Page 1

the Kulture Files Tête-à-tête

is for Beauty, and

the

Amira Behbehani interview by Neha Rohera Art

Pop Culture&Beauty by Dr. Malak Nasr, Ph.D. Snapshots

Peace One Day Event Listings Architectural Spotlight

In this issue,

is for Activism,

is for Kulture.

B A C

the

Marina-A2 The Temporary Village, Sabah Al-Ahmad Sea City by PAD10 Critical Infography

Confessional Democracy by Naji Moujaes

Vol. 05 March 1, 2013

Vol. 05 March 1, 2013

the

Flip the page to indulge!


Tête-à-tête

Amira Behbehani

Bullet series - Medusas Resting

An Artist’s Prerogative Kuwaiti artist Amira Behbehani deconstructs the concepts of art and peace, as she sees it. What are your sources of inspiration? It can be many things that inspire a painter. In my situation, sometimes I get inspired by reading a book or listening to a song. Other times the idea comes just like that, just the inner self imposes an idea. What are your professional goals? Through art I honestly would like to see people appreciate life and humanity more. In all my exhibitions, I have made sure to bring human feelings to the viewer. Have you charted your evolution as an artist? How does your earliest work compare to your more recent forays? I think I have done so. This is what I hear from closest friends whom I allow to have a sneak peak every time I work on a new idea. My nature does not like repetition, every time I have some new story to tell or feeling to expose.

How important is a signature style for an artist? What

Do you see an upsurge of interest in Middle Eastern

advice would you give an artist trying to maintain a

art? If so, what do you think is the cause for this

consistent and recognizable body of work? It is very important to keep a style or a signature and evolve it from time to time. An artist should develop as their mind and inner self are developing, otherwise they will find themselves stuck in this cycle which will be hard to get out of.

interest? I see it mainly in Iranian art; they are considered one of the best artists now. Art dealers are following them, and they have achieved a lot in terms of living under such a regime. I think this has made them express through art in many ways.

In your opinion, should the artist get involved with

What steps can be taken to promote arts and culture

the business aspect of art as well? If yes, what kind

in Kuwait and the Middle East? I guess we need to unite first, and consider it a mission for each and every one of us. By uniting, we will all be able to take art to many levels, therefore creating a society that respects and considers it part of culture. A better generation will then be built. I consider art as a disciplinary act. I have come across many artists who call themselves artists but who had no respect for their art. Art is a responsibility as well. I wish art can be taught in all schools and universities; it will free the spirit of the students and will enhance their mind.

of involvement would you recommend? If you mean having a gallery and showing other works created by different artists, why not? It could even mean establishing a foundation or a school for art in order to discover more talent. But if an artist wants to paint for the sake of selling, the artist becomes involved in the commercial side of art. Nowadays, you find a lot of artists imitating others to reach their position in terms of selling and making more money. In this case, I find that the artist and the art have lost their value.


Please tell us about your art initiatives – the Art Salon and the Peace One Day event. The Art Salon was an idea my artist friend Shurooq Amin came up with. We spoke about it many times, and the purpose behind it was to have as many artists, musicians, poets and designers as possible to meet up and discuss how to develop the art movement in Kuwait. We want to take this movement internationally as well. I have always been a seeker of peace and any charity work that can bring people together and help others who are in need. The Peace One Day event was a dream come true for me, as I came across this foundation by chance and wanted to have such a thing in Kuwait. It took four years to come to fruition. As members of the Art Salon, we all collaborated on making this event happen in Kuwait. I mentioned before that I believe art should reach everyone with a peaceful message and it should be used to bring everyone together and have the unity which we all dream about.


Pop Culture &Beauty by Dr. Malak Nasr, Ph.D.

Beauty as seen in the pop culture mirror In our pop culture, there are a lot of definitions of beauty and consequently, a lot of mirrors of beauty are seen, from ancient and holy stories of legendary beauties to the modern myths of beauty (celebrities)! The concept of beauty in culture has indeed, deep roots in the early civilizations. Beauty and popular culture are two sides of the same coin. However, they share a controversial relationship. Before we dissect the concept of beauty in popular culture, we must understand popular culture itself.

with a full head of thick hair and a high and wide forehead (a sign of intelligence), with an aquiline nose, chiseled features and a strong jaw line. This combination of factors would, as it does even today, produce an impressive “macho” look. This serves to prove that the masculine ideal of beauty has retained its standards over time, as opposed to standards of female beauty. From full-figured to waif thin and back to a “healthy” look, beauty ideals for women have fluctuated wildly over the centuries.

Popular Culture: Making Sense of Life

Beauty: More than skin-deep

In his book Understanding Theology and Popular Culture, Prof. Gordon Lynch explains popular culture as “providing a range of resources that shape the way in which people make sense of and experience their life.” Citation: (page 31) He argues that ‘People may be inducted into the ideas, values, and beliefs of different forms of popular culture through a range of structured, ritualized activities such as attended Star Trek conventions, going to dieting meetings, taking part in on-line discussion groups, or watching a film in a cinema.” Indeed, pop culture is a huge part of our life exposed to us through the world of pop art, advertising, art, film, television, sports, lifestyle, media outlets, novels, recipes etc. It is omnipresent in our daily life; entertaining and shaping our thinking and way of life.

What is beauty? This isn’t a simple question; it’s a dialectic one! There is no complete and final definition of beauty. Although one might consider beauty to be composed of material or physical matter, it is something that goes beyond flesh and blood.

