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An advertising campaign on the Public Health impacts of Climate Change in Palau


Agency 1244

Special thanks to:

Instructor

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Jerry Bush

Teacher’s Assistant Jack Piatt

Agency President Sarah Hubbs

Agency Creative Director Julia Fromme

Agency

Siania Allen Shakari Burton Nicholas Campise Jeffrey Chandler Lauren Edel Lauryn Fisherkeller Jeremy Garrett Kristina Kaganer Cassie Keys Andrea Likes Ariel Runyon Brittany Schorfheide Richard Serritella Kendra Torres Eric Wallace

Photographers Genna Ord Julia Rendleman

TV/Radio Producer Chu Batsaihan

Dr. Mark Keim, M.D. Mollie Mahany, M.P.H.

Palau Ministry of Health Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, M.D. Pearl Marumoto, BPH Dekei Ngiramengior Jane Olsudong Sharp Sakuma Gaafar J. Uherbelau Deidre Yamanguchi


An advertising campaign on the Public Health impacts of Climate Change in Palau


Table of Contents 2 3 19 20 24 25 26 27 34 36 37 38 42

Introduction Situation Analysis Climate Change Matrix Primary Research Key Idea Target Market Profile Objectives Strategy Budget Evaluation Section Conclusion References Appendix

Ta b l e o f c o n t e n t s

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his campaign is designed to raise the awareness level of select target audiences about the public health risks associated with the impacts of global climate change. The campaign is scheduled to take place during a sixmonth period between April 1st, 2011 and October 1st, 2011. Primary research was conducted between September 18th, 2010 and October 26th, 2010 measuring awareness levels of citizens of Palau. The first step of the primary research was to acquire awareness level data through a survey. A sample of one hundred and forty eight Palauan’s from a variety of ages and occupations responded to a ten-question survey. Based on the total population size of 20,000 and survey sample size of 148 respondents, a confidence interval (margin of error) of 8.03 can be expected. The second step in obtaining primary research data was through a series of interviews conducted with Palauan public health officials, fishermen, farmers, etc, as well as numerous photographs and videos pertaining to climate change issues in Palau. Secondary research was gathered through a variety of resources (see “references” page) and has been categorized into three climatic events (extreme heat, seal-level rise, el Niño effects). A matrix

was designed to show the correlation between these climatic events and the increased health risks associated with each. The main focus of the campaign is on the population that is already “healthy.” The “key idea” for the campaign centers on an interview with Palau’s Minister of Health, Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. He uses an analogy based on flight instructions that airlines use during flight safety demonstrations. Passengers are instructed to make sure their own oxygen masks are securely in place before assisting other passengers or children. According to Dr. Kuartei, the most vulnerable population is the one that is already “healthy.” Dr. Kuartei’s theory stems from the fact that this population must remain healthy in order to provide assistance to those that are “less healthy” or “less capable” of helping themselves. It is from this analogy that we derived our campaign theme: “Protect, Provide, Unite.” “Protect (yourself), Provide (assistance to others), Unite (for a healthier Palau).” The advertising messages were creatively designed to demonstrate both the health risks associated with climate change as well as desired preventative measures. Messages will be delivered at a high rate of frequency through a variety of mediums and events, over the six-month campaign time frame.

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Situation Analysis

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Sea Level Rise Global climate change has been a popular area of study and the field of research has been growing in recent years. Scientific research has addressed many aspects of climate change, but very few studies have covered the health impacts related to the climate. The health impacts are becoming greater for Palau and other small island developing states in the South Pacific due to their high vulnerability to climate change (Palau Project Proposal, 2008). Of the climate change impacts that Palau is facing, sea level rise poses one of the greatest threats to the country’s social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Republic of Palau, 2002). Based on future projections for the 21st century, the incidence of increased sea level is 66-90% more likely to occur (Keim, 2010a). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) also reported on this trend in 2001,

stating “the sea level is estimated to rise 50-90 mm within the next 50-100 years” (Republic of Palau, 2002). With continued sea level rise, increasing damage from coastal flooding areas will occur in the Pacific region, resulting in crop damage and other health hazards creating threats for the public health of Palau.

Crop Damage While the agricultural industry only makes up 6.2% of the islands Gross Domestic Product (GDP), cultivation of crops in Palau is critical to “socioeconomic development and cultural as well as religious obligations” (Palau Project Proposal, 2008). A survey done in 2007, by Dr. Mark Keim, reported on the damage in two Pacific island countries, Lukonoch and Oneop. These islands faced severe crop damage that resulted from salt-water intrusion, an

effect of sea level rise (Keim, 2010b). The two countries from the study lost a significant amount of taro; the main dietary source of carbohydrate (Keim, 2010b). Twelve of 40 homes on one island reported partial loss and damage, while another six of 40 homes reported a complete loss of the crop (Keim, 2010b). Palau has also felt the effects of salt-water intrusion on taro crop. The taro that was destroyed during the El Niño event of 1998 resulted in a 0.7% loss of their GDP (Republic of Palau, 2002). Saltwater intrusion, stemming from sea level rise and the El Niño event resulted in a loss of 75-100% of taro crops in the states of Angaur and Peleliu (Permanent Mission, 2009). Sugar cane and tapioca are other crops commonly cultivated on many islands in the South Pacific. Excess water and salt-water intrusion caused by sea level rise, deter the growth of

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the crops (Gawander, 2007). The roots of sugar cane extend one meter into the ground, making lower water tables desirable for growth (Gawander, 2007). The water table where sugar cane is planted is typically three to 13 meters below ground level. With a rise in sea level, there is potential for the water tables to rise and hinder the quantity and quality of the sugar produced (Gawander, 2007). Taro, tapioca, and sugar cane are main staple foods in Palau, however they are not the only crops being damaged by sea level rise and salt-water intrusion. Most medicinal plants “grow relatively fast, have high reproduction rates, and are typically resistant to salt water, making them more resilient to some of the predicted effects of global climate change” (Cavaliere, 2009). Although medicinal plants appear to be resilient, their biggest threat from sea level rise is the complete loss of the island they inhabit, which has the potential to occur

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given the rate of the increasing sea level (Cavaliere, 2009). For Palauans, the loss of medicinal plants impacts the public health and also cultural significance. In an interview with Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, Minister of Health for Palau, the importance of traditional medicine in the Palauan culture was discussed. In regard to Western medicine, Dr. Kuartei said, “we as Palauans need to think of our traditional healing as the healing for us and actually Western medicine coming in, is the alternative healing” (Minister of Health, 2010a). Dr. Kuartei goes on to say, “When we begin to build a narrow definition of health or medicine, we lose some of the flavor of what we traditionally think of as health or healing” (Minister of Health, 2010b). Through this interview, we are shown the importance of medicinal plants to the health and culture of Palauans. With climate change causing a decrease in the availability of traditional

crops available for consumption, there has been a shift towards a diet containing more processed foods. As a result, dietary education is gaining importance. Two of the health areas for the most concern and education in Palau are diabetes and obesity. Due to sea level rise, the growing conditions for crops are unfavorable and “penetration of local markets by cheap, poor quality imported foods with little nutritional value has brought health problems with increased rates of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease” (Barnett, 2007). The main non-communicable disease threatening Palau as a result of a shifting diet is obesity. Currently “Palau ranks seventh in the world when it comes to obesity, according to the World Health Organization” (Island Business International, 2010). A Palau Community Health Assessment Survey indicated that 58% of Palauan males and 62% of Palauan females are obese


(Republic of Palau, 2010b). School children account for 18.5% of the obese population in Palau and an additional 15% of children are at risk for obesity (Island Business International, 2010). To lower these numbers, the Ministry of Health is working alongside the Ministry of Education to develop a Healthy Lifestyle curriculum for school age children (Island Business International, 2010). Dr. Stevenson Kuartei proposed more balanced meals for schools, dietary education, and also suggested a reduction in the amount of rice and flour that is consumed. He suggested the “need to go more local with fish and taro” (Island Business International, 2010). With crop damage to local food as a result of the sea level rise and the availability of locally grown foods decreasing, proper education on a new diet is needed. Without education, obesity will continue to increase. Obesity and being overweight increase the risk for chronic diseases,

such as diabetes. Diabetes is on the rise in the South Pacific with a staggering 40% of the 9.7 million people in the region being diagnosed (World Health Organization, 2010). This number is extremely high compared with the 13% of the United States population who has been diagnosed with diabetes. According to the disease registry in Palau, in 2004, there were 776 people admitted into the diabetes registry (Republic of Palau, 2005). Diabetes was also listed in the ten leading causes of death for Palauans. The average age that people in this region are developing diabetes is becoming lower every year. Only 16% of the population in Fiji is above the age of 55, due to premature deaths that are related to diabetes. In this region, diabetes accounts for 75% of all deaths and 40-60% of healthcare costs (World Health Organization, 2010). The rise in diabetes is related to crop damage and the access to traditional food that provides proper

nutrients. Dr. Temo K. Waqanivalu of the World Health Organization also notes that, “promotion of traditional foods has fallen by the wayside. They are unable to compete with the glamour and flashiness of imported foods” (World Health Organization, 2010). Again, dietary education is important to combat this. As suggested by Ateca Kama, a nutritionist at Fiji’s National Food and Nutrition Centre, a consistent program that translates the importance of knowledge into behavior would be beneficial in helping lower these risks (World Health Organization, 2010).

Vector Borne Infections Destructive and invasive water borne and vector borne diseases, including dengue fever, malaria, and encephalitis, are increasingly affecting those areas in the ecosystem that are most susceptible to flooding, such as low-lying homes and regions in standing water. For developing island nations such as Palau,

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a majority of water-borne infectious diseases results in cluster outbreaks. Vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are projected to increase as warmer temperatures facilitate vector range expansion and speed up virus replication. The potential increase in the spread of such vectorborne diseases depends primarily on the climactic factors and the effectiveness of Palau’s public health system (World Health Organization, 2003). In 2008, low-latitude regions of Palau had reached epidemic levels of Dengue fever, confirming 31 cases of people having been exposed. Palau’s Minister of Health Dr. Stevenson Kuartei said, “Palau is at risk of a major dengue fever epidemic that will have long lasting health and economic consequences” (Carreon, 2008). The dengue fever virus is transmitted from one person to another by the Aedes mosquito. These mosquitoes are prone to bite during the dawn and dusk hours

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of the day, and are most susceptible to biting in areas of standing or stagnant water. Those bit by the Aedes mosquito start showing symptoms within five to 15 days of the initial bite. Symptoms of dengue fever can last up to two weeks and involve flu-like symptoms, such as headaches, rashes, cramps and back and muscle pain (Republic of Palau, 2010a). However, if compliant health measures and treatment is delayed or not met, this disease can be fatal to those susceptible. Kuartei said that because of budget reductions, there remains sufficient difficulty in retrieving adequate resources for community mobilization, vector control, surveillance and critical management for those who have been and are susceptible to infection (Carreon, 2008). In 2008, Kuartei also raised the concern that the Belau National Hospital is running at almost the full capacity because of the regular admissions and the dengue fever cases (Carreon, 2008). Though there has

been no new information regarding the amount of dengue fever cases seen by the hospital, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an Outbreak Notice in June 2010 regarding the infection. The notice reported that individuals should continue to take preventive measures because dengue fever is still circulating throughout the region (CDC, 2010b). In areas with high transmission, the most vulnerable groups are young children and pregnant women. According to the CDC, malaria is the fifth leading cause of death for infectious diseases in low-income regions. Increased rainfall and standing water due to flooding allow the transmission of this vector borne disease to be highly transmissible all year round (CDC, 2010a). Costs to individuals and their families include: purchase of drugs for treating malaria at home; expenses for travel and treatment at dispensaries and clinics; lost days of work; absence


from school expenses for preventive measures; expenses for burial in case of deaths (CDC, 2010a). Finally, with respect to infectious disease disasters we can provide personal protective equipment and adequate sanitation and hygiene so as to prevent the exposure of healthy populations to biological hazards, like infectious disease. In the case of epidemics, we fight human disease by reducing exposures to the cause, which is a bacteria or virus (Keim, 2010b). Dr. Keim reported that we reduce people’s susceptibility to epidemics by “providing them with adequate nutrition and preventive health care. We then increase people’s resilience or ability to bounce back after catching the disease, through access to curative health care and health promotion,” (Keim, 2010b).

