World Pipelines North America 2021

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03. Editor's comment Navigating North America

PIPELINE COMPLIANCE 05. Three key questions for compliance Whitney Vandiver, Ph.D., Compliance Specialist, NuGen Automation, LLC, USA.

09. The hitchhiker's guide to MAOP

PIPELINE COMPRESSORS 29. The future for compressor stations Sam Miorelli, Scott Tackett and Arja Talakar, Siemens Energy, USA.

Tad Nowicki, Christopher DeLeon, and Rhett Dotson, ROSEN USA.

WELDING 33. Low hydrogen weld training for pipelines

KEYNOTE ARTICLE 13. Will fuel shortages spur far-reaching action? Drue Pearce, former Deputy Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

Sam Phillips, Global Industry Segment Director – Pipeline, The Lincoln Electric Company USA.

CORROSION PREVENTION 38. The future of pipeline integrity

REGIONAL REPORT 16. A block in the (international) road Gordon Cope discusses how the cross-border movement of energy products in North America faces an uncertain future in the face of environmental opposition.

Tim Mally, CSNRI, USA.


Tim Mally, CSNRI, USA, explores the benefits and implementation of composite repair systems for crack-like defects in pipelines.

he oil and gas pipeline industry is facing more opposition and scrutiny than ever before. Environmental protests have focused the unforgiving eye of negative public opinions on pipelines. The fear of climate change has sounded the alarm on fossil fuels and carbon emissions and brought a wave of voices calling for renewable energy. State and federal governments and regulators, amidst environmental protests, are placing new pipeline construction under intense scrutiny, grinding new pipeline projects almost to a halt. The slowdown in new projects increases the level of responsibility on the existing, ageing pipeline network to continue to perform as it always has, which in essence means it must carry an even larger load than originally intended due to increasing energy demands and population growth.

Gordon Cope discusses how the crossborder movement of energy products in North America faces an uncertain future in the face of environmental opposition.


he movement of oil, gas and refined products across the borders of Canada, the US and Mexico has been a mainstay of free trade between the three countries for several decades. The immense expansion of energy trade is now being challenged by environmental opposition, however, and the future is anything but clear.

Canada and US crude Over the course of the last decade, the movement of crude from Canada to the US has grown at a tremendous clip. In 2010, Canada supplied approximately 13% of US refinery input, but by 2019, it had grown to over one third; Canada was exporting approximately 3.8 million bpd prior to COVID. As the pandemic recedes, exports are expected to rise to 4.45 million bpd by the end of 2021. The increase in exports has been driven by several factors. Oilsands output has been discounted for the last several years due to pipeline constraints, making it much more affordable than Middle East imports. Midwestern refineries are configured to take heavy crude (it would be costly to reconfigure for US light, tight shale oil). Finally, other sources of heavy crude, such as Mexico and Venezuela, have reduced exports or fallen under sanctions. US exports of crude to Canada have also expanded. Canada’s major refineries are located in Ontario and Quebec, but crude from the US accounted for a tiny fraction of input a decade ago; by 2019, that number had swelled to 45% of feedstock (around 450 000 bpd), as light, tight shale oil from the Bakken in North Dakota made its way to market. Altogether, total petroleum trade volume between the United States and Canada doubled to 2 billion bbls per year over the last decade. Most of this is in the form of crude; almost 5.5 million bpd now crosses the border in both directions. In all, the category of petroleum trade accounts for just under US$96 billion annually, exceeded only by the auto sector, at US$102 billion.








CAREERS AND TALENT 43. Building the next generation Young Pipeliners International (YPI) offers a look at how its groups help and support the young pipeliners of today, with a focus on the USA, Canada and Mexico chapters.

PIPELINE MACHINERY 20. Fueling fusion Sara Kleinecke, McElroy, USA.

27. Machinery focus: Barbco Thomas W. Schmidt, Barbco, Inc., and Drake Barbera, AccuLine Underground, USA.


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ISSN 1472-7390

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llow me to walk you through the companies that transport oil and natural gas – North America edition of World but for every sector of the US economy. She Pipelines. In this special annual considers the question of oversight and states: edition, we focus on oil and gas “While there are calls for moving authority for pipeline activity in the US, Canada and Mexico. critical infrastructure cybersecurity like Our aim is to provide a timely snapshot of the pipelines from TSA to the Department of regional market, offering insight into projects, Energy (DOE), such a move would be a regulatory and compliance matters, and trends. mistake.” Read the full piece to find out why. NuGen Automation opens the issue on p.5 This issue’s regional overview, starting on by considering ‘three key questions for p.16, tackles the cross-border movement of compliance’. Read the article ahead of your energy products in North America, and control room management (CRM) PHMSA considers how things are looking as the audit to find out the importance of pandemic recedes. The article provides an compliance-driven operations, consistent overview of natural gas, condensates, documentation and ‘big picture’ compliance. products and crude pipelines in and between As Compliance Specialist Whitney Vandiver the three nations, alongside analysis of key writes in the article: “Many operators neglect projects including the cancelled KXL, to understand the value of compliance-driven Enbridge’s Line 5 project and Line 3 procedures and perform their operations refurbishment, plus the ramifications of the without proper documentation of their recent cold snap in Texas. operations… Compliance Beginning on p.20 readiness is not simply a are a series of technical THIS SPECIAL one-time objective but articles about pipeline must be seen by EDITION FOCUSES construction, operators as a consistent compressor station ON OIL AND GAS state of mind and be construction, weld reflected throughout PIPELINE ACTIVITY training, and pipeline operational processes repair in North America. IN THE US, and policies”. McElroy outlines the CANADA AND On p.9, ROSEN machinery used for pipe describes how new US fusion for a large MEXICO regulations have changed refinery construction the requirements for project in Mexico, as assessing the maximum part of the country’s allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of path away from its current reliance on oil pipelines. The article is focused on a nonimports. Barbco Inc. and AccuLine technical review of the new onshore gas Underground write about a challenging pipeline regulations in the US: specifically how guided auger bore project in Tennessee. the MAOP of applicable transmission pipelines Siemens Energy describes ushering in the is required to be reconfirmed. The article talks next generation of compressor stations and addressing challenges related to cost, you through the MAOP reconfirmation emissions and asset integrity. The Lincoln process in detail, including the specification Electric Company explains how the push for that all applicable pipelines satisfy this new stronger welds brought welding technicians requirement within 15 years from the from Enbridge to the company’s flagship effective date of this new rule, namely by Welding Technology & Training Centre in 2 July 2035. Pipeline operators must use one Cleveland, Ohio for new low hydrogen of their seven-year assessment intervals SMAW rod training. CSNRI explores the during this time period (as prescribed in benefits and implementation of composite their integrity management programme) for repair systems for crack-like defects in reconfirming MAOP. pipelines. Finally, to close the issue, we have a On p.13, Drue Pearce, former Deputy report from Young Pipeliners International Administrator of PHMSA offers her view on (YPI) on the future of the industry and how what needs to change in the wake of the best to support young talent. With a focus Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack. She on the US, Canada and Mexico chapters of believes that the pipeline hack will have longthe YPI, the piece offers a look at the term implications, not only for Colonial and potential, and the priorities, of up-andother product pipelines – as well as other coming pipeliners.

Whitney Vandiver, Ph.D., Compliance Specialist, NuGen Automation, LLC, USA, discusses how operators can develop a successful compliance-driven initiative when it comes to CRM audits.


he term audit has become a four-letter word in the oil and gas industry and often sends operators into a frenzy to catch up on the little things that have been left for the last minute. Unfortunately, for most operators, those little things add up to the big requirement of compliance, and not all operators are learning from their auditing experiences, especially when it comes to control room management (CRM). However, there are several steps that operators can take to prepare for a CRM audit and shift their focus to the effectiveness of their compliance efforts. Most operators will find themselves leaps and bounds ahead of where they started if they take an honest look at their documentation and consider three primary questions.

Are operations driven by compliance – or is compliance a supplemental feature? Operators must recognise the importance of, and develop, a compliance-driven initiative within their corporate environment. Due to the nature of oil and gas operations, there are times when decisions are made and compliance is consulted or considered at a later time, which can create a negative attitude toward compliance. The result is that compliance measures are often viewed as tedious activities that must be performed to avoid being caught out – some operators see them as keeping the wolves at bay. This perspective, however, lends itself to an undesirable perception


wherein compliance is seen as an auxiliary to operations rather than an inherent part of it. This mindset can be detrimental to an operator’s operation because of the role it assigns to compliance, specifically that it is secondary to primary operations rather than a supporting aspect of safety. To avoid this supplemental attitude, operators must be mindful of how compliance is incorporated into the operational environment. This is true of all aspects, from field maintenance to control centre documentation. When it comes to CRM audits, it is significant that operators ensure compliance is visible within their policies and procedures and that they reflect appliable regulations. Many operators neglect to understand the value of compliance-driven procedures and perform their operations without proper documentation of their operations. Procedures, especially those enforced by regulating agencies, must capture requirements as well as operational standards. Many procedures fall in this category when it comes to CRM audits, including but not limited to point-to-point verification, management of change, and emergency response. Policies must also capture the need for documentation of compliance. As an essential aspect of compliance, documentation of processes and procedures must be at the core of operations to emphasise the significance of its role in maintaining compliance. In preparation for CRM audits, operators should consider the role compliance plays in operations and how integrated it is within their policies and procedures. Operators must question their policies, processes, and procedures, knowing it is likely to expose issues, considering aspects such as if procedures are being driven by compliance or whether compliance is an addendum, and whether compliance is being considered at every link within a chain of procedures or expected to be met with only one chain without redundancy. Compliance readiness is not simply a one-time objective but must be seen by operators as a consistent state of mind and be reflected throughout operational processes and policies – in this way, operators must begin the assessment of their readiness by honestly evaluating how thoroughly their operations are driven by compliance rather than simply how often the term is mentioned within their polices.

Is documentation consistent and accurate? In the eyes of an auditing agency, if it wasn’t documented, it didn’t happen. In this way, documentation is central to compliance and a piece without which the larger picture cannot be completed. When it comes to the readiness of CRM, documentation operators must keep three states in mind – existence, accuracy, completeness. Existence is the simplest criterion but nonetheless often overlooked by operators, neglecting to acknowledge that documentation must exist for certain events. Some cases are explicitly outlined in regulations along with what such documentation must include, as with shift turnover logs; others are left up to the operator as long as the process is documented in some fashion and key objectives are achieved. One of the most common mantras among compliance specialists is “do what you say you do” – and we have to repeat it more often than not. Many operators believe that they are documenting procedures adequately when in reality a number of scenarios have unfolded that have led to incomplete documentation. Some operators do not have a consistent review


World Pipelines / NORTH AMERICA 2021

schedule and neglect to update procedures, while others are unaware of the detail necessary to capture a full procedure, thinking that they are covered as long as the intent of the procedure is documented. Neither is a defensible situation when dealing with an auditing agency, and incomplete documentation is not only a fast track to a violation but a safety concern. Operators must understand that documentation is a two-way street: policies and procedures must be comprehensive to capture what is required when they are enacted and operators must do exactly what a policy or procedure says they do. If an operator fails to succeed in either aspect, compliance becomes a seesaw of inadequacies and incompliance. Documentation is only considered accurate if it captures the steps that are performed, and this means that training plays a critical part in the documentation process. Whether it’s how to fill out a form or the start-up procedure for a facility, a procedure that is not well understood and performed incorrectly indicates that an operator is not doing what they say they do. If documentation is complete and accurate, operators must prioritise timely training to ensure all participants are not only knowledgeable but capable. PHMSA auditors not only talk to managers; they can visit the control room and ask questions of the personnel. One of the worst situations a CRM manager can face during an audit is having an improperly trained and unprepared controller answer an auditor’s question incorrectly – or worse, respond to a situation inadequately in front of an auditor. Training must capture not only the purpose of policies and procedures but educate personnel on the when, where, and how of necessary steps. The level of detail may vary depending on the time and function of the training, e.g., annual review training need not be as detailed as new hire training, but the significance of the relationship between documentation and how such actions are performed should never be understated during training sessions. This transparent and absolute connection between policy and procedure documentation and personnel training is as significant as showing up to the audit. Even if operators correctly document their policies and procedures and consistently implement them via training and response, this level of success can only be maintained if operators regularly review their documentation for accuracy and effectiveness. Operations change over time, and while the majority of a procedure might remain the same, small alterations can slip through the cracks. Documentation should never be considered accurate if it has not gone through a review process within the assigned timeframe. Operators may choose to review some procedures every three or five years, but certain procedures must be reviewed annually with a three-month grace period, translating to the ever-present phrase every 12 months not to exceed 15 months. This requirement is consistent for all CRM aspects of operations, in that the stipulation applies to CRM manuals and related documentation, and PHMSA does not consider the documentation contained within a CRM manual accurate if it has not been reviewed in a timely manner. This means that operators might have the right documentation and be doing what they say they do but still miss the mark by neglecting to verify certain documentation’s veracity when necessary. It’s an easy mistake to make but can be costly, especially if the lack of review allowed errors in procedures to go unnoticed.