Beauty in the Mirror of the Popular Culture a-The Perpetual Newness “Beauty is that which is perpetually new” – this is an old Indian definition of beauty. In other words, the ‹beautiful› is that which from moment to moment is always fresh. That is to say, it removes the mind from a world in which things grow old and decay. b-The Masculine Standard Greek and Roman artists from time immemorial have set the standard for male beauty in western civilization. The ideal Roman symbolizes the more masculine form of male beauty. He is ideally defined as rugged and well-built with strong and lean limbs,

c- The Simple and the Virtuous The American writer and thinker Emerson opined, «We ascribe beauty to that which is simple, which has no superfluous parts, which exactly answers its end.” Beauty, as Surrealist artist Salvador Dali defined it, is “the total consciousness of our perfections». Ralph Waldo Emerson had a good definition of beauty, in which he considered beauty as the mark God sets upon virtue. “Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine. “ d- Beautiful People: Prestige, Power and Success There is a definition of the term «beautiful people» that is common in the pop culture outlets; and it is used to refer to «those who closely follow trends in fashion, physical appearance, food, dining, wine, automobiles, and real estate, often at considerable financial cost.” Such people often mirror in appearance and consumer choices, the characteristics and purchases of wealthy actors and actresses, models or other celebrities. The term originally referred to the musicians, actors and celebrities of the Californian «Flower Power» generation of the 1960s. In fact, the Beatles referenced the original beautiful people in their 1967 song «Baby You Are A Rich Man» from the Magical Mystery Tour album. With the close of the 1960s, the concept of beautiful people gradually came to encompass “fashionistas” and other hip people around the world, expanding to its modern definition. Beautiful people usually enjoy an imagebased and/or financially-based prestige which enhances their aura of success, power, and beauty.


e- Beauty is a mania!

f- Beauty as a myth!

Beauty in our modern and contemporary pop culture has become a kind of mania - a «Beauty-Mania» if you will! The effects of this obsession with beauty in modern society have been witnessed even in areas of career, job progress and personal satisfaction. A recent survey of 11,000 people conducted by London Guildhall University showed that (subjectively) goodlooking people earn more. Less attractive people earned, on an average, 13% less than more attractive people, while the penalty for overweight individuals was around 5% decrease. Alternatively, one could say that people who earn more are more likely to be (or able to be, simply by means of a disposable income) beautiful. Therefore, beauty does have repercussions (in its powerful, wealth and successful dimensions) in human society. It is a great means to promote an ideology or dogma has been a focus of societal debates which center on issues of prejudice, ethics, and human rights. The usage of beauty for purposes of commercialism is a controversial aspect of the «culture wars,» wherein feminism typically claims such usage, promoting a dogmatic (as per The Beauty Myth by Naomi Wolf) rather than a virtuous understanding of beauty. The literal opposite of beauty is ugliness —i.e. the perceived lack of beauty, which stimulates displeasure and engenders a deeper negative perception of the object. Americans spend more each year on beauty than they do on education. There is a $260 billion-ayear global industry encompassing makeup, skin and hair care, fragrances, cosmetic surgery, health clubs and diet pills. Such spending is not mere vanity. Being pretty—or just ‘not ugly’—confers enormous genetic and social advantages. Attractive people (both men and women) are judged to be more intelligent; they earn more, and they are perceived to be more marriageable.

Beauty has become almost a modern myth! Each pop culture round the human history, had has its own «beauty myth», through identification with a mythical character; most of them typically female forms as goddesses of beauty. Such myths in four of the most important civilizations are: • Aphrodite – In Greek mythology • Venus – In Roman mythology • Isis – In Egyptian Mythology • Radha – In Hindu mythology These goddesses of beauty were, simply, on one hand, the human imagination and speculation on the inner and rooted need for the beauty, and on the other hand were a primordial response for the instinct sense of beauty. In our current era replete with modern myths, there is still a deep and eager need for this beauty in direct or indirect ways, simple or complicated forms. Therefore, Aphrodite, Venus, Isis and Radha are still present in our fashion, our movies and advertising, in the flesh and blood of Lady Gaga, Angelina Jolie, the current Miss World and others. The only difference is their new format, and the new colors of pop culture!


“When you build a house, you start with one brick. If we want to build peace, we should start with one day. That has arrived.” - Jeremy Gilley

A blossoming lotus holds aloft the entire weight of the earth. This striking logo belongs to the Peace One Day organization, an initiative that aims to promote peace globally through campaigns and events. September 21, 2012 was chosen to host Peace One Day events around the world. The day is also recognized by the United Nations as a day of nonviolence and ceasefire. The charity foundation was established in 1998 by Jeremy Gilley. Since then, the number of people involved in the project has increased exponentially, with a reported 100 million involved by 2007. In 2012, Kuwait was also part of this community initiative for the very first time. The core committee comprised of Amira Behbehani, Shurooq Amin, Basil Al-Hadi, Dalia Al-Hadi, Shadi Al-Hadi, Sheikha Nafisi and Reza Azkavan. The event, held at Contemporary Art Platform (CAP) in Shuwaikh was a resounding success with attendance in large numbers. Jeremy Gilley is an actor turned filmmaker, who in the late 1990’s became preoccupied with questions about the fundamental nature of humanity and the issue of peace. He decided to explore these through the medium of film, and specifically, to create a documentary following his campaign to establish an annual day of ceasefire and non-violence. In 1999, Jeremy founded Peace One Day, a nonprofit organisation, and in 2001 Peace One Day’s efforts were rewarded when the member states of the United Nations unanimously adopted the first ever annual day of global ceasefire and nonviolence on 21 September – Peace Day. Peace One Day’s objective is to institutionalise Peace Day 21 September, making it a day that is self-sustaining, an annual day of global unity, a day of intercultural cooperation on a scale that humanity has never known. Inspired by a 70% recorded reduction in violent incidents on Peace Day in Afghanistan (source: United Nations Department of Safety and Security), and in order to build a strong foundation for 2012, Jeremy launched the Global Truce campaign that involved the creation of a series of Peace One Day coalitions, each with a lead partner: the Global Truce NGO Coalition; the Global Truce ‘Reducing Domestic Violence’ Coalition; the Global Truce Student Coalition; and the Global Truce Schools’ Network. Through detailed analysis conducted with the support of McKinsey & Company, the Peace One Day 2012 report found that, across the world, approximately 280 million people in 198 countries were aware of Peace Day 2012 – 4% of the world’s population. The report further estimates that approximately 2% of those people (5.6 million) behaved more peacefully as a result. Peace One Day expects to double those figures for 2013, creating a solid foundation for informing 3 billion people about Peace Day by 2016. In 2013, through our own initiatives and collaborations with various parties, Peace One Day will set out to encourage organisations and individuals take specific actions to reduce violence around the theme: Who Will You Make Peace With?


