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THESIS 2012_PALAK GADODIA_THE B PLAN_BSSA

THE B -PLAN

An alternate plan for the Eastern waterfront of Mumbai


Design Dissertation (Thesis) Fifth Year B.Arch

DECLARATION

I, Palak Gadodia, hereby declare that the work being submitted, as Design Dissertation (Thesis) in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.), is the result of my own investigation except where otherwise stated. The work embodied in this Design Dissertation (Thesis) has not already been accepted in substance for any other degree and is not being submitted in candidature for any other degree.

Place: Mumbai Date: 12th March 2012

Student: Signature:

1. Palak Gadodia

Balwant Sheth school of Architecture

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Design Dissertation (Thesis) Fifth Year B.Arch

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Ms. Palak Gadodia has prepared the Design Dissertation (Thesis) project entitled ‘The B Plan’ under my guidance in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch)

Place: Mumbai Date: 12th March 2012

Guide:

Signature:

1. Pravir Sethi Prof. Trilochan Chhaya Dean – BSSA

Balwant Sheth school of Architecture

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THE B-PLAN

Author: Palak Gadodia Title: The B- Plan Thesis Project for Bachelor of Architecture Project Guide: Ar. Pravir Sethi Other Advisors: Ar. Trilochan Chhaya and Ar. Sahil Latheef Balwant Sheth School of Architecture Nmims University, Ville Parle (West), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Cover page Photograph All rights reserved with the author. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system prior permission in writing from the publisher. Copyright 2012 Š Palak Gadodia|Email: palak.gadodia@gmail.com 6

chapter name & number eg. 1.1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Acknowledgement This is a product of over half a year of research and analysis. I have to thank many people for their feedback and support. In particular, I would like to thank my mentor Ar. Pravir Sethi for his constant and clear guidance, advice and constructive criticism. Without his support this particular journey would not have started nor reached this final destination. Likewise, I owe very much to Ar. Trilochan Chhaya (Dean BSSA) and Ar. Sahil Latheef for their invaluable feedback. I am very grateful to my friends Divya Kapuria and Tanuj Jain for the countless useful discussions right from the beginning and especially during the development of the project. Also my models would not have been complete without you, Rachana Khialani. I would like to thank Surabhi Sakhalkar, Mallika Singh and Amal Roowala for being of great assistance. I want to express my heartiest gratitude towards Vineet Venugopal for his special interest in my project. Special thanks to UDRI and KRVIA for the book ‘A Study of the Eastern Waterfront’ that aided my research. Finally, all my love to my parents who helped me to stay focused and awake at nights.

chapter name & number eg. 1.1

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THE B-PLAN

Contents Introduction____________________10 Abstract

8

1

Hypothesis_____________________12

2

Intent__________________________20

3

Site Study______________________32

1. Illustrations 2. What is Change 3. Why is there Change 4. Nature and types of Change 5. Change and Gentrification

1. Issue 2. Study of Seoul River generated changes 3. Methodology of the Design 4. Case study of Landmark Buildings

1. Introduction of Site 2. Newspaper Articles 3. Transition of Bombay to Mumbai 4. The Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai 5. Mazgaon Site Analysis

chapter name & number eg. 1.1


CONTENTS

4

Case Studies____________________52

5

Intervention________________________58

6

Conclusion__________________________98

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1. Canary Wharf, London 2. Melbourne Docklands 3. Mill Land: A Case Study

1. Existing proposals 2. Evolution of activities at EWF 3. Existing green spaces analysis 4. Site intervention(scalewise) 5. Site A- Shipyard Park 6. Site B- Fort Walk 7. Site C- Tessellated Open Space

Bibliography _______________________100

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THE B-PLAN

Abstract This book has been written with the intention that it becomes a physical artifact representing the thesis ideas that came to fruition during my final year of architecture studies at Balwant Sheth School of Architecture, NMIMS University, Mumbai. These ideas are not just those that have been derived during the course of my thesis studies but are a culmination of ideas presented and developed during my entire architectural education. While not intended nor expected to be an end solution to the problems that our city faces today, it is meant to inspire and at the very minimum encourage further thought and questions about the future development of the eastern waterfront and in general of Mumbai. While it is my job to present these ideas in a clear and convincing manner it is ultimately up to the reader whether or not to sympathise with the ideas presented herein. An extensive amount of research and thought has been put into the writing of this book. It is up to you to decide which ideas are relevant to your life and which are of great enough significance to become part of your core ethic. The rapid rate of urbanization today has resulted in extreme changes to the physical fabric of many cities with the only constant being the increasing rate of change. In the developing parts of the World, urban territories undergoing constant, sudden and drastic changes due to current planning, policies and gentrification compete with the speed of rapidly growing informal and self organizing urban settlements. Accepting Heraclitus’ declaration of ‘Panta Rei’ (change is the only constant), the focus of this work is on how to steer future change towards the better. The selection of site is therefore vitalMazgaon, at the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai is poised on the threshold of great change. The potential of the site can be seen at a micro as well as at macro scale. The failure of most current planning and design practice is primarily an inability to address change, emergence and complexity. The existing approaches based on outdated methodologies attempting to mould cities into preconceived visions, primarily based on economic models, lead increasingly to either failed experiments and /or socio-political exclusion of the other. This thesis presupposes that the designer would not have the luxury of regenerating the entire eastern front through massive urban planning. If Plan ‘A’ is to rejuvenate the whole Eastern waterfront through massive urban planning, then this thesis embraces the ‘B’ Plan. It proposes subtle insertions of different scales which, it is hoped, would create a domino effect on surroundings to influence future proposals toward the subversive (but positive) intentions of the designer. The primary issues addressed in the form of continuous research and analyses are: a) How does one design for the unplanned? b) How can one influence and encourage positive direction within constantly changing emergent urban fields.

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chapter name & number eg. 1.1


INTRODUCTION

This idea strikes at the heart of what this book is about. The book has been written chronologically, archiving the progression and process of the creation and development of the thesis. It has been organized into seven different sections. The first identifies the key problems with urban changes today. The second section presents the core ideas and methodology adopted for the thesis. The third part deals with the site analysis and in depth research of the Eastern Waterfront(EWF) of Mumbai. The fourth one puts forward the various case studies analyzed during the process. The fifth section introduces the various proposals and the conflicts at the EWFand that further leading to the concepts of the interventions at various scales. The sixth part presents the drawings of the design and the seventh outlines the conclusions drawn.

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THE B-PLAN

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chapter name & number eg. 1.1


HYPOTHESIS

1

Hypothesis

The reoccurring ‘awareness’ here really is “...that the only constant is change...”. This change cannot be discontinued or predicted.

chapter name & number eg. 1.1

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THE B-PLAN

Seoul River

1961

Melbourne Docklands

1920’s

Shanghai

Singapore

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1.1 Illustrations


HYPOTHESIS

2011

2011

The common link between these illustrations is- change. These are the cities that have transformed its urban landscape to embrace a global identity. This illustration shows transition through years of different cities across the globe. This transition leaves constants and variables as the markers or the means to identify the change. Change in urban spaces brings about alteration to the Image of the city.

1.1 Illustrations

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THE B-PLAN

“.....it is pointless to decide whether Zenobia be classified among happy cities or among unhappy. It makes no sense to divide cities into these two species but into another two: those through years and changes continue to give their form to desires, and those in which desires either erase the city or are erased by it.” Italo Calvino

Cities thus have to be studied under the lens of ‘change’. To understand transformation within a city, the ‘growth’ of the city and its ‘image’ have to studied. Any flux in any one of these parameters would bring about changes within the city.

Image of the city: “Every citizen has had long associations with some part of the city, and his image is soaked in memories and meanings. Each of these images will comprise recognition of its “individuality or oneness” within the city as a whole and recognition of its spatial or pattern relationships to other parts of the city.” -Kevin Lynch

alter

convert

modify

shift

vary

replace

outcome

Change

switch

event

transform

what is CHANGE???

Implications and forms of ‘change’

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1.2 What is Change


HYPOTHESIS

Cities have been constantly transforming. This transformation is the resultant of various factors. For instance, any addition or subtraction in the transport system of the city modifies the street patterns, thus altering the circulation of the space. Such an addition would make the area more accessible. Thus, the city grows from being an atom to a molecule to a cell to an organism. The rate at which it grows depends not only on the adaptability of that space but more so on the relationship between the factors causing the change. Any friction between these factors would be a hindrance in the rate of change.

INSTITUTE

TRADE & ECONOMY

SOCIAL POLITICAL RELIGION INFRASTRUCTURE

GEOGRAPHY

why is there CHANGE???