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Is the big picture compliant – or is it missing pieces of the puzzle? At its core, a CRM audit is investigating the validity and compliance of control room operations, and many operators can become stuck on this fact. They become so focused on what is right beneath their noses that they develop blinders when it comes to an audit’s consideration of how CRM interacts with other operations beyond the immediate control room environment. Operators must remember that CRM is a significant piece of a very intricate and complicated puzzle. General operations would have a very high likelihood of failure without CRM, and safety would be much less quantifiable – but that doesn’t mean that CRM necessarily leads the way for all other operations. When it comes to documentation, everything CRM-related might be in perfect order, but that doesn’t translate to an identical setup beyond the control room. A CRM audit focuses on control room operations, but it also takes into consideration how those operations interact with and influence field operations. An auditor, for example, can ask to see the control room’s procedure for responding to planned maintenance via the management of change process, which in the CRM manual might explain the steps as expected; however, if this procedure references a field procedure outside of the CRM manual, that procedure is now open for review as well because auditors want to ensure operational consistency. If an aspect of the external procedure does not match every aspect of the CRM procedure – which could be something as simple as the procedures disagreeing on how the control room is notified of a maintenance request – the process is no longer compliant. Regardless of what the CRM documentation states, if it does not seamlessly fit into the operational puzzle, the big picture is now incompliant. Big picture compliance is the ultimate goal of auditing agencies and operators alike, but this is often easier said than done. Regulations change, assets are sold and acquired, and operators transition and merge, all of which has a direct impact on how operations are run in every corner of a company. However, the biggest influence over compliance is the human mind. Taking a page from the NTSB, PHMSA began considering human factors as a significant influence on compliance nearly a decade ago, and this has become one of the most difficult aspects of operational management. People make thousands of decisions a day, and operators are at the mercy of their personnel’s decisions every single moment they are pulling, transporting, or storing product. Ensuring that everyone is on the same page so that decisions are informed by the same information is crucial when it comes to big picture compliance, especially with regard to the control room’s operational role. The same accuracy and consistency expected of CRM documentation must be reflected in every procedure within every department – from the steps involved to cross-referencing across procedures. Without this understanding, an operator can only be confident in their CRM compliance until the first external reference takes the auditor’s attention beyond the CRM manual.

What to do next? While PHMSA provides specific regulations for CRM, it is widely accepted that they are in some respects purposefully vague to allow operators to interpret them in different ways, depending


World Pipelines / NORTH AMERICA 2021

on their operational needs. This can benefit smaller operators but leads to confusion when larger operators are faced with a digital mountain of documentation and only a few months to determine if they are in compliance. When it comes to preparing for a CRM audit, operators can do a few things to get ahead of the curve. The simplest things to do is verify everything. From the steps involved in a procedure to the references to other procedures, operators must confirm that every aspect of their documentation is correct. In this case, no error is too small to overlook, as even incorrect document numbers can be noted by auditors if they feel it could lead to confusion and therefore affect safety. No matter the size of the operator, verifying so much information will be a large undertaking; however, it is the most significant step in assuring compliance. In the same vein, operators must confirm that all policies and procedures are complete. A procedure that has been in use for ten years might be accurate as far as those steps that are listed in the documentation, but if an additional step was added to the process the previous year in light of an incident, the procedure is not complete without that step being documented. Operators should walk through the procedures and ensure that not only managers approve the content but the personnel who are responsible for physically enacting the procedure agree as well. At times a simple discussion will suffice, but operators should remember that the human mind is easily deceived when it comes to processes, especially those that are commonly performed – and it is best to double-check all steps before signing off on a procedure as complete. Operators must also foster communication within their departments. A PHMSA audit might only be interested in CRM compliance, but that does not exclude other teams from assisting with compliance. Not only should other teams be involved via reviewing their own compliance, but be ready to assist with confirming any cross-referenced procedures that can affect CRM compliance. Operators should be transparent about upcoming CRM audits to related groups such as IT and ensure they understand how they might be involved in CRM compliance, even if they will not take part in the audit. Many operators will find these steps to be overwhelming, especially if they have not been maintaining compliance as a regular activity. The good news is that operators can update their processes to review and confirm compliance in their day-to-day operations. Small changes such as verifying cross-referenced documents when updating procedures and establishing an accountability team within the control room personnel that includes more than just the CRM manager will help operators create a compliance-driven culture. Thankfully, operators do not have to face CRM compliance and PHMSA audits on their own. Industry-specific third-party compliance assistance is available to assess operator compliance and guide operators through the auditing process. Such services leverage compliance expertise with an intimate understanding of CRM and its many facets, providing operators with an industrydriven solution that can help them not only survive their next audit but establish a philosophy that guides future operations and documentation for more successful compliance in the coming years.

Tad Nowicki, Christopher DeLeon, and Rhett Dotson, ROSEN USA, explain how new US regulations have changed requirements for assessing the maximum allowable operating pressure of pipelines.


his article is focused on a non-technical review of the new onshore gas pipeline regulations in the US, specifically how the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of applicable transmission pipelines is required to be reconfirmed. On 1 October 2019, the US Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration (PHMSA) issued the first of three final rules to improve the safety of onshore gas pipelines. This rule focused specifically on gas transmission pipelines by addressing US congressional mandates in the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 (2011 Pipeline Safety Act) as well as recommendations made by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) as a result of its investigation of the 2010 pipeline incident in San Bruno, California.1 In anticipation of this final rule, in 2011 PHMSA published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM), which identified 16 major areas of regulatory reform.2 This

first of three final rules, also called “RIN 1 of the New Gas Rules”, addresses several of these major topics focused on improving the safety of pipelines that operate with incomplete or inaccurate pipeline records. This rule requires onshore gas transmission pipeline operators to reconfirm the MAOP of segments that operate with previously untested pipe, commonly referred to as “grandfathered pipelines.” These pipelines typically do not have a traceable, verifiable, and complete (TVC) pressure test or adequate material property records indicating the pipeline’s diameter, wall thickness, specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) and construction method. Several other newly implemented requirements demand that pipeline operators create and implement written procedures for achieving MAOP reconfirmation in accordance with Section §192.624 of PHMSA’s Part 49 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR). Pipeline operators will also be required to determine, gather and report all pipeline mileage requiring


MAOP reconfirmation to PHMSA as part of the 2021 annual report due 15 March 2022. The annual report also includes additional reporting requirements associated with other changes in the new gas pipeline regulations.1

Maximum allowable operating pressure The MAOP of a pipeline is limited by 49 CFR §192.619, which consist of three primary elements: construction records, physical and mechanical strength testing, and an understanding of the pipeline’s assigned Class Location. PHMSA defines the Class Location process in §192.5, with resulting values ranging from 1 to 4. A Class 1 segment represents the lowest density of buildings intended for human occupancy near the pipeline, with Class 2, 3 and 4 each progressively increasing population density. A pipeline’s Class Location directly correlates to the maximum operating stress the pipeline may be subject to. It is reduced, as a percent of the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), as the Class increases from 1, up to 4. This reduction creates an incremental safety factor that limits the pipeline’s maximum operating pressure. For example, a Class 1 pipeline can operate at a maximum of 72% SMYS, whereas a Class 4 Pipeline can only operate at 40% SMYS. Mechanical strength testing is performed through hydrostatic pressure testing in accordance with Subpart J. A pressure test is required to validate that the pipeline is capable of holding the pressure required to substantiate the desired MAOP. Different test multipliers are used; they increase in severity as the Class Location increases. Until recently, Class 1 pipelines only had to test to 1.1 times the desired MAOP to be considered valid. Now, pressure testing in a Class 1 location requires a pressure of 1.25 times MAOP to establish the desired MAOP. These records are to be traceable to the specific pipeline, verifiable with a complementary record and complete with the signature of an appropriate person. PHMSA provides more information on TVC records in the Preamble of RIN 1.1 If the mechanical strength test record is not TVC or not conducted via hydrostatic testing in accordance with Subpart J of Part 192 of the CFR, the pipeline must have

Figure 1. Validation testing, both in the ditch as well as destructive testing, can greatly benefit an ECA.


World Pipelines / NORTH AMERICA 2021

its MAOP reconfirmed in accordance with §192.624. This section of code was added as part of the new gas pipeline regulation within Part 192 of the CFR. Construction records are used to establish the MAOP by evaluating the physical pipeline characteristics and their pressure limitations. These characteristics are used in the steel pipe design formula listed in §192.105 (a); this requires data inputs for the pipeline’s SMYS, wall thickness (WT) and outer diameter (OD) along with safety factors associated with construction seam type, operating temperature and Class Location. It is important to recognise that the established MAOP has levels of conservatism: maximum operating stress as a percentage of SMYS based on the Class Location and the safety factors explicit in the design formula for steel pipe in §192.105. Effectively, when the construction records that indicate the material properties and attributes are not TVC, pipe for which documentation is inadequate to support the MAOP in accordance with §192.619 (a) and §192.517 (a), pipeline material properties and attributes must be verified in accordance with §192.607.