Event listings “In Your Face: Stand-Up Comedy Show” At LIVE Comedy Club February 8, 2013 @ 8:00 pm – April 5, 2013 @ 10:00 pm Live Comedy Club (Kuwait City, Al-Soor Street, Discovery Mall Basement) Contact: Live Comedy Club 5020-0300 North African Music with Mahmood al-Idreesi March 13, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Local Band “Acoustica” To Perform At The Kuwait Little Theater! March 15, 2013 @ 7:30 pm – 10:30 pm Kuwait Little Theater (TheKLT.com/map) Contact: Kuwait Little Theater 9937-3678 Piano Recital at AUK: “My Favorite Things” A Steinway Artist, Dr. Stephanie 20 March 2013 at 7pm AUK Auditorium, Salmiya Campus, Salem Mubarak Street.

Visit to Arab Organisations Headquarters (Arab Fund Building) April 2, 2013 Forum 1 Day TBA Meet at Arab Fund Building Cello and Piano Duo with Arzigul Akhmadieva and Sahar Mulhem April 3, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Workshop: Inroduction to Arab Music and Instruments April 9, 2013 Forum 1 Day Starts at 7pm Amricani Cultural Centre

Kuwaiti Music Night Season Songs with the Bin Housain Group March 20, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

2013 Gulf Jazz Festival-Kuwait When: April 25, 2013 @ 8:00 pm Repeas: Daily until April 26, 2013 Where: Radisson BLU Hotel Kuwait (Salwa, Al Taoun Street, Next to Palms Hotel, Al-Hashemi Ballroom) Classical Music of the Hijaz: Danah and Art Songs with Dr. Lisa Urkevich & The Bandar al-Shareef Ban April 29, 2013 Lectures 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Jazz with Mishaal Joma May 1, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

Egyptian Music Night March 27, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

Old buildings, new understandings: the restoration of Egypt’s and early modern architectural heritag May 6, 2013 Lectures 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

Children’s Art Workshop: Architecture with special guest architect Fahad Bin Salem March 30, 2013 Events 1 Day 9:30 AM - 11:00 AM for children ages 6 - 12 Amricani Cultural Centre Save The Date / Humble Shapes When: April 11, 2013 @ 7:00 am, May 14, 2013 @ 3:00 pm, June 11, 2013 @ 7:00 am Repeats: Monthly The Sultan Gallery is pleased to welcome back Lebanese-based artist Youssef Aoun for his second solo show at the gallery. String Quartet with Dragan Markoic April 17, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Yamani Music Night April 24, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

Music Night May 8, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Exhibiting the Middle East in the West with Dr. Linda Komaroff May 13, 2013 Lectures 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Organ Recital: La Musique Pour Le Grand Orgue with Maestro Valentina Maria Baginska May 15, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre Chamber Music with Samy Ibrahim and Yasmine May 22, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

Chai Al Dhaha (Morning Tea) At Sadu House When: April 1, 2013 @ 10:00 am - 1:00 pm Repeats: Weekly on Monday Where: Al-Sadu House (Arabian Gulf Road, Next to the National Museum) An open day welcoming designers, textile enthusiasts, and all persons interested in Kuwaiti traditional weaving.

Classical, jazz and original compositions with the Bohemia Saxophone Quartet May 27, 2013 Theatre Programme 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

2013

Kuwaiti Music Night with Salman al-Amari May 29, 2013 DAI Music Circle 1 Day 7pm al-Maidan Cultural Centre

1: 1–

10 : :


4 7 km =1.3

Architectural Spotlight

Souq Sharq

Services

Boat Brokerage

Boardwalk

Cinema

Wave Generator

The Temporary Village is a make-shift project for Basketball Paddle Boats phase A2 marina, one of the four marinas of Sabah Beach Al Ahmad Sea City Project. Kids Playground Shopping Restaurant The mixed-use nature along the A2 marina Minian Market Gift Shop to create has the potential unprecedented Poolin Kuwait alongBotanical development a 1km Garden stretch where Table Tennisand apartment BMX Park development retail commercial Parking coexist. Cycling Cafemarina will accommodate Bowling Alley some 380 The phase A2 Spa between 10Administration berths, for crafts m and 40 m in length. Outdoor Dining It is estimated that berthing pontoons installation at the Phase A2 marina and the Temporary Village will 400m be completed by November 2013.

Analysis I

Kuwait ranks no.1 in the Arab World for Adults aged ≥20 years who are obese, and no. 8 worldwide, according to WHO WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION STATISTICS 2011 Report.

