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Edition: December 14th


Dean Sharon Springer, canceled the English final exam for unknown reasons. The final exam was scheduled for next December 22nd Today you will find some articles about:     

Longevity Overcoming Obstacles Homework Social and political situation in Costa Rica Intelligence Animals

Students: Pamela Jiménez S. Jeffrey Ramírez J. Ana Laura Vargas A

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The Weather

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Article #1 Topic: Overcoming Obstacles By: Ana Laura Vargas An obstacle is something that obstructs or hinders progress. There can be different types of obstacles some of them are: physical, mental, economic, and emotional. Obstacles can be overcome, just if the person really wants to do it, but nothing is easy so, the person must to try harder to overcome that obstacle. Physical obstacles are the obstacles that others can usually see in a person. A disease or a disability is an example of physical obstacles. In most of the cases, a person needs assistance from others to move or to do personal things. Sometimes a person can never overcome these kinds of obstacles. These obstacles could be permanent. Mental obstacles are the most difficult to overcome, because usually people never recognize these kinds of obstacles. If a person never identifies them he or she cannot fight and defeat the obstacle. People need help of a professional to recognize those obstacles most of the time. Sometimes people who cannot overcome these kinds of obstacles are going to be depressed and sad. So the best thing that a person can do is to find help. However, economic obstacles are another barrier that is difficult to overcome. One example of that is when the person is a poor person, he or she most of the time has the mentality of a poor person and he or she is not going to defeat that attitude. That kind of person is going to feel comfortable with the things that or she or he is doing. Also, the family cannot help because they have the same mentality. In conclusion, most of the obstacles can be overcome, but that happens only if the person wants to do it, if the person puts all his or her effort. The person can also defeat the obstacles if change the way to see things and in some cases the way of living. But nothing

Page |-5of that can happen if the person does not do anything to change and if does not ask God for help.

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Article #2 Topic: Homework By: Ana Laura Vargas. Homework is the task assigned by a teacher to students that has to be made out



The objectives


homework are to study and review at home what students already learned in class. There are three different types of homework: practice

preparatory exercise



homework, extension

The first one is the

homework that students prepares for future lessons, for example when they have to research for an information. Practice exercise helps the student to apply their knowledge and review, also facilitate them to find new skills. And the last one is a type of homework that helps the student to research in an individual way and creates or does different things. For each level it exists appropriate homework that the students can solve for example math problems. That is for children in middle school or high school, but not for elementary school, because they do not have the capacity to solve that kind of homework. Kids from elementary school need things that help them to grow up to develop their mind not only colored papers. But at the same time homework cannot be so difficult because they have to resolve on their own. Most of the specialists said that homework has more benefits than bad things. Some of the good things are that students can research skills; establish habits of study, more concentration and self-discipline. Also help the parents to control what the kid is learning in classes and now if teachers are doing in a good way their job. Homework helps the kids to increase their knowledge because, in some cases, the teacher forces the student to search more than they are learning in classes. In another way parents do not like homework. They said that it is demanding for them, because they have to work in their jobs, take care of the house and look for the

Page |-7child. They usually complains that is too much and the teacher gives big homework and the kid has to be controlled by a parent. In some cases parents think that teachers do not do well their job and those they only put homework to not do their classes. Homework is not only the unique form to evaluate in a course. Teachers can also do different activities to improve the knowledge of the kid, they also have to evaluate how much the kid had learned in classes making a quiz and paying attention if the student participates in classes or not. But something important is that homework is always necessary for the growth of a kid.

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Article #3 Topic: Longevity By: Jeffrey RamĂ­rez Speaking of longevity is to talk about the life expectancy of every human being which infer different aspects such as food, health, economy and environment in which to unfold Longevity is a process as humans for various facets of life from birth we then spent youth to maturity until we got to the older person to reach the main goal is to get together with good mental and economic health to not to depend on anyone. Longevity is a demographic concept is not only sociological concerns the life of a living being or a human longevity usually are linked to the recognition of human brevity and include discursions on methods to extend beyond the limit taken as normal the issue has been a problem not only of science but also of literature. Life expectancy is the average number of years that some people live in a certain period. It is usually divided into male and female, and is influenced by factors such as the quality of medicine, hygiene, wars, etc, although now usually refers only to persons who have a violent death. Life expectancy as a social indicator is used by sociologists to measure the degree of development of a country, but the data can be related in that sense it may be affected by wars, epidemics, violence and other phenomena other than economic indicators. In many cases people from underdeveloped or developing or natural cultures can have a long life that contradicts the assumption that a further development, increased life expectancy. Topic of research trying to find ways to increase the level of human longevity through elements such as growth hormone antioxidants. However, climate change, food crises, wars and other may affect the desire of companies with great longevity. Industrialized countries that have reduced their birth rate to alarming as Spain, Italy and even the United States, more companies will increasingly elderly XXI century, which will affect the life-sustaining concern. Better health care, diets richer and more peaceful societies in rich countries are certainly positive impact in increasing the level of life expectancy of its people, contrary to what happens in poor countries where health care is less, greater danger of epidemics, feeding problems and conflicts.