Unpredictable Tides Low-lying coastal areas will be at increased risk from coastal inundation

due to sea level rise and storm surge, with major implications for coastal communities, infrastructure, natural habitats, and resources (Ministerial, 2000). Flooding will become more frequent due to higher storm tides, and coastal land will be permanently lost as the sea inundates low-lying areas and the shorelines erode (United States, 2009). Populations that remain isolated from the primary population are increasingly vulnerable to acquiring necessary health care and provisions in the event of climactic flooding as a result of unpredictable tides. Kayangel and Peleliu are states of Palau that remain highly susceptible for emergency medical aid or access to health care in the event of flooding (World Health Organization, 2003). These isolated regions are at a disadvantage “specific to the quality and accessibility of healthcare, medical workforce training and availability” (PEHI, Executive Brief, 2010).

Sea level rise is attributable to higher tides and storm surges, which will reduce or cut off health access in all populations, not just isolated ones (Joyce, 2007). Tides reaching surmounting heights increase the likelihood of roads and main emergency evacuation routes to flood, and medical services to be inaccessible. Dr. Stevenson Kuartei was asked about the issue of the Belau National Hospital being so close to the ocean. He recognized that the hospital is in a very vulnerable spot due to it being connected to the general population by only one causeway. If the causeway were to be washed out by a tidal surge, healthcare would be inaccessible to a main segment of the population (Minister of Health, 2010c). The hospital itself is very close to the water as well and a tidal surge could also overtake the hospital, again making healthcare inaccessible and unavailable. Dr. Kuartei also noted that the hospital has served as a magnet for other health

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entities. While this may be positive for current access to health care, in the event of extreme weather, health services are not spread out enough to serve the community and could all be damaged by their location to the ocean (Minister of Health, 2010c). Loss of land will affect living things in coastal ecosystems. Storm surges have major impacts on Pacific coastal island communities, including loss of life and damage to infrastructure and property (Joyce, 2007). Critical infrastructure, including homes and roads tend to be located along the coast. Flooding related to sea level rise negatively impacts port facilities and harbors, and causes closure of roads and bridges. “Long-term infrastructure would affect social services such as disaster risk management, health care, education, management of resources, and economic activity in sectors such as tourism and agriculture” (United States, 2009). Sea level rise, increased

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storm surges, flooding, beach erosion, and increased invasion of vector-borne diseases are among the threats that endanger the ecosystems that provide safety, sustenance, economic viability, and cultural and traditional values to these island communities.

Resiliencies Although Palau and many islands in the South Pacific are susceptible to the health risks of climate change, the opportunities for education and the robustness of their economy make them resilient. The most significant piece of reducing vulnerability however, is overall human resilience. Dr. Keim’s “Six R’s” of resilience all incorporate some form of human behavior. The “Six R’s” include readiness, robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, rapid response, and recovery, all risk reducers that are affected by human behavior (Keim, 2010a). These resiliencies

are comprised of adaptive capability, response capacity, and recovery capacity. Educating the community on ways to be resilient can ultimately reduce individuals’ susceptibility to the health impacts of climate change. Dietary education can also increase resilience and improve the health of Palauans (Palau Community College, 2010). Opportunities for dietary education exist with children between the age of eight and sixteen. Dietary education can stress the importance of good dietary practices. According to Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, $10,000 has recently been obtained for use in the development of programs to combat childhood obesity (Island Business International, 2010). The economic situation that Palau is in is partly in result of the Compact of Free Association between the United States and Palau. The Compact of Free Association was established in 1995 and the United States continues to


assist Palau through direct assistance to their national government, investment in trust funds, federal postal, weather, and aviation services as well as construction of a major road (Government Accountability Office, 2008). The compact provides up to 15 years of economic assistance to Palau from the United States. In the recent 2009 fiscal year, the terms of the contract were reviewed and the two governments made necessary modifications. According to the U.S Government Accountability Office, the

United States aid to Palau exceeded $852 million from 1995-2009. “Compact direct assistance will account for 48 percent of U.S. assistance; this assistance provides general budgetary support for Palau’s government operations, including initial investment in a trust fund intended to provide annual distributions of $5 million in 1999-2009 and $15 million in 20102044” (Government Accountability Office, 2008). Although Palau is a small island, its land provides the country with a vast

amount of plausible opportunities for growth. Tourism continues to be Palau’s leading source of income accounting for the majority of the nation’s income. Tourism is one of the few resources that allow Palau to consistently bring in large profit independently, without the help of other nations. The nation’s unique and scenic marine life makes it one of the more popular destinations in the world.  Hotel resort investments as well as cruise line partnerships continue to keep Palau’s economy aloft (Republic of Palau, 2007).

Extreme Heat Crop Damage For the small island states of the Pacific, one of the concerns is drought. The extreme heat can lead to excessive dry land. Drought can then lead to thirst due to little water supply, wildfires due to the low moisture and little rainfall,

and also crop damage or not being able to grow crops at all due to the land being too dry (West, 2010). Along with drought, there are also seasonal changes that come in to play because of global climate change. Since climate change has become an issue, the seasons for harvesting crops have changed and

the numbers of crops harvested each season have declined tremendously (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal communication, September 14, 2010). The heat damage to the crops has been an issue also. The taro has not been as healthy as it has been in the past. Because of the low rates of crops being

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harvested, it has affected the attitudes of the people since they have no control over how much of the crops survive and this problem can also effect the safety of the food (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal communication, September 24, 2010). Since there is crop damage and not as much harvested, Palauans depend on imported goods (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal communication, September 14, 2010). Although the Palauans have been getting accustomed to imported canned foods, they do not realize the health concerns that go along with that diet. As mentioned before, obesity is a major concern in Palau. Extreme heat also affects the medicinal plants that are very important to the culture of Palau. Many medicinal plants cannot hold up in certain environments. Temperatures can affect chemical compounds in these plants that are the source of the medicinal activity (Cavaliere, 2009).

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Respiratory Diseases Risks of respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis are on the rise due to extreme heat in Palau. According to Deschenes & Moretti (2007), the main mechanism underlying the increased mortality in periods of excessive temperature is the additional stress imposed on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems by the demands of body temperature regulation. (p. 7) The additional stress on the body causes an internal vulnerability for other diseases. There are many different causes for respiratory diseases that have to do directly with extreme heat. Increased temperatures may trigger forest fires, which lead to a higher amount of soot in the air and then consequently higher levels of respiratory disease (Haines & Patz, 2004). The temperature increase

in the South Pacific is also causing an earlier start to birch pollen season leading to more allergies and respiratory problems amongst people (Rasmussen, 2002). The elderly population has the highest rate of mortality from respiratory diseases, largely because of pre-existing conditions that tend to be present (“Elderly Have Higher�, 2006). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also called COPD, is an illness that affects many people who live in extremely hot environments (Leader 2009). When it is hot outside, the body uses more energy to maintain a normal body temperature. Because of the excess energy that is used to try to keep the body cool, the body demands more oxygen (Leader 2009). People with COPD suffer shortness of breath while being in hot temperatures because the body is using extra energy to try to keep it cool, instead of using all of the energy to maintain steady breathing. Since people with COPD have trouble


breathing in hot environments, this can lead to a Bronchospasm; a breathing problem where the airways reduce in size making it difficult to get air into and out of the lungs. To avoid this problem, the people of Palau need to pay attention to the weather reports, take medications as the doctor prescribes them, and keep cool by staying indoors (Leader 2009). The government is also taking measures to limit the repercussions of extreme heat by making sure all government sector housing is set up with energy efficient matters that will make the needs for air conditioning obsolete. As earlier mentioned, a large amount of the Palauan population has a relatively low-income, the government has taken the initiative to make air conditioning units a thing of the past in order to reduce cost and improve quality of life (“Draft National Energy Policy”, 2009, p.9). According to the Draft National Policy (2009), “all new and refurbished government buildings will incorporate

energy-efficient designs such as shading and orientation of buildings to reduce heating of buildings and reflective roof paint and attic heat radiation barriers to reduce the need for air conditioning” (p.9). The government is doing all they can to reduce the amount of these respiratory illnesses by taking these certain precautions and making it easier for people to breath in the extreme heat.

Heat-Related Illnesses Syncope occurs when a person loses consciousness temporarily and faints. It is usually due to lack of blood flow to the brain (“Syncope”, n.d.). Being exposed to extremely high temperatures and overheating is one of the main causes to syncope. The pulse is usually weakened, the heart is beating at a rapid pace, but body temperature is normal (“Syncope”, n.d.). Some of the symptoms of Syncope include blurred vision, sweating, nausea, lightheadedness, and yawning excessively (University

of Maryland Medical Center 2010). People who are most at risk are older adults over the age of 65, as well as people who already have a history of heart disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure. Pregnant women are also at higher risk. To avoid Syncope, drink plenty of fluids, eat meals regularly, avoid standing for long periods of time, stay away from caffeinated drinks and alcohol, and sleep with the head of the bed raised (University of Maryland Medical Center 2010). Dehydration is also an issue related to the extreme heat. This occurs when the amount of water exiting the body is greater than the amount of water being taken in. Several things can cause dehydration. These include diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, diabetes, burns, and the inability to drink fluids or the lack of fluids. Diarrhea is the most common way a person becomes dehydrated because a considerable amount of water is lost with each bowel movement. Sweating

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is also a major cause of dehydration, especially in the case of the Palauans; the environment is extremely hot and it is very difficult for them to retain water when they are constantly exposed to the heat (“MD- Travel”, 2010). Heat Strokes are a more severe case of heat cramps and heat exhaustion that can be caused by dehydration in some cases. A heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia. The body temperature keeps rising to dangerous levels and the victim loses consciousness. A heat stroke is considered a medical emergency and can take the life of someone if it is severe enough. The individuals who are most vulnerable to having heat strokes are infants, elderly, athletes, and people who work outside in hot environments (“MD- Travel Health”, 2010). To prevent heat strokes, like many of the other preventative measures, the Palauans need to drink ample amounts of fluids, wear cool clothing, plan out the day so the work is done in the cooler

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parts of the day, keep indoor areas cool, avoid physical activity on extremely hot days, and stay tuned to the weather reports (Leader 2010). Heat cramps are basically contractions in the muscles that are very painful. These mainly take place in the calf muscles. They tend to be caused by dehydration, exposure to excessive amounts of heat, and poor physical conditioning, and are prevented by drinking a lot of water and staying in cool environments (“MDTravel Health”, 2010). The South Pacific region is one of the most vulnerable and prone to disaster in the world. Although the risks are incredibly high for heat related illnesses to occur, the medical sectors are not prepared well enough to respond to these types of emergencies (Keim, 2002). Differing from the other concerns of global climate change is the facts that heat related illnesses affect all populations. The other vulnerability previously mentioned with the other

extreme heat issues is the health care access problem. It is hard to get treatment in Palau due to the limited access that the people have to the hospitals as well as the little access the medical providers have to the people (Keim, 2002). Dr. Mark Keim outlined recommendations for emergency health management in the Pacific islands. The ones that relate to heat related illnesses include: Promoting education and training for any type of disaster. It is important to prevent these specific illnesses by developing prevention strategies, and improving emergency operations plans among the public health of Palau and the medical sectors (Keim, 2002).