KUWAIT DEMOGRAPHICS

Kuwait

Kuwait City 2,340,000

Qurtoba 29,007

Abdullah Al Mubarak Al Sabah 120,000

Fahaheel 86,466

70 ins M

s Min 44

KM .7 95

M .5K

73

Dahar 39,991

POPULATED AREAS

Bnaider M .8K 19

4800

Min 11

Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City Al Khiran Resort

ins

1,400

23 M

Coney Island

KM

The Boardwalk

.5

Al Kout Marina

- Families, whether commuting by car, boat, or bike, - Yachtsmen can approach the lagoons to enjoy can avail of activities for all ages. While the children the beauty of this man made marvel and indulge in 318m are playing in a protected environment, the parents a getaway like no other in Kuwait. The spa, the boat The project protagonists are: can use the ‘garden view’ cafes overlooking them. brokerage, and the captain’s lounge with the sun deck Water fountains, sandboxes, maze, pedal boats, become an attraction to those who are seeking a refuge - The168m youth can be lured to bike over if they reside botanical island, and movie theaters are just a few to relax. The Temporary Village provides a matchless in Sea City,355m due to the site being a biking hub, with activities that can engage the young and the old. The mix of programs and settings when compared to other numerous sports activities 1000m to complement it. (wall strip of restaurants, cafes and retail shops along a 1 projects in Kuwait. climbing, pedal boats, wave generator sand beach, km promenade coiled in the site simulates what is to 4000 m games area, gymnasium, bowling, and basketball) come when the marina project is completed. With Kuwait demographics in mind, the program is tailored to surface the unique qualities of Sabah Al Age Men vs. Women Obesity Ahmad Sea City - the city of lagoons - in service of its prospective users. The Temporary Village provides Women an alternative lifestyle of health and well-being in lieu 0-14 (27%) Men 15-64 (70.1%) of “lazy entertainment” suffocating malls, to address 65+(2.7%) a social ailment. (Kuwait is the most obese country in the Arab world and the 8th globally).

User

38

Marina Mall Marina

rs

.2 h The Temporary Villagekmwill should spearhead a progressive mode of thinking = 1 be: 43 - An attractive hub for the community of Sabah Al when it comes to erecting superstructures, with a Um Al Maradim Islandvision synonymous to that of the infrastructure. 28km= 48mins Ahmad Sea City, - A weekend getaway for families with year-round Khiran Resort recreational outdoor and indoor activities and cafes, - A marina dock destination that surpasses all others The interlaced figure ground should be interpreted with richness and variety of hosted programs. into hybridizing the architectural program, with intent to create a hub for eco-tourism and healthy patterns The program, spread on 15,000 sqm block of six of living. Standing on the shoulder of a lagoon, the 2500 sqm commercial plots at the A2 marina, has water programs should enrich other components commercial and recreational facilities. with kids’ water-fountains, lakes for pedal boats, Undoubtedly, this project will set the precedent wave generator sand beaches, floating botanical and the Sea City could offer islands, floating barges, and other activities that Public as Fishvision Market for what Meat Market alternative living vis-à-vis the urbanized center indulge the people on land with the sea. Basketball Retail and other newly developed satellite cities. The Court Tanning Area has aCar Park Temporary Village designated life span of 10 The Temporary Village manages with less than 5% years, Yachting/ after which it willSpa be partly re-used towards of built up area to simulate the 100% ‘waterfront’ Boats views and activities. The project strikes a balance realizing the permanent A2 Marina. Cinema Tennis Court between the ideals of the public bath movement of Biking Sports Facilities The figure ground of Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City the early 1900s and the urban jetsetters seeking dwarfsDining that of Venice. Supermarket The silhouette of Sea City refuge away from the crowded city. The project caters to the youth’s mass immersion indulging spiralsSwimming in a maze like wonderment Snorkeling that supersedes in outdoor sports and the grown-ups yearning for the 2-dimensionality of the palm. Inletting the sea Diving Pool Horse Riding with an engineering marvel needs an architectural more intimate places for relaxation, recreation or Kids Play Area Services modus operandi that seeks to engage residents training. Coiling the program around the water body H Hotel Scuba Diving and visitors alike. Sea City should not stop shy by creates an intimate experience with all having good confining itself into another satellite suburban city views and a potential dip in Sea City. by the sea. Currently, what is on the ground does not pay tribute to how it looks from the air. The project

by PAD10

Marina

Qaru Island

6,870

Analysis I

92,949

Fahaheel

31,082

86,466

Al Wataniya Resort 1,400

4800

By Car Unless the Temporary Village thinks big by connecting itself to infrastructures larger than itself, it may be Julaia’a difficult to become a destination for commuters arriving by car, the majority of whom are more than an hour’s drive away. By letting the water body of Sea Bnaider City in our site, to become an extension of a 7 km lagoon, and overlaying the land of Sea City Al Zour specifically its road network with bicycle lanes to which our site becomes a hub, Residential Khiran the Temporary Village becomes 600,000 Al Khiran Resort Mins M 12 9.2K an encounter of two patterns Wataniya Resort and a host of activities unique to Kuwait and the 48KM 49Mins surrounding region. TRAVEL TIME BY CAR

Al Dhba’iya 4800

s Min

36

Ali Al Salem Al Sabah

54

KM

.8

ins

M

49

67,012

7800

34

.5K

M

ns

KM

Mi

353

34

39 120,000 .7 KM 59 59.5 3 8 .7K KM M 6 ins 90 9.2K M 55 55M .1K M i M 59 Mins ns 1H M 98K r 1 ins M 4M 1H ins r3 0M ins 98.4 KM 1Hr 17M ins

Al Khafji

3Hr 42M

9400

ins

KM

s 5Min 3Hr 3 KM

.3

20

337

ins

M

21

4800

4800

Al Wafra 39,991

Al Khobar 219,679

POPULATION DENSITY

Access

Mina Abdullah

M .4K 42

Al Wafra

Al Mungaf Al Ahmadi City

Al Dammam 903,312

4800


q Sharq

Dining BMX Park Parking

Cafe

Bowling Alley

Spa

Administration

=5

3 0 km

H

Outdoor Dining Souq Sharq

=

144m

341m 318m

Ras Al ArdhMarina 70m Souq Sharq Al Blajat St Marina 142m Kuwait Marina Fahaheel Marine Club 135m 168m Al Kout Marina Marina Al Shaab 355m Khiran Resort The Boardwalk Yacht Club Marina Coney Island Marina Mall Marina

Obesity Women Men

15-64 (70.1%) 65+(2.7%)

Ras Al Ardh Marina

Kuwait ranks no.1 in the Arab World for Adults aged ≥20 years who are obese, and no. 8 worldwide, according to WHO WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION STATISTICS 2011 Report.