Inter-relationship and co-existence of the driving factors bring about the change

1.3 Why is there Change

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THE B-PLAN

Geographical/topographical Social/political/religion Infrastructure Trade (economy)

No physical connection

Prolonged change

Rate of Change

Based on Cause

Driving Factors Overnight change

One can physically sense around

CHANGE

Tangible-Intangible Changes

Based on Effect

at the neighbourhood level Medium at the city level

Large 2 or more cities are affected

Based on Effect

Small

Obvious-Subtle changes

Subdued in its effect

Scale of Change

based on the range of its response XLarge at the country level

prominent in its effect

The nature of change can be understood clearly by understanding its effect. The above diagram categorizes different effects of change based on its physicality, scale and rate.

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1.4 Nature and Types of Change


HYPOTHESIS

Analyzing the nature of change and its various forms and factors, we conclude that existence and occurrence of change is constant. It cannot be stopped. Occurrence of Change is

Constant.

The rate of change has

accelerated over the past few years.

In fact, the rate of change has only accelerated over the past few years. It cannot be predicted as well but a probability of its incidence can be evaluated.

Gentrification scale is decided by its effect. changes that result when wealthier (gentry)system. acquire Loop of change makespeople it a complex (Negative change being the haphazard random development benefit only to the handful and the posiproperty low income communities tive transformation beingin the growth towards the and gain ofworkingclass the city as a whole with development related to its context)Predictability of Change cannot be done but Probability can. oforchange But these changes transform space the for the– negative positive.

A type of change is gentrification. Shorditch, East London was occupied by lower income group. With the art galleries and lofts available, the artists came in. An attraction Gentrification is the change effected when wealthier people (gentry) acquire the property in low income and working class uplifted communities. Onearea such instance is Shorditch in Eastestate London. value This area was occupied like this had the and then the real by low income group. With the art galleries and lofts available, the artists came in. An attraction like this increased as also its demand. uplifted the area and then real estate value increased as also its demand; thus displacing the low income community.

Real Estate

Attraction

Artists Studio & exhibitions

Clusterization

1.5 Change and Gentrification

Hype

Gentrification

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THE B-PLAN

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chapter name & number eg. 1.1


CHAPTER TITLE

2

Intent

The unstoppable change has to be guided by creating nodes of subtle interventions which would create a domino effect to influence future change towards positive.

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THE B-PLAN

How to alter change??

If the event of change cannot be stopped or predicted, then how does one alter its outcome towards the positive? The simplest way of explaining the same could be what most of us might have seen; the site of a single huge rock abruptly changing the course of a stream of water that has been flowing in a certain direction for the longest time. This metaphorically implies that the occurrence of unstoppable and ever accelerating change (stream of water) when triggered via a node(obstructed with a rock) could be maneuvered.

organise

maneuver steer

Direct

conduct manage

channelize

lead

guide order

train

An example of events, changes and its direction is Seoul River (explained further).

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2.1 Issue


INTENT

Seoul River(Cheonggyecheon/hangul), Seoul River (Cheonggyecheon/Hangul), Downtown Seoul, South Korea Downtown Seoul, South Korea

8.4km 8.4 kmlong long Opened in 2005 Changes on the siteon happened in thehappened following sequence: Changes the site in the

following sequence

Scenario 1: In the nineteenth century

Scenario 1: In the 19th Century

Stream of the river is running. Every two to three years dredging, bolstering and building bridges Stream is carried out. The Running city is beautiful. This river adds to the culture of the city.

Dredging, Bolstering and Building bridges carried out every 2-3 yrs

Scenario 2: Post 1950 (Korean War)

thus bad condition of the city

social driver, obvious, tangible, overnight, Xlarge scale

Scenario 2: Post 1950 (Korean war)

Due to the Korean war, people migrated to the city and settled along the stream in makeshift houses People migration, settled along the stream in makeshift houses Trash, sand and waste was dumped into the stream regularly for almost 25 years. This made the condition oftrash, the city sand really bad. and waste into the stream

Nature of change in this scenario: Social driving factor, Obvious, tangible, Xlarge and overnight change

2.2 Study of Seoul River generated changes

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THE B-PLAN

Scenario 3: After 1958 Scenario 3:

After 1958 up inthe concrete, road onhouses it, and the stream filled To Stream improvise thecovered condition of the city, stream edges lined withbuilt temporary Scenario 3: After 1958 with filthkm had long to be treated. But thiswide was avoided. Rather the stream was covered in concrete 5.6 and 16m elevated highway built over it with the Stream covered up in concrete, road built on it,up road built on it. A 5.6km long and 16m wide elevated highway was then built over it in 1976 in 1976 5.6 km long and 16m wide elevated highway built over it This awas successful example of industrialization modernization in South Korea. This a successful example ofand industrialization and inwas1976 modernization in South Koreaof industrialization and This was a successful example modernization in South Korea

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2.2 Study of Seoul River generated changes


Scenario Scenario 3:3: Post Post 1976 1976

infrastructure infrastructure & economy & economy driver, driver, obvious, obvious, tangible, tangible, prolonged, prolonged, Xlarge Xlarge scale scale

INTENT

Nature of change in this scenario: Infrastructure and economy driving factors, Obvious, tangible, Xlarge and prolonged change

2.2 Study of Seoul River generated changes

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THE B-PLAN

Scenario 4. From 2003

Nature of change in this scenario: Geography and culture driving factor, Obvious, tangible, medium and prolonged change

26

cenario 3: From 2003

2.2 Study of Seoul River generated changes

Highway removed, road cleared, Stream dried- water pumped therefore

geographic feature and culture as the driver, obvious, tangible, prolonged, Medium scale

Highway removed, road cleared, Stream dried- water pumped therefore Re-introduce nature into the city and promote a more eco-friendly urban design Restore History and culture and revitalize economy

The rich city now wanted to revive its historical identity which was the river. Thus, the highway was first removed, followed by the road. The stream had dried and so water had to be pumped through external sources of water. Plazas and promenades were designed along the river. Thus, re-introducing nature into the cty and promoting a more eco-friendly urban design. This successfully restored history and culture and also revitalized economy.


INTENT

ROAD & HIGHWAY

MIGRATION

SOCIAL DRIVER

BEAUTIFICATION & RESTORATION

ECONOMY & INFRASTRUCTURE DRIVER

CULTURE & GEOGRAPHIC DRIVER

Seoul river thus acted as a node and attracted the necessary driving factors to create various identies for Seoul, completely different from each other. The effect of this was large scale, obvious and tangible changes. Through this illustration one can see different types of changes resultant of different driving factors at the same site.

2.2 Study of Seoul River generated changes

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THE B-PLAN

A node (or a catalyst) would thus be created which would attract or repel the driving factors. The relationship of such an iconic structure with the other nodes would further cause a domino effect to influence the change.

Domino Effect

chain reaction that is a small change that triggers similar changes nearby which will cause another & so on in a linear sequence.

Multi Nodal

Catalyst Node Relationship with Existing Nodes

Attractor/ Repeller IconicLandmark Catchment Site+City at a macro perspective

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2.3 Methodology of Design


INTENT

The strategy used to create the domino effect and influence change is extracted from the idea of gentrification.

Stratergy- Gentrification brownfield node-seed

brownfield node with no\less value seeds plonged will influence nearby and act as attraction

Stage:1 radius of influence

Stage:2

value increased major proposals influenced

Stage:3 These insertions would be done at different scales and with varying effects on the existing urban fabric.

2.3 Methodology of Design

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THE B-PLAN

Impact of Iconic Structure Guggenheim Museum of Bilbao is contemporarily one of the most iconic structures that has attracted a lot of tourism(and not just architects). Its impact can be understood by the statement quoted, “I believe Gehry got it right and managed to understand Bilbao very well. What is more, he helped to revive the city of Bilbao and put it on the map again. Amazing what an impact and change a great design can make.” Pre-Guggenheim: The city had extremely high unemployment rate, up to 25 percent. Traditional industries had become obsolete, and the city center hosted a busy river port plagued with severe traffic congestion. Violence from extremist Basque separatists, urban deterioration, pollution and a poor public transport system were further issues the city faced.

Impact of Iconic Structures or Landmark buildings Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain

Post-Guggenheim: ‘I believe Gehry got it right again and managed to understand Bilbao very well. What is more, he helped to revive city of Bilbao and put it on theand mapwater/air again. Amazing what an impactand and change a great design canleisure make.’and busiNewthe subway line, new drainage clean-up systems an airport; residential, ness complexes were built in town, while new river and sea waterfronts, a seaport and industrial and technology Pre-Guggenheim: parks were built away from the urban center. extremely high unemployment rate, up to 25 percent, traditional industries had become obsolete, and the city center Additional cultural investments, such as a concert hall and incubator for young artists, to promote art and hosted a busy river port plagued with severe traffic congestion. cultural tourism a means of diversifying economy and reducing unemployment the effect that Violence from as extremist Basque separatists,the urban deterioration, pollution and a pooradded publictotransport was system. produced by Guggenheim.. Post-Guggenheim:

New a subway line, new drainage and to water/air clean-up and an of airport; residential, and business What architect Frank Gehry did was understand thesystems site context Bilbao first andleisure the potential it would complexes were built in town, while new river and sea waterfronts, a seaport and industrial and technology parks were have once such a space and form of the Museum would be inserted. Simply a copy+paste of such a design builtnot away from an theimpact urban center. would create like this as tried by many architects post Guggenheim. It is necessary to analyse the The icing on the cake was the construction of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and additional cultural investments, such urban fabric and then try to weave into it. as a concert hall and incubator for young artists, to promote art and cultural tourism as a means of diversifying the economy and reducing unemployment.