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cardiovascular disease, cancer, suicide and other problems common to most industrialized societies, threatening the degree of longevity. Since 1840 the level of human life globally has risen considerably, being higher for women than for men with an average difference of three years worldwide. For many observers, the top of the standard of living can keep going in this century. The female life expectancy has increased, according to experts, due to the advancement of medicine in what has to do with childbirth, main cause of death among women before the nineteenth century and today is present in extremely poor countries

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Article #4 Topic: Social and Political Situation in Costa Rica By: Jeffrey RamĂ­rez

In the latter essay, I talk about the social and economic political situation of my country Costa Rica have been a number are changes in the last years of the nineties have seen how consumerism has invaded us we have adopted a culture that is not our can say to our way of life in our families The social classes are seeing more and more distant from each other seeing as I have ever lost cultural values as disci pline in each of us, do not change my life growing up I did not change electronic games for games the street with my childhood friends we focus each day on what kind of cell phone has hit the market and also on what kind of computer hit the market and do not give importance to communication between our families and friends. It hurts me as a beautiful country for our rulers is stealing money from the working class of this country, instead of having a developing country does not seem to go out of underdevelopment We have forgotten an economic culture where once bought some object had money bought today because we do using a credit card which was not so before and we have adopted a culture of buying what you do not need to have families living e competition with each other because they always say it is an obsession to see who has a family to another in a material and economic. No seek inner peace in each one of us in this new world, we find the beauty in small but rather things materially. Sometimes I think that if these radical changes in our ways of life will be better or worse for a country that in the eighties there was so much violence in the streets, let alone so many immigrants from neighboring Colombia and Nicaragua where once you walked by streets as a child and no one had trouble walking the streets, before the rulers had stealing and worried about doing things right and we were once full of culture and values our parents worried about our upbringings now I want to leave it alone

P a g e | - 12 teachers, I am very concerned to finish where we end up in this country as a person and as a country

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Article #5. Topic: Overcoming Obstacles By: Pamela Jiménez With the passing of the years, we have faced some kind of obstacles in our lives. I have met several people who are an example of perseverance and self-improvement. In this short writing I will mention three of them who over the years overcame obstacles. Each one has different circumstances, but they are the clear example of the phrase: “If it is important for you, you will find the way…If it is not, you will find an excuse.” My first fighter is named Valeria. She was a young girl who won two gold medals in the Special Olympics in Shanghai, China, in 2007. This girl was the athlete with the biggest disability in that moment; however, she swam in the competitions of 200 meters in the category of swimming. Valeria had a weird illness called Niemann Pick which is cureless. She beat obstacles of any kind. She showed to herself, to her family, to the whole world that it does not matter if we have a disability, we can reach whatever we want with perseverance and effort. Despite of her disease, she was always laughing and enjoying every second that life gave her. This girl taught me that life is not waiting that the storm passed, it is about learning to dance in the rain. On the other hand, I have the story of a close friend who won the fight against overweight. “Macho” is a young man who lost more than 90 kg in almost a year. He decided to change his sedentary life and began to do exercise and eat healthier. In my opinion, this is a really clear example of what we can reach with just a “drop” of constantly perseverance. Now, he is a marathon runner, and he said that we build walls ourselves. These walls are always in our minds, because we are all capable of accomplishing great things.

P a g e | - 15 My third fighter, but not the least important, is another close friend who overcomes some economics obstacles. She grew up in a very poor family, who just has the basic stuff to live. The fact of not having enough money was not a barrier to leave school. Of course, she said that it was not easy, but not impossible. Today, she is an engineer who graduated with honors, and now she has her own security company. She said that it is very important to identify what we really want in life, and if we do not have the resources to do it, make a plan, find the way. Follow your dreams. Many times we complain a lot of everything and we just find excuses to not do what we really want. Life is not as easy as we expected. It is very important that we remember that nobody will believe in you unless you believe in yourself. Crying, suffering and effort are part of what we call life, and remember that all the barriers are just in our minds. Believe and take the risk to follow your dreams.

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Article #6 Topic: Intelligence Animals By: Pamela Jiménez According to different investigations over years, animals have shown that despite not having advanced cognitive functions such as humans, they can develop intelligent skills similar to us. Two clear examples of these skills are: they can adapt to the environment and another is that they can be able to learn some “behaviors” according to their abilities. The list of animals is very long, but three of them that represent intelligent animals namely elephants, dolphins and octopus. Elephants have become very famous for their incredible memory. These animals have the ability to learn and do many tasks with precision without forgetting how, and also they do not forget people who had threated them violently. Elephants can recognize the call sound of a hundred of different elephants, no matter how many years have passed without contact. On the other hand, dolphins have been declared






intelligent creatures in the world after humans. Studies





demonstrated the great similarity with humans to communicate. According to Diana Reiss, professor of psychology at Hunter College in New York, dolphins can reach intelligence levels like a three year old child. The last example of an intelligent creature is the octopus. These weird animals are able to solve problems, memorize and learn. Other important characteristics of them are: the ability to use tools, they can solve maze problems and they can communicate with each other through the pulsation over their skin. They are able to learn through conditioning - stimulus and response. Finally, they possess spatial memory, to recognize places and environments. Around the world there a lot of animal centers that study more thoroughly the different behaviors of animals. Scientists are constantly doing a lot of tests to try to

P a g e | - 17 understand better how their brain and body work. Even though scientist shared different opinions about animal intelligence, the result is that there’s no doubt that the human being’s intelligence is higher compared to any animal, because our brain is more complex than we imagine. In conclusion, the human brain is more than perfect and has unique characteristics in comparison to other animals on earth.

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