Fahaheel Marine Club Boubyan Island

Al Kout Marina

Boubyan Island

ns

54m ins

Failaka Island

=

km

20

Souq Sharq Marina Ras Al Ardh Marina Al Blajat St. Marina Kuwait Marina Fahaheel Marine Club 34.3km= 1hr Ras Marina Al Ardh Marina Marina Al Shaab Al Kout Yacht Club Marina Fahaheel Marine Club H Marina Mall Marina

112k

Miskan Island Oha Island

87km= 2.5

Souq Sharq Marina Kuwait Marina Marina Al Shaab Um Al Namil Island Yacht Club Marina Marina Mall Marina

hrs

54m

m

30

Failaka Island

Oha Island ins 30km hrs =

m=

k

20

87km= 2.5

Um Al Namil Island

ins

30km =

30

hrs

=

Failaka IslandMiskan Island

=1.3

4mi =5

Miskan Island s min

Kubar Isla

34.3km= 1hr

Boubyan Island

2

H

Men vs. Women 0-14 (27%)

0km

Al Blajat St. Marina

4000 m

Age

30km H

Oha Island

1000m

Al Blajat St. Marina

Um Al Namil Island Souq Sharq Marina Kuwait Marina Marina Al Shaab Yacht Club Marina Marina Mall Marina

m 30

hrs

Yacht Club Marina Marina Mall Marina

Failaka Island

87km= 2.5

By Boat A survey of other marinas in Kuwait reveals that only few provide retail, commercial and apartment development around their marina basins, with none matching the length of stretch of the A2 marina; its 1km stretch exceeds the Souq Sharq’s, H Marina Crescent, and Al-Kout marinas combined. Moreover, by branding the 4 marinas of Sea City as ‘Marasi alKhiran’ and identifying the qualities of each and sub-branding them, this ‘city of lagoons’ will become a major touristic and weekend destination in Kuwait, especially with its unique land interlaced by sea and emerging ecological environment. The program is crafted unique to Sea City’s geomorphology, distinguishing itself from other marinas, and catering to family entertainment as well as a getaway destination for yachtsmen and sailing enthusiasts.

km 20

228m

Scuba Diving

ns

mi

30

Oha Island

Kubar Island

.2 hrs

47km

Kuwait Marina

Marina Al Shaab

Kids Play Area

Hotel

ins

400m

Um Al Namil Island

Horse Riding

Services

m= 3.2 hrs

Access

Diving Pool

43

rs

.2 h

1 km=

hrs 87km= 2.5

Analysis I

Supermarket

Snorkeling Miskan Island

Swimming

4

Table Tennis Cycling

28km= 48mins Khiran Resort

Kubar Island

34.3km= 1hr

112km= 3

Al Kout Marina

Qaru Island

= 3km

Al Kout Marina 4

1.2

hrs

.2 hrs 112km= 3

Khiran Resort

Services

Boat Brokerage

Boardwalk

Cinema

Wave Generator

Basketball

Paddle Boats

Beach

Kids Playground

Marina

Services

Boat Brokerage

Boardwalk

Cinema

Gift Shop Wave Generator

Basketball

Paddle Boats Pool

Beach

Marina Kids Playground

Shopping

Table Restaurant Boat Brokerage

Gift Shop Pool

Botanical Garden Basketball

Table Tennis Cycling Cafe Spa

400m

Court Mini Market Tanning Area

Cafe BMX Park Beach

ShoppingSpa

Parking

Bowling Alley

Gift Shop Administration Pool

Public

Retail

Private

Alley

Tanning Area

Supermarket

Outdoor Dining

Table Tennis 400m Cycling

BMX Park Parking

Cafe

Bowling Alley

Spa

Administration

Fish Market

Meat Mark

Basketball Court Tanning Area

Retail

Yachting/ Boats Cinema Biking

Spa Qaru Islan Tennis Co Sports Fa

Um Al Maradim Island

Car Park

Yachting/ Snorkeling Kids PlaygroundSwimming Boats Administration Cinema Restaurant Diving Pool Horse Riding Biking Mini Market Services Kids Play Area Botanical Garden H Hotel

hrs

47km =1.3 hrs

Meat Market

Botanical Garden Yachting/ Spa Fish Market Boats BMX Park Cinema Tennis Court Basketball Court Biking Sports Facilities