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2.4 Case study of Landmark Buildings


These wider investments also contribute to establishing a global image for the host city, which can encourage inward investment and tourism over the long-term. The Olympic Games are much more than a CHAPTER TITLE sporting event: they have evolved into a tool of urban renewal and a catalyst of substantial urban transformation.

Impact of (Olympic) Games The (Olympic) Games are perhaps the most visible and spectacular public sports event in modern society. The host cities are required to provide new, or substantially refurbished, sports facilities to a world class standard. In addition, wider investment in tourism, transport and telecommunications infrastructure, hotel accommodation and environmental improvement is also often necessary to ensure the smooth running and success of the Games for both athletes and spectators. These wider investments also contribute to establishing a global image for the host city, which can encourage inward investment and tourism over the long-term. The Games are much more than a sporting event: they have evolved into a tool of urban renewal and a catalyst of substantial urban transformation. This impact of Olympic or Commonwealth Games that have changed the image of many cities are Beijing, London, Delhi, Singapore, Seoul and many others.

2.4 Case study of Landmark Buildings

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THE B-PLAN

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chapter name & number eg. 1.1


CHAPTER TITLE

3

Site Study

Mumbai is poised at threshold of great change at the Eastern Waterfront. Mazgaon is identified to be with the maximum potential and with unique patchwork of activities, thus selected as the site for intervention.

chapter name & number eg. 1.1

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MUMBAI

MAHARASHTRA

INDIA

THE B-PLAN

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3.1 Introduction of Site


SITE STUDY

Like other cities, European and Asian, Mumbai has lost its orientation towards its historic city centre and is developing in the planner’s imagination into a Metropolitan Region. The emerging landscape has in the process been fragmented into numerous specialized zones spread across the metropolitan area (including the historic inner city), whose relative importance depends on its potential connectivity. Mumbai is thus in an interesting juncture of its history where the city is negotiating simultaneously its relationship with the metropolitan region as well as the potential spaces or voids that are emerging, or could potentially emerge, within its centre. At the centre, the most interesting prospects for the city have to do with reclaiming the post industrial landscapes in the city for public use. It is the Mill lands and the vast stretch of land along the city’s Eastern Waterfront that are emerging as the focus of this ‘reclaiming’ process, where multiple aspirations, needs and conflicts are playing themselves out. In this context, the city’s Eastern Waterfront is particularly interesting and of great relevance, on account of its position both in the geography of the city, as well as the Metropolitan region.

3.1 Introduction of Site

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THE B-PLAN

This section puts forward the newspaper articles and opinions from the last 10 years of the various Planning and Government authorities with regards to the Eastern Waterfront. They also highlight the potential and the significance of the site.

Port trust land could change city’s face TNN Oct 20,2002,12.50am IST

“...there’s a whole new seascaape waiting to be discovered- Mumbai’s eastern waterfront” “....an alternate waterfront, more parks and gardens, and above all, new work spaces that cater to all levels of employment” “Because of traffic reduction, we restructuring the port activities.” admits S.G.Tahiliani, Port trust secretary.

Task Force appointed to look into plans TNN Nov 7, 2002, 12.33am IST for the eastern waterfront “Any isolated and uncoordinated efforts in disposing of the surplus land of the Port may not realise its full potential value. It is, therefore, necessary that concerned agencies like the Port Trust, the BMC and the MMRDA, work together to arrive at a common plan and strategy for redevelopment. Such a plan and strategy should be formulated in consonance with the overall vision of Mumbai’s future and should be carried out in a phased and co-ordinated manner.”

‘Port land could give Mumbai an uplift’ TNN Feb 25, 2004, 12.28am IST “MPT officials responded by acknowledging that Mumbai was losing significance as a port, and was at a “crossroads’’.

“.... what is the future of the port itself ?”

MbPt set to unlock 1400 acres

Nauzer Bharucha, TNN Sep 19, 2006, 01.09am IST

“The Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT), the city’s largest landlord, appears to be clearing the decks to sell off huge portions of its vast land holdings.” “According to the draft, the port may sell outright any plot which is outside the custom-bound area provided the land is not required for the port’s own use in the future based on its approved perspective plan. Custom-bound areas are those where actual shipping activities take place—as at the Indira Docks, the Princess and Victoria Docks in Ballard Estate, the Pirpau Jetty in Mahul and the like(about 500 acres).

No Mumbai Port trust expansion:Government

Yogesh Naik, TNN May 14, 2007, 01.48am IST

“...any further expansion will result in an increase in truck and trailer traffic and add to the chaos on Mumbai’s choked roads. The port authorities, however, have rubbished the government’s observations.”

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3.2 Newspaper Articles


Old Port Trust lands on Darryl D’Monte the Dock Chairperson of the Forum of Environmental and Journalists of India and Founder President of the

SITE STUDY

International Federation of Envireonmental Journaists 26Aug 2008

Eastern freeway to be completed by 2010

Yogesh Naik, TNN Jan 19, 2009, 12.00am IST

“The Eastern Freeway, which will connect the island city with Chembur, is likely to be completed almost a year before the scheduled date. Work on the 16-km road started in June 2008 and it was given a timeframe of 36 months.” “The Eastern Freeway will also be the longest elevated road in the city. Nearly 8.9 km of this road will be elevated and one can travel from Colaba to Panjrapole in just 20-25 minutes.”

Negotiating a truce at the waterfront Published: Sunday, Jan 31, 2010, 0:26 IST By Labonita Ghosh | Place: Mumbai | Agency: DNA “There are two new aspects to this re-look,” says Srivastava. “City planners are now saying, ‘Let’s not talk about evacuating. Let’s urge the port to either incorporate a better land-use policy, or appoint someone with urban planning experience within the port structure.” Among other suggestions thrown up by the study-in-progress are first, to shift all major activities — warehousing, wagon-breaking and large storage units — to Navi Mumbai, and free up these areas for housing and recreation. “Shifting the entire port activities to the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) in Panvel will free up the waterfront to be used by the city,” says Mishra. “The port trust should break down the wall along the eastern waterfront and let the city grow all the way to the water’s edge.”

‘Dont lose your waterfront. Ketaki Ghoge, Hindustan Times It will be hard to get it back.’ Mumbai, June 31, 2010 Port trust opens up land to city “We are not going to be rigid, we are not saying we will not share an inch of our land,” MbPT chairman, Rahul Asthana, told Hindustan Times. “We are willing to sit down with the state government and, without handing over ownership of land, use excess land or isolated land parcels we don’t use for city projects.’’

Ketaki Ghoge, Hindustan Times Mumbai, April 07, 2010

Minister wants port out of Mumbai Ketaki Ghoge, Hindustan Times Mumbai, April 07, 2010

“Following the chlorine gas leak on July 14 that sent 131 people to hospital, the state has suggested that the Union shipping ministry consider shifting the Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT) outside city limits. “

Port trust likely to free land for housing, Sayli Udas Mankikar, Hindustan Times develop waterfront Mumbai, June 01, 2011 Project stinks of real estate deal: Docklands forum Nauzer K Bharucha, TNN Jun 16, 2011, 08.02am IST “Since 2008, the Mumbai Docklands Regeneration Forum, comprising naval experts, former bureaucrats and urban planners, had warned that the Mazagaon container terminal project is flawed and impossible to implement. It said the project stinks of a real estate deal as it involves filling up of the two docks, which will create 55 acres of land mass in the sea. The contiguous land mass will add up to around 350 acres. “In case it fails, the authorities will open up the land for property development,” forum members told TOI”

3.2 Newspapers Articles

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THE B-PLAN

From Bombay Changing Economic Scenarios

38

3.3 Transition of Bombay to Mumbai


To Mumbai and Transformations at the Eastern waterfront

2011 1750

1840

1870

1890

1910

1940

2000

SITE STUDY

3.3 Transition of Bombay to Mumbai

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THE B-PLAN

Mahim

Ship building Ship building industryindustry started started in 1735in 1735 Main holdings Main holdings shifted shifted from Surat fromtoSurat Bombay to Bombay Naval Dockyard Naval Dockyard established established as 1st dry as 1st dock dry in dock Asia in 1750 Asia in 1750

Bombay

Mazgaon

Bombay Bombay Castle Bombay Castle set of seven agrarian islands dotted with paddy fields and fishing villages set of seven agrarian islands dotted with paddy fields and import-export hub of diamonds, tea, Little Colaba fishing villages paper, porcelain, raw silk, pepper, import-export hub herbs etc of diamonds, tea, Colaba Little Colaba paper, porcelain, raw silk, pepper, Colaba herbs etc

