thermal buoyancy the warm air is extracted at the top of the double skin facade. During summer nights, free cooling is possible through operable windows of the existing building. During day and night air-inlet at the bottom and airoutlet on top of the double skin facade are open.

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2Ă—F(

ACADE)

AIRFLOW WINDOW TYPE IN SWEDISH CONTEXT

52m

9

10

17.60m

15m

20m

7

918m2 DSF

51.

6 60m

5 1

2

4

3 0.90m

8

1.20m

1 24 vertical ETFE cushions facing south: 4 layer cushions with U=1.4 W/ m2K. Transparent outer layers. The middle has printed squares reducing the solar transmittance. The inner layer has printed the negative squares. they are pneumatically adjusted to reduce solar transmittance.

2 12 vertical ETFE cushions facing east and west: 4 layer cushions with U=1.4 W/ m2K. All layers are transparent outer layer.

3 Aluminum joints 4 Steel structure

5 Operable louvers as air-inlets, 5% of total facade

8 Base case office building 9 Cushions’ air supply unit

6 Perforated metallic gratings to allow sun penetration and maintenance.

10 Heat exchanger

7 Operable louvers as air-outlets, 5% of total facade 36


2×F(

ACADE)

Weight kg/m2

External cushions Ug=1.4W/m2K

Quantity m2

1.2

918

Total weight (kg) 1,101.6

Embodied energy (MJ/unit)

Total Embodied energy (MJ)

252 (MJ/m2)

231,336

GWP kgCO2eq

GWP CO2 emissions (kg)

109.6 /m2

100,612.8

GlassDSF

Externalglass Ug=1.2W/m2K

Weight kg/m2

20

Quantity m2

918

Total weight (kg) 18,360

Embodied energy (MJ/unit)

Total Embodied energy (MJ)

371.21 (MJ/m2)

340,771

GWP kgCO2eq

2

16.98/m 

GWP CO2 emissions (kg) 15,587.7

Steel structure (galvanized)**

Ͳ

Ͳ

4,061

61.05 (MJ/kg)

247,924

3.59/kg

16,517.6

Steel structure (galvanized)**

Ͳ

Ͳ

7,449

61.05 (MJ/kg)

454,761.5

3.59/kg

26,742

Transportation ofETFE** (LondonͲ Goteborg 1,596km) TOTALFACADE

Ͳ

Ͳ

1,101.6

4.65 (MJ/tkm)

8,163.5

0.28/kg

491.6

Ͳ

Ͳ

18,360

4.65 (MJ/tkm)

19,079.9

0.28/kg

148.9

Ͳ

Ͳ

Ͳ

Ͳ

487,423.5

Ͳ

117,622

Transportation ofglass** (VetlandaͲ Goteborg 223km) TOTALFACADE

Ͳ

Ͳ

Ͳ

Ͳ

814,612.4

Ͳ

42,478.6

1,101.6kg

6%

4,061kg 54,5%

18,360kg

7,449kg

100%

EMBODIED ENERGY

ETFEDSF

WEIGHT

SAME DSF MADE WITH GLASS AND E.T.F.E. MEMBRANE

100%

247,924MJ 54,5%

231,336MJ 68%

454,761.5M

340,771MJ

100%

100%

ETFE & GLASS

STEEL 15,587.7kgCO2eq

WEIGHT OF ETFE

WEIGHT OF GLASS

918m2 × 1.2kg/m2=1101.6kg

918m2 × 20kg/m2=18,360kg

EMBODIED ENERGY OF ETFE

EMBODIED ENERGY OF GLASS

918m2 × 252MJ/m2=231,336MJ

918m2 ×371.21MJ/m2=340,771MJ

GWP

16%

100,612.8kgCO2eq

120mm m

100%

STEEL STRUCTURE FOR ETFE

STEEL STRUCTURE FOR GLASS

120mm 120mm

× 78parts × 13kg=920kg

× 78parts × 13kg=920kg

× 173.8m × 13.40kg/m=2,398.5kg

× 431.8m × 13.40kg/m=5,786.1kg

× 116.2m × 6.39kg/m=742.5kg

× 116.2m × 6.39kg/m=742.5kg

TOTAL WEIGHT : 4,061KG

TOTAL WEIGHT : 7,449KG

EMBODIED ENERGY OF STEEL

EMBODIED ENERGY OF STEEL

4,061kg × 61,5MJ/kg=247,924MJ

7,449kg ×61,5MJ/kg=454,761.5MJ

50mm

50mm 50mm

DSF MADE OF E.T.F.E.

DSF MADE OF GLASS

EM.ENERGY VS CO2

0m

250mm

90

487,423.5MJ 60%

117,622kgCO2eq 100%

814,612.4MJ 100%

42,478.6kgCO2eq 63.8%

37


2×F(

ACADE)

AIRFLOW WINDOW TYPE MADE OF E.T.F.E. IN SWEDISH CONTEXT The existing building’s envelope is not protected by regulation and the architectural intention is to transform the heavy massive brick envelope to lightweight, airy and transparent facade. In order to reduce the amount of materials, the simplest geometrical type of double-skin facade was applied; a multistorey facade with openings at the bottom and top. For further reduction of the weight of the supporting structure, the cavity is accessible only for maintenance reasons with metallic gratings. In case of emergency, they can be used as escaping routes where tenants can rip the external membrane and be rescued. This space is not considered as leasable area. The clear depth is approximately 650 mm and fluctuates due to the inflation of the ETFE cushions which are being used instead of glass. The total depth is about 1200 mm. The steel structure’s depth is 900 mm.

38


39


KOUKAROUDIS PANAGIOTIS PORTFOLIO | M.Sc. DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CHALMERS ARCHITECTURE

40


Portfolio Master of Science Design for Sustainable Development, Panagiotis Koukaroudis  

Master of Science Design for Sustainable Development, Chalmers University of Technology (CTH), Sweden

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