Paddle Boats Dining Bowling

1.2

Khiran Resort

Tennis Boardwalk Mini Market Cycling Wave Generator Parking Cinema

Outdoor Dining

Souq Sharq

Restaurant Basketball Services

m= 43k

28km= 48mins

Fish Market

Shopping

Qaru Island

Um Al Maradim Island

28km= 48mins

Marina

Kubar Island

34.3km= 1hr

47km

Fahaheel Marine Club

=1.3 h

rs

Ras Al Ardh Marina

47km =1.3

hrs

.2 hrs 112km= 3

Al Blajat St. Marina

ScubaDining Diving

.2 =1

m Dining 43k Meat Market Retail

hrs Public

Swimming 28km= 48mins

Car Park Diving Spa Khiran Resort

Pool

Services

Tennis Court Hotel SportsH Facilities Supermarket

Swimming

Snorkeling

Diving Pool

Horse Riding

Services

Kids Play Area

Car Park

Supermark

Snorkeling Um Al Maradim Island Horse Ridi

Kids Play A

Scuba Divi


278 ROAD

Philadelphia

Perth 12,570

3,380

3,240

2,790

40

2,450

mi

1,940

ns

1,208

ARABIAN SEA KHIRAN RESORT

mi

0 1990 2001 2005 2008

ins 10m

30

ns

7,020

1993 2004 2008

5,750

5,380

20m

Stockholm

Copenhagen

i ns

ns mi

30

3,400

4,780

Melbourne

2,970 1,940

ns mi 40

G KIN A FAH IN A DB

1990 2005

1986 1995 2005

1993 2004 2009

BDU

4,000ft

LA

1,500m

ins 50m

BIKE USERS INCREASE IN CITIES WITH BIKE SHARING INITIATIVES

Access Legend 10 mins 60mins

20 mins 30 mins 40

mi

70mins

40 mins

ns

50 mins mi

60 mins

10m

80mins

30

70 mins

mi

30

ins 20m

ins

ns

ns

80 mins

40 ns

mi

90 mins

ins

50m

SEA CITY’S BIKING COMMUTE TIME TO THE TEMPORARY VILLAGE

By Bike Sea City, a city “where engineering and environment are very much interdependent”, should examine and promote a healthy lifestyle on land as well. Only then will Sea City sustain itself as a healthy community with our project becoming central and acting as a community hub to get to by bike. The Temporary Village should be a catalyst to shape city life, so that the A2 marina masterplan is later on shaped by it. We are proposing the site to become the hub for a biking network by rendering Sea City the first prototype for a biking city in Kuwait, by 1) Marking bike lanes on existing roads, 2) Creating separate bike lanes on newly executed roads, and 3) Possibly creating a bike sharing initiative* for the community, with the project becoming a hub for the emerging community. *Currently, more than 165 cities worldwide successfully host bike sharing programs.

Legend

60mins

70mins

80mins

10 mins 20 mins 30 mins 40 mins 50 mins 60 mins 70 mins 80 mins 90 mins

55

55

50

50

45

HIGH TEMPERATUR

40 35 30

45

E

MED IAN

40

25

35

TEM PER ATU RE

LOW TEM PER A

20

30 25

TUR E

20

SUITABLE TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR BIKING

15

15

10

10

5

5

0

0

-5

-5

8 METERS

MEDIAN

4.25 METERS 2 M

2 M 1.5M

CARRIAGEWAY

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

10 METERS

8 METERS

10 METERS

SECONDARY ROAD

existing

BIKE LANE

CARRIAGEWAY

MEDIAN

CARRIAGEWAY

8 METERS

5 METERS

8 METERS

BIKE MEDIAN LANE

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

1.5M 2 M

4.25 METERS

OCT LANDSCAPE / BIKE MEDIAN SERVICE ZONE LANES 4.25 METERS 2 M

2M

marking existing ROAD BOUNDARY

existing

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

ROAD BOUNDARY

MAIN ROAD

LANDSCAPE / SIDESERVICE ZONE WALK

SEP

NOV

DEC

CARRIAGEWAY

MEDIAN

CARRIAGEWAY

8 METERS

5 METERS

8 METERS

MEDIAN BIKE LANDSCAPE /

LANES SERVICE ZONE 2M

2M

4.25 METERS

building new

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

CARRIAGEWAY

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

10 METERS

8 METERS

10 METERS

marking existing

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

CARRIAGEWAY

BIKE LANES

CARRIAGEWAY

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

5 METERS

6 METERS

6 METERS

6 METERS

5 METERS

building new

ROAD BOUNDARY

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

8 METERS

AUG

ROAD BOUNDARY

CARRIAGEWAY

5 METERS

JULY

ROAD BOUNDARY

MEDIAN

8 METERS

JUNE

ROAD BOUNDARY

CARRIAGEWAY

8 METERS

MAY

ROAD BOUNDARY

LANDSCAPE / SERVICE ZONE

APRIL

ROAD BOUNDARY

MAR

ROAD BOUNDARY

FEB

ROAD BOUNDARY

JAN

ROAD BOUNDARY

D ROA

Analysis I

ROAD BOUNDARY

ZIZ

SEA CITY BIKE NETWORK


Concept I

Masterplan

Sea City is an eco-city that promotes an alternative lifestyle as compared to a crippled urban center that by now hosts triple its capacity, awaiting satellite cities for relief. Sea City, unlike any other satellite city, integrates its land as well as its sea in a symphony that is particular to ‘Khiran’, a name that reflects a unique geomorphology and flourishing ecology as yet unseen in Kuwait. The Temporary Village extracts the public interface and the community getaway component of the A2 marina, intertwined with commercial, retail, entertainment, and recreational activities. It personifies

the ‘waterfront’ boardwalk and becomes a catalyst to what is to come in a decade, by introducing a pattern of living and an understanding of a ‘place’ that is fit to the city of tomorrow. The Masterplan The masterplan is constituted of 6 blocks, parcelized into 37 plots, totaling 93,248sqm area, spanning 1km stretch of boardwalk that overlooks the phase A2 marina, and hosting a total BUA of 167,847 sqm. With 180% FAR, the strategy is to anchor the site along its western and eastern flanks and at the site of the Temporary Village. Anchoring is attained by maximizing the footprint to have a low development that is quasi-architectural and quasi-landscape maximizing recreational, retail, and entertainment

activities by fully engaging the boardwalk. These recreational developments gradually peak up into two multi-storey apartment developments, creating an entry portal on the southwest corner of the site, and a third on the southeast corner, overlooking two landscapes. The towers align their frontage with the seafront side of the blocks, rendering the back vacant for future parking extensions in three zones. The gradation from a minimal footprint - fit to one to two 2-3BR apartments per floor - developments with relatively high multi-storey building to a large footprint with terraced double storey landscaped development is always to abide to 180% FAR.