MAOP reconfirmation The new MAOP reconfirmation requirements are mostly targeted at pipelines with an MAOP established through §192.619 (c). These pipelines are called “grandfathered” because they were constructed and put into operation prior to the pressure testing requirements that are imposed on modern pipelines. Because post-construction pressure testing was not a code requirement when these pipelines were built, reestablishing their MAOP based on the maximum operating pressure they experienced in the five years prior to an applicable date listed in PHMSA regulations was allowed. When these pipelines require MAOP reconfirmation, an operator can choose from one of six newly listed methods. One of these methods, Method 3: engineering critical assessment (ECA), is described in Section §192.632. While the term “ECA” is a well-known and understood engineering assessment, PHMSA describes the expectations and requirements of an ECA in §192.632. PHMSA included the use of an ECA to reconfirm the MAOP as one of the methods available to operators because it directly addresses the congressional mandate for PHMSA to consider other safetytesting methodologies – including inline inspection (ILI) – that are determined to be of equal or greater effectiveness than a Subpart J pressure test.1 Increasing the utilisation of ILI was also a recommendation by the NTSB as a result of the San Bruno California pipeline incident. This incident is attributed to an incomplete understanding of the pipeline characteristics, which could have been identified through an ILI.3 Therefore, PHMSA developed this ECA methodology as a way to validate a pipeline’s MAOP. PHMSA based the methodology on experience gained since the implementation of integrity management, which typically uses ILI, and real-world examples from special permits that allow an operator to deviate from the prescribed requirements in CFR Part 192. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) reported that an ECA can be

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Figure 2. Using ILI to perform an ECA to reconfirm a pipeline’s MAOP can achieve equal or better results than a pressure test.

reliably used even if seam weld cracking is present on the pipeline. This research was sponsored by PHMSA.1

Sound data enables good decisions The MAOP reconfirmation process described in §192.624 requires that all applicable pipelines satisfy this new requirement within 15 years from the effective date of this new rule, namely by 2 July 2035. The expectation is that 50% of the total pipeline mileage is reconfirmed within 8 years of the effective date of the rule, with the remaining 50% completed by 2 July 2035. PHMSA deemed that the 15-year timeline was an appropriate window for completion of MAOP reconfirmation because it correlates to – and allows operators to utilise one of two – seven-year assessment intervals as prescribed in their integrity management programme. An operator’s integrity management programme, described in Subpart O, outlines a variety of methods for carrying out an assessment, including a Subpart J pressure test. It serves the purpose of both: ) Failing any flaw in the pipe not capable of holding the pressure required for MAOP. ) Proving that any flaws remaining in the pipe are strong

enough to hold the pressure required for MAOP without leaking.

pressure calculations according to risk. ILI can detect and size the relevant flaws needed to evaluate the pipeline’s fitness for service and integrity. The particular ILI systems deployed must have the appropriate measurement principal onboard and associated performance specifications to detect, identify and size the critical flaw sizes according to the pipeline’s material and operating stress. ILI-reported features such as metal loss (manufacturing, gouging and corrosion), deformation (dents, buckles wrinkles), and crack-like and hard spots are then evaluated to a threshold, and potential remediation requirements are added. This process is focused on achieving similar results to how a pressure test would fail imperfections in the pipeline above a determined critical stress. PHMSA added Section §192.712 to prescribe how the results of an ILI are assessed using various fracture mechanics models and establish conservative mechanical pipe properties to use when material records are not TVC. In the absence of reliable data for key parameters, such as fracture toughness, PHMSA allows the use of conservative pipeline material assumptions. These conservative assumptions have a direct impact on the fracture mechanics model used to assess the reported features. Section 192.712 also requires that a subject matter expert (SME) reviews the assessment in order to ensure the calculations are performed competently. The SME plays an important role in ensuring the calculations are realistic and not overly conservative. FAQ 3 by PHMSA provides guidance on defining an SME.4 Using ILI to perform an ECA to reconfirm a pipeline’s MAOP and achieving equal or better results than a pressure test is both achievable and highly beneficial. The data requirements are intense, but the use of ILI and historical information provide the foundation for completing the process in a resource-conscience manor without compromising safety. While Section §192.632 outlines a process for conducting an ECA, the operator may submit an alternate process through §192.18 if the same or better results can be achieved. Recent projects have demonstrated that an ECA will benefit greatly from validation testing, both in the ditch and through destructive testing.

References Section §192.632 outlines the process for conducting an ECA. Section §192.632 (a) indicates that an operator must integrate, analyse and account for all tests, assessments and information available on the pipeline segment, as well as consider any unknowns such as material properties and attributes. The results of an ECA, and therefore the ability to confidently act upon the results, is dependent upon the quality of the data utilised in the analysis as well as the knowledge and experience of the individual performing the assessment. Robust ILI systems can provide the fundamental data required as input into the ECA analysis. The intent of an ECA is to establish the same level of confidence in the pipe’s strength as that of a Subpart J pressure test. This assessment is performed by calculating the predicted burst pressure of all ILI reported features in the line and ensuring these pressures are greater than the pressure necessary to establish the MAOP. Safety factors are incorporated into the burst


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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). (2019, October 1). Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines: MAOP Reconfirmation, Expansion of Assessment Requirements, and Other Related Amendments. Federal Register. https:// Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). (2011, August 25). Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines. Federal Register. documents/2011/08/25/2011-21753/pipeline-safety-safety-of-gas-transmissionpipelines. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). (2011, August 30). Pacific Gas and Electric Company Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Rupture and Fire San Bruno, California. September 9, 2010 Accident Report. investigations/AccidentReports/Pages/PAR1101.aspx. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). (2020, September 15). Batch 1 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Gas Transmission Final Rule 9-15-20. (2020, September 15). SLATER, S., DAVIES, C., BURKINSHAW, O., CLYDE, P., & GRIFFIN, J. (n.d.). MAOP Reconfirmation for a 20 Inch Gas Pipeline Using the ECA Method and Enhanced ILI. Paper presentation, International Pipeline Conference 2020.

Drue Pearce, former Deputy Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, gives her view on what changes should result from the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack. hen Colonial Pipeline announced on 8 May 2021 that it had shut in its entire pipeline system due to a ransomware attack, most residents in the twelve states and District of Columbia that are served by the Colonial system did not expect to be impacted. But just as panic-buying and hoarding resulted in wide-spread shortages of toilet paper when Americans were first told to stay at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the fear of fuel shortages exacerbated by media and social media reports caused nervous drivers to create gridlock at gas stations from Houston to northern New Jersey. By 12 May, even as Colonial restored operations and announced fuel delivery timelines, the frenzy resulted in reports of at least 12 000 gas pumps being completely dry. By 17 May, fuel outages persisted in many affected states and gas prices hit their highest prices in six years, according to AAA data. GasBuddy reported that five states and the District of Columbia were still experiencing fuel outages of at least 10% on 1 June. Few situations strike the same level of fear and angst in Americans as the specter of an empty gas tank. From Barrow to Key West, whether we are filling cars, pickups, snow machines, or boats, we insist upon having the ability to travel where we want, when we want. People on the west coast anxiously asked state leaders whether they would be impacted by the shortages and airline passengers across the nation were concerned that upcoming flights might be cancelled. America was mesmerised by fuel gauges. Americans were horrified by spiking prices at the pump. Cybersecurity events have dramatically increased over the past two years, with triple digit percentage increases in attacks on the retail and healthcare sectors as well as double digit increases in


the government sector. But no single event captured the attention of Americans like the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack and ensuing gas shortages and price spikes. The national security threat posed by cybercriminals whose attacks affect citizens going about their daily business sparked headlines, dinner table discussions, and outrage. Even though Colonial recovered full pipeline operations within five days, while the average recovery time is 21 days, it was quickly hit with at least two lawsuits seeking class action status that claim their cybersecurity defenses were inadequate. Many in the cybersecurity market, echoed by politicians, were quick to criticise Colonial. And, predictably, politicians at the local, state, and federal level were quick to react.

Ramifications The initial and ongoing reactions have long-term implications for Colonial and other product pipelines as well as other companies that transport oil and natural gas. Ramifications will likely follow for every sector of the US economy, with bottom lines being impacted. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chair Richard Glick called for mandatory pipeline cybersecurity standards on 10 May. President Biden signed an Executive Order on Improving the Nation’s Cybersecurity on 12 May. Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm made several statements culminating in a declaration that more comprehensive cyber standards are needed for the energy sector. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) issued a Security Directive on 27 May that requires pipeline owners to report cyber incidents and to review their current cyber practices, and then report gaps and mitigation plans to both TSA and to sister agency Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). And TSA’s Assistant Administrator Sonya Proctor testified before the House Transportation & Maritime Security and Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Innovation Subcommittees on 15 June that a coming directive “will require more mitigation measures, which includes more specific requirements with regard to assessments.” She also said inspections of cyber systems will increase and accountability will be assured. Congress was quick to act, too. Bills that went nowhere in previous sessions were reintroduced, hearings were scheduled, and ideas for new mandates were floated by members of both the House and Senate. Industry reacted, with the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) Suzanne Lemieux cautioning that any new mandates need to be practicable, pointing out that a requirement to report each of the tens of thousands of phishing attempts alone on every pipeline company every day would be inefficient and ineffective. Companies defended their cybersecurity protection systems, pointing out the millions of dollars they spend annually preventing ransomware, hacking, phishing, malware, spyware, and other attacks. They pointed to the update that is already underway to API Standard 1164, “Pipeline SCADA Security”, that will incorporate the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework and ISA/IEC 62443 standard.

The need to improve oversight From my vantage point as a former Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) Deputy Administrator,


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it appears that Colonial was effective at quickly isolating the system that was attacked by the ransomware. Pipeline companies have made cybersecurity a Board level issue both because they recognise the importance of the critical infrastructure they operate to the nation’s national and economic security, but also because of the significant financial impacts of any successful attack. Cybersecurity insurance coverage is extremely expensive and riddled with exclusions when available at all. Ransomware and other types of cyberattacks that imperil the safe operation of a country’s transportation systems must be recognised as national security threats. We must also recognise that the US energy industry is very diverse, with many players large and small, including both foreign and domestic ownership. While there are calls for moving authority for critical infrastructure cybersecurity like pipelines from TSA to the Department of Energy (DOE), such a move would be a mistake. Rather than moving the authority, the Biden Administration should focus on improving oversight. There are several different departments and agencies involved in pipeline and cybersecurity regulation; what is needed are communication, co-ordination, collaboration, cooperation, and clarification of authorities rather than conflict between TSA and CISA at DHS, PHMSA, FERC, and DOE. The federal government should approach any new regulatory action using a partnership model in which they work with industry to create an efficient and effective regime that is practicable to implement. New, more sophisticated cyberattack technology is constantly emerging. In some cases, the private sector recognises emerging threats more quickly than our government. Some energy companies have more sophisticated security systems than any government. Government and industry should work to ensure that information about emerging threats is shared – and shared in a timely manner between agencies – between companies, and across a public-private partnership. It is imperative that any new regulatory measures provide the flexibility necessary to allow both agencies and pipeline companies to react quickly to emerging threats. A cyberattack is a criminal offense. While the importance of shared information cannot be underestimated, sensitive and privileged information must be protected by both the government and by private companies. Government agencies must determine who has access and how top-secret information will be utilised.

Steps to take now Regulation promulgation is a tedious process, even when driven by threats to national security. The clarification of authorities that is necessary requires statutory changes that can only be accomplished if Congress acts. What should pipeline and other energy infrastructure companies do while waiting for new regulatory action? First, they should continue to advocate for an efficient, effective, and flexible regulatory regime that clarifies which agency has what authority. Their work to update API Standard 1164 should be accelerated. Companies of all sizes must review their cyber policies and procedures. Cybersecurity should be written into strategic plans and every employee should be trained and retrained repeatedly

about threat awareness. Incident response and recovery planning should include cyber-related events, with the appropriate level of exercises that will lessen confusion and paralysis in the case of a successful attack. The industries’ trade associations should explore options for providing cyber-related insurance coverage to their members. Successful cyberattacks can result in severe economic harm and pipeline companies are eager to limit the damage these costs have on their corporate reputations, shareholder relationships, and bottom line. Victims of cyberattacks will be ever more concerned about costly litigation stemming from cyber-related supply interruptions. I have a mantra that I use to advocate for pipeline companies to implement safety management systems: “You’re only as good as your worst contractor.” In the case of cybersecurity protection, I would expand that to include all external parties with whom a company shares computer systems and data. In order to secure their systems, each pipeline company should ensure that every one of their vendors, contractors, partners, customers, and even government agencies with whom they share data, have adequate cybersecurity practices. Unfortunately, Americans have short attention spans – today they are no longer mesmerised by their fuel gauges. Concern about prices at the pump is more likely to be considered as part of an all-encompassing fear of inflation than as a result of the Colonial ransomware attack. But it would be a mistake to wait for the next crisis to act. Just as the Exxon Valdez oil spill resulted in major changes to the entire industry’s marine transportation practices, the Colonial pipeline five-day shutdown and panic-

induced gasoline shortages should result in major changes to the US government’s and industry’s approach to fighting the national security threat posed by ever evolving cybersecurity terrorism.

About the author Drue Pearce is the Government Affairs Director in Holland & Hart LLP’s Anchorage, Alaska office. She was the Deputy Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration during the Trump Administration and previously served in the Alaska State Senate where her committees had primary jurisdiction rewriting the state’s oil spill prevention and response statutes after the Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef.

Bibliography executive-order-on-improving-the-nations-cybersecurity/ .