Till 1750 Till 1750

Need of Institue like School, colleges, and newspapers Need of Institue like School, colleges, and newspapers

1903 Reay Road 1908 Sewree-Mazgaon Reclamation begins Major Reclamation works begin 1903 Reay Road 1908 Sewree-Mazgaon Reclamation begins Major Reclamation works begin

Alexandra Alexandra Dock inDock process in process

19101910 Mumbai Mumbai - Colonial - Colonial Industrial Industrial CityCity

17501750 Seven Seven Agrarian Agrarian Islands Islands

Mazgaon

Mazgaon Mazgaon

Bombay Castle Bombay Castle

cotton trade started migration of traders Parsi ship builders settle cotton trade started migration of traders Parsi ship builders settle

New dock New atdock Mazgaon at Mazgaon in 1769in 1769 Upper Duncan Upper Duncan Dock built Dock in built 1807in 1807 Lowe Duncan Lowe Duncan Dock built Dock in built 1810in 1810

Parel

19401940 Mumbai Mumbai - Colonial - Colonial Industrial Industrial CityCity

Parel

Worli

18401840 Mumbai Mumbai - Colonial - Colonial Mercantile Mercantile Town Town

Mahim Worli

1840 1840

1914 Alexandra Dock built 1915 Ballard Estate built 1915 Port Trust Railway from PierDock built 1914 Ballard Alexandra 1915 Ballard Estate built 1915 Port Trust Railway from Ballard Pier

1940’s Reclamation of land (now known as Nariman Point) begins 1940’s Reclamation of land (now known as Nariman Point) begins

1910 1930 1910 1930 Bombay was born at the eastern waterfront with fishing and agriculture as the major activities. By the 19th

century, this image was completely transformed from a set of seven islands into one of the most busiest and important trading cities in India. This involved the construction of several wet and dry docks and initiating numerous activities to encourage the settling traders in the city of Mumbai. Mumbai’s dominance on the urban scene in Western India was firmly established. Mumbai, thus became the multi-functional primate city of the region, with a concentration of commercial, industrial, administrative, educational, communications and other 40

3.3 Transition of Bombay to Mumbai


1885 Princess 1885 Princess Dock Dock

VT

1891 Victoria 1891 Victoria Dock Dock

VT

In 1853 train from VT to Thane commenced Tramways started in 1860 Infrastructure Development on a large scale In 1853 train from VT to Thane commenced Tramways started in 1860 Infrastructure Development on a large scale

1870 1870

1940-1970

Increase in Port activities after Independence till 1960

1940-1970

1970’s New CBD activities at Nariman Point Increase in Port Offices shift from Ballard Estate after Independence till 1960 to Nariman Point 1970’s New CBD at Nariman Point Offices shift from Ballard Estate to Nariman Point

Mody Bay Reclamation (Now Alexandra Dock here) Mody Bay Reclamation (Now Alexandra Dock here)

1890 1890 20112011 Mumbai Mumbai -Global -Global CityCity

BPT (Bombay BPT (Bombay Port Trust) Portformed Trust) formed Indian Port Indian closest Port closest to Europe to Europe Large storage Large storage spaces for spaces Cotton for Cotton

Mumbai Mumbai -Post -Post Independence Independence Commercial Commercial CityCity20002000

18901890 Mumbai Mumbai - Colonial - Colonial Industrial Industrial CityCity

Railway lRinaeilway line

18701870 Mumbai Mumbai - Colonial - Colonial Industrial Industrial CityCity

SITE STUDY

Cement Storage areas near CST shifted for extension of the Railway in 2009 Cement Storage areas near CST shifted formore extension of the More and area has been Railway in 2009 vacated More andSettlements more area has Informal at been vacated Underused spaces observed Informal Settlements at Underused spaces observed

Iron and Steel From Darukhana To Taloja and Kalamboli Iron Steel Navi and MUmbai From Darukhana To Taloja and Kalamboli Navi MUmbai Store at Dana Bunder From Masjid To Navi Mumbai Store at Dana Bunder From Masjid To Navi Mumbai Port activities From Dckyard Road To JNPT, Navi Mumbai Port activities From Dckyard Road To JNPT, Navi Mumbai

Cement Storage Shifted to create space for platforms Cement Storage Shifted to create space for platforms

1980-2000

1980 Industrial Relocation Policy passed Industries relocated to Metropolitan peripheries 1980’s cotton mills shut down 1980-2000 1980’s Warehouses shift outside 1980 Industrial Relocation Policy passed 1989 JNPT relocated built at Nhava Sheva Industries to Metropolitan peripheries MbPt declining 1980’sstarts cotton mills shut down 1980’s Warehouses shift outside 1989 JNPT built at Nhava Sheva MbPt starts declining

2011 2000 2011 2000 functions. With the demand for larger storage spaces, efficient transport networks and need to accommodate

deeper draught and longer vessels, this scenario completely transformed and resulted in the decline in the manufacturing and the port activities. This caused most of the industries to shift outside present Mumbai, thus creating voids at the eastern front. These lands have largely remained forgotten with the city’s orientation towards a north-south trajectory.

3.3 Transition of Bombay to Mumbai

41


THE B-PLAN

The Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai spans a length of about 30km from Colaba in the south to Wadala in the north. Within the island city, the waterfront area not only harbours the port activities of handling passenger and goods traffic, but also various defence uses, along with small and large scale industries. Towards the north in Greater Mumbai, the area includes the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, the oil refineries of Trombay, the mud flats, saltpans, and marshlands. The total area at the east is approximately 1800 acres (which is 4.5 times the area of the Mill lands). The precinct is characterized by large footprints of structures used as storage and manufacturing sheds. Large areas of land are used as open storage spaces or railway yards. The land is highly underutilized as compared to the rest of the city. The de-industrialization of Mumbai city and the specific changes in the Port related activities of the Eastern Waterfront have specifically become the two most important reasons for initiating the study of the area. Moreover, the intensification of urban infrastructure and housing problems, along with the simultaneous under-usage of resources in this part of the city, which comprises 1/8 of the city’s area, further strengthens the NAGPUR need for study. NAGPUR

NASHIK

NASHIK

AURANGABAD

AURANGABAD

GREATER MUMBAI PUNE GREATER MUMBAI PUNE

SOLAPUR

MUMBAI-PUNE-NASIL GOLDEN TRIANGLE

SOLAPUR

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT RAILWAY LINKS

MUMBAI-PUNE-NASIL GOLDEN TRIANGLE

HIGHWAY LINKS

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT RAILWAY LINKS HIGHWAY LINKS

NASHIK

NASHIK

MANMAD

MANMAD

THANE

THANE

MUMBAI

MUMBAI

PUNE

PUNE

42

DAUND

DAUND

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai


SITE STUDY

PUNE

The case of Mill Lands vividly illustrates the condition of runaway physical growth in Mumbai. In the development of these lands (area of 600 acres approx), only economic gain by a few has driven the conversion of this rare asset of the city into private commercial development. The city’s eastern waterfront is of great relevance for the city’s future; for both the way the city reinvents itself as well as the region. In fact the very connection of the historic city centre to the region would depend on how the land on the city’s eastern water edge is recycled for use by Mumbai. Furthermore, in the regional growth scenarios and projections of the Golden Triangle (connecting Mumbai, Pune and Nasik), the eastern waterfront would be a critical urban space in establishing connections between the old centre and this regional trianglenow comprising of emergent industries, special economic as well as agricultural export zones. Thus this land is also important for how the peripheral areas of the city can connect for the Metropolitan region to work as a whole. SOLAPUR

MUMBAI-PUNE-NASIL GOLDEN TRIANGLE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT RAILWAY LINKS

HIGHWAY LINKS

MANMAD

NASHIK

THANE

ANTOP HILL

MUMBAI

DADAR DAUND

PUNE

SEWREE FORT

VASAI

COTTON GREEN

BHIWANDI MIRA-BHAYANDER

KALYAN

THANE

DARUKHANA AMBERNATH

SANDHURST ROAD

VASHI BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX

FERRY WHARF

BELAPUR C.B.D PANVEL

PRINCE’S DOCK

NHAVA JNPT

NARIMAN POINT C.B.D

KARJAT

SHEVA

MANDWA

INDIRA DOCK

CHAUK

CST

REWAS KHOPOLI

BALLARD PIER

PEN

CHURCHGATE

ALIBAUG EWF AIRPORT

GATEWY OF INDIA SASSOON DOCK

The land mass within the port lands as well as the water edge is further made inaccessible by the Harbour railway which forms a major barrier. Along with this, the high walls of the docks and the manufacturing units form other impermeable boundaries making it impossible to access, experience, or use the Eastern Waterfront. Reference: 1. A Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai-UDRI and KRVIA

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai

43


THE B-PLAN

The primary survey was conducted in the land-holdings of the Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT). Thirteen estates are under the Trust along the eastern waterfront. A brief introduction to each is as follows: 1. Wadala Estate The district is predominantly occupied by marshalling yards and oil companies with their oil installations, oil tanks, and filling points. The presence of these installations is due to their proximity of oil refineries and the Pir Pau terminal, on the fringe of the island city. The land towards the north east of Wadala Estate consists of swamps and saltpans.