1. A2 MARINA’S BOARDWALK, A 1 KM STRETCH.

3. ANCHORING THE BOARDWALK ON ITS ENDS AND IN OUR SITE WITH PUBLIC ACTIVITIES & ATTRACTIONS.

2. GRADATION FROM ARCHITECTURE TO LANDSCAPE WITH 180% BUA.

4. HOW DO WE SIMULATE THE SIGNATURE A2 MARINA BOARDWALK IN OUR DEEP SITE?


1KM SEAFRONT BOARDWALK STRETCH >>

WATER INFILL AS LANDSCAPE

>>

1 KM WATERFRONT BOARDWALK LOOP

Fir st

5. WITH THE SAME LOGIC OF SEA CITY’S FORMATION, HAVE WATER IN OUR SITE AND COIL THE 1 KM MARINA BOARDWALK WITH ‘WATERFRONT’ ACTIVITIES AND VIEWS ALL THROUGH, SIMULATING THE A2 MARINA’S BOARDWALK ONCE IT COMES TO LIFE.

Gro un d

Ba se

me nt

Architectural Proposal I Wa ter

Exc

ava tio n

The Temporary Village The southeast corner block of 15,150 sqm (150 m wide seafront by 101 m deep) is parcelized into 6 plots with a capacity to host up to 27,270 sqm of BUA. The Temporary Village project, with proposed BUA of approximately 8,300 sqm, does not exceed 5% of the total allowable BUA for the phase A2 marina and 30% of the site itself. To simulate an inherent quality of optimal sea frontage of the marina and stimulate our relatively Legend deep site of 100 m, water is let inland into our partly excavated site, with the 1 km boardwalk (equaling the Captain’s Lounge Basketball Court A2 marina’s) coiled around the site linking the sea Tanning Area Boat continuous loop to the garden front programPaddle in one front, thus maintaining Services Wave Generatora ‘sea frontage’ all through the project and the site. The architectural programs and BMX Track Cinema activities are pinned to the boardwalk loop in the form EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC VIEW: PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION Administration Kids Play Area of barges, piers, terraces and pavilions. Spa

Pool

Outdoor Dining

Boat Brokerage

Mini Market

Restaurant


Landscape Proposal I

The Landscape The project is shaded by two rows of Washingtonia Palm trees around its southern edges, and single rows around the eastern and western edges, enclosing an oasis cooled by the water centering the project. The dipping pods, on the sky view boardwalk, are shaded with four Acacia ‘canopy’ trees, while the wave generator sand beach is partly shaded with Olive trees. On the northern edge, Fountain Grass (pennisetum setaceum) is planted along the stairs adjoining the project’s boardwalk to the marina’s, to trace the wind.

becomes the central scenic view of the heart of the project, doubling it through the water’s reflection. With different areas and plants, we propose to have this island as a sanctuary where visitors’ senses are enticed and engaged. We propose planting fruit trees (ficus carica, punica granatum, citrus orange, morus alba, and citrus mandarin orange) and herb plants (mentha longifolia, ocimum basilicum and rosmarinus), where visitors can pick, taste, and even plant. Another area can have the visitors appreciate

the resilience and textures of plants growing in arid landscapes (opuntia ficus-indica, euphorbia trigona, dasylirion, yucca recurvata, echinocactus grusonii, furcraea, and agave victoria-reginae). Last but not least, to have a zone growing seasonal flowers to capture the colors of changing seasons (cassia nodosa, cassia fistula, quisqualis indica, bougainvillea) and flowers with fragrance (jasminum sambac, known as Arabian Jasmine).

Accessed by pedal boats, the botanical island

GA

RD

EN

VIE

W

BO

AR

DW AL

K

GARDEN VIEW BO

SEA VIEW BOAR

DWALK

ARDWALK


ACCORDING TO TAEF THE LEBANESE PARLIAMENT IS DISTRIBUTED EQUALLY BETWEEN TWO RELIGIONS IN THE NAME OF NATIONAL UNITY

Confessional Democracy CHRISTIANS:

MUSLIMS:

THE 2 RELIGIONS ARE BROKEN DOWN TO 11 DENOMINATIONS THAT ARE DISTRIBUTED AMONG ELECTORAL DISTRICTS. THE PARLIAMENTARY SEATS ASSIGNED PER ELECTORAL DISTRICT ASSUMINGLY REFLECT THE LATTER’S RELIGIOUS CONSTITUENTS.

* THE COLORS ON THE MAP DISTINGUISH THE DIFFERENT ELECTORAL DISTRICTS, INDEPENDENT OF THE DENOMINATIONS COLORS

*THE DISTRIBUTION OF DISTRICTS, THEIR POPULATIONS, AND MP’S ASSIGNED PER DENOMINATION SCHEDULE

41%

50%

CHRISTIAN POPULATION

CHRISTIAN MP’S

1,229,000 1,742,000

50% MUSLIM MP’S

59% MUSLIM POPULATION

THE SYMBOLIC RELIGIOUS EQUALITY IN THE PARLIAMENT DOES NOT REFLECT THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF LEBANON

POPULATION CHRISTIAN:MUSLIM VOTERS RATIO:

MP’S

ELECTORAL DISTRICTS

* THE COLORS ON THE MAPS DISTINGUISH THE DIFFERENT ELECTORAL DISTRICTS, INDEPENDENT OF THE DENOMINATIONS COLORS

THE POPULATION OF EVERY DISTRICT ELECTS ITS “RELIGIOUS REPRESENTATIVE” MP AND THE MP’S FROM OTHER DENOMINATIONS. MP’S REPRESENTING THE LARGER RELIGIOUS POPULATION TEND TO GATHER A LIST OF CANDIDATES INCLUDING MP’S OF SMALLER ONES. THE LARGER RELIGIOUS POPULATION IN A DISTRICT END UP ELECTING THEIR CANDIDATES AND SELECTING THOSE OF OTHERS, THUS BLOCKING THE VOTE OF THE SMALLER COMMUNITY.