Gordon Cope discusses how the crossborder movement of energy products in North America faces an uncertain future in the face of environmental opposition.


he movement of oil, gas and refined products across the borders of Canada, the US and Mexico has been a mainstay of free trade between the three countries for several decades. The immense expansion of energy trade is now being challenged by environmental opposition, however, and the future is anything but clear.

Canada and US crude Over the course of the last decade, the movement of crude from Canada to the US has grown at a tremendous clip. In 2010, Canada supplied approximately 13% of US refinery input, but by 2019, it had grown to over one third; Canada was exporting approximately 3.8 million bpd prior to COVID. As the pandemic recedes, exports are expected to rise to 4.45 million bpd by the end of 2021. The increase in exports has been driven by several factors. Oilsands output has been discounted for the last several years due to pipeline constraints, making it much more affordable than Middle East imports. Midwestern refineries are configured to take heavy crude (it would be costly to reconfigure for US light, tight shale oil). Finally, other sources of heavy crude, such as Mexico and Venezuela, have reduced exports or fallen under sanctions. US exports of crude to Canada have also expanded. Canada’s major refineries are located in Ontario and Quebec, but crude from the US accounted for a tiny fraction of input a decade ago; by 2019, that number had swelled to 45% of feedstock (around 450 000 bpd), as light, tight shale oil from the Bakken in North Dakota made its way to market. Altogether, total petroleum trade volume between the United States and Canada doubled to 2 billion bbls per year over the last decade. Most of this is in the form of crude; almost 5.5 million bpd now crosses the border in both directions. In all, the category of petroleum trade accounts for just under US$96 billion annually, exceeded only by the auto sector, at US$102 billion.



Natural gas Western Canada produces approximately 16 billion ft3/d of natural gas, far in excess of domestic needs. Canada has long been a major supplier of natural gas to the US, averaging 8.9 billion ft3/d in 2010. Over the last several years, however, shale gas from Appalachia has slowly replaced Canadian supplies, and imports from the north stood at 7.4 billion ft3/d in 2019. The gas travels by several major systems. The Alliance pipeline runs from northeast British Columbia to Chicago Illinois, a distance of 3848 km; it transports an average of 1.6 billion ft3/d. TC Energy’s 3400 km Great Lakes system exports approximately 2.4 billion ft3/d from a border crossing in Manitoba the US Midwest and ultimately to the USGC. Although overall exports are down, demand is growing in western regional markets. In April 2021, TC Energy announced it is spending over US$1.3 billion on expansions in order to deliver more gas to the Pacific Northwest and California. When completed in 2022 and 2023, the expansions will add about 260 million ft3/d. Exports to the western region currently stand at slightly over 1.3 billion ft3/d. Gas production in the Appalachia now sits at approximately 33 billion ft3/d. While most is consumed domestically, US gas flowing into eastern Canada averaged 2.5 billion ft3/d in 2019. The NEXUS pipeline, a 256 mile, 36 in. line running from eastern Ohio to southern Michigan and the Dawn hub in Ontario, came into service in 2018. It has a capacity of 1.5 billion ft3/d. The Rover pipeline, which entered service in 2018, runs 713 miles from processing plants in West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania to Michigan and the Dawn Hub in Ontario. The system has a total capacity of 3.25 billion ft3/d. In 2020, Rover filed an application with FERC to boost its mainline capacity by 175 million ft3/d, primarily through operating efficiencies, with the aim of increasing total capacity to 3.425 billion ft3/d.

Condensates Appalachian gas contains significant quantities of natural gas liquids, which are valuable to petrochemical producers. Kinder Morgan operates the Utopia East pipeline, part of a 225 mile, US$540 million network that moves up to 50 000 bpd of ethane from central Ohio to the Canadian border at Windsor, Ontario, and on to industrial customers in Canada. As part of its exit strategy from the Canadian pipeline sector, Houston-based Kinder Morgan recently sold its share of the Cochin pipeline to Calgary-based Pembina Pipeline for US$1.57 billion. The 2900 km pipeline moves 110 000 bpd of condensate from Chicago, Illinois, to Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. The condensate is used to dilute oil sands bitumen for shipping to the Chicago area, then recycled. In January 2021, Pembina launched an open season to seek interested shippers for up to 14 000 bpd of additional committed capacity.

US and Mexico Mexico consumes over 8 billion ft3/d of natural gas. Domestic gas production, which is largely associated with crude production, has been dropping as giant oilfields such as Cantarell in the Bay of Campeche slowly tap out. CFE, Mexico’s national utility company, has been driving a huge increase in natural gas demand as it replaces older bunker-fuel-fired systems with gas-fired turbines. The gap between demand and supply is being met through the growth of shale gas in Texas and New Mexico. Several new gas pipelines designed to service exports from the Permian basin


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in Texas to Mexico have recently entered service. Kinder Morgan’s Permian Highway Pipeline came online in early 2021, moving up to 2.1 billion ft3/d from the Waha hub in West Texas to the Gulf Coast, where it connects to lines running to Mexico. Whitewater’s Aqua Blanca began operations in early 2021, transporting 1.8 billion ft3/d to the Waha hub, where it is expected to move south to export hubs along the Whistler Pipeline when it is completed in late 2021. There are 20 gas lines in service crossing between the US and Mexico, with a total capacity of over 11 billion ft3/d. In the spring of 2021, exports from the US to Mexico reached an all-time high of 7 billion ft3/d due to high temperatures experienced in the Mexico City region, and pipelines heading south saw significant load increases. While the 2.6 billion ft3/d Texas-Tuxpan line began operations in late 2019, it has yet to reach capacity. In April 2021, however, one third of the month saw flows above 1 billion ft3/d, a high mark for the system so far, and a harbinger for increased flows as summer temperatures peak. Further demand on the TexasTuxpan line may be generated as Cenagas plans to add 1 billion ft3/d incremental capacity to its Montegrande interconnect in central Mexico, as well as alterations to the 1.3 billion ft3/d Cempoala compressor station that will allow US gas to reach southern Mexico.

Crude and products Mexico and the US trade a substantial amount of petroleum liquids. While US imports of Mexican crude have dropped from over 1 million bpd to under 600 000 bpd over the last decade, trade in refined products has grown tremendously. PEMEX has six refineries with a nameplate capacity of 1.8 million bpd, enough to meet its domestic fuel needs, but mismanagement, poor maintenance and corruption have reduced its output to under 40%, resulting in the need to import fuel. Since 2010, Mexico’s imports of US gasoline alone have risen from 100 000 bpd to almost 500 000 bpd. While most arrives by sea, several cross-border fuel pipelines have been constructed and approved, including Nustar’s 24 000 bpd diesel line in Laredo, Texas.

Challenges For several decades, the free flow of energy between Canada, the US and Mexico has been guaranteed through bilateral agreements. The election of Joe Biden as president in 2020 is placing international pacts in jeopardy, however. On his first day in the White House, President Biden cancelled TC Energy’s Keystone XL pipeline. Initially proposed in 2008 as a 2000 km express line to deliver 830 000 bpd of Alberta crude to the USGC, the Obama administration refused to approve a crossborder permit. President Trump used an executive order to reverse the decision, but Biden’s move is considered to be the nail-in-the-coffin for the US$8 billion project. In addition to the cancellation of Keystone XL, crude exporters in Canada face further pipeline complications. Enbridge Line 5 transports 540 000 bpd from Canada (and North Dakota) through Michigan to Ontario and Quebec. The line has been operated safely for over 60 years, and Enbridge has been doing extensive upgrades to the system to ensure safe operation. In late 2020, however, Michigan Governor Gretchen Witmer ordered Line 5 to shut down operations by 13 May, 2021, due to the potential for spills where it passes under the Straits of Mackinac in the Great Lakes. Although there have never been

any leaks in the Straits, and Enbridge has received approval to replace the pipeline using a tunnel to greatly increase integrity, the issue remains at a standoff. Enbridge has sought legal relief, and the case is being heard in a US federal court. Ottawa has strenuously objected to the move, and is considering invoking the 1977 Transit Pipelines Treaty, which was negotiated to stop either country from impeding the flow of oil in transit. While the May deadline passed without closure, an eventual shutdown would affect refineries in Sarnia, Ontario, as well as millions of consumers in both Canada and the US. Enbridge’s Line 3 crude pipeline, built half a century ago, was designed to carry 760 000 bpd from Alberta to Superior, Wisconsin, but age and corrosion reduced capacity by 50%. The refurbishment has been delayed several years by environmental lawsuits. In February 2020, the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission finally endorsed a revised environmental impact statement and allowed the refurbishment to proceed. Environmental and Indigenous groups filed a legal challenge; the Minnesota Court of Appeals ruled in June 2021, that the Commission’s decision was justified. Since then, protestors have periodically occupied ROW sites in an attempt to disrupt construction.

Cold snap in Texas Weather had a major impact on gas exports to Mexico. In February 2021, a polar vortex hit the state of Texas, causing gas wells to freeze and production to drop from around 24 billion ft3/d to as low as 11 billion ft3/d. The weather crisis illustrated weaknesses in the state’s gas delivery system. Most natural gas pipes are filled with associated gas derived from shale oil wells, because it is easier to access under normal conditions. When power lines supplying Permian basin fields failed, compressors went down, leaving the gas stranded. While Texas has a large amount of gas storage and the nameplate capacity to replace the downed production, complications arose, creating massive shortages that affected state consumers and exports to Mexico. In the latter case, exports dropped from an average of 5.7 billion ft3/d prior to the polar vortex, to 3.8 billion ft3/d. Mexico scrambled for replacement using its LNG import facilities on the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts, but it took over a week for deliveries to return to normal. Mexico’s utilities and regulatory bodies are looking at increasing gas storage facilities to ameliorate similar disruptions in the future.

The future Regardless of Keystone XL’s cancellation, USGC refiners are increasingly relying on Canadian heavy crude to fill their feedstock slates. Enbridge is the largest crude exporter to the US, shipping over 3 million bpd on its extensive network. The

Calgary-based company is increasing capacity to the US through incremental additions. The renovation of Line 3 running through Minnesota, and the expansion of Southern Access connecting to Patoka, Ill. (both expected to be completed in 2021), will add around 375 000 bpd capacity to the US Midwest. In conclusion, pipeline opponents have waged an increasingly successful battle against fossil fuels by delaying or canceling pipelines, especially cross-border lines that require both state and federal approval. While the tactics have impeded the international movement of energy in North America, demand for fossil fuels is expected to remain strong for the next several decades, and pipelines will remain the most efficient, cost-effective and safest means of transportation.

Sara Kleinecke, McElroy, USA, explains how the company’s pipe fusion machinery was utilised as part of a large refinery construction project in Mexico.

Figure 1. Dos Bocas Refinery, in Tabasco, Mexico.



or more than 20 years, Sevilla Fusión S.A. de C.V. in Mexico has trusted McElroy to provide pipe fusion machines to its customers who are using thermoplastic pipe in a variety of industries, including oil and gas and mining. It’s a partnership with deep roots and over the past several months, Sevilla Fusión has been hard at work in Tabasco, Southeast Mexico, fusing pipe at the Dos Bocas oil refinery. Not only are workers from the company on site, they are also providing the fusion machines for the work being carried out by Samsung Ingenieria Manzanillo, S.A. de C.V., a subsidiary of Samsung Engineering, and two other companies. “Having this many machines on one project all at once is a big deal. The scope of the Dos Bocas refinery project is one of the largest we’ve been a part of in Mexico”, says McElroy International Sales Manager Juan Quintero. The objective of this project is to make Mexico less reliant on other countries for its commodities. According to José Herrera Juárez, Commerical Director of Sevilla Fusión, “The construction of the Dos Bocas refinery has a multiplier economic objective for the region and the country, since through the increase of production of gasoline and diesel, Mexico seeks to reduce the import of these products.” According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), Mexico imports around 77% of its gasoline consumption, and of this amount almost 90% comes from the US.