El Niño Effects El Niño is a weather event that begins in the Pacific and occurs when trade winds are weakened (Joyce, 2010). It has worldwide effects despite its humble origin. When this happens, weather conditions in the Pacific region are altered. In a strong El Niño, ocean temperatures in the Pacific can increase as much as two degrees above normal (Joyce, 2010), which can contribute unpredictable extreme weather (Joyce, 2010) and lead to coral damage (Freeman, 2003). In the eastern region near South America, warm water accumulates and causes an unusually high amount of rainfall that can cause flooding. On the western side of the Pacific, the opposite effect is experienced. Since the trade winds are not carrying moisture west from South America, areas near Indonesia experience drought that sometimes results in wild fires (Joyce, 2010).

Coral Damage A barrier reef encompasses the majority of the main cluster of islands that stretches from the northern tip of Babeldaob to the southern lagoon, and merges with Pelelui in the south (Golbuu, Bauman, Kuartei, and Victor, 2005, p. 3). Palau has the most diverse coral fauna of Micronesia and the highest density of tropical marine habitats of comparable geographic areas around the world. In addition to coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds, Palau has deep algal beds, mud basins, current swept lagoon bottoms, rich tidal channels, and anoxic basins within the rock islands. Many of these environments contain corals. (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3) Palau boasts an impressive coral diversity, with findings of at least 385 coral specimens, in 66 genera (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). Fish and other

invertebrate are also extremely diverse, as there are 1,278 known species of reef fish in Palau. This is the highest diversity within Micronesia (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3).

Coral Bleaching Coral reef bleaching is “the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, (that) results from the loss of symbiotic zooxantheallae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within scleractinian corals” (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1). Coral bleaching outbreaks in Palau are considered to be one of the greatest threats to Palau’s coral reef ecosystems (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). Sea temperature, solar irradiance, sedimentation, xenobiotics, subaerial exposure, inorganic nutrients, freshwater dilution, and epizootics are all natural and anthropogenic causes of coral bleaching (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1).

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Coral reef ecosystems are especially susceptible to the effects of climate change. “Exposure to maximum ocean temperatures just a few degrees above the long-term average at any location, can cause corals to become stressed, bleach, and die” (Munday, Jones, Pratchett, and Williams, 2008, p. 2). Scientific evidence shows that an increase in water temperatures when El Niño occurs is the primary stressor that causes coral bleaching. Even the slightest increase in water temperatures has the potential to bleach and kill many species of coral. While a temperature rise in itself can be enough to cause corals significant damage, “the stress is compounded by the presence of any other stress factors, such as windless days allowing more UV-light to reach corals, or low tides causing increased saltiness in lagoons” (McCormack, 2000, p. 1). Palau’s reefs were significantly harmed by coral bleaching during the

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1997-1998 occurrence of El Niño, and the reefs have not fully recovered from the damage caused. It is estimated that approximately one-third of Palau’s corals died during this event (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). It is possible that global climate change may play a role in the increase of coral bleaching events, which could lead to destruction and extinction of numerous coral species (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1).

Ecotourism Coral reefs are useful to people and their environment in numerous ways. They protect shores from the impact of waves and storms, supply food and medicine, and are economically beneficial to local communities as their beauty attracts thousands of tourists each year. Increasingly frequent El Niño occurrences have lead to more cases of coral bleaching, which can ultimately lead to decreases in tourism. Between

the years of 1992 to 1997, tourist arrivals nearly doubled from 30,000 to 60,000 in Palau. However, Palau experienced a 3.3% decrease in their GDP in 1998. This significant decline may be attributed to the 1997-1998 coral bleaching event, as Palau’s coral reefs were severely damaged from this occurrence (Golbuu, 2005). According to the U.S. Global Change Research Program (2009) “the loss of income by 2015 from degraded reefs is conservatively estimated at several hundred million dollars annually.” Revenue lost through tourism causes many of Palau’s citizens to be affected financially. According to the Republic of Palau (2007), 54.4% of households have an income below $15,000, and loss in family income can lead to poor spending on food. Although tourism plays a critical role in Palau’s economy, tourists are also partially responsible for damage incurred to the reefs. Tourists who are


uneducated about reefs can damage the coral significantly. “Snorkelers and divers who are not trained in proper behavior around reefs can trample delicate soft corals, damage reef structures and injure fish by attempting to feed them” (Freeman, 2003). However, coral reef damage can be prevented in many ways. One way that Palau is monitoring its coral reefs is through the Palau International Coral Reef Center (PICRC). In 2001, the PICRC launched a nationwide coral reef monitoring program. The objectives of the program are to: establish permanent monitoring sites, determine status of Palau’s reefs, assess changes to the benthic and fish communities at each site over time and examine the recovery process from the 1997-1998 bleaching event at each site (Golbuu et. al., 2005).

Fishing in Palau Fishing is more than a popular

sport in Palau. Rather, fishing is just as relevant to Palau’s culture as it is to their diet, and it is an integral component of how Palauans live their daily lives. In 2001, 835 people (16% of Palau’s population) sold their catch to local fish markets at least once during the year. A 2003 survey of subsistence fisheries indicated that 87% of households have someone that fishes either for subsistence or commercial purposes, and often both. Only 13% of Palauan households were not involved in any type of fishing. (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 7) Palau’s marine resources have a long-standing history of being rich and diverse, and Palau is known for having some of the best sport fishing areas in the world. Subsistence fishing within the reef is a major activity and dominates market production. Deep-sea fishing for pelagic species resulted in a tuna catch of 51 tons in 2000. Seasonal

trochus harvesting for shell button manufacture is an important source of income for most fishermen. Other marine resources include pearls, shrimp, ornamental fish, seaweed (agar agar), and mollusks. (Encyclopedia of the Nations, 2010, p. 1)

Fish Distribution Physical and biological changes that occur in our oceans during El Niño events can vastly affect fish distribution. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 2010) states: Among the variations in oceanographic features that are observed following an El Niño event are: changes in sea-surface temperatures, changes in the vertical, thermal structure of the ocean (particularly in coastal regions), and altered coastal and upwelling currents. These changes can directly affect the species composition and abundance of fish.

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During the years that El Ni単o is not occurring, deep, cold ocean water rises, and with it comes nutrients that reside near the bottom of the ocean floor. Fish in the upper waters feed on plankton that depend on the nutrients transported in with the cooler water temperatures. In addition, kelp forests also rely on these cooler, nutrient-rich water supplies to survive and grow. El Ni単o reduces the upwelling of cooler water that supply the nutrients so crucial to life in more shallow waters. Because of this, fish either die or attempt to migrate to areas with more food available (Department of Fish and Game, 2010). The decrease in number of fish populations has not gone unnoticed by Palauans. Changes in fish distribution directly affect those who depend upon fish as a primary food source, as well as those that rely on fish as a source of income. Field surveys and fish aggregation studies show a decline in fish populations in

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Palau over the last decade (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 7).

Weakened Trade Winds Trade winds were originally seen as a tool for commerce, but scientists later discovered that they are vital to the climate and biological balance of the Pacific as they provide much of the rainfall. As the air moves west, it picks up moisture and rises. By the time the air reaches the end of the cycle, it is saturated and releases the moisture in the form of rain. After this, the air travels back toward South America and the cycle starts again (Than, 2006). In addition to providing rainfall in the Western Pacific, trade winds act as a driving force in ocean currents. These currents are key to the survival of ecosystems that exist in the shallow waters. As the currents drive west, they bring colder, nutrient-rich water toward the surface and provide nourishment for marine life in the shallow areas of the Pacific (Sample, 2006).

Research has shown that the trade winds have been slowing down since the industrial revolution. Since the mid 1800s, the strength of the trade winds have weakened by 3.5%. In addition, the ocean currents they propel have weakened by 7.5% (Sample, 2006). Scientists predict that the winds will weaken by another ten percent by the year 2100 (Hopkin, 2006). Scientists theorize that the slowing of trade winds has a direct connection to global climate change. Due to rising temperatures, more water is evaporating and being absorbed by the atmosphere. However, the rate of rainfall is not increasing. In order for the cycle to sustain itself, the winds have to slow down to give the increase in moisture enough time to be released by the atmosphere (Than, 2006). This vital cycle is being damaged by El Ni単o and threatens to change the marine ecosystems in the Pacific. If the currents are weakened, less nutrient


rich cold water will be able to rise to the surface (Than, 2006). Microscopic organisms such as plankton and kelp rely on these nutrients to live. If the plankton population suffers, larger populations of marine life will also suffer. Fish rely on these smaller organisms for food. If the fish cannot find enough food, they will either die or be forced to migrate to different areas. Regardless of whether the fish die or migrate, the number of fish in areas that are warmed by El Niño will decrease (Department of Fish and Game, p. 1). The decrease of the food supplies for fish combined with the increase in water temperature are causing a great change in the ecosystem in which fish reside. This decrease in fish population threatens to damage the fishing industry in areas that are being affected by El Niño conditions, weakening trade winds, and currents (Than, 2006).

Extreme Weather Events According to Dr. Mark Keim, Center

for Disease Control and Prevention, there will be an increase in the probability of extreme weather events due to more frequent El Niño oscillation caused by global climate change. The likelihood of future trends of heat waves and heavy precipitation events is said to be 90% 99%; widespread drought, the incidence and severity of cyclones, as well as increased incidence of extremely high sea level is said to range from 66% - 99% (Keim, 2008, p. 508). These extreme weather events can cause a multitude of natural disasters and “ninety-five percent of natural disaster deaths occur among sixty-six percent of the poorest countries” (Anderson, 1991). There are many impacts on public health, from both high and low precipitation events caused by the recurrence of El Niño. Loss of clean water, shelter, personal and household goods, sanitation, routine hygiene, disruption of solid waste management, public risk perception, increased pests

and vectors, loss or damage to health care system, worsening of existing chronic illnesses, and toxic exposures are all effects of increased number of storms, floods, drought, and wildfire (Keim, 2008, p. 510). The trend of more areas affected by drought is said to be 66% - 90% more likely to happen within the twentyfirst century. Agricultural, economic, and health problems are most often associated with drought-related deaths (Keim, 2008, p. 511). To cope with public health emergencies caused by drought, there needs to be both preparation before and action after such an event. The principal interventions need to focus on: food security, safe water and adequate sanitation, hygiene, infection in healthcare settings, surveillance, and temporary shelter for displaced populations (Keim, 2008, p. 512). “Meteorological forecasting and early warnings have decreased morality of flash floods by greater than fifty

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percent” (Keim, 2008, 513). However, there are still many public health impacts of flooding which include: damage to homes and displacement of occupants, compromised personal hygiene, contamination of water sources, disruption of sewage service and solid-waste collection, injuries sustained during cleanup, stress-related mental health and substance abuse problems, as well as deaths caused by drowning. Drills and exercises should include population protection as well as an alert and notification system for such an event. “An early return of victims to routine activities of daily living are known to lessen the health impacts of flood disasters” (Keim, 2008, p. 513). Tropical cyclones, like drought, are also predicted to be more likely to strike within the twenty-first century. “In the past two centuries, tropical cyclones have caused an estimated 1.9 million deaths worldwide.” (Keim,