1

2. Wadala-Sewree Estate This district is situated around the sixteenth century Sewri fort and the remains of Sewri village. It also has container depot, which is the back up space for the port activity.

2

3

4

3. Cotton Depot This district primarily consists of ferro-cement-concrete structures with portal frames constructed around 1925 for the storage of cotton bales that were exported to Manchester. The cotton trade has become non operational after the closure of the mills through the 1980’s in Mumbai.

5

6

4. Charcoal and Grain Depot This district was allotted the function of charcoal storage. However, charcoal is no longer used for industrial or domestic purposes. The district is sub-optimally used. Even the grain depot, with its large steel sheds with loading-unloading platforms served by railway sidings is not regularly used. Presently, activities like-parking, repair of heavy vehicles and informal settlements occupy this district.

7 8

9

10 11 12

13

44

5. Unit 5 This district consists of the lands of large companies like Hindustan Lever, Modi Tyres, etc. It has land-holdings that are not optimally used. Due to lack of accessibility and the nature of ownership, this area could not be studied in detail. 6. Mazgaon Reclamation The open fringe profile bunders of Mazgaon Reclamation Estate (Darukhana) were built in the nineteenth century for maritime trade in wood and coal from neighbouring states but have lost their relevance in the present economy. Parts of these areas have been replaced by wholesale iron and steel storage and large chunks of the bunders have been encroached upon. In spite of the steel markets having officially shifted to Kalamboli in Navi Mumbai, they continue to exist in this district. Ship breaking activity is also conducted in this estate. 7. Mazgaon Fort and Ferry Wharf This precinct holds the seventeenth century old Mazgaon Fort built by the British but razed within a decade by Siddi general, on the west. The fort is presently known as Joseph Baptista gardens, atop Bhandarwada Hill outside the Dockyard Road railway station. On the east, there are the Mazgaon Docks, which holds defence activities and related infrastructure, administrative offices of the Port, MbPT warehouses and jetties for passenger boat services and fishing.

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai


SITE STUDY

8. Elphinstone Estate This district primarily consists of warehouses, which are on lease for a short tenure. The area also consists of iron and steel offices and transport offices. Most of the pavements have been encroached upon by the hutments.

9. Operational Docks The operational docks consist of the Indira Dock, Prince’s Dock and Victoria Dock, which handle the goods coming into and going out of the city. The total quay length of the dock nearly is 7.7km. The Prince’s dock is presently being land filled as an off shore container terminal by the MbPT. 10. Ballard Estate This business district, planned in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, houses corporate sector offices and includes the MbPT head office, New Customs Office and the offices of clearing and forwarding agents and shipping containers. 11. Naval Docks This district consists of defence activities and related infrastructure and has been excluded from the scope of survey due to lack of accessibility. 12. Apollo Reclamation Estate This district consists primarily of late nineteenth century and early twentieth century housing and some of the public spaces of the city like the Gateway of India. 13. Jamshedji Bunder and Sassoon Docks This area consists of an early nineteenth century Fishing Wharf and a settlement adjoining the Wharf. The Sassoon Docks consists of the fishing harbour, fishing related activities and the MbPT staff quarters. A part of the backup area of the dock is occupied by non-fishing based activities like garages and godowns.

Reference: 1. A Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai-UDRI and KRVIA

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai

45


THE B-PLAN

1 1

2

2

3 4

3

4

5

6

7

5

8

9

6

10

7

11 12

13

46

PUBLIC

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai


SITE STUDY

PUBLIC

PRIVATE The pictorial sections have been taken across the whole of Eastern waterfront to understand the characteristics of the front. The transition from public to private is clearly seen from north to south and from west to east. Some of the pictures are the old paintings and thus representative since the areas were inaccessible.

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai

47


THE B-PLAN

These maps1 illustrate the quality and various charasteristics of the eastern waterfront.

PORT ACTIVITIES STORAGE MANUFACTURING SMALL INDUSTRIES COMMERCIAL RESIDENTIAL DEFENCE OPEN SPACES ROAD RAILWAY

Figure-Ground Plan 1 A study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai- by UDRI and KRVIA 48

Land Use Plan

AMENITIES

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai


CHAPTER TITLE

LAND FOR POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

Tenanted Properties

3.4 Study of the Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai

PROPOSED PORT BACK UP

Proposal for additional port back up

49


THE B-PLAN

The site selected is Mazgaon since the area has been under constant transformation. The site extends from the Dockyard Station- Seree Station. The open finger profile bunders of Mazgaon estate (darukhana) were built in the nineteenth century for maritime trade in wood and coal from neighboruing states but have lost their relevance in present economy. Since then it has been changing, first due to increase in industrial activities and then due to the decline of the same as well as the port activthities. Currently, most of the land has been vacated. Plenty of warehouses are underused or given on lease for short tenure. Most of the waterfront is inaccessible and poorly used. Harbour Railway Cotton Avenue

Tank Bunder Informal Settlements

Coalsa Bunder Frere Road (BPT Road) Eastern Freeway

Mazgaon Fort Mazgaon Docks

Sandhurst

and

Dockyard Stations

Bhaucha Dhakka (Ferry Wharf) kalva bandar boat bander lakdi bander

50

3.5 Mazgaon Site Analysis


SITE STUDY

The site is unique in its character with patchwork of varied activities woven together in the fabric. The area is active with iron and steel trading, ship breaking, metal scrap trade, small scale industries, ship building, wooden markets, storage and transportation of goods, informal settlements at the waterfront, defunct docks. The only open space here is the Mazgaon fort which has a huge park with lush green surrounding. Implications of the above throws up interesting opportunity for design interventions.

Transportation and storage of goods

Boats and ships along water edge with filth around

Wood from Timber Pier(Lakdi Bunder)

The only open space

Railyard and godowns are dense

3.5 Mazgaon Site Analysis

Metal scrap from ship beaking

Small scale industries

Construction of newer infrastructure

51


THE B-PLAN

52

chapter name & number eg. 1.1


CHAPTER TITLE

4

Case Studies

The case studies helped the designer to understand the nature of issue and the intervention to be made by analysing the similar problems elsewhere and their solutions.

chapter name & number eg. 1.1

53


THE B-PLAN

Canary Wharf is the most dramatic and recognisable addition to London’s skyline n recent years

es ctiviti a t r o p my econo

1500

Generation Isle Of Dogs 1800

Ÿ the

ports of London were alive with activity Ÿ t r a d e expanding with the Docklands

Regeneration Canary Wharf 1960

1970

2011

1987-89

Ÿ In 1802 the West India Docks

ŸNew technology and containerization Ÿs m a l l d o c k inefficient Ÿ London City Ÿ1980 the docks were Airport opened closed Ÿ Docklands Light Railway starts running, Britain's Ÿ 1961 saw the peak year for the f i r s t e v e r docks when over 60 million automated light rail tons of cargo was handled. transit system.

opened Ÿ Growth fast Ÿ ship repair, heavy engineering, food processing, warehousing and distribution Ÿ Industries grew up

Ÿ major

district

business

Ÿ one of London's two

main financial centers

OWNERSHIP OF LAND

54

4.1 Canary Wharf, London


CASE STUDIES

e land usag

ctivi a t r po

ties

Beautified Waterfront

Trade Port 1850

Ÿ Industrial &

Transport Hub Ÿ Port activities begun

1930

1960

1970

2000

2011

Ÿ Port activities

continue to grow. Ÿ Bales and crate mainly used

Ÿ bales and crate replaced by

containers Ÿ storage of containers required large warehouses Ÿ Port shut down Ÿ New port constructed on west

Ÿ Stadium Constructed Ÿ Transport Hub Ÿ Residence and CBD

developed

Ÿ W a t e r f r o n t

Beautification

Ÿ Land abandoned

4.2 Melbourne Docklands, Australia

55


THE B-PLAN

The mill lands of Mumbai comprised of 400 acres. These lands were one such opportunity where rational use of the land through a clear and transparent strategy could have benefited the city enormously. Unfortunately, the state government and the planning agencies did not engage the citizens in the process of change, and manipulated this asset for their own narrow and myopic needs.1 Dr. Christopher Charlton of the Arkwright Society2 believed, “The best things about mill buildings is that they are remarkably flexible.” PROFIT