Declining oil production in Mexico Mexico has six existing oil refineries, all operated by Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex). The output from those refineries has steadily decreased over the years, from approximately 75% in 2013 to 40% in 2018. In 2013, Mexico’s Congress approved legislation for


energy reform that was intended to re-open the market to foreign investment, reversing a ban back in 1938 that removed private investors’ participation in the country’s energy sector. Despite these efforts, the decline in output continued; it has been attributed to

underinvestment and poor infrastructure, which has ultimately led to Mexico’s dependency on imports. With regard to crude oil inputs to Mexico’s petroleum refineries, there has also been a steady decline from 2010 to 2018; falling to nearly 600 000 bpd, which is a 50% drop from 2013 levels. This reduction has required Mexico to rely heavily on US oil. The reason for the reduction centres around government restrictions, and increased safety concerns surrounding drug activity. This situation has also reduced the number of new companies coming in to further develop Mexico’s shale oil and gas resources. Supply shortages continue to be a reality in Mexico and resources are projected to become more limited as demand is predicted to grow by 2% annually through 2028. Factors contributing to these predictions include economic growth and an increase in middle class households investing in cars as their incomes rise. In 2019, the average gasoline consumption reached nearly 844 million bpd, and that consumption could increase to 1.1 billion bpd by 2028.

What sparked the Dos Boca’s oil refinery construction? Figure 2. Sevilla Fusión S.A. de C.V. provided 13 McElroy fusion machines for Dos Bocas Refinery project.

In December 2018, President of Mexico, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, announced the National Refining Plan. The plan’s intention is to increase fuel production, improve refining processes and renew oil production facilities with new technology. The ultimate goal of this plan is to bring energy independence to Mexico. The National Refining Plan called for rehabilitation of the six existing Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) operated refineries and creation of the Dos Bocas refinery to help reduce Mexico’s dependency on fuel imports. Dos Bocas, the seventh refinery, was designed to process 340 000 bpd of heavy crude oil. Construction on the Dos Boca’s oil refinery was slated to begin in 2019 and Pemex was named the owner and operator of the refinery. The initial estimate was US$8 billion dollars with a projected completion date of 2022.

McElroy machines called to action

Figure 3. Those working on Dos Bocas site encounter a variety of elements and various levels of terrain while fusing HDPE pipe.

Figure 4. Nearly 22 miles of HDPE pipe is being installed at the Dos Bocas Refinery.


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All associated work on the Dos Bocas refinery was divided into six packages. Package 1 involved the construction of the distillation and coking plant facilities. Refining begins with distilling, where the heated oil turns into vapour and feeds into a distillation unit where it rises and cools, and separates into various liquid based on weight. Package 2 is the various desulphurisation units and a naphtha reformer. Reforming increases the amount of gasoline produced from crude oil. Package 3 is the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, which transforms heavy oil into lighter fluids. Package 4 includes the gas recovery and treatment plant. Package 5 includes building storage facilities and Package 6 involves refinery integration services. José with Sevilla Fusión says McElroy machines arrived on the job site in August 2019 to begin work on Package 1. Work began on Packages 2 and 3 in March 2021. The McElroy fleet on the job site represents a cross-section of rolling and tracked machines, from the smallest machine which fuses 4 in. pipe to the largest which fuses 36 in. pipe. Workers from Sevilla Fusión are involved in this project because they send an operator from their company to a job site with each machine rental. Samsung Ingenieria Manzanillo, S.A. de C.V. was awarded work on Packages 2 and 3 and they are

Track PIGs reliably, safely afely and cost effectively over the internet.

using McElroy machines provided by Sevilla Fusión. This is Samsung Engineering’s sixth Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) project to work on. According to S&P Global Platts, the construction of the new refinery will create a new 35 km pipeline that will connect Dos

Bocas with the existing Minatitlan refinery. Along the nearly 22 mile stretch of HDPE being installed at the new refinery, the job calls for a variety of pipe diameter sizes. With numerous McElroy machines on the site, the pipe fusion is happening simultaneously in different parts of the plant. José says the entire fleet is increasing productivity and efficiency on the refinery job site, especially the TracStar® 500 and DataLogger®. “The durability combined with the strength to fuse large pipe allows the crew to handle the long stretches of pipe fusion more efficiently. Not to mention the DataLogger® has offered a great advantage.” In Mexico it is not mandatory to log each joint fusion; however, José always recommends using McElroy’s DataLogger®. In fact, on the Dos Bocas project, it has been requested that the contractors attach the quality records of each fusion joint performed on site. Having these records is an added measure to ensure the HDPE pipe has been fused correctly and adheres to the standard.

The HDPE advantage Figure 5. McElroy TracStar® 500 on-site at Dos Bocas Refinery.

Figure 6. Contractors from Samsung Ingenieria Manzanillo, S.A. de C.V. oversee HDPE pipe fusion process at Dos Bocas Refinery site.

Sevilla Fusión learned that Pemex was looking for reliable, safe machines that could withstand the demands of fusing thick, large diameter HDPE pipe, with the capability to record the fusion joints. The wall thickness of the pipe being used on the Dos Bocas refinery site is considered to be the thickest pipe in the market. Many of the machines available in Mexico are not capable of fusing such thick walls. McElroy machines are well known as the strongest machines, capable of fusing the thickest pipe wall and pulling greater lengths of pipe. José says HDPE pipe is also being used for the oil refinery project because it provides a reliable fire network system to aid in fire suppression. According to Jim Johnston, McElroy’s Vice President & Chief Technology Officer, HDPE pipe has numerous uses within oil refineries. It is commonly used for chemical waste piping, cooling lines, wastewater and firewater lines. The leak free and nonreactive properties of HDPE are the biggest reason people choose HDPE. “Whether it is absolute certainty that the fire suppression system will work when it is needed or the prevention of any environmental spill of materials, HDPE gives the refinery owner confidence.”

Fueling the economy Due to the scope of the project, Samsung Ingenieria Manzanillo, S.A. de C.V. is one of several contractors fusing pipe on the Dos Bocas job site. José with Sevilla Fusión says this project has generated a total of 34 000 direct and indirect jobs for the people and companies of Mexico. Since work began on the new refinery back in 2019, there has been an increase in the project cost and the estimated date to begin operations for Dos Bocas has been pushed back one year to 2023. Industry experts say Dos Bocas is designed to process heavy crude oil, however, this will still leave a deficit in Mexico’s light crude supply; imports will still need to occur if the country doesn’t increase its light crude reserves.

Looking to the future Figure 7. Section of Dos Bocas Refinery construction shows crews working simultaneously in different areas of the site.


World Pipelines / NORTH AMERICA 2021

As Mexico continues to navigate its reliance on imports, one thing that’s certain is the country’s population is on the rise. According

to the US Census Bureau’s most recent data, Mexico’s population as of July 2021 was 130.2 million, and it’s projected to increase to 159.5 million by 2060. Time will tell what the future holds for Mexico’s oil and gas industry. The projected benefits of the Dos Bocas refinery will not be seen until it officially goes online; however, the construction of the Dos Bocas refinery is putting Mexico on a path toward its desire to strive to be self-sufficient with its resources.


Figure 8. Samsung Ingenieria Manzanillo, S.A. de C.V. awarded contract to work on Packages 2 and 3 for Dos Bocas Refinery construction. oil/060319-mexico-begins-construction-of-dos-bocas-refinery-to-connectwith-central-region-pacific-coast

Thomas W. Schmidt, Barbco, Inc., and Drake Barbera, AccuLine Underground, USA, discuss a challenging guided auger bore project completed in Tennessee.


n February 2021, the AccuLine team was called on a 36 in., solid rock crossing in Dayton, Tennessee. AccuLine was notified that another contractor was set to attempt the crossing with a disc cutter head, but was not able to, by the time the jacking pit was completed. The overall project had no more time to wait, and became a rush to start. When reviewing the project details, the team was informed of the necessity that the bore was completed on the line and grade of the engineered plans, 0.15%, with no tolerance permitted. The AccuLine team made the decision to install a line-of-sight pilot throughout the crossing to maintain grade and to determine the ground conditions throughout the crossing, changing a rock SBU crossing to a Guided Auger Bore. The team, which included Drake Barbera, Clay Gillilan, and Joshua Knotts, set up AccuLine’s

Figure 1. Close-up of AccuLine’s custom designed Pioneer One Hammer Tool.


Figure 2. Close-up of the large cobble and loose material at the 40 ft bore mark.

Figure 3. 36 in. Rollercone built to cut 48 in.


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Barbco Pathfinder 1000 and prepared to start the pilot phase. AccuLine utilised a Pioneer one hammer, with a custom hammer bit, built for their Pathfinder 1000. The crew piloted through 30 ft of solid limestone when they suddenly hit large cobble and loose material. As the team worked through roughly 8 ft of this material, line of sight became nearly impossible to maintain. This eventually caused a deviation in the pilot, resulting in the loss of line of sight. AccuLine then chose to stop work and evaluate the situation. The crew made the decision to stop piloting. They began to install the 36 in. casing and open up the 30 ft section of solid rock, that maintained line and grade, with their in-house built roller cone cutting head. This decision was made to withhold multiple key factors of the crossing. First, opening the hole maintained the correct line and grade throughout the section of pilot that was acceptable. Secondly, having a cased hole, up to a section of extremely difficult ground, would allow the crew to safely support and stabilise pilot rod for reentry. Lastly, this decision would continue to push the overall crossing forward in progression. They then inserted an 8 in. casing, with pipe supports throughout the 30 ft cased hole, and set up to restart the pilot back on line and grade. AccuLine started the pilot into the 8 in. casing pipe and entered back into the ground, downhole, to continue the pilot phase. The crew would eventually finish, with line of sight, through various challenging ground conditions. After the pilot was pushed 2 ft into the exit pit, the team met with the engineering company on the project, to survey the pilot, and confirmed its successful completion. AccuLine then began boring operations with their Barbco 54/60 boring machine. While pushing the 36 in. casing forward, attached to the redirected pilot, the pilot rod failed directly in front of the cutting head. The team then pulled the auger line and cutting head out to access the situation. After Joshua Knotts went in to find that the pilot rod snapped off of the head, the team regrouped and realised that the 36 in. casing would not be able to make the transition necessary to progress forward on line and grade. AccuLine then made the decision to back out of the hole and re-tool the cutting head in order to cut 48 in. This would allow for the 36 in. casing to progress forward through the transition and would later be filled with concrete. The team was able to redesign the 36 in. cutting head to cut 48 in. while being centralised by the original roller cones already on the head. The crew made the additions to the head and was successfully able to open the hole to 48 in. Following the success of the hole opening, the team tripped out the cutting line once again. They were able to simply cut off the extra overcut roller cones and go back into the hole. AccuLine then welded supports onto the casing, in order to keep the 36 in. pipe centered, in the 48 in. hole. These supports would get ripped off after the first 10 ft of the casing made it past the transition. With these methods the 36 in. casing would easily make the transition and begin to make positive progress. The rest of the auger boring phase would include drilling 20 ft sections of 36 in. casing, and breaking out the pilot rod, in the exit pit, as they progressed. The team endured 3 months of extremely difficult auger boring, through various ground conditions, with 45 - 50 gpm of groundwater coming from downhole, and successfully entered the exit pit on line and grade. This crossing showed the vast capabilities of the AccuLine team, and the hard-work they bring to every jobsite.

Sam Miorelli, Scott Tackett and Arja Talakar, Siemens Energy, USA, on ushering in the next generation of compressor stations and addressing challenges related to cost, emissions and asset integrity.


oday, every oil and gas company faces pressure to reduce costs, lower emissions and ensure profitability in a future defined by market volatility. Pipeline operators, however, face a unique set of challenges. Although the collapse in demand and the associated drop in production caused by the global pandemic temporarily alleviated pressure on North American midstream companies to build out new transportation infrastructure, the long-term need for pipelines and compressor stations is expected to remain strong. The question operators now face is how they can bring these facilities online quickly and sustainably while at the same


Figure 1. Siemens Energy modular compression station rendering with compression train inside a building.