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2008, p. 513). In order to prepare for tropical cyclones, weather monitoring and forecasting is essential. This can allow for timely implementation of safe evacuations to prevent drowning (the leading cause of cyclone death). Public education in schools, home, and at the work place can raise awareness of evacuation routes and plans (Keim, 2008, p. 514). Many populations of Palau have vulnerabilities caused by cases of extreme weather. Dr. Kuartei, Palauan Minister of Health, explains that the vulnerable populations do not have the mechanisms to rise above their vulnerabilities. However, he believes the women, children and elderly only become highly susceptible to the dangers of extreme weather when the healthy are not looking after them. This is why he believes those who are healthy are the most vulnerable. Unless Palau adopts a model that educates and protects those that are healthy and

reside in the main cluster of islands, then the vulnerable will also suffer. (Kuartei, J, personal communication, September 24, 2010). A portion of Palau’s population lives on islands that are outer lying, posing yet another risk as there is a rise in the occurrence of extreme weather events. Dr. Kuartei, explains how the people of Palau have always believed they have the power to turn the tide away if it ever becomes a problem. He discusses how Palauans believe time is not linear, but circular and if some of the outer lying islands were to be lost, then something new would one day come along to replace them. Palauans take life in stride. The challenge is to convince them to plan ahead in order to adequately prepare for potential extreme weather events (Kuartei, J, personal communication, September 24, 2010). The location of the main hospital in Palau poses yet another threat as


it is located very close to the ocean shoreline. Dr. Kuartei explains that the hospital is located where it is because it is “aesthetically pleasing.” However, one earthquake or a tidal wave could easily over-take the ward. He also explains that it is not just the hospital that is located close to the sea. Once the hospital was built, it became a magnet to other health entities, such as private clinics. In turn, if an extreme weather event were to occur, the hospital and many of the secondary health facilities would be taken out. Palau has taken many steps to tackle this issue. Dr. Kuartei states how they have initiated “project uphill,” an effort to build

new structures uphill to higher, safer grounds. He states that people are now very careful not to build houses near the sea, because people have seen the level rise throughout the years (Kuartei, J, personal communication, September 24, 2010). Dr. Mark Keim explains that vulnerability to natural disaster has two sides: susceptibility and the exposure to dangerous hazards as well as resilience and the capacity to cope with or recover from such events. He also explains that “resilience has two components, those provided by nature, and those provided through human action” (2008, p. 509). He believes

that “community based risk-reduction activities lessen human vulnerability to the vagaries of natural disasters that threaten public health” (2008, p. 515). Palau may not be protected by its surroundings, but benefits through human action. Dr. Kuartei states how the ability of Palauans to respond as a community is their greatest strength, not necessarily the government’s response to such disaster. The people of Palau are willing and able to be resilient to the effects of global climate change. However, he states that its biggest threat to health is lack of coordination. (Kuartei, J, personal communication, September 24, 2010).

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Climate Change Matrix

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Climatic event

Extreme heat

Sea level rise

Results

Vulnerabilities/ Increased Risks

Resiliencies

Crop damage: heat damage, drought, seasonal changes

Taro, Tapioca, Sugar cane, medicinal plants, dietary concerns, wildfires, safe drinking water

Adaptive capabilities: dietary education, preparedness, cultural bonding

Vector borne infections: Dengue fever, Malaria, Encephalitis

Developing country, resource poor, low-income populations Readiness: Health education,

alliance with more developed nations

Respiratory diseases: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis

Elderly, isolated populations, health access, low-income populations

Readiness: Health education, higher awareness level

Heat-related illnesses: Syncope, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration, stroke

All populations: health access

Readiness: Health education, higher awareness level

Crop damage: Salt water intrusion, flooding

Taro, Tapioca, Sugar cane, medicinal plants, dietary concerns

Adaptive capabilities: dietary education, cultural bonding

Flooding, Vector borne infections: Dengue, Malaria, Encephalitis

Populations close to the ocean, Koror hospital, Vector borne diseases

Readiness: Health education, higher awareness level

Unpredictable tides: Health access, flooding

Populations close to the ocean, mental health, health access

Readiness: Health education

Coral damage

Tourism (economy), Fishing

Eco-friendly tourism: environmental education

Weakened Trade winds: warmer water

Fish distribution

Extreme weather: Droughts, floods, extended and shortened seasons, cyclones, typhoons

Vulnerable populations (location), farming, beach erosion, health access, emergency evacuations, cultural and historical sites (mental health)

El Ni単o

Preparedness: education, readiness, redundancy

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Primary Research

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Part 1: Survey Method: A ten-question survey designed to measure current awareness levels of climate change issues was distributed among a sample size of 148 citizens of Palau between September 18th, 2010 and October 26th, 2010. Based on a population size of 20,000 citizens, the expected margin of error would be around 8%* with a confidence level around 95%**. *The margin of error is the amount of error that you can tolerate. If 90% of respondents answer yes, while 10% answer no, you may be able to tolerate a larger amount of error than if the respondents are split 50-50 or 45-55. Lower margin of error requires a larger sample size. **The confidence level is the amount of uncertainty you can tolerate. Suppose that you have 20 yes-no questions in your survey. With a confidence level of 95%, you would expect that for one of the questions (1 in 20), the percentage of people who answer yes would be more than the margin of error away from the true answer. The true answer is the percentage you would get if you exhaustively interviewed everyone. A higher confidence level requires a larger sample size.

Palau Climate Change Survey & Results 1. How aware are you of global climate change in Palau? a. Very aware Male: 27 Female: 39 Total: 66 45% b. Somewhat aware Male: 21 Female: 37 Total: 58 39% c. Slightly aware Male: 10 Female: 12 Total: 22 15% d. Not aware at all Male: 2 Female: 0 Total: 2 1% Conclusions and Recommendations: Approximately 84% of the population surveyed range between somewhat aware to very aware of climate change in Palau. 16% of the population was only slightly aware or not aware at all. Objectives should be set to increase the number of citizens at the “Very Aware” level. 2. How aware are you of the possible effects of global climate change on your health and wellbeing? a. Very aware Male: 24 Female: 39 Total: 63 43% b. Somewhat aware Male: 18 Female: 38 Total: 56 38% c. Slightly aware Male: 13 Female: 8 Total: 21 14% d. Not aware at all Male: 5 Female: 3 Total: 8 5% Conclusions and Recommendations: Approximately 80% of the population surveyed range between somewhat aware to very aware of climate change in Palau. 20% of the population was only slightly aware or not aware at all. Objectives should be set to increase the number of citizens at the “Very Aware” level. 3. How concerned are you about the possible effects caused by climate change on the health of Palauan citizens? a. Very concerned Male: 34 Female: 57 Total: 91 61% b. Somewhat concerned Male: 18 Female: 24 Total: 42 28% c. Slightly concerned Male: 6 Female: 6 Total: 42 8% d. Not concerned at all Male: 2 Female: 1 Total: 3 2% Conclusions and Recommendations: Approximately 90% of the population surveyed range between somewhat concerned to very concerned about possible health impacts caused by climate change. Only 10% of the population was only slightly concerned or not concerned at all. These results show the need to address the high level of concern among Palauan citizens about their health issues.

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4. How often are you exposed to information about global climate change? a. 4 or more times per month Male: 15 Female: 19 Total: 34 23% b. 2 – 3 times per month Male: 22 Female: 24 Total: 56 38% c. 1 time per month Male: 17 Female: 23 Total: 40 27% d. 0 times per month Male: 6 Female: 12 Total: 18 12% Conclusions and Recommendations: Approximately 39% of the population surveyed are exposed only 0 to 1 time per month to climate change information. It is key to increase levels of frequency and repetition of messages and information in order to raise awareness levels among the audience. 5. How much of a problem do you consider global climate change on the future of wellbeing of Palau? a. A major problem Male: 43 Female: 63 Total: 106 72% b. Somewhat of a problem Male: 14 Female: 19 Total: 33 22% c. A slight problem Male: 2 Female: 4 Total: 6 4% d. Not a problem at all Male: 1 Female: 2 Total: 3 2% Conclusions and Recommendations: 72% of the population surveyed consider global climate change to be a major problem on the future well being of Palau. Only 6% of the population considered it only a slight problem or not a problem at all. These results show the need to address the high level of concern among Palauan citizens about the future well being of Palau. 6. What do you consider the biggest communication problem when addressing the health impacts of climate change to your family, friends, and community? a. A lack of awareness on the issues Male: 14 Female: 33 Total: 47 32% b. A lack of education on the issues Male: 16 Female: 21 Total: 37 25% c. A lack of concern about the issues Male: 20 Female: 20 Total: 40 27% d. A lack of evidence about the issues Male: 4 Female: 3 Total: 7 5% e. Other (please specify) ____________ Male: 6 Female: 11 Total: 17 11% Conclusions and Recommendations: Results were closely distributed when asked about the biggest communication problem when addressing health impacts of climate change. 32% of the population blamed a lack of awareness; 25% believed that a lack of education on the subject was at fault; 27% believed that a lack of concern was the biggest problem. The campaign should address all of these shortcomings. 7. Which public health aspect of climate change do you feel needs the most immediate attention? a. Security of drinking water Male: 14 Female: 23 Total: 37 25% b. Food security Male: 7 Female: 10 Total: 17 11% c. Saltwater intrusion of farmland Male: 13 Female: 14 Total: 27 18% d. Immunization against disease Male: 10 Female: 15 Total: 25 17% e. Emergency medical response Male: 5 Female: 12 Total: 17 11% f. Economic impact (tourism, fishing, etc) Male: 11 Female: 14 Total: 25 17% Conclusions and Recommendations: A wide range of beliefs about which public health aspect needs most immediate attention was also measured. 25% believe that secure drinking water is the most immediate concern; 18% believe saltwater intrusion of farmland; 17% economic impact on tourism and fishing; 17% immunization against disease, and 11% for both food security and emergency medical response. The campaign should address all of these health aspects.

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Part 2: Personal Interviews Method: During a weeklong data-gathering trip to Palau, numerous personal interviews were conducted with fishermen, farmers, tourism experts, public health officials, and media experts. A consistent set of questions was used in order to monitor similarities and differences among people in the various industries. All interviews were recorded via video and audio.

Interview Questions Fishermen 1. How has climate change affected farming in Palau? 2. Has there been any loss of farmland due to flooding, erosion, or saltwater intrusion? 3. Are there any adjustments that Palauans have had to make in their farming methods due to climate change issues? 4. Has the negative agricultural effects of climate change caused any dietary concerns in the health of Palauans? 5. Have there been more cases of crop damage from flooding than in the past? 6. Have there been more cases of crop damage from draught than in the past? 7. Is there a fear that the farming industry might someday be ruined due to climate change? 8. Are there food security issues in Palau due to global climate change? Public Health Officials 1. What health risks associated with global climate change are immediate concerns? 2. What health risks in the future do you foresee stemming from global climate change? 3. How well prepared is the health system of Palau to address the health issues caused by climate change? 4. Have you made any changes to your health system in response to increased risks resulting from climate change, and if so, what are those changes? 5. What are the main constraints and obstacles in addressing the health issues related to climate change in Palau? 6. What types of warning and evacuation plans are in place in Palau in case of extreme weather events? 7. What are the threats to Palau’s water supplies due to saline intrusion or any other climate related event?