PROFIT TAKEN OUT REDUCED

PRODUCTION

MACHINERY WORKING MILL

WORKERS NO WAGES

MANAGEMENT SURPLUS LAND

BIFR (Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction) SICK INDUSTRY

REVIVE MONEY

BIFR MONEY SICK INDUSTRY MONEY MANAGEMENT

ALLOW NO SALE CHECK

MONEY LAND SOLD

SOLD SURPLUS RESIDENTIAL INDUSTRIAL

NOISE LEVEL CAUSING UNEASINESS

CHIMNEY RETAINED FOR “CONSERVATION”

IN ORDER TO GET ECONOMY FOR THE MILL, MORE AND MORE LAND SOLD THUS MORE RESIDENTIAL 1 Mills for Sale-The Way Ahead by Darryl D’Monte 2 The Arkwright Society is a registered charity engaged in the conservation of industrial monuments in Derbyshire, focusing on the water mills of Lumsdale, Ashford, Cromford and Slinter Wood. It is named after Richard Arkwright who founded the world’s first successful water powered cotton spinning mill in Cromford in 1771. The society was founded after a festival in 1971 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of this feat. 56

4.3 Case of the ‘lost’ Mill lands


CASE STUDIES

IT

TION

NERY

The Charles Correa report is a detailed plan on development of each of the properties of the 25 National Textile Corporation Ltd.(NTC) and one state-owned while conforming to a larger vision of grooming the mill area in PROFIT TAKEN OUT central Mumbai in a rational, humane and aesthetic manner. REDUCED

The report demonstrated how structures of heritage value could be preserved, open space organized in a meaningful manner, and access to the railway stations and ease of pedestrian movement improved.

It had detailed drawings and measurements of each NTC mill with artists’ impression of redevelopment that would include affordable housing, pedestrian and commercial plazas, grounds, green spaces, boulevards and WORKERS NO WAGES even a museum. It details how certain NTC mills along the waterfront could be redeveloped so that the city becomes richer by another beach like Juhu or Chowpatty.

AGEMENT SURPLUS LAND

BIFR Industrial and econstruction)

BIFR MONEY

SICK INDUSTRY MONEY MANAGEMENT

ALLOW NO SALE CHECK

MONEY LAND SOLD

NEW INDUSTRIES

D PLUS

PUBLIC SPACES

RESIDENTIAL INDUSTRIAL

HOUSING

EASINESS

CHIMNEY RETAINED FOR “CONSERVATION”

LL, MORE AND TIAL

Charles Correa’s report had suggested clubbing the mill-lands and then sharing the profits amongst the mill owners (to develop the land), workers(housing provided), new industries would be developed using new technologies and public spaces would be created for Mumbai as a whole.

Charles Correa Proposal was one of the modest proposals for the mill lands which gave importance to every actor involved with it. Execution of this proposal would have given mill lands of Mumbai a new identity surpassing the towers changing the skyline. One more such proposal with positive potential was by UDRI. It was a formula that allowed the mill owner the full built up area of the entire site, but which(through a convenant) would retain one third of the plot as open space and civic amenities for the city, as well as one sixth as land for affordable housing.

None of these proposals were executed. Instead, the lands went into the hands of the private developers. The case of the mill lands vividly illustrates the poor united planning and execution of the plans by the Government. In the development of these lands, economic gain by only a few has driven the conversion of this asset of the city into private commercial development.

4.3 Case of the ‘lost’ Mill lands

57


THE B-PLAN

58

chapter name & number eg. 1.1


CHAPTER TITLE

5

Intervention

The interventions are subtle for a site like the EWF but the effect is great. These insertions are analyzed and put forward scalewise to understand effect of each.

chapter name & number eg. 1.1

59


THE B-PLAN

Mumbai Trans Harbour

Mumbai

nhav a sh

Ewf

N eva

-sew ri s ea link

JN Port

Navi Mumbai 60

5.1 Existing proposals


INTERVENTION

The limits of Mumbai have been planned to extend till Navi Mumbai. This is intended to be done through various mega projects like the Nhava Sheva-Sewri Sea Link, the new airport at Navi Mumbai, the port expansion activites, the Freeway construction, the monorails and so on. This would connect the eastern edge of Mumbai to the western edge of Navi Mumbai; thus bridging the gap.

Harbour Link

New Airport

New Airport

5.1 Existing proposals

JNPT 61


THE B-PLAN

Various plans and schemes have been proposed by various authorities since the last ten years. One of the major proposals which is surrounded by chaos is the Mumbai trans harbour link(MTHL). The 22 km long sea Link will be connecting Navi Mumbai at Nhava and Mumbai at Sewri near the present container terminal. Part of its immediate impact endangers the mangroves(which serve as the green lungs of the city) at the edges of the island as well as the flamingoes which form the rare fauna of the city. The connection between the two sea links (Bandra and Sewri) was supposed to be made at the Acharya Donde Marg connecting the express highways and the freeway(as seen in the photograph). This still being at the level of the proposal, the monorail(longest) connecting Chembur to Jacob Circle already has finished 40% of its construction and 10% of it lying on the connection mentioned above.

construction of the monorail

This overlap of the routes of the proposals prove that: 1.Sea Link route would have to be re-worked, 2. There is no united planning amongst the authorities. It has been 10 years that the land at the EWF is continued to be vacated through displacement of various industries at Navi Mumbai. Despite this, the land is left idle for the developers to follow the same strategy as in the case of mill-lands. If this happens, such an extensive area would be lost and also one of the biggest opportunities to give Mumbai a new identity alongwith it.

62

5.1 Existing proposals


INTERVENTION

Conclusion: Looking at the forepast, Nariman Point in 60’s, Navi Mumbai in 80’s and mill lands in 2000, one can see that the Planning and development authorities work in an ad hoc fashion without any wider implications. Understanding the nature of proposals and its working by the authorities, this thesis presupposes that the designer would not have the luxury of regenerating the entire eastern front through massive urban planning. Hence, the intervention would be subtle gestures of various scales which would create a knock-on effect to influence any such proposals or changes at the eastern waterfront towards the positive of the site.

5.1 Existing proposals

63


THE B-PLAN

The eastern waterfront is going to be influenced by economic changes and real estate markets that are bound to change at a rapid pace. Plans are prepared on the assumption that growth would be “more of the same�Activities will quicklyPast become obsolete Future and invite a Present developer-politician nexus to decide how the city should grow.

Past

Present

-Harbour -Mills started -Ship building -Ship reparing and breaking -rails started -trade started -fishing started

Future

-Almost vanished: shifted -Mills shut and area occupied by builders -Majorly shifted and carried out at minor scale -Extinct BPT rail few remaining network -trade almost nill -no fishing

-reclamation done -skycrapers changing the complete skyline -no trace -flyovers, monorails, metro overpowering -financial capital -no open space -forgotten history

Aim: to change and alter the negative future scenario to positive open spaced green Mumbai with its beginning traced in contemporary way

It is realised that the activities which supported the port from within the city no longer seem relevant within the city and have undergone change. The future of the port activities needs to be reviewed and it is important to have perspective of such changing economic and technological landscape.

64

5.2 Evolution of activities at EWF


INTERVENTION

P P

OPEN SPACE

P

The map illustrates that the eastern front of Mumbai has the least open space . This scenario will get worse if no action is taken now! 5.3 Existing green spaces analysis

65


THE B-PLAN

Site C

Invisible trail Revisiting history

Site A

Site B

66

5.4 Site intervention


INTERVENTION

The designer has selected 3 sites for the insertions which would be at varying scales.All three sites have been chosen based on their lost relevance which explains their now dilaptated condition. Infact, their very existence is not known to many. As Fred Taggart, Director of the Regeneration Through Heritage Trust, noted, “Old buildings don’t have to be preserved in formaldehyde; they are infinitely adaptable” The interventions proposed -if successful- would bring the attention and appreciation of a wider public to the historical significance of these sites in the development of city of Mumbai. For an island city, Mumbai’s lack of connectivity/public usage of its extensive waterfront has often being lamented. Thus the thesis aims at restoring the identity of these sites and making the waterfront more accessible with open spaces and adaptive reuse. The visual connection from the eastern water edge across the harbour, could go a long way to weave a lasting association in the public imagination and create opportunities for people to enjoy being by the water. The three sites selected for strategic interventions are: Site A: The Mazgaon Fort Site B: The offshore container terminal at Mazgaon Site C: The underused warehouses near the open fringe bunders These sites are 400-500 metres away from each other. They together create an invisible trail. This invible trail will be the trail of ‘Revisiting history’

5.4 Site intervention

67


THE B-PLAN

mystery

The processes of ship breaking and making have been carried out around this site since last few decades. These activities are dying out due to the dock shifting to JNPT. The site is selected since it is sandwiched between these processes on site.

TRANSPORTING

ship WEIGHING

bold gesture

CUTTING

BLEACHING

IRON & STEEL MARKET

WAREHOUSES

The process of ship breaking is carried out currently towards the north of the site. This activity is SORTING seen at a very small scale compared to before. The ships are docked near this part of site for repair or to be broken. All the materials broken from the ship are sold in the metal and wood markets in the surrounding. The process is carried out via gas cutting which is very hazardous to health and nature.