Figure 2. Integrated SGT-400 compressor train. The factorycomplete package features on-package controls, factory test of complete drivetrain, crane and forklift handling, modular enclosure with open access.

time reducing emissions and maintaining the integrity of existing assets. This article looks at how some of the latest advancements in rotating equipment, waste heat recovery and digitalisation can be leveraged to achieve these objectives.

Compressor station design The selection of turbomachinery within compressor stations is an area where significant opportunities exist for pipeline operators to reduce both emissions and lifecycle costs. As far as design philosophies go, one trend we have seen in recent years on large capacity pipelines is the move away from several trains with gas turbine power blocks in the sub-30 000 hp unit range to fewer trains in the 50 000 hp range. Larger power blocks driven by modern gas turbines can translate into a lower cost per unit of horsepower, as well as reduced installation and land acquisition costs. For one particular ~500 mile pipeline project,1 Siemens Energy compared the capital costs of the following two compression options: ) 9 x 30 000 hp ISO trains installed across four stations. ) 5 x 55 000 hp ISO trains installed across four stations.

Using a net present value (NPV) analysis, capital savings of Option 2 were estimated at US$50 million. Recent projects


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that Siemens Energy has been involved with have shown that it is possible to increase these savings further using modular construction techniques combined with sole-source provisioning of trains. The degree of CAPEX savings achieved through modular fabrication will ultimately vary from project to project. Generally speaking, however, a 25 - 30% reduction in project spend is feasible when compared to a stick-built station. Operational and maintenance expenses with Option 2 were also estimated to be 20% lower. These savings are mainly attributable to the fact that there are fewer trains and ancillary equipment for operators to maintain. Another advantage of large power blocks is higher operating efficiency over a broader range of power loads, leading to a corresponding reduction in fuel consumption and emissions. For example, in the above comparison, the 5 x 55 000 hp configuration would consume an estimated 4.3 million ft3/d less fuel than the 9 x 30 000 hp option. At a gas cost of US$5/ mmBTU, this would result in savings of US$40 million over the life of the pipeline. When it comes to the actual selection of the gas turbine, another trend that has emerged is the use of units equipped with modern dry low emissions (DLE) combustion systems. Over the past decade, the reliability and performance of DLE combustion systems have been drastically improved. Many DLE units in operation today are seeing single-digit parts per million (ppm) NOx emission levels at power loads as low as 0%. The Siemens Energy SGT-400 industrial gas turbine (15 000 - 20 000 hp) with its enhanced DLE combustion hardware, for example, can maintain compliance with any applicable North American regulations down to 20% load. This is also the case with the larger SGT-750 industrial gas turbine model (50 000 - 55 000 hp), which can achieve 9 ppm NOx down to 20% load. The fuel flexibility of DLE gas turbines has improved in recent years as well. Many models can now seamlessly switch between burning natural gas and other liquid fuels, including those with medium calorific values (MCV). The use of fuels with high contents of hydrogen is also possible. This is an essential characteristic with many pipeline projects planning to use co-firing in the coming years to reduce emissions. By combining these gas turbine innovations with technologies for reducing or eliminating fugitive emissions from compressors, such as recompression or modern dry gas seals (both of which can be applied in brownfields), the carbon footprint of stations can be reduced rather substantially.

sCO2-based waste heat recovery For mechanically driven facilities, even further emissions reductions and efficiency gains can be realised by capturing and utilising waste heat from gas turbines. Although some compressor stations today use some form of waste heat recovery, the inherent drawbacks of traditional steam and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technologies have prevented their application on a broader scale. One of the primary limitations of steam cycles is the requirement for a plentiful water source and manual boiler operation. With many compressor stations located in remote locations without access to an ample supply of freshwater or where freezing can occur, these systems can be difficult to

justify. In recent years, ORC has emerged as a more attractive alternative to steam cycles. However, it also comes with drawbacks, including increased system complexity, exhaust temperature limitations, and environmental concerns related to the use of hazardous chemicals. This year, Siemens Energy took an important step in expanding the possibilities for waste heat recovery at compressor stations by signing an agreement with TC Energy Corporation in Canada to install a water-free, waste heatto-power system at a facility in Alberta. The system was commercialised by Siemens Energy and Echogen Power Systems and uses supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as the working fluid. sCO2 provides several advantages compared to ORC and steam cycles, including a more effective heat transfer profile, smaller footprint, lower installed costs, and the ability for remote operation. The system at the compressor station in Alberta will capture waste heat from a gas-fired turbine and convert it into emissions-free power. The system will feed the grid with enough electricity to power roughly 10 000 Canadian homes. It will offset approximately 44 000 t/y of greenhouse gases, equivalent to taking 9000 vehicles off the road.

Embracing digital transformation In addition to taking advantage of the latest advancements in equipment, operators will also have to embrace digital transformation if they are to remain competitive in the coming years. An increasing number of companies now acknowledge this reality; however, many continue to show reluctance when using their data, owing to cybersecurity concerns and doubts about ROI. While both areas should be closely scrutinised when deciding whether or not to implement a solution, operators should ask the potential implications and risks of not digitalising. To quantify this, let us consider the application of

Figure 3. sCO2 turbine vs. steam turbine (~10MW size).

Siemens Energy’s cloud-based SmartPumpingTM solution to an 800 mile liquid pipeline with 18 pump stations driven by electric motors. At an average electricity rate of 7.5 cents/kWh, the annual utility bill for the line could be as high as US$30 million. Now consider the massive volume of data generated from systems controlling valves, pumps, and motors in the stations. To provide some context, one of North America’s largest pipelines generates more than 20 000 data points of data every five seconds. This raw data holds tremendous value that is unlocked by processing and analysing it against the delivery schedules of various customer products, each with its own hydraulic characteristics. SmartPumping analytics can take into account the power demands of those hydraulic characteristics and propose parameters aimed at helping operators reduce electrical loads in a process known as batch optimisation. The application can also be used to leverage utility price differentials between pump stations, shifting either downstream or upstream some of the power load of one station that’s subject to relatively expensive utility rates to another pump station where utility charges are less. In this particular case, just a 1% reduction in power consumption at each of the 18 pumping stations along the 800 mile route could equate to utility bill savings of US$7.5 million over five years. Depending on the source of power generation, it could also translate into a reduction of up to 70 000 metric t of CO2 emissions. Significant opportunities also exist to optimise maintenance and improve asset utilisation through digitalisation. Among the many different solutions available on the marketplace today, asset performance management (APM) software has garnered a great deal of interest, as it has been used extensively in industries that are widely recognised as being far along on the digital transformation maturity curve (e.g. aviation, manufacturing, chemical processing, etc.). Last year, Siemens Energy launched its own APM platform (APM4O&G), which is explicitly geared toward oil and gas facilities, including compressor stations. APM4O&G is a diagnostic and decision-support tool that combines Bentley Systems field-proven asset performance software platform (AssetWise) with Siemens Energy’s domain expertise and know-how in oil and gas equipment operations and maintenance. The solution is delivered as-a-service (i.e. subscription-based) and is designed to help operators ensure that every piece of equipment in their facility performs its expected function within a specific operating and business context. As my colleague Matthew Grimes – along with Stuart Mitchell from Proflex Technologies – discussed in the September 2021 issue of World Pipelines, digitalisation also enables faster and more accurate detection of spontaneous leaks at a much lower cost than methods, such as fibre optic sensing. In the article, Mr. Grimes and Mr. Mitchell provided an overview of a recent collaboration between our two companies to offer IoT-based spontaneous leak detection as-a-service.2 The solution leverages ProFlex Technologies’ novel Negative Press Wave (NPW)-based remote monitoring and complex data processing algorithms to detect and localise small pipeline leaks within seconds. Once a leak event has been identified, Siemens Energy’s cloud-based IoT system analyses the leak data in real-time, notifying users through mobile devices, laptops, or via desktop or


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SCADA system. Leak location in the form of latitude and longitude co-ordinates is presented on a pipeline asset map and has proven to be accurate to around 20 - 50 ft.

Cybersecurity Of course, any conversation about the digitalisation of pipeline assets cannot be had without a discussion of cybersecurity. Cyberattacks now threaten the core value proposition of every oil and gas organisation. Unfortunately, the interconnected and distributed nature of pipelines makes them a desirable target for malicious parties. This is particularly the case with ageing compressor and pumping stations, which were not explicitly designed with connectivity in mind. Today, the primary challenge when it comes to protecting midstream networks from potential cyber intrusions is visibility. Most operators don’t have the proper tools or domain expertise to identify possible weak points within their architectures. In some cases, intrusions may have already occurred but gone undetected. Ironically, the key to addressing this challenge is more digitalisation. The use of artificial intelligence (AI)-based tools that can rapidly detect when an attack is occurring represent arguably the most advanced protection measure available today. These tools have been successfully applied across other industries. Historically, however, they have been challenging to scale for IT and OT networks spread over millions of square miles of remote terrain. Siemens Energy set out to solve this problem by partnering with SparkCognition to deploy DeepArmor Industrial, a novel cyber defense system designed to protect endpoint and remote OT assets across the energy value chain. DeepArmor features an AI-driven system that provides continuous monitoring and the capability to quickly detect cyberattacks, delivering next-generation antivirus, threat detection, application control, and zero-day attack prevention to endpoint transmission and distribution assets. The collaborative effort aims to help the midstream and broader oil and gas industry address its cybersecurity challenges by providing operators, for the first time, with fleet-level monitoring and protection capabilities.

Collaborating with strategic partners Midstream companies are under intense pressure to simultaneously reduce both costs and emissions. It is sometimes perceived that addressing one of these challenges must occur at the expense of the other. At Siemens Energy, our experience with large-scale compression projects across the globe has shown this does not have to be the case. The key to success lies in engaging with strategic partners who have shared goals and can help choose the right combination of technologies and strategies to deploy. To this end, operators can benefit by embracing relationships with vendors and OEMs that are more open and collaborative than closed and transactional. The complex issues the industry has to solve in the coming years – particularly with regards to decarbonisation – will inevitably require new ways of both thinking and working.

References 1. 2.

Length – 491 miles; flowrate – 2000 million ft3/d; MAOP – 1750 psi; diameter – 42 in.; sas price – US$5/mmBTU; operating life – 30 years. Proflex Technologies Spontaneous Leak Detection As-a-service, powered by Siemens Energy IoT.

Figure 1. Lincoln Electric’s customised training takes place at its 130 000 ft2 Welding Technology & Training Cenre in Cleveland, Ohio.

Sam Phillips, Global Industry Segment Director – Pipeline, The Lincoln Electric Company USA, describes how the push for stronger welds sent a pipeline company to Lincoln Electric for new low hydrogen SMAW rod training.


s more pipeline owners require higher strength pipe, the industry needs a reliable high-strength electrode. Pipeliner® LH-D is Lincoln Electric’s solution. For years, cellulosic rods have been (and in many cases still are) the electrode of choice for pipeline welders due to their ease of use and ability to adapt to variations in weld joints. However, some pipeline operators are moving to higher strength, reduced heat

input, low hydrogen processes when welding on higher strength steels to combat the risks associated with heataffected zone softening, girth weld undermatching and hydrogen-induced cracking. Fortunately, new advancements in low hydrogen stick electrodes are being introduced to help address these concerns. This can be seen firsthand with the continued research and development at Lincoln Electric and its


Figure 2. Enbridge attendees were able to capture instruction on how best to apply the new Pipeliner® LH-D electrode from Lincoln Electric’s expert team of instructors.

transports nearly 20% of the natural gas consumed in the US, and operates North Ameria’s third largest natural gas utility by consumer count. Enbridge’s natural gas pipelines cover about 23 850 miles in 30 US states, five Canadian provinces and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Enbridge operates the world’s longest and most complex crude oil and liquids transportation system, with approximately 17 127 miles of active crude pipeline across North America. The relationship with Lincoln Electric serves a critical function this year because the company plans to continue rolling out new procedures with on-the-job training for welding contractors serving the company’s vast expanse of pipeline. “LH-D training and field implementation is considered high priority because the pipeline industry is actively transitioning away from legacy cellulosic welding practices towards higher strength, lower heat input welding methods and consumables,” said Russell Scoles, a Senior Welding Engineer Specialist at Enbridge supporting both greenfield capital expansion construction and pipeline integrity operations and maintenance. “Mitigating the learning curve associated with transitioning to a new welding technique is critical from the perspective of a pipeline operator in order to successfully move the industry forward.”