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8. How informed do you consider the general public of Palau on issues of global climate change in Palau? 9. What climate change issue poses the greatest threat to Palauans? 10. Are some Palauans more susceptible than others to health issues due to economic class, location, education, etc? 11. Are there any waste management concerns related to global climate change? 12. What are your thoughts on how Palau will develop in the next 100 years if global climate change keeps affecting the world? 13. In the event of an extreme weather disaster, what type of programs does Palau have in place to ensure medical assistance (physical and mental) for citizens, speedy recovery, resilience of community, etc? 14. Do you feel Palauan media addresses public health issues and information adequately? Tourism 1. With tourism rates on the rise in Palau, are there any concerns that climate change issues might impact tourism in the future? Media 1. How many households have television in Palau? 2. How many households have radio in Palau? 3. How many households have Internet in Palau? 4. What is the most read magazine in Palau? 5. What is the most read newspaper in Palau? 6. Has there been previous ad campaigns related to global climate change in Palau? 7. Are there billboards on the roads on Palau? 8. Are there any non-traditional or alternative ways that Palauans get their information? Conclusions and Recommendations: From the numerous interviews conducted we were able to find common responses and concerns from a variety of people in similar professions. Information gathered from these interviews served as additional evidence in our decision making process.

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Key Idea

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K ey i d e a


The key idea for the campaign was developed after conducting an interview with Palau’s Minister of Health, Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. According to Dr. Kuartei, the most vulnerable population in Palau is comprised of the healthy citizens. He explains that the healthy population must remain healthy in order to assist citizens who are less healthy or less capable of helping themselves. It is from this interview that we developed our key idea, “Protect, Provide, Unite.” Each word serves a purpose in raising the awareness of increased health risks due to climate change and also creates a memorable tagline for the campaign.

Protect Through primary and secondary research, it was found that climate change has contributed to a rise in the number of vector-borne infections, respiratory diseases, heat-related illnesses, and dietary problems. The target audience is at a higher risk of exposure to vectorborne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, and encephalitis. Respiratory diseases are also on the rise among our target audience and include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis. Heat-related illnesses include syncope, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration, and stroke. Individuals also face a greater risk of having dietary problems including diabetes and obesity. While individuals are at a greater risk of exposure to certain health issues, protective measures can be taken to lower the risk of susceptibility and infection. Individuals should wear protective clothing, apply insect repellent frequently, and also use window screens to defend against many vector-borne infections. Protective measures can also be taken against respiratory diseases by developing a healthy diet and removing themselves

from exposure to air pollutants. Limiting the amount of time spent in extreme heat, drinking water regularly to prevent dehydration, and wearing protective clothing can aide in lowering the risk of heat-related illnesses. Regular visits to the doctor for check-ups will also help lower the risk for many of these diseases. In the event of a person being affected by any of the diseases, regular check-ups with a doctor could help catch and treat a disease early. Doctor’s also can encourage positive and healthy behaviors among individuals. Through education on protective measures, we will be teaching individuals in the primary audience that protecting their own health is making an investment into the health and wellbeing of all Palauan citizens. This initiative leads us to the second part of the key idea, “Provide.”

Provide When individuals have protected themselves, they can then provide help and assistance to family, friends, and the community. By providing assistance to others, the primary audience will aide in lowering the risk and susceptibility of other individuals to certain health issues. The education that the primary audience

gains on health risks related to climate change and the ways to lower the risks will be passed on to future generations of Palau, providing a safer and healthier environment to live in. The second part of the key idea seeks to provide assistance to others while bringing the primary and secondary audience together. The act of coming together symbolizes the already strong sense of community that exists in Palau. Ultimately, this lead to the final piece of our key idea, “Unite.”

Unite Through the process of protecting and providing education and assistance to others, we are uniting all citizens for a healthier Palau. Again, the idea that individuals must protect themselves first empowers them with the ability and knowledge to provide assistance to the less fortunate and to unite the community. Increasing unity among individuals should raise awareness about the health risks associated with climate change among all audiences. All three words serve a separate purpose, but all three words need to exist together to be effective. The three words behind our key idea will be incorporated into all of our creative.

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Target Market Profile

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ta r g e t m a r k e t p r o f i l e


Based on the analogy that was provided by Dr. Kuartei, we chose two target audiences for the campaign. The primary audience we are targeting with our campaign is healthy Palauan citizens both male and female between the ages of sixteen to sixtyfive years old. According to Palau census data, 13,270 individuals of the population account for this age range. The data also showed us that 68% of this audience resides in Koror, with the average household size being four persons. The primary audiences average household income is $11,117.68 with the majority of this income coming from public sector work. These individuals spend the largest portion of their income, roughly 20%, on miscellaneous expenses, which are expenses that do not fall under the general categories of rent, household expenses, food, leisure, or transportation. Our primary target audience also engages in many informal activities. The most common activities include

farming, food preparation, fishing, and woodcarving. While farming contributes to a significant amount of the food supply for this audience, many continue to shop at local stores. For regular grocery needs, many in this audience visit WCTC Shopping Center and Surangels, both located in Koror. Individuals also shop at Yano, a market that supplies locally grown foods. The primary audience utilizes radio, newspapers, and television to receive their information. Although very few radio stations exist in Palau, this audience uses radio frequently, most listen to Diaz Broadcasting, 89.5 FM. Our primary audience also obtains their information from the three local newspapers; Island Times, Palau Horizon, and Tia Belau. Of the 11,000 televisions in Palau, 5,000 households subscribe to the digital cable network, Palau National Communication Corporation (PNCC). Our primary audience mostly accesses the four local channels broadcasted through PNCC, specifically Channel 23, Oceania

Television Network, and Channel 26, Diaz Broadcasting. The secondary audience we chose for the campaign is children and adolescents ages eight to fifteen years old. This audience accounts for 4,888 individuals of the total population. We have selected this audience because we recognize them as the future of Palau. Starting education about the health risks associated with climate change with a young audience will allow the campaign to have an even greater impact and extend past its six-month parameters. Our secondary audience uses most traditional media and has been joining social media sites such as Facebook in recent years. Our secondary audience uses radio to receive information and listens to 88.9 KRFM most often. This radio station is among the most popular based on its broadcast of current music, playing both American and Palauan songs. The local television stations are among the most watched in Palau with Oceania Television Network and Diaz Broadcasting being the most popular.

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Objectives

34

o b j e c ti v e s


Communication Objectves 1. Establish in the minds of 75% of the two target audiences that protecting their own health in order to provide assistance and education to others is an investment into the health and well being of all Palauan citizens. This will be accomplished during the first half of the six-month campaign. Rationale: Dr. Kuartei’s analogy of airline procedure with oxygen masks (You must first make sure your own mask is in place and working properly; then you can assist others).

2. Establish top-of-mind awareness in 80% of the two target audiences that there are increased levels of health risks that are associated with certain aspects of climate change. This will be accomplished during the first half of the campaign. Rationale: Our primary research shows that 61% of Palauan citizens surveyed are very concerned about the possible health effects caused by climate change events. (Survey question 6)

3. Reinforce in the minds of 75% of the two target audiences that climate change is related to certain health issues in Palau. This will be accomplished during the second half of the six-month campaign. Rationale: Our primary research shows that 57% of Palauan citizens surveyed consider a lack of awareness and education about climate change the biggest problem when addressing health impact issues with family, friends, and community. (Survey question 9)

Advertising Objectves 1. Increase awareness level to 75% of the primary target audience (healthy citizens of Palau) about the need to protect themselves against the increased health risks associated with climate change. This will be accomplished within the first half of the six-month campaign. Rationale: Dr. Kuartei’s statement that healthy Palau citizens are the most vulnerable creates a need to raise awareness levels among this audience. His analogy of the airline procedure with oxygen masks (you must first make sure your own mask is in place and working properly; then you can assist others) helps solidify this objective and rationale.

2. Increase awareness level to 80% of the secondary target audience about the need for them to be the “future healthy generation” of Palau. Increase awareness that there is a need to protect themselves, their families, friends, and community against increased health risks associated with climate change. This will be accomplished within the six-month campaign. Rationale: Teaching future generations to protect themselves first, so that they are then able to provide assistance to others and education about the increased health risks associated with climate change. This is important in ensuring a healthy future for citizens of Palau.

Media Objectives 1. Reach 75% of the primary target audience five times per month during the six-month campaign. Rationale: The key to raising awareness levels lies in frequency of exposure. Our primary audience needs to be exposed to our message often in order to motivate them to action.

2. Reach 85% of the secondary target audience three times per month during the six-month campaign. Rationale: Raising the awareness level among a younger audience helps insure a healthier future for Palau and helps raise awareness among the children’s family members, friends, and community.

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Advertising and Media Strategy

36

a dv e rti si n g & m e d ia s t r at e g y


A variety of media will be implemented in order to raise awareness among our target audiences about health risks associated with climate change. A media mix of newspapers, television, radio, billboards, posters, informational brochures, social media, special climate change events, direct mail, and promotional items are utilized to obtain the frequency of exposure needed to raise awareness levels to meet the established goals. Timing and ad scheduling will be arranged so that logo and tagline awareness is raised prior to the more individualized messages being released. The heart of this media plan is based around frequency of exposure to Palauan citizens. One exposure of an

advertisement to a target group has little or no effect. After three exposures within a campaign cycle and the more frequency increases, the more advertisements become effective. Wear-out of an advertising campaign is not caused by too much frequency but is more related to copy and content problems. Therefore, content will be changed regularly in order to keep things fresh. The logo uses the traditional Palauan flag colors of blue and yellow and contains the words “Protect, Provide, Unite.” A circular arrow is used to encompass the three words to unify the “key idea.” The logo will be placed in prominent locations in all of the print and television advertisements. Visual

frequency and repetition of the logo will create familiarity with the key idea. In radio advertisements where the logo cannot be seen, the tagline will be recited. In order for the audiences to better understand the logo’s meaning, a series of advertisements are used that introduce each word of the tagline through the use of powerful images and explanations. With repetition, seeing the logo should trigger a mental connection between health risks and climate change. Also, the active tagline, “Protect, Provide, Unite” encourages behavior change and modification among our audiences. Logo recognition is critical in creating campaign awareness.

Newspapers Newspaper advertisements have been categorized into three series:

Series 1: Checklist Ads During the first month of the campaign, a page positioning strategy will be utilized in all three newspapers. There will be two, 3 (column) X 9 (inch) (this size dominates the page without having to buy the full page) ads that line up behind each other on corresponding pages. For example, the first ad would be placed on the bottom right hand side of page three and the second ad would be the same size placed on the bottom right hand side of page five. The first ad (page 3) would show a checklist of health issues related to climate change. The question used in the ad would ask, “Which of the following health risks do you believe increases with climate change events?” There will be boxes to check beside each response so the reader can respond to the list. When

the page is turned (to page 5) there is an identical ad, except all of the boxes have bright red (spot color) check marks, showing that all of the responses are actually increased health risks. The bright red spot color will be used on an otherwise black and white page. The advertisement’s forward placement in the newspaper, along with the use of the bright red spot color will increase recognition of the ad.

Series 2: Logo Ads During the first month of the campaign, four full-page (5 column X 16 inches), full color ads will be placed to introduce the campaign logo. One ad will appear each week and will rotate among the three newspapers so as to not overlap with series one ads. During the first two weeks of the second month of the campaign, six full-page (5 column X 16 inches), full color ads will be placed. This allows for one of these ads to run

in each newspaper once per week for the first two weeks of the second month of the campaign. The logo ads will also be used at strategic times throughout the remaining months of the campaign as a reminder of the mission of the campaign. These ads will show the campaign logo in full color. The ad copy below the logo will be used to explain the “Protect, Provide, Unite” tagline to the readers. During the first two weeks of the campaign’s second month, these ads will be used to establish familiarity with the logo and tagline. These ads will also be mixed into the scheduling during the latter half of the campaign for reinforcement of the key idea.