REMOVAL OF MACHINERIES

DE-FUELING

SHIP BREAKING

BEGIN

SITE

EA STE RN FRE EW AY (UN DE R

HA RB OU R

RA IL W

CO NS TR CU TIO N)

AY DOCKYARD STATION

68

5.5 Site A- Shipyard Park


INTERVENTION

ystery subterranean

So as to get back the historic and cultural identity of the EWF, such a ‘shipyard park’ is necessary that creates the sense of the activities of ship making and breaking and allow one-on-one experience for the first time ship

DESIGN

MATERIAL PROCUREMENT

subtle gesture

FABRICATION UNITS

The stage of ‘cutting’ in ship breaking and ‘fabrication’ in ship making is identified to be the stage to be recreated on site. These stages of breaking and making the ship is paused and the frozen stage creates an experience of these processes and allows one be to be part of them for the first time.

FABRICATION SUB-ASSEMBLY

The ship is sunken and made subterranean to create a mystery when one enters and unfold walking further. This gesture makes it one with the landscape.

SURFACE PREPARATION

PAINTING

OUTFITTING END

BEGIN

TESTING

DEFENCE

SHIP MAKING

The process of ship building(making) has been carried out towards the south of this site. The activity has reduced due to decline in the port activity. Now only few defence ships are made here. The process is carried out within huge bounded walls with no access or view.

RESIDENTIAL

ON )

Such an insert contemporary, small yet strong is important to give back the city.

5.5 Site A- Shipyard Park

69


THE B-PLAN

When one enters the site, one can see the ship exploded into various pieces and spread all over the site. The exploded parts are the sections of the ship where one can walk and experience the process of ship being broken down or being assembled.

Shipping Container

Site B

creating experiential exhibit The materials used for the furniture and pathways on this site are the Scrap from Ship Breaking engine, antiques, glass, scrap obtained from ship doors, breaking.

slices

iron plates-8x4ft and 16x4ft,iron pipes of all sizes

ship explosion .0

-4

.0

0 -4

0.0

.00

0

.0

-4 0

0.0

the majority of inhabitants of the docklands include unskilled construction labourers, drivers, domestic servants, scrap collectors, loaders and unloaders, factory workers, service industry labourers, domestic servants, stone breakers, vegetable and other commodity sellers, drivers, gutter cleaners, shop owners, bus conductors, restaurant owners, mechanics and clerks.

0

0.0

entrance towards the walk

70

5.5 Site A- Shipyard Park


INTERVENTION

split

tearing the landsccape walkthrough

0

0.0

stress on land

undulations

Shipping Container

5.5 Site A- Shipyard Park

71

Scra


THE B-PLAN

RESIDENTIAL

TOWARDS WADALA

G ACCE EXISTIN

DOCKYARD STATION

FORT SS TO THE

POOR ACCESS

H

A

RB O

U R

RA IL

W

A Y

INTERVENTION SITE

Mazgaon Fort, locally known as the Joseph Baptista D ROA THE Gardens, is a 1.5 acres park and located at theBM RO WF handarwada hill. The gardens are located behind VIE the Dockyard Road railway station, at an altitude of 32 metres. It may be the only place in the city where you can look over a bustling railway station, dockyard and arterial roads minutes after hopping off a train. This elevated expanse is a ten minute walk and a five-minute climb away from Dockyard Road station on the Harbour line.

72

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk


RESIDENTIAL

DEFENCE

INTERVENTION

Christined after freedom fighter Kaka Joseph Baptista,it has had many name changes in its over-150-year-old existence. The most popular of these,apart from Mazagaon garden of course, was, believe it or not, hanging gardens.

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk

73


THE B-PLAN

harbour railway current access

dockyard station

Mazgaon fort

Infact, recent news in Hindustan Times(on 26th January, 2012) stated ,’The Joseph Baptista Gardens are famous for morning walks and that finding so much space in this part of the city has become close to impossible. The afternoons is a packed house here, as children from surrounding schools drop by. Since it is located on the hill,it offers an unrestricted view of the Mazgaon Docks.’ After the British arrived in Bombay in the 1660s, they selected Bhandarwala Hill, a basalt rocky outcrop as a site for the Mazagon Fort, that was built in 1680. However, the fort was completely razed by Siddi ruler Yakut Khan after he withdrew his siege on the orders of the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb. Water, before being supplied to the city, was brought in to this Bhandarwada Hill reservoir from Vihar Lake. The corporation named it after the late John Hay Grant, ex-Municipal Commissioner of Bombay.And as the disintegrating plaque at the entrance proclaims, the storage capacity of the stone tank was increased to 20 million gallons in 1925. Sharda Dwivedi,the citys most loved historian,says,”The garden had a deep connection to the Agri-Horticultural Society of Western India of Sewri.It was influential with eminent members from the city. Its function was to stock plants that the Agri-Horticultural Society was researching on. “

74

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk


INTERVENTION

Current access to the fort

View of the garden

A walk in this park is a unique experience. It is flanked by the off-limit docks on its east,while another perspective is over the Gamdevi temple with the railway tracks below and monstrous houses around. When peered at hard, one can spot the Taj tower on one side and Chembur’s industries on the other.While the imposing reservoir (laced with creepers) is out of bounds, the lush surroundings of the now revamped joggers track are very much worth it.The parks green house and senior citizens corner makes it extraordinary.

Sections of the Fort

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk

75


THE B-PLAN

Very few people staying in Mumbai have seen this amazing panoramic view of the docks and the Sea ahead. The various spots at the fort offers such vantages. The access to those spots is what is the difficult part. The designer has identified two such points from where an unobstructed view is available and attempted to improve access to these.

1

2 3

Plan of the Mazgaon fort showing the vantage points at the fort.

76

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk


INTERVENTION

Vantage 1 where one also sees the ruins of the fort walls

sllaw trof eht fo snimaer

nedr

trof eht morf egatnav

riovre

Vantage 2 with Mazgaon docks right across

Vantage 3 with the docks across and the warehouses near

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk

77


THE B-PLAN

N

+0.00M STEPS TO THE RAILWAY STATION

+2.55M

+10.9M

PLAN AT +2.80M

+13.6M

+24.7M

PLAN AT +15.00M

+30.00M +27.5M

PLAN AT +30.50M

78

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk


The designer realised the need to provide access for the people to the fort as the intervention at medium scale. This access would not only make people come to the fort but also create an awareness of the existence of the fort and its history. And to do so, there is a path designed to the reach the top of the fort.

INTERVENTION ENTRY STEPS TO THE RAILWAY STATION

It is the shortest yet educative path and quite experiential path. It cuts through the rock to reach the fort. It starts from the junction of the entry to the Dockyard station. The path gives access to the existing platform of the station and further takes one in, towards the fort. The reality that one is walking through the rock is retained as the experience of the walk. The history of the fort, the people involved in it, the timeline, its importance and the current use is all the part of the educative route. The various spaces created through the walkway are utilized in various ways. Various objects and artefacts are at display. The panels at the wall and projections provide visuals to the scenario 150 years back. Lounge spaces are provided at intervals to sit and relax for a while and for discussions and interactions. The end of the passage opens up to the garden.

The light into the passage is provided through the skylights cut through the rock. It immitates the section of fort walls. EXTERNAL

EXTERNAL

INTERNAL

INTERNAL

View one can see when one comes out of the passage

N

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk

79


THE B-PLAN

The sections and views show the pathway and the spatial experience through it. The various gestures are made to highlight the history and the implication of a fort. The entire walk has been made interesting with varied spaces throughout with the end opening up to the garden. The skylights imitate the voids within the fort walls, thus bringing in beam of light. The idea of walk cutting through the rock was carried forward so that when one is aware that he is walking through the rock and thus recreating the sense of the fort tunnels and the secret passages of the fort.

80

PART SECTION AA

0 1

2

5

10

PART SECTION AA

0 1

2

5

10

SECTION BB

0 1

2

5

10

SECTION BB

0 1

2

5

10

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk


INTERVENTION

B

1

3

B

A

A

2

OVERALL PLAN FOR REFERNCE

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk

N

81


Part model of the fort was made and shown here. Few spaces have been explained in detail through the montages. THE B-PLAN

82

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk


INTERVENTION

5.6 Site B- Fort Walk

83


INFORMAL SETTLEMENT

WAREHOUSES

VIEW FROM THE EDGE OF THE PIER

POOR WATER CONNECTION

SMALL SCALE INSUDTRIES

THE B-PLAN

SITE

ER UND ( Y A FREEW EASTERN

) ION T C U STR CON

STORAGE Current Usage

PUBLIC ACCESS

STORAGE+RETAIL What if one can access the top to view the panoramic sea 84

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space


INTERVENTION

TOWARDS PRINCE’S DOCK

IRON AND STEEL MARKET

WOOD MARKET

VIEW BETWEEN THE EDGES OF PIER

AC CE SS TO SIT E REAY ROAD STATION

The site is flanked by waterfront on one side and the iron and steel market on the other side. It is currently occupied by underused warehouses and patches of waste lands. These warehouses store the raw material needed at the iron and steel market. But this use is very temporal. This remaining iron and steel market would be very soon shifted to Navi Mumbai, like before. Thus, this site needs to be designed based on the current and the future possibilities (new varied patchwork).