What makes the reformulated system better? Unlike other low hydrogen rods, Pipeliner LH-D is specially designed for vertical down progression, producing repeatable mechanical properties with low diffusible hydrogen levels. Reformulated in 2021, it is recommended for fill and cap pass welding of up to X60, X65, Figure 3. To reinforce what was learned, Lincoln Electric provided X-ray and weld X70, X80 and X90 pipe, as well as pipe repair evaluation by a certified welding inspector – something few welders get the and hot tapping applications. Benefits include chance to experience for themselves while in the field. higher strength welds, low hydrogen deposits to mitigate risks of hydrogen-assisted cracking, and lower heat input to help reduce potential Pipeliner LH-D consumables, a core product offering defects and repairs. A touch-start tapered tip also helps designed specifically for low hydrogen cross-country to greatly reduce starting porosity and arc strikes on pipe. pipeline applications. Compared to the competition, the Pipeliner LH-D has many attributes that help users more easily adopt the Enbridge adopts procedures using the new electrode into their process: ) Reduction of slag fluidity offers better operability with solution Training isn’t always necessary for every new product that a cleaner and more stable puddle. hits the market, but utilising vertical down low hydrogen ) Lower diffusible hydrogen (typically 50% below the rods can require a whole new skill set and best practices competition). In fact, diffusible hydrogen test results on procedures and techniques. Understanding this fact, show that it meets the ‘H4’ characteristic for 12 hours – the energy company Enbridge recently worked with 25% longer than the nine hour AWS 5.5 requirement. Lincoln Electric to develop specialised training for the new Pipeliner LH-D electrode. ) Reduced starting porosity due to the tapered tip and Headquartered in Calgary, Canada, Enbridge moves strike assist improvement. about 25% of the crude oil produced in North America,


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while receiving instruction on how best to apply the electrode from Lincoln Electric’s expert team of instructors. To reinforce what was learned and distinguish between good and bad technique, welds were visually inspected, X-rayed and evaluated by a certified welding inspector and nondestructive testing technicial – something few welders get the chance to experience for themselves while in the field. “Normally, they just give us a thumbs up,” said Jeremy Ledbetter, another senior Enbridge welder. “Being able to work with this rod and have the supplies that we need to simply dissect it, try it out and test it against what we would put out in the field – it’s just great training.” While the training provided welders Figure 4. Unlike other low hydrogen rods, Pipeliner LH-D is specially designed for vertical down progression, producing repeatable mechanical properties with low the opportunity to practice and better diffusible hydrogen levels. understand how to apply the Pipeliner® LH-D, it also gave Lincoln Electric an opportunity to hear what works and “Competition among the consumable manufacturers what doesn’t. This gives Lincoln Electric’s will continue to breed better performing electrodes, so engineering team valuable insights into how customers we as end users are in a good spot. Lincoln’s latest LH-D actually use the company’s products and provides offering has ben drastically improved and is well-received opportunities for improvements that make welders’ jobs by the welders” Scoles said. “From my perspective, easier at the same time. Lincoln Electric sets itself apart from other consumable “It’s valuable for us because we get to find out how the manufacturers due to the sheer level of technical expertise rods are being used in the field,” said Sam Phillips, Lincoln and applications support available internally. If you have a Electric’s Global Industry Segment Director, Pipelines. challenge, then you can take it to the bank that they have “We hear from the guys who are actually using them, and someone in-house who can provide a solution.” they tell us the real-world applications a little bit more in-depth. That way, we can adjust our training so that Training programme developed for new it’s more tailored and applicable to what they are really technique experiencing out on the line.” To get Enbridge’s welders up to speed, Lincoln Electric The conversation doesn’t stop there. As the demand in worked with Enbridge to design a 2.5 day customised the market grows to shift to lower hydrogen consumables, training course at its flagship Welding Technology & Lincoln Electric and Enbridge both look to continue to Training Centre in Cleveland, Ohio. With next-generation share the knowledge and best practices throughout the welding booths, equipment, classrooms and labs, the industry. 130 000 ft2 centre is a hub for welders seeking training and “Conversations and training will continue with external solutions at every level and spectrum of welding. contractors to push the balance of the industry toward The training was specially designed for Enbridge to do what’s next with pipeline welding,” Scoles said. “Making one thing – weld! With Lincoln Electric taking care of all large-scale changes requires an extensive amount of effort. the pre- and post-work of prepping pipes, the welders It’s a lot of work to break old habits and teach some of were able to devote their full attention to welding with these old dogs new tricks, but it’s incredibly rewarding the new electrode. This dedicated time allowed them to once you navigate through the learning curve and start to practice starts and stops, learn how to work with faster see some light at the end of the tunnel.” travel speeds and higher amperage, as well as practice weaving techniques. Note “I would say we are a year and a half ahead of where Russell Scoles would like to explicitly acknowledge all of we would have been if we were out there by ourselves Enbridge company welders for all of their hard work and winging it trying to figure it out,” said Dudley Swortz, a willingness to adapt to dynamic conditions over the past 18 Senior Welder for Enbridge who attended a spring training months. Their support and dedication to “adding another tool session at Lincoln Electric. “This just speeds it up.” to the toolbox” is directly linked to the company’s success in The training also gave Enbridge’s welders a chance moving Enbridge’s welding programme forward. to rub elbows with other professionals in their field


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OUR POWER, YOUR STRENGTH. Security and comfort for operators.


payload up to 24t

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Tim Mally, CSNRI, USA, explores the benefits and implementation of composite repair systems for crack-like defects in pipelines.



he oil and gas pipeline industry is facing more opposition and scrutiny than ever before. Environmental protests have focused the unforgiving eye of negative public opinions on pipelines. The fear of climate change has sounded the alarm on fossil fuels and carbon emissions and brought a wave of voices calling for renewable energy. State and federal governments and regulators, amidst environmental protests, are placing new pipeline construction under intense scrutiny, grinding new pipeline projects almost to a halt. The slowdown in new projects increases the level of responsibility on the existing, ageing pipeline network to continue to perform as it always has, which in essence means it must carry an even larger load than originally intended due to increasing energy demands and population growth.


However, the majority of existing pipelines in the ground in the US today were built before 1970, when welding and pipe manufacturing standards are not near what they are today. Modern day society is at a critical juncture where affordable energy is paramount, but reliable means to transport it to

Figure 1. Atlas has been used to permanently reinforce crack-like defects on this 16 in. pipeline.


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consumers are only getting older, and new pipelines are not on the way to provide relief for the existing network. The amount of pipeline in service in the ground in the US that was manufactured pre-1970 with a low frequency electric resistance weld (LF-ERW) seam could travel around the circumference of earth almost 10 times. While the LF-ERW manufacturing method has produced pipelines that have successfully stayed in service for 50+ years, time has shown an increased susceptibility to selective seam corrosion, hook cracks, and lack of fusion at the critical juncture called the seam weld. While pipe manufactured since 1970 has improved metallurgy, it is also not immune to having manufacturing defects. These “crack-like” defects present a significant threat to pipeline integrity and are the root cause of several pipeline failures to date. Throwing even more considerations into the mix, if the US follows Europe’s lead and the existing pipeline networks are called upon to transport renewable energy sources such as hydrogen, addressing these “crack-like” defects will become even more important. The nature of hydrogen can cause harmless weld manufacturing defects that have been in the ground for decades to develop into sharp cracks at a much more immediate risk of failure. Therefore, even renewable energy could bring unknown risk into the existing pipeline networks. It seems as if everywhere a pipeline company turns, there is yet another threat to transporting much needed energy to consumers safely. Pipeline integrity engineers work feverishly around the clock to ensure that pipelines can operate safely while mitigating critical threats. What can pipeline integrity engineers turn to in order to address these welds, cracklike and manufacturing defects while safely keeping their pipelines in operation? In an ideal world, pipeline operators could shut the pipeline down, cut out the section of pipeline containing the defect, and weld in a new piece of pipe that has been verified to be free of injurious crack-like and weld anomalies. However, this is not always possible and could be a decision that prevents a family from having heat in the northeast in freezing weather. Another option is to weld on a full encirclement steel sleeve that is welded to the existing pipe and essentially forms a secondary containment should the crack-like defect break through the wall of the pipe. While this option is desirable due to its longstanding acceptance within the industry, it is not always achievable due to the presence of defects at the point of welding to the pipe, making welding dangerous and a serious safety issue. A third option is to utilise an engineered composite repair. Combining high quality resins and high strength fibres, a composite can be installed while the pipeline is in operation, allowing energy to be delivered to consumers while repairs are made in the coldest weather. It also does not require welding on thin-wall pipe, and therefore is safer to install while the pipeline is in service. While the codes and regulations vary from country to country, a composite repair in the US must be proven through “reliable engineering tests and analyses to show they can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe.” Therefore, a composite repair will need to have significant amounts of third-party testing and engineering analysis to

Figure 2. Atlas was validated on seam weld defects manufactured on full-scale spool tests.

prove that it can specifically be a permanent repair to seam weld and crack-like defects.

Reliable engineering tests and analyses Not all composite repairs are created equal. Of all the composite repairs on the market, very few have been tested for permanent reinforcement of crack-like defects. Fewer still have successfully demonstrated excellent performance in permanently reinforcing these anomalies. The AtlasTM composite repair system is a highly engineered carbon fibre and two-part epoxy composite repair system that has performed reliably and impressively in very highprofile testing programmes. At a third party testing laboratory, crack-like defects up to 75% in depth and up to 10.2 in. in length have been reinforced with Atlas, which has had a reliable engineering analysis completed to determine the appropriate amount of thickness and length. The diameter of pipes with these defects have ranged from 8 - 36 in. Many of the pipes had LF-ERW seam welds with low fracture toughness, mimicking a “worst-case scenario” of what could be found on an actual anomaly in the field. Each repaired pipe was then tested either to rupture or with pressure cycling until failure. As can be seen in Figure 2, Atlas has been successfully tested as a permanent repair for crack-like defects..

Field implementation – where rubber hits the road With all of this great testing, why aren’t composite repairs being used more often in the pipeline industry to reinforce


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crack-like defects? Like any new technology, there are several hurdles to full industry acceptance, including necessary revisions to regulatory, code and standard requirements to reflect the positive testing and analysis available. Another issue to overcome is overall industry reluctance to change. For pipeline operators who have used one or two traditional methods to address these issues in the past, welding a 500 ft long steel sleeve over a 1 ft long defect because there isn’t good pipe to weld on can be a big initiator for change and to look for new technologies. For the operators that have invested in the validation of composite repairs for crack-like defects, the rewards have been enormous. One pipeline company in particular operates an ethylene pipeline, which cannot be welded on due to the risk of auto decomposition of the ethylene and the threat of explosion due to the presence of any additional heat. This same pipeline was manufactured with LF-ERW welding methods, and an inline inspection tool discovered the presence of several crack-like defects in the seam weld that needed to be addressed. After a grueling testing programme, the Atlas demonstrated a superior ability to reinforce these crack-like defects over other composite systems and a bolt-on clamp. Based on the results of the testing programme, the pipeline operator decided that the Atlas was appropriate as a permanent repair for these anomalies. In the field, installation crews worked around the clock to install dozens of Atlas composite repairs within a matter of weeks. Keeping close communication with the excavation contractor, the installers moved from site to site and were able to install the composite repairs within only a couple hours, and top coat and backfill was able to be accomplished the same day. The composite repair was flexible to on-site working conditions, able to be installed in hot and humid weather and in challenging terrain. Able to be installed by field labourers, it also saved money as welding-level labour was not required. Without any hot works near the pipe, the crews were safe from explosion risk through the entirety of the project. Once the last ditch was closed, the pipeline integrity group was able to breathe a collective sigh of relief knowing that their pipeline was permanently reinforced with a proven technology that did not require any welding.

