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by Pamela Caspani

Structure ! ! !

Chapter 5: Codes & Guidelines (pp. 81–133)

Background of author

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Breakdown of book !

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David Walters is an English architect, urban designer, town planner, and a professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in the USA.

Background of author Breakdown of book Breakdown of chapter Overview - USA Practice, British Codes, Author!s points Relevance to Sustainability Analysis - Pro!s, Con!s Thoughts

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Intro: Planning and Urban Design: The Postmodern Crisis in Planning and the Role of Urban Design in Reformulating Planning Practice I: Cultural comparisons II: History III: Theory :( IV: Practice V: Preamble to Case Studies Appendix: Essential Attributes of Form-based Codes

Breakdown of chapter ! ! ! !

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PRECIDENTS FOR DESIGN REGULATION THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY FORMBASED CODES ISSUES WITH FORM-BASED DESIGN CODES AMERICAN FORM-BASED ZONING ORDINANCES ! The legal basis for form-based codes in the USA ! Form-based zoning in operation ! The Transect AMERICAN PATTERN BOOKS BRITISH URBAN DESIGN GUIDANCE

Overview - USA Practice !

Form-based zoning ordinances ! !

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focus on urban and architectural form de-emphasis of use

American pattern books ! !

used by private developers mandate architectural style and detail


Overview - Author!s points !

Overview - British Codes !

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Code attributes not included here Similarities in American & British codes: ! !

Urban Design Guidance !

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Detailed documents (drawings, photographs, diagrams) Describes how to apply design/planning principles

Differences: ! ! ! ! !

2004 audit found only 17% ‘good’ standard housing - codes needed review

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Relevance to Sustainability ! !

Britain is at least thinking about sustainability in codes Beyond common sense issues sustainability is not an item that figures very largely on the agenda of American government at any level

Analysis

Built form and townscape Streets and enclosure Parking Open space and landscape Land use mix Architectural design Sustainability

Analysis !

PRO!S: ! !

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Primarily technical instruments Community involvement only the broad physical vision

Current (2007) One-stop shop for theory and code comparison in USA and Britain - the best comparatively Many thought-provocative images Great references

Sustainability & the BCA !

CON!S: ! ! !

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Lengthy and no conclusion/ summary Too many excerpts and tables “the author has found over the years that many outspoken critics of codes calling loudly for looser standards and ‘creative freedom’ are architects with limited talent, to whom the rhetoric of ‘freedom’ and ‘flexibility’ is merely a mechanism to conceal bad, or at best mediocre, design under a smokescreen of ‘creativity’ - Opinionated author; meant to be theory? Heavily focused on USA; what about other countries! positive lessons?

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To date only energy has been incorporated If the BCA extended its scope it could result in a holistic concept of sustainable development and implement integrated sustainability through a single regulatory tool. (Wilkinson & Dong, 2007)


Codes and Guidelines for Sustainable Communities