PUBLIC ACCESS Proposed Design

Conclusion: The tessellated surface will adapt to future changing environment. And also the open space and the changing usage below the tessellation would influence the changes around especially at the piers and possibly could create public spaces to access the waterfront.

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space

85


THE B-PLAN

PEOPLE DRIVEN TOWARDS WATER

PATHWAY 86

IDENTIFY GREEN PATCHES AND UNUSED GROUNDS

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space


INTERVENTION

EXISTING USAGE

CONNECTING THE VARIOUS HEIGHTS & USE

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space

OUTCOME THEN MODULATED BASED ON HUMAN CIRCULATION 87


THE B-PLAN

INF

OR

MA

L SE

TTL

EM

ENT

SO

NW

AY

TO

THE

EDG

E

SHIPS AT STANDSTILL

TR

AN

SPO

RT

AT

ION

NEW DEVELO

PMENT

NEWS PRINT

WOODEN DECK

SKYLIGHTS CORTEN SURFACE GREEN SCAPE

88

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space


INTERVENTION

WO

OD

FR

OM

BR

OK

EN

SH

IP

AP

L SCR

META

U

SED

RU

E ND

W

ES

US

HO

E AR

METAL SCRAP FROM

BROKEN SHIP

The site is unique in its character with patchwork of varied activities woven together in the fabric. The area is active with iron and steel trading, ship breaking, metal scrap trade, small scale industries, ship building, wooden markets, storage and transportation of goods, informal settlements at the waterfront, defunct docks.

RARE GREEN

PATCHES

PATCHWORK OF ACTIVITIES 5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space

89


THE B-PLAN

STREET ENTRY

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

+4

.00

M

ELEVATION

M

ENTRY +0.00M -

+

.95

+1 ROAD +0.00M -

0M

3. 0

M ENTRY +0.00M -

ENTRY +0.00M -

+4.80

OVERALL ROOF PLAN

90

ADM RO.0 0 + -0

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space


INTERVENTION

COURTYARD

ENTRY +0.00M -

ENTRY +0.00M -

SEA EDGE

ENTRY TO PUBLIC SPACE

M

+4.80

ENTR ICLE VEH .00M + -0

Y

ADM 00

CUTOUT

+2.70M

ROA + - 0.00DM

ADM RO.0 0 + -0

M

05

1.

+

0M

+6.7

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space

91


THE B-PLAN

B

ROAD +0.00M -

A +1

.05

M

A

ENTRY +0.00M -

ROAD +0.00M -

ENTRY +0.00M -

+2.70M

PART ROOF PLAN

B 92

0 1

2

5

10

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space


INTERVENTION

B ROAD +0.00M

GODOWN +0.00M

LOADING-UNLOADING +0.00M

ADMIN +0.00M

ADMIN +0.00M

WOMEN WASHROOM +0.00M

SPILL OUT +0.00M

A

A

+1

.05

DN TO +0.00M

M

MEN WASHROOM +0.00M

WORKERS ROOM +0.00M

PEDESTRIAN ROAD +0.00M

WORKSHOP

DN TO +0.00M

+2.70M

N PART PLAN AT +3.00M 0 1

2

5

10

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space

B 93


THE B-PLAN

ENTRY TO THE RETAIL BELOW THE TESSELLATED SURFACES

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

GODOWNS FOR THE EXISTING

SECTION AA

SECTION BB 94

SPILL OUT SPACE

WASHROOM

GODOWNS FOR THE EXISTING

chapter name & number eg. 1.1


INTERVENTION

SPILL OUT SPACES GODOWNS FOR THE EXISTING

ENTRY TO THE SPACE BELOW

SPILL OUT SPACE

ENTRY TO THE PUBLIC SPACE

ENTRY TO THE SPACE BELOW

chapter name & number eg. 1.1

95


THE B-PLAN

96

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space


INTERVENTION

5.7 Site C- Tessellated Open Space

97


THE B-PLAN

Conclusion: Plan A involves implementation of various rules and regulations, policies, bye laws, DCR etc. One has seen how successful such execution has been till date. Thus, the designer has opted for ‘The B-Plan’ which focusses subtle minimal intervantions at Mazgaon. Imagine the urban fabric to be like paper. When one or points are lifted, the area around it also gets uplifted. And this is the effect envisioned in the designer’s mind. It is also anticipated that the design will be successful in influencing any future change at Mazgaon. The designer hopes that the insertions will produce such a domino effect which would positively uplift the area and mitigate the negative change. The thesis has attempted to make people aware so that any future development will be more sensitive towards the history and context. The thesis aims If these places become popular, then people will become more vocal and thus the authorities will have no choice but to take public opinion (which is otherwise ignored). 98


CONCLUSION

99


THE B-PLAN

Books: •City Transformers •Companion to the City •Cities of Change Addis Ababa - Transformation Strategies for Urban Territories in the 21st Century’ by Marc Angelil and Dirk Hebel •Study of Eastern Waterfront of Mumbai-UDRI and Kamala Raheja •Mills for Sale -The Way Ahead- Darryl D’Monte Paper and Articles: Remaking Mumbai -Urban Age publications by Rahul Mehrotra Newspaper Articles from TOI http://www.dnaindia.com/india/interview_dont-lose-your-waterfront-it-will-be-hard-to-get-itback-_1341360 External Links: http://dda.org.in/planning/zonal_plans.htm http://urbz.net/ewf http://mail.sarai.net/pipermail/urbanstudygroup/2006-February/000725.html http://www.berlinphotoworkshops.de/galleries/galleries_mumbai/mumbai_info.html http://visionmumbai.org/default.aspx http://www.slideshare.net/urbz/mumbai-eastern-waterfront http://www.clearmaze.com/places/place/name/Joseph+Baptista+Garden+++Mazagon+Hill+++Mazagon+ Fort/id/1591821/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortification http://www.archdaily.com/172407/dresden%e2%80%99s-military-history-museum-daniel-libeskind/ http://www.dancewithshadows.com/mumbai_history.asp http://karmayog.org/knowmumbai/knowmumbai_31737.htm#.TvyACvmaVCB http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=612688&page=22 http://www.mumbaireadyreckoner.com/2011/01/birding-on-sewri-mudflats-bay-january.html http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_De_7p1wlslU/SCbvGpflEtI/AAAAAAAAJgM/A--BM8RsvUE/s400/mahulsewri.png

100

chapter name & number eg. 1.1


BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/feb/05spec.htm http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Citys-fisherfolk-demand-a-say-in-coastal-road-proposal/ articleshow/10535568.cms http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=482638&page=106 http://www.mayin.org/ajayshah/A/mifc/Sanyal2007_mifc.pdf http://asianwavemag.com/design/the-new-asian-%E2%80%9Cbilbao-effect%E2%80%9D/ http://202.54.119.40/projects_muip.htm http://www.pkdas.com/published/Mumbai-Waterfronts-Development.pdf http://mumbai-flats.com/2010/01/worli-haji-ali-sea-links-may-face-delay/ http://ewf.urbz.net/tag/proposal/ http://www.udri.org/udri/mumbaireader06english/30%20a%20study%20of%20the%20eastern%20waterfront%20of%20mumbai.pdf http://www.mumbainet.com/template1.php?CID=15&SCID=5&fb_source=message http://mail.sarai.net/pipermail/urbanstudygroup/2006-February/000725.html http://www.berlinphotoworkshops.de/galleries/galleries_mumbai/mumbai_info.html http://www.oldindianphotos.in/search/label/Mumbai?updated-max=201011-21T01%3A21%3A00%2B05%3A30&max-results=20 http://www.old-map-blog.com/2010/01/bombay/ http://www.urbanology.org/category/mumbai/ http://dsal.uchicago.edu/maps/gazetteer/index.html http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/IND_Port_of_Mumbai_1528.php http://www.stephlittlechild.co.uk/cw/history.htm http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1a-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also_3982.html http://www.funzug.com/index.php/travel/old-glory-of-bombay-now-mumbai-india.html http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/trade/cotton/cotton.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/33267082/Bandra-Worli-Sea-Link-Effects-On-Environment http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1926/bandra-worli-sea-link http://annavos.nl/en/urban-development/

101

Palak gadodia thesis 2012  

Gives an alternate plan for re-inventing the Eastern Waterfront's identity

Palak gadodia thesis 2012  

Gives an alternate plan for re-inventing the Eastern Waterfront's identity

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