A new hope In reading the news, it would seem as if the US can’t get rid of oil and gas fast enough. However, reliance on renewable energy is years down the road, and the need to maintain the integrity of existing pipeline infrastructure remains paramount. With mounting pressure to deliver more energy than ever before without building new pipelines, it is more important than ever for pipeline companies to adopt safe, robust, proven, flexible technology like the Atlas carbon fibre composite repair system that can help keep their pipeline in operation while addressing critical defects. Additionally, when these same pipeline networks are called upon to transport renewable natural gas and hydrogen, operators will be ready with a repair system that can meet the challenging demands of the day.

Figure 1. YPP USA Symposium in Houston, Texas, March 2019.

Young Pipeliners International (YPI) offers a look at how its groups help and support the young pipeliners of today, with a focus on the USA, Canada and Mexico chapters.


o, what is Young Pipeliners International (YPI)? YPI is a forum where Young Pipeliner groups from all over the world collaborate to share experiences and best practices. It is a vehicle to help the next generation prepare themselves for the transfer of duty of care in the pipeline industry. With many countries signed up to the Paris Agreement, committing to transition the energy landscape to Net Zero carbon emissions by 2050, it is the Young Pipeliners today who will spend the next 30 years of their working life leading this charge. The role of pipelines is critical to this new global quest for humankind, and the current crop of YPI members will spend their careers safely exacting this change. YPI membership currently consists of: ) Young Pipeliner Forum (YPF), part of the Australian Pipelines and Gas Association. ) Young Pipeliners Association of Canada (YPAC). ) Young Pipeline Professionals (YPP) USA. ) YPP Brazil. ) YPP Europe.


) YPP Mexico. ) YPP India. ) YPP Nigeria. ) YPP China. ) YPP Malaysia.

These groups work completely independently but they share the common goal of building the next generation of pipeliners. They help newcomers to the industry to gain knowledge, experience and understanding of different facets of pipelines. Another important benefit is to help build their professional network so that they know who they can call when they run into a problem. Young Pipeliner groups are run entirely by volunteers alongside their day job in the pipeline industry. One key to these groups’ success is the support given from many accomplished pipeliners, who are keen to give something back to the industry that they have devoted their careers to. In an industry filled with competition between vendors offering similar services, Young Pipeliner groups create a forum where different organisations talk openly about their activities, their successes, and their failures, all for the greater good of securing a safe and successful future for the industry.

The small group of leaders that runs YPI create opportunities for these groups to learn from each other, manage award programmes to recognise the accomplishments of members of the groups, and work to create new YPP groups in regions around the world that are interested. Coming into the start of the COVID19 pandemic, only the first six groups listed above were formed, but remote working led to Young Pipeliners around the world being just a video call away. YPI utilised this opportunity to leverage its network and identified four new regions eager to join its cause. YPP India and YPP Nigeria joined first in 4Q20 followed by YPP China and YPP Malaysia in 1Q21. As of July 2021, these four organisations already have more than 200 combined registered members.

Young Pipeline Professionals (YPP) USA Young Pipeline Professionals USA (YPP USA) is the pre-eminent organisation for young pipeline professionals aged 35 and under in the US. YPP USA’s mission is to connect, educate, and develop the future leaders of the pipeline industry. Its objectives include: ) Preparing young professionals to accept the transfer of the duty of care for the pipeline industry. ) Educating young professionals about the pipeline

industry. ) Creating leadership opportunities for the next

generation of pipeline professionals within YPP USA and other industry organisations. ) Fostering relationships and build a network for the

advancement of the industry. ) Promoting diversity and inclusion as leaders in our


Figure 2. Indigenous Inclusion knowledge building session, November 2020.

Figure 3. Site visit to Stress Engineering Services Full-Scale Mechanical Testing Facility in Waller, TX, November, 2019.


World Pipelines / NORTH AMERICA 2021

Like many other organisations, YPP USA was able to rise to meet the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Members were able to engage with industry experts and peers through a series of regular webinars ranging on topics from construction to new regulations to machine learning. Members and experts also participated in best practices, risk assessment, industry exposure, design and projects, growth opportunities, and educational (BRIDGE) workshops, where particular topics were selected for a deep-dive analysis through round-table discussion. In the 2020 - 2021 leadership year, YPP USA also established some new goals for itself, including the creation of the Diversity and Inclusion work group. This work group explored the current member demographic and initiated YPP USA’s efforts toward a more inclusive and representative leadership team, membership, and benefits programme. As diversity and inclusion is more of a journey than a destination, YPP USA is excited about growing and evolving to meet the needs of its changing membership and the industry at large. YPP USA hopes to partner with organisations that support diverse voices to

better understand and remove the barriers to entry to the pipeline industry for underserved populations. YPP USA also implemented a Corporate Sponsorship and Liaison work group which aims to formalise the relationship between the organisation and member’s companies. This structure provides for a YPP USA representative member and an executive member within each company that champions the goals and mission of YPP USA. Not only will this grow the membership by promoting YPP USA to incoming young professionals, but it will pave the way for an increased number of local chapters, allowing members to connect with each other in person. Looking forward to the 2021- 2022 leadership year, YPP USA has established a Mentorship work group. This work group will identify senior members of the industry to pair with YPP USA members to facilitate the transfer of knowledge between retiring experts and up-and-coming leaders. Part of YPP USA’s mission is to accept the duty of care, so it is critical that members can take advantage of expert knowledge while it is readily available. A University Relations work group lead will also establish connections with universities in high concentration membership markets. This work group will seek to promote the pipeline industry to students in technical fields. YPP USA is a growing and changing organisation that builds on the hard work of its previous leadership teams and expert guidance of its board. The organisation looks forward to the future and to growing and evolving to meet

the changing landscape of the energy industry and its workforce. Through YPP USA’s goals and mission, it hopes to become the best educational and networking resource for any Young Pipeliner in the US.

Young Pipeliners Association of Canada (YPAC) How does one react to change? To crisis? When COVID19 came, it disrupted our lives and the way we work. Out of the pandemic, the Young Pipeliners Association of Canada (YPAC) emerged stronger and more resilient. YPAC dedicated itself to its core mandate and took on new initiatives to become role models in the industry. YPAC is a professional group for early-career individuals in the pipeline industry. Pipelines are an integral part of Canada’s energy future, and YPAC is committed to building the next generation of leaders. The organisation wants to shape the future of the pipeline industry so that it can attract and retain top talent. Building a sustainable, equitable, and inclusive community of young professionals supports YPAC’s vision, mission, and values. This commitment requires a systematic approach and therefore YPAC started three dedicated advisory councils during the pandemic: ) Indigenous Inclusion. ) Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion. ) Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability.

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Indigenous Inclusion The Indigenous Inclusion committee was established in October 2020 in response to the call for inclusion and reconciliation. Through meaningful dialogue and formal programmes within YPAC, tactical elements for inclusion will be woven into the fabric of the organisation. In November 2020, the committee took its first steps by participating in an educational session led by three respected facilitators: Harold Horsefall, Wendy Landry, and Annie Korver, in which YPAC leadership explored Indigenous world views, traditional knowledge, belief systems, culture, history, and traditions. In July 2021, the committee built and delivered YPAC’s Indigenous Inclusion strategy.

Equity, Diversity and Inclusion The Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) committee was established in May 2021 to create a purposely integrated equity, diversity, and inclusion roadmap to drive further benefit to the membership. The committee will address unconscious and systemic bias, racism and antiracism in the workplace and how all members can show up as allies in the broader spectrum of EDI. A half-day virtual training session is currently being planned for YPAC team members to build awareness and understanding.

Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability The Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability committee was established in June 2021 to develop YPAC’s climate change strategy through focused communication and advocacy on how Young Pipeliners can play a leading role in building the energy future. The committee will focus on engaging young professionals in developing energy infrastructure innovations to reach Canada’s net-zero ambitions by 2050. The committee is currently developing its strategy and planning for 2021 and 2022. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered the landscape of community work; however, initiatives like these provide the opportunity to members to collaborate, share and network. Beyond providing members an opportunity to engage and learn, they also develop selfrespect and self-confidence beneficial for mental health, especially during this time of uncertainty. Sustainability, equity, diversity, inclusivity, and Indigenous reconciliation are of vital importance to YPAC. The group enables two-way dialogue between Young Pipeliners and key stakeholders in government, industry and academia on these critical topics. Guided by the values of creativity, bold vision, and focus, YPAC is catalysing change despite the COVID-19 pandemic.

Young Pipeline Professionals (YPP) Mexico YPP México was founded in 2017 due to the internalisation, privatisation and growth of the natural gas pipeline industry in Mexico, with the goal to ensure Young Pipeliners’ commitment. During 2018 - 2019, the organisation was legally recognised and planned three to four in-person events each year to encourage members to

Figure 4. Pipeline Industry from Different Perspectives event in Mexico City, 2020. Left to right: Rogelio Gutiérrez, César Bogosian, Isaac Rea, Carlos Gutiérrez, Jan Frowjin.

Young Pipeliners International (YPI), in partnership with PPIM, is pleased to announce the 2022 edition of its annual awards: The John Tiratsoo Award for Young Achievement. This award recognises the achievements of individuals under 35 years of age who have demonstrated a valuable and original contribution to the industry. The nomination form and more information can be found via the following link: Nominations should reference or reflect these qualities: ) Nature of achievement(s). ) Industry contribution or innovation. ) Leadership potential.

The winners will be announced and the awards presented at the 2022 Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference on Wednesday, 2 February 2022, at the George R. Brown Convention Centre.

Award details ) A US$2000 voucher for travel, tuition,

education or professional development expenses.* ) Engraved crystal commemorative plaque. ) Recognition with an interview in World

Pipelines magazine. *Recipients can donate part or all of the award value to a registered charity of their choice. Note: Judges are disqualified from voting on nominees who are fellow employees of their companies.

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join. This kickstarted membership growth, but the COVID19 pandemic created a hurdle as events were forced to shift to a virtual setting.

2020 - 2021 COVID-19 forced the population into social distancing, so YPP México focused on digital media to involve YPP members to ensure knowledge transfer between experienced and young professionals. In 2020, YPP México built its own website to share its programmes, activities, webinars, and to publish articles related to pipeline industry (regulations, laws, etc.) LinkedIn became another media tool, and this platform was used to grow the membership base and find panelists from different companies to participate in webinars and conferences. It was a year dedicated to attracting new members and subject matter experts to facilitate knowledge transfer amongst members. In the first half of 2021, YPP México focused on growth within the industry. With the help of the board of directors, YPP México signed collaboration agreements with two universities and two natural gas associations in Mexico.

Post COVID-19 During the pandemic, YPP México still had a significant growth, so the first post-pandemic plan is to help members get to know their senior advisors, board of directors and panelists from previous webinars. YPP México plans to engage on the university level by actively participating in events such as employment conferences and introductory pipeline webinars, to help graduates start their professional career with connections to the YPP Mexico community. In school, not many young professionals in the industry were able to experience natural gas facilities in person. To bridge this gap, YPP México has planned a trip for some of its members compression stations and regasification facilities in México. YPP México is also planning a 5 km race fund raising event, which will allow members from different companies and their family members to get to know each other and have some fun, while encouraging the members to stay healthy. COVID-19 opened the door to new opportunities for YPP Mexico. People are eager to return to having in-person events but member safety is the top priority.

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