Series 3: Fact Ads Also, during the second month of the campaign, a series of more individualized newspaper ads will begin to be placed. These ads will be black and white, 3 (column) X 8 (inch) in size

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with a page 3 placement in each of the three newspapers. Each ad in this series will state facts that relate to the health risks associated to climate change. Each ad will individualize a word from the tagline, Protect, Provide, Unite, and employ the fact strategy to a variety of climate related health risks. The ads will create awareness of health related issues and their association with climate change. The ads are also designed to educate the reader on various actions they can take to help lessen the impact or prevent these health issues. There will be nine different ads in this series that will be strategically mixed among the three different newspapers. Duplicate ads will not run in any of the three newspapers during the same week. The creative elements in these ads will display continuity, but will address different subject matter within each. All ads will contain the campaign logo and tagline.

Media Strategy The largest portion of campaign’s advertising will

the be

through newspapers. There are three major newspapers that serve Palau and they are: Island Times, Palau Horizon and Tia Belau (This is Palau). Each newspaper has a circulation of about 1,200 copies each with Island Times and Palau Horizon publishing twice a week, while Tia Belau only has a weekly issue. The Island Times and Palau Horizon are both published on Tuesdays and Fridays while Tia Belau is published every Monday. All three newspapers are sold throughout Palau from Babeldaob in the north, to Angaur in the south. Because of the limited media in Palau, readership is high across all three newspapers. All three newspapers are tabloidsized format and sixteen pages in length. Mechanically, they are all five-column formats with full-color available only on front and back pages and the double-truck (pages 8-9). Spot colors are available on certain pages (2, 7, 10, and 15) for additional costs. During the first month of the campaign, the series 1 ads (checklist

ads) will run in two papers per week (Island Times, Palau Horizon), while the third paper (Tia Belau) runs the series 2 (full page, full color logo) advertisement. This plan rotates the ads between each of the three papers each week, during the first month. During the second month of the campaign, the same strategy will be used except during this month the series 2 ads (full page, full-color logo) will run in two papers per week (Island Times, Palau Horizon), while the third paper (Tia Belau) begins to run series 3 (fact) advertisements. This plan rotates between each of the three papers each week, during the second month. During the remaining four months of the campaign, a mixture of all three series (series 1, 2, and 3) of print ads will run with a new ad being introduced into the mix each month to prevent consumer wear out. The three papers will not contain the same ad during any week of the final four months of the campaign.

Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat = Series 1 = Series 2 = Series 3

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a dv e rti si n g & m e d ia s t r at e g y


Television Advertising Strategy Television ads have been designed to follow the idea of stating facts. The commercials are 60-seconds long, but can also be edited to 30-second commercials. Each commercial uses eye-catching images that contain real footage gathered during primary research. When individuals see a commercial with images of people they may know, it resonates with them more and urges them to apply the message from the commercials to their own lives. The facts that we chose to present in the commercials will be displayed on the screen for viewers to read. The typeface that is used in the commercials is consistent with the typeface used throughout other aspects of the campaign. While we incorporate background music that suggests the seriousness of our message, the music used will not make our message feel morbid or frighten audiences. After all of the chosen facts

have been represented through the commercial, the commercial will come to an abrupt end, with our logo covering the entire screen. Having the logo appear in the television commercials allows viewers to associate the logo with the campaign message and identify with the other mediums they encounter.

Media Strategy Palau National Communications Corporation (PNCC) is the only television broadcasting company in Palau. With 11,000 televisions on the island, there are only 5,000 households that actually subscribe to PNCC. Through PNCC, there are four local channels that are broadcasted. We have selected the two most popular local television channels to advertise on, Oceania Television Network (OTV), channel 23 and Diaz Broadcasting, channel 26. Commercial placement is important

in ensuring we reach our audiences at the right time and also the right number of times to convey the campaign message. The 60-second television ads will first appear during prime time (Oceania prime time is considered 6:00 p.m. – 10:30 p.m.) view twice an evening on both channels during the first two months of the campaign. Ads will appear everyday for the first two months mostly after the local news. Only one 30-second commercial would begin to be introduced as the second month of the campaign is coming to a close. The 60-second commercials would still appear over the course of the campaign, just not as frequently. After the third month of the campaign, we will begin using the additional 30-second commercial so the ads do not seem repetitive. We will rotate these commercials throughout the campaign, having them aired mostly in the evening.

a dv e rti si n g & m e d ia st r at e g y

39


Radio Advertising Strategy Only the most important facts that easily translate into images in the listener’s mind are used in the radio advertisements. The radio ads are kept simple and to the point so as to not create confusion about the message. The radio ads will be similar to other elements of the campaign and will state facts throughout. The facts recited in the commercial will be about health risks related to climate change and also about protective measures. Ads will also feature engaging sound effects that encourage listeners to stay tuned to the station. All radio advertisements will end with the message “Protect, Provide, Unite” being recited. Although, we are not able to visually display our logo

through radio, verbal repetition on a frequent basis can also be an affective memory reinforcement tool.

Media Strategy Radio is a frequently used medium in Palau. There are four local radio stations, but only three will be used in the campaign. Diaz Broadcasting/ WWFM 89.5, KRFM 88.9 MHz, and the government owned station, Eco-Paradise FM/Voice of Palau that broadcasts simultaneously on 87.9 MHz and 1584 AM are the three local radio stations where advertisements will be placed. Each station reaches a variety of listeners and placing advertisements on each station will help expand on reach goals.

Given the large number of people driving to and from work every day, both morning (6-10 a.m.) and evening (3-7 p.m.) drive times are utilized to reach the primary target audience. To retain campaign continuity, two 30-second radio advertisements have been developed that feature the “fact” theme. The ads will alternate during the morning and evening drive times. The two radio advertisements will alternate every day between the three stations (336 radio ads per month). Two ads will air during morning drive time hours and also during the evening drive time, throughout everyday and every week of the campaign. New radio advertisements will be inserted into the mix monthly to retain freshness.

Posters Advertising Strategy Two varieties and sizes of posters will be utilized during the campaign. The first poster style will follow the format of the series 3 (fact) newspaper ads. Posters following this format will be 8.5 inches by 11 inches in size and full color. There are nine different versions of posters in this format. The second style poster follows the road sign format and will be 17 inches by 11 inches in size. Full color will be utilized in order

40

a dv e rti si n g & m e d ia s t r at e g y

to draw readers’ attention to the posters. There are four different versions of this poster format.

Media Strategy By implementing posters into the campaign, both primary and secondary audiences can be reached. Certain audience members who might not be exposed to billboards would stand a higher probability of exposure through strategically placed posters. We will

print one-thousand copies of each poster. The posters would be placed both indoors and outdoors in every state in the country, therefore, reaching isolated populations, such as Kayangel and Peleliu. Indoor areas, such as the hospital, dispensaries, clinics, schools, health and fitness facilities, grocery and retail outlets, meeting locations, etc, will be utilized. Also, strategic outdoor locations will be used during special events.


Billboards Advertising Strategy Billboard strategy will be similar to other mediums and will state facts to create a feeling of continuity with the other ads in the campaign. The billboards will also contain minimal copy to ensure the message can be read quickly by passing traffic. Some billboards will contain an eye-catching image that relates to the health risk that the road sign is representing. We will also break the border of every billboard with either the campaign logo or a checkmark. Two of the six billboards will be rotated so they stand vertically instead of horizontally. The first vertical billboard will feature the same checklist that appears in the series one newspaper ads. The second vertical billboard will feature the circular logo mounted at the top, with the logo extending past the top and side edges. Beneath the logo, the billboard will have the extended tagline that reads, “Protect yourself, Provide assistance to others, Unite for a healthier Palau.” The remaining billboards will be horizontal and will feature a fact and checkmark that extends past the border. The campaign logo will also appear on

the billboard and extend to the outside as well. Each of the horizontal billboards will display a fact as well as an image that corresponds with the fact.

Media Strategy Billboards are small in size, but a very important medium in Palau. The standard size for all Palau billboards is 8 feet by 4 feet. Most of Palau’s billboards are located on Compact Road, the main road of Palau. There are also numerous billboards on secondary roads located throughout the country. There are approximately

50 to 75 billboards in Palau. This campaign would utilize 20 – 25 of these signs during the six-month campaign. Strategic placement of signs will yield a high amount of impressions by vehicular traffic as well as by pedestrian traffic. The largest number of billboards will be placed in and around the Koror area due to a denser population and high amount of traffic traveling to and from work on a daily basis. Although only 20-25 of Palau’s billboards will be utilized, billboard messages will be changed monthly to prevent wear out.

Brochures Brochures will be used to provide Palauan’s with recent and relevant information designed to educate them about the public health risks of climate change. Brochures are designed in a trifold format and will use full color images of local places and people. Brochures will contain preventative or protective health measures and information that address health issues related to climate change. A different brochure will be

printed each month of the campaign and will address a different topic. The first month of the campaign a cyclone preparedness brochure will be distributed. Other brochures that will be distributed over the course of the campaign will address preparedness measures for vector-borne infections, diet and diabetes, sea level rise and crop damage, extreme heat and crop damage, and finally, extreme heat and

protective health measures. One-thousand brochures will be printed each month. Brochures will be distributed at the events aimed at our target audiences (Palasia Hotel event and the children’s camp). Brochures will also be available as they are released each month through the hospital, clinics, dispensaries, Ministry of Health, and any other strategic location or event that is determined at a later time.

a dv e rti si n g & m e d ia st r at e g y

41


Internet & Social Media The website will contain information regarding the campaign, as well as useful health tips and guidance, FAQs, contact information, and message boards. The website does not contain rich media or anything that would contribute to a slower page download.

Although Internet access is limited in Palau, user data suggests that it is a growing medium in the country. Data shows that there were 5,400 Internet users as of December 2007 or 26% penetration. There were 2,860 (13.8%) Facebook subscribers in

Palau as of August 31, 2010. The cost is very inexpensive at only $0.21 per click. Clickable advertising banners appearing only on the pages of Palauan Facebook subscribers will direct traffic to the website created especially for the campaign.

Events Yearly Climate Meeting The event recommended to reach the primary audience (14,241) is a recreation of the September 2010 climate change meeting in Koror at the Palasia Hotel. Invitations will be sent via direct mail to state government and public health officials, teachers, and other parties of interest. The half-day event will be scheduled during the opening month of the campaign in April 2011. A campaign launch coordinated with Earth Day is suggested. The meeting will begin with morning presentations from local climate, health, and tourism experts. A lunch will be served to all those attending and will be followed by a group discussion and interaction. A tote bag containing the campaign promotional materials will be placed at every table setting and available for all those attending. A DVD containing interviews, question and answer sessions, and photos obtained during SIU’s visit to Palau will be among the promotional materials. Closing statements and dismissal would conclude by early afternoon.

Children’s Camp Climate Exercise The events directed toward the secondary audience (4,888) are in addition to the children’s camp that

42

a dv e rti si n g & m e d ia s t r at e g y

already takes place during three weeks of summer. The camp schedule is as follows: June 13th – 17th at Ngcremlengui, June 20th – 24th at Mclckcok, and June 27th – July 1st at Koror. The Ministry of Health and the Governor’s Association fund these informational camps for children ages 8-16. During each of these camps, a half-day of team-building exercises, fun informational sessions, and games and contests about global climate change will be conducted. In addition, campaign t-shirts, coloring books featuring health topics, and a variety of campaign promotional items will be given to each participant. Team building events such as: Climate Change Jeopardy and a raft-building

contest. A tour around Palau will be designed to show children the effects of their environment caused by climate change.

Climate Change Awareness Day Another secondary audience event will be held at the local schools. A climate change informational day is highly recommended for this campaign. Inviting guest speakers from a variety of related fields will further educate children about public health and global climate change. Throughout the day teachers and staff will come together for planned activities related to climate change and public health.


A few suggested exercises include: A contest where the kids individually draw their own interpretation of what “Protect, Provide, Unite” means to them and hang the final drawings where everyone can see them. Class photographs of the children wearing their campaign t-shirts would

be taken and given to them as a reminder of the event. A nutrition expert will teach good eating habits as well as dietary issues related to climate change events. The school informational day will be a good opportunity to hand out t-shirts, brochures, and promotional

materials. This will also reach the children who did not attend the summer camp and provide additional exposure to the ones that did attend. The informational brochures and promotional materials will be something the children can take home to their parents at the end of the day.

Direct Mail Because of postal limitations, direct mail is not one of this campaign’s most important mediums. There are also no actual street addresses in Palau, so there is no residential mail delivery. There are a limited number of post office boxes available at the post office in Koror. Mail to outlying islands

is usually addressed to the state’s government office where Palauans can receive their mail. A direct mail piece will be used as an invitation to the climate change event at the Palasia Hotel in April 2011. The invitation will display the campaign logo on the front. The reverse side will

reveal full details about the event held at the Palasia Hotel on the Saturday after Earth Day. All promotional items were selected based on their ability to carry the campaign message and logo as well as being usable products that directly relate to the campaign subject matter.

Promotional Material T-Shirts: 20,000 T-shirts are a very important element of this campaign. When individuals wear the shirts they will serve as walking billboards. The t-shirts will be a light blue, similar to the color on the Palauan flag and also have yellow and white writing. The t-shirts will feature the campaign logo on the front and have an explanation of “Protect, Provide, Unite” on the back. The lighter color of the shirt will help deflect sunlight as well as display colors closely affiliated with Palau. Children’s sizes as well as adult sizes will be available. The t-shirts will be distributed strategically throughout the campaign to help supplement its various events and promotions. The overall goal for the t-shirts is to use a minimal to no-cost advertising medium with a long shelf life to assist in creating and retaining awareness about the effects of climate change on the

public heath of the Palauan people. Several sponsors will be approached and asked to donate to the campaign to cover the costs of the t-shirts. Ideally every Palauan will proudly wear a “Protect, Provide, Unite” t-shirt and to aid in reiterating the campaign message. Tote Bags: 1,000 Tote bags will also be distributed. These were selected because they are eco-friendly, reusable, and convenient in that they can hold all of the other promotional items. Tote bags also have a large area to display the campaign logo and message. Individuals carrying or shopping with the tote bag will help with exposure and retention goals. Reusable water bottles: 1,000 Water bottles were selected because they are a constant reminder for people to stay hydrated. The water bottles, like other promotional items will feature the campaign logo and message, helping with exposure and retention goals.

Fly Swatters: 1,000 Fly swatters were selected to provide and serve as a link to simple preventative measures of insect control. They will also display the campaign logo. Bandanas: 1,000 Bandanas were chosen because they serve a purpose in sun protection and are popular in Palauan culture. The bandanas are designed to display a repetitive pattern of campaign logos. Sweatbands: 1,000 Sweatbands were selected based on their usability in a hot climate. They can also be used during athletic events. They will again display the campaign logo and help with exposure. Baseball Caps: 1,000 Baseball caps provide protection from extreme sun exposure. They also provide another opportunity for displaying the logo. Similar to the t-shirts, when individuals wear baseball caps, they will serve as walking billboards.

43


Budget

44

bu d g e t


Overall Budget

$ 52,000

Promotional Items

$ 2,840 $ 920 $ 1,380 $ 810 $ 1,000 $ 626

T-shirts

$ 7,575

Promotional Items

$ 1,000

Events

$ 1,000

Social Media

$ 660

Brochures

$ 360

8.5 X 11 Posters

$ 920

17 X 11 Posters

$ 5,000

Billboards

$ 2,196

Radio

$ 2,196

Television

$ 4608

Newspaper

* This budget reflects the costs that would be incurred if all mediums were implemented. Promotional items have the potential to be sponsored. Palau media outlets can also be approached for media donations.

Medium

Cost per unit

Quantity

Total Cost

Newspaper

$

3 / column inch

1,536

$

Television

$

3 / spot

732

$

Radio

$

2 / spot

1,098

$

Billboards

$

200 / month

25

$

11 X 17 Poster

$

.23 / poster

4,000

$

8.5 X 11 Poster

$

.04 / poster

9,000

$

Brochures

$

.11 / brochure

6,000

$

Social Media

$

.21 / click

N/A

$

Events

N/A

N/A

$

Promotional Items

$

1.26 / item

6,000

$

T-shirts

$

2.60 / shirt

20,000

$

Total

$

Cost

Quantity

Total Cost

0.58

1,000

$

1.00

1,000

$

0.81

1,000

$

1.38

1,000

$

.92

1,000

$

2.84

1,000

$

Total

$

Items

Setup fee

Flyswatter

$

$

Baseball Caps

Water Bottle

-

$

Bandanas

Eco-Friendly Tote

-

$

Sweatbands

Sweatbands

-

$

Eco Friendly Tote

Bandanas

-

$

Water Bottle

Baseball Caps

-

$

45.00

4,608 2,196 2,196 5,000 920 360 660 1,000 1,000 7,575 52,000 77,515

625 1000 810 1,380 920 2,840

Flyswatter

7,575

bu d g e t

45


Conclusion

46

c o n c lu sio n


Agency 1244 has created a campaign that is engaging and designed to effectively achieve the established objectives. The “Protect, Provide, Unite” campaign resonates with the target market because it was created with the target market. Being able to evaluate the campaign following the six-month plan, will also allow us to know whether or not we have raised the level of awareness among Palauan’s

and equipped individuals with the knowledge they need to “Protect, Provide, Unite.” Assessment of this campaign is scheduled for October 2011. At this time, Department of Health employees will administer a survey containing the same questions as the first survey administered in Palau, October 2010. One question will be added that measures the awareness of the “Protect,

Provide, Unite” campaign. The sample will be randomly selected and the sample size will be at least 148 (the size of the first sample) respondents. Once data is gathered and analyzed, comparisons will be made between the results of the first and second survey. Comparing the results of each question will indicate how much awareness levels have changed between October 2010 and October 2011.

c o n c lu sio n

47


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http://www.nova.edu/ncri/11icrs/abstract_files/icrs2008-001093.pdf National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010). Impacts of el Niño on fish distribution from NOAA fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.elNiño.noaa.gov/enso4.html Palau Project Proposal.(2008). Pacific adaptation to climate change. Office of Environmental Response and Coordination. Pacific islanders pay heavy price for abandoning traditional diet. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88, 7. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/7/10-010710/en/index.html Permanent Mission of the Republic of Palau. (2009). (No. 039/ PMDESA/09). New York, NY. ProjectedHealthImpactsThurston.pdf - Powered by Google Docs. (n.d.).. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://docs.google.com/vie wer?a=v&q=cache:PY7HP59e1G4J:www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/ admin/initiatives/PDF/ProjectedHealthImpactsThurston.pdf+Planning +for+Health+Consequences+of+Climate+Change&hl=en&gl=us&pi

Shah, A. (2010). Coral Reefs. Global Issues. Retrieved from http:// www.globalissues.org/article/173/coral-reefs Sir gilbert walker. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.weatheronline. co.uk/reports/weatherbrains/Sir-Gilbert-Walker.htm Syncope. (n.d.).. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://www. americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4749 Than, K. (2006, May 3). Global warming weakens pacific trade winds. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12612965/ Tsai, H. T., & Liu, T. M. (2005). Effects of global climate change on disease epidemics and social instability around the world. Human Security and Climate Change, 21–23.  United States Global Change Research Program (2009). Island communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems are vulnerable to coastal inundation due to sea-level rise and coastal storms. Retrieved October 13, 2010 from http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/

d=bl&srcid=ADGEESi0DaDpqJUtJfm3GCCpvLj2DPk2oJ-TYFOO_

scientific-assessments/us-impacts/full-report/regional-climate-change-

uV3eov9sd12FI-MbJwJb37Y3CgnHDm8InThB3Gi7MapOv80KL4

impacts/islands

8gE1deRzfpwulb1rCs5bbrnOIgoeOsydrRL6X0x1FEt41Cg2I&sig= AHIEtbR1AkyL3Ex8klJ3sHw__hedTZhweQ”\t“_blank” http://docs.

U.S. Climate Change Science Program. January 2009: Regional

google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:PY7HP59e1G4J:www.co.thurston.

Climate Impacts: Islands. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://

wa.us/health/admin/initiatives/PDF/ProjectedHealthImpactsThurston.

downloads.climatescience.gov/sap/usp/prd2/usp-prd-islands.pdf\

pdf+Planning+for+Health+Consequences+of+Climate+Change&hl=e n&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESi0DaDpqJUtJfm3GCCpvLj2DPk2

West, L. (2010). About.com. Retrieved October 21, 2010, from

oJ-TYFOO_uV3eov9sd12FI-MbJwJb37Y3CgnHDm8InThB3Gi7Map

What are the effects of drought?: http://environment.about.com/od/

Ov80KL48gE1deRzfpwulb1rCs5bbrnOIgoeOsydrRL6X0x1FEt41Cg2

environmentalevents/a/droughteffects.htm

I&sig=AHIEtbR1AkyL3Ex8klJ3sHw__hedTZhweQ World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2003 – Shaping Republic of Palau (2007). Business Opportunities Report. Island Business Opportunities.

The Future. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://www.who.int/ whr/2003/chapter1/en/index2.html

Republic of Palau (2010). Dengue Fever. Ministry of Health. Republic of Palau (2005). Health facts & figures brochure. Ministry of Health. Republic of Palau. (2002). National report to the United Nations convention to combat desertification. Republic of Palau. Office of Environmental Response and Coordination. Republic of Palau (2010). Obesity facts. Ministry of Health.

References

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52


Appendix

53


Newspaper Series 1 Checklist Ads

Which of the following health risks do you believe increase with climate change events? Dengue fever Malaria Encephalitis Pulmonary disease Asthma Bronchitis Cramps Exhaustion Dehydration Stroke

54

App e n d i x


Which of the following health risks do you believe increase with climate change events? Dengue fever Malaria Encephalitis Pulmonary disease Asthma Bronchitis Cramps Exhaustion Dehydration Stroke

App e n d i x

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Newspaper Series 2 Logo Ads

Protect yourself Provide assistance to others Unite for a healthier Palau The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

56

App e n d i x


Newspaper Series 3 Fact Ads

FACT: Mosquitoes can carry

harmful diseases such as: dengue fever, malaria, and encephalitis.

FACT: In tropical countries, dengue fever is one of the most common diseases spread to humans by mosquitoes.

FACT: Malaria is the 5th leading

cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide.

FACT: Approximately one-third of

people with encephalitis will die from the disease.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

App e n d i x

57


FACT: Due to crop damage, there has been a shift toward a more processed and less healthy diet.

FACT: Two health areas of the

most concern in Palau are diabetes and obesity.

FACT: Penetration of local markets by poor quality imported foods with little nutritional value has contributed to dietary problems in Palau.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

58

App e n d i x


FACT: Occurrence of tropical

cyclones is predicted to increase within the twenty-first century.

FACT: Prepare for the cyclone

season in advance by knowing the safest access route to the most secure high ground location.

FACT: If the wind drops, don't

assume the cyclone is over; violent winds will soon resume from another direction. Wait for the official 'all clear.'

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

App e n d i x

59


FACT: Risks of respiratory diseases

such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis are on the rise due to extreme heat in Palau.

FACT: Syncope is caused by

exposure to extremely high temperatures and over-heating.

FACT: A heat stroke is considered a medical emergency and can take the life of someone if it is severe enough.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

60

App e n d i x


FACT: Water security is the most

immediate concern to Palauan's. It is good practice to keep a supply of fresh water on hand for friends and family in case of emergency.

FACT: The elderly population has

the highest rate of mortality from respiratory diseases, largely because of pre-existing conditions. Monitoring elderly family members, neighbors, and friends on a regular basis could possibly save lives.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

App e n d i x

61


FACT: Sea level rise is a direct effect of global climate change.

FACT: The sea level is estimated to rise 50-90 mm within the next 50-100 years.

FACT: Flooding will become more

frequent due to higher storm tides.

FACT: Coastal land will be

permanently lost as the sea inundates low-lying areas and the shorelines erode.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

62

App e n d i x


FACT: Cultivation of crops in Palau

is critical to socio-economic development as well as cultural and religious obligations.

FACT: Salt-water intrusion has

resulted in a loss of many taro crops.

FACT: Many medicinal plants

cannot hold up in extreme heat. Temperatures can affect chemical compounds in these plants that are the source of the medicinal activity.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

App e n d i x

63


FACT: Tides are becoming

increasingly unpredictable in Palau.

FACT: Flooding sometimes inhibits

access to health facilities and can prevent mobile health units from reaching patients.

FACT: Preparing a personal

emergency evacuation plan for you and loved ones could be life-saving in times of limited health access.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

64

App e n d i x


FACT: Palau has the most diverse

coral fauna of Micronesia and the highest density of tropical marine habitats in the world.

FACT: Exposure to ocean

temperatures just a few degrees above average can cause corals to stress, bleach and die.

FACT: The loss of income by 2015 from degraded reefs is conservatively estimated at several hundred million dollars annually.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

App e n d i x

65


Television: 60 Spot

66

App e n d i x

MUSIC: Generic Instrumental SFX: Swishes of the animation Start off with moving pictures of Palau.

Every statistic used will be titled “FACT.”

The text will be active and moving in a variety of directions across the screen. To transition between facts, the shot will zoom in and out, utilizing the current letters as the background for the next set of infromation.

Photos gathered during primary research will be used. The pictures correspond with the facts that are displayed.

The color scheme will follow a simple black, white, and yellow pattern as seen throughout the campaign. Yellow is used as a spot color to create emphasis.

Photos appear sporadically throughout the commercial and are transitioned by quick movements of the actual photo itself.

After a fact, transitions will appear on the screen for 4-5 seconds. The facts will cover mosquitoes, dengue fever, sea level, and diabetes problem.

The “Protect, Provide, Unite” logo will be displayed at the end. It will fade out at the end of the commercial.


Radio: 30 Spots

SFX

Dialogue

Misquito Buzzing

Anchor: This is the sound of a mosquito. Small in size, its effect can result in death.

(:02 & under)

Anchor: Mosquitoes can carry harmful diseases such as dengue feer and malaria. Anchor: Dengue fever is one of the most common diseases spread to humans by mosquitoes. Anchor: Malaria is the 5th leading cause of death from infections diseases, worldwide. Anchor: These diseases are projected to increase as warmer temperatures facilitate. Anchor: The fact is: global climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau.

Mosquito Buzzing Stops

Group: Protect. Provide. Unite.

SFX

Dialogue

Sea Waves

Anchor: Fact - Coastal land will be permanently lost as the sea inundates low-lying and

(:02 & under)

shorelines erode. Anchor: Fact - in 2008, there were 31 confirmed cases of dengue fever in Palau. Anchor: Fact - due to crop damage, there has been a shift towards a diet containing more processed, less healty foods. Anchor: The fact is global climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau.

Sea Waves Stop

Group: Protect. Provide. Unite.

App e n d i x

67


Billboards

68

App e n d i x


Which of the following health risks do you believe increase with climate change events? Dengue fever Malaria Encephalitis Pulmonary disease Asthma Bronchitis Cramps Exhaustion Dehydration Stroke

App e n d i x

69


70

App e n d i x


App e n d i x

71


17 X 11 Posters

Tropical cyclone activity is predicted to increase within the twenty-first century. www.PalauClimateChange.com

Crop damage related to climate change events is linked to the rise in cases of diabetes. www.PalauClimateChange.com

72

App e n d i x


Staying hydrated helps prevent heat-related illnesses. www.PalauClimateChange.com

Mosquitoes carry harmful diseases. www.PalauClimateChange.com

App e n d i x

73


FACT: Mosquitoes can carry harmful diseases such as: dengue fever, malaria, and encephalitis.

FACT: In tropical countries, dengue

fever is one of the most common diseases spread to humans by mosquitoes.

FACT: Malaria is the 5th leading

cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide.

FACT: Approximately one-third of

people with encephalitis will die from the disease.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly. 74

www.PalauClimateChange.com


FACT: Due to crop damage, there has been a shift toward a more processed and less healthy diet.

FACT: Two health areas of the most

concern in Palau are diabetes and obesity.

FACT: Penetration of local markets by poor quality imported foods with little nutritional value has contributed to dietary problems in Palau.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

75


FACT: Occurrence of tropical

cyclones is predicted to increase within the twenty-first century.

FACT: Prepare for the cyclone

season in advance by knowing the safest access route to the most secure high ground location.

FACT: If the wind drops, don't

assume the cyclone is over; violent winds will soon resume from another direction. Wait for the official 'all clear.'

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly. 76

www.PalauClimateChange.com


FACT: Risks of respiratory diseases

such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis are on the rise due to extreme heat in Palau.

FACT: Syncope is caused by

exposure to extremely high temperatures and over-heating.

FACT: A heat stroke is considered a medical emergency and can take the life of someone if it is severe enough.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

77


FACT: Water security is the most

immediate concern to Palauan's. It is good practice to keep a supply of fresh water on hand for friends and family in case of emergency.

FACT: The elderly population has

the highest rate of mortality from respiratory diseases, largely because of pre-existing conditions. Monitoring elderly family members, neighbors, and friends on a regular basis could possibly save lives.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly. 78

www.PalauClimateChange.com


FACT: Sea level rise is a direct effect of global climate change.

FACT: The sea level is estimated to rise 50-90 mm within the next 50-100 years.

FACT: Flooding will become more

frequent due to higher storm tides.

FACT: Coastal land will be

permanently lost as the sea inundates low-lying areas and the shorelines erode.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

79


FACT: Cultivation of crops in Palau is critical to socio-economic development as well as cultural and religious obligations.

FACT: Salt-water intrusion has

resulted in a loss of many taro crops.

FACT: Many medicinal plants cannot hold up in extreme heat. Temperatures can affect chemical compounds in these plants that are the source of the medicinal activity.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly. 80

www.PalauClimateChange.com


FACT: Tides are becoming

increasingly unpredictable in Palau.

FACT: Flooding sometimes inhibits

access to health facilities and can prevent mobile health units from reaching patients.

FACT: Preparing a personal

emergency evacuation plan for you and loved ones could be life-saving in times of limited health access.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

81


FACT: Palau has the most diverse

coral fauna of Micronesia and the highest density of tropical marine habitats in the world.

FACT: Exposure to ocean

temperatures just a few degrees above average can cause corals to stress, bleach and die.

FACT: The loss of income by 2015

from degraded reefs is conservatively estimated at several hundred million dollars annually.

The fact is: climate change is real and has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly. 82

www.PalauClimateChange.com


Direct Mail

You’re invited!

Palau Climate Change Launch & Luncheon Saturday, April 23, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Palasia Hotel, 1234 Palau St., Korror, Palau 12345 Please RSVP by Friday, April 8th Palau Ministry of Health P: (680) 488-2552 F: (680) 488-1211

www.palauclimatechange.com

App e n d i x

83


84

App e n d i x

has numerous effects on the public health of Palau. The risk of dengue fever, malaria, encephalitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchitis, cramps, exhaustion, dehydration and stroke all increase with climate change events. As a country, we must unite together as one. There are many preventative measures you can take to protect yourself and loved ones from the harmful effects of climate change. These include: wearing sunblock, using insect repellent, taking breaks from the heat, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water and eating nutritious meals regularly.

characterized by a large low-pressure

center and numerous thunderstorms that

produce strong winds and heavy rain.

Tropical cyclones strengthen when water

evaporated from the ocean is released

as the saturated air rises, resulting in

condensation of water vapor contained

in the moist air. They are fueled by a

different heat mechanism than other

cyclonic windstorms such as nor’easters,

European windstorms, and polar lows.

The characteristic that separates tropical

cyclones from other cyclonic systems

is that any height in the atmosphere, the

estimated 1.9 million deaths wordlwide.

www.PalauClimateChange.com

for a

centuries, tropical cyclones have caused an

Cyclone?

Are you prepared

“warm core” storm systems. In the past two

than its surrounds; a phenomenon called

*Adapted from http://www.jcu.edu.au/emergency/cyclone/JCUDEV_005415.html

The fact is: climate change is real and

A tropical cyclone is a storm system

center of a tropical cyclone will be warmer

Protect, Provide, Unite

What is a cyclone?

Brochure


App e n d i x

85

in gear • Fill water containers • Ensure household members know

wind technology research, it’s important to strengthen the exterior of your house so wind and debris do not tear large

• Bottled water and other containers

• Dried or canned food and a can

• Waterproof bags

• Masking tape for windows

• First aid kit and manual

• Eating utensils

• Cooking gear

• Portable stove

• Fuel lamp

• Matches

lumber, shovels, work boots and gloves.

plastic sheeting, plastic garbage bags,

materials on hand like sandbags, plywood,

For highly flood-prone areas, keep

• Doors, garage too

• Window

• Walls

• Roof

Critical areas to reinforce:

away from windows

• Remain indoors (with your pets)

mementos in waterproof bags

important papers, photos and

baby formula, nappies, valuables,

clothes, essential medications,

• Pack an evacuation kit of warm

• Draw curtains and lock doors

tape all windows

• Close shutters or board-up or heavily

situation and are preparing

• Check that neighbors are aware of the

further information

• Tune to your local radio/TV for

house and what to do

which is the strongest part of the

solid shelter with hand brake on and

wind can enter. According to recent

• Torch and spare batteries

openings in it.

• Fill vehicles’ fuel tanks & park under

property is to protect the areas where

• Portable battery-powered radio

opener

material such as boats and rubbis bins

take to reduce damage to your home and

essentials:

• Check your property for loose

Watch & Warning Procedures

The most important precaution you can

How to protect your home

prepared with the following emergency kit

Before a cyclone hits, make sure you are

Be Prepared


Website

86

App e n d i x


App e n d i x

87


Promotional Items T-Shirts

Tote bags

88

App e n d i x

Fly swatters


Reusable Water Bottles

Baseball caps

Bandanas

Wrist Sweatbands

App e n d i x

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Campaign Book