CHRISTIAN:MUSLIM VOTERS RATIO:

CHRISTIANS:

MUSLIMS:

EACH REPRESENTATIVE, FROM WHATEVER DENOMINATION HE/SHE IS, IS ELECTED BY THE WHOLE POPULATION OF THIS ELECTORAL DISTRICT. BY GERRYMANDERING, VERY CURIOUS DISTRICT SHAPES DILUTE AREAS AND POPULATIONS FROM GETTING THEIR VOTE THROUGH.

THE PREMISE THAT THE LEBANESE PARLIAMENT’S RELIGIOUS MIX IS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ELECTORAL DISTRICTS IT EMERGES FROM IS NOT EXACTLY THE CASE. EXEMPLARY, IN ALL 3 DISTRICTS OF THE CAPITAL BEIRUT, FOR EXAMPLE, THE PREDOMINANT SUNNI POPULATION END UP ELECTING THEIR MP AND PRE-SET LISTS OF THE CHRISTIAN REPRESENTATIVES, INSTEAD OF KEEPING THEIR LISTS OPEN OR INCOMPLETE, FOR THE CHRISTIAN POPULATION TO ELECT THEIR OWN REPRESENTATIVES. THE CHRISTIAN REPRESENTATIVES HAVE TO NEGOTIATE THEIR ASSIGNMENT ON LISTS OF MUSLIM REPRESENTATIVES RATHER THAN CAMPAIGN FOR ELECTIONS AMONG THE RELIGIOUS POPULATION THEY ARE ASSUMED TO REPRESENT IN PARLIAMENT. THIS ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARLIAMENT AND THE POPULATION MIX IS AT THE CORE OF THE DISTRIBUTION, BUT IS NOT WHAT EFFECTIVELY HAPPENS. IN THE NAME OF “NATIONAL UNITY”, HARIRI (A SUNNI LEADER), EFFECTIVELY SELECTS THE CHRISTIAN LEADERS FOR THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY, PROHIBITING THE LATTER TO ELECT THEIR OWN. THE CHRISTIAN MP ENDS UP SERVICING HARIRI TO REAFFRIM HIS/HER LOYALTY FOR UPCOMING ELECTIONS, JAMS THE ELECTORAL PROCESS FOR THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY BY SQUATTING THE MP SEAT THROUGH A MAJORITY MUSLIM VOTE BY DEFAULT, AND BLOCKS THE CHRISTIAN VOTE FROM ELECTING ITS OWN REPRESENTATIVE. THIS IS ACHIEVED BY GERRYMANDERING, WHERE VERY CURIOUS DISTRICT SHAPES DILUTE AREAS AND POPULATIONS FROM GETTING THEIR VOTE THROUGH.

CHRISTIAN:MUSLIM VOTERS RATIO:

CHRISTIANS:

MUSLIMS:

THE SUNNI (MUSLIM) POPULATION END UP ELECTING MUSLIM MP’S WITH ELECTORAL LISTS THAT INCLUDE ALL THE CHRISTIAN REPRESENTATIVES INSTEAD OF KEEPING THEIR LISTS OPEN OR INCOMPLETE, FOR THE CHRISTIAN POPULATION TO ELECT ITS REPRESENTATIVES. EFFECTIVELY, THE MAJORITY ELECTS ITS MP AND SELECTS THOSE OF OTHERS.

POPULATION CHRISTIAN:MUSLIM VOTERS RATIO:

MP’S

ELECTORAL DISTRICTS

* THE COLORS ON THE MAP DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CHRISTIAN (BLUE) AND MUSLIM (GREEN) DOMAINS OF INFLUENCE, EXCEPT FOR OTHER COLORS WHERE ELECTIONS RESULTS ARE NOT DEFINITE.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC DOMINANCE RIPPLES OVER ALL LEBANON. MP’S OF SMALLER RELIGIOUS GROUPS END UP FILLING IN ELECTORAL SET MENUS BY THE DOMINANT RELIGIOUS POPULATION. DIFFERENT DISTRICTS ARE MONOPOLIZED DOMAINS OF INFLUENCE FOR THE LARGER RELIGIOUS GROUPS, SYMBOLICALLY ASSIGNING MP’S OF THEIR SELECTION, TO THE SMALLER ONES WHO ARE STILL A SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE POPULATION


THE LARGER RELIGIOUS GROUPS WASH OUT THE MIX OF RELIGIONS IN MP’S ELECTIONS. THE CHRISTIAN MP’S IN BEIRUT, CHOUF OF MOUNT LEBANON, THE NORTH (DISTRICT II), BEKAA, AND THE SOUTH ARE PRE-SELECTED BY THE MAJORITY MUSLIM VOTE AS SEAT-FILLERS, BLOCKING ELECTION PROCESS ON THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY. THE MUSLIM VOTE IS SIMILARLY BLOCKED IN JBEIL OF MOUNT LEBANON AND ZAHLE OF BEKAA. DEMOCRATIC PROCESS, BASED ON THE ELECTIONS LAW OF 2000 AND EXISTING DEMOGRAPHICS, IS ONLY POSSIBLE IN BAABDA-ALEY OF MOUNT LEBANON, AND THE NORTH (DISTRICT II).

POPULATION CHRISTIAN:MUSLIM VOTERS RATIO:

MP’S

ELECTORAL DISTRICTS

*RED ASSIGNS THE POPULATION THAT IS NOT REPRESENTED, THE MP THAT IS NOT ELECTED BY THE RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY HE IS SUPPOSED TO BE REPRESENTATIVE OF, I.E. NON-REPRESENTATIVE MP, AND THE REGIONS THAT ARE DOMINATED BY ONE RELIGIOUS VOTE OR THE OTHER 36 CHRISTIAN MP’S ELECTED BY CHRISTIANS

4.5%

3 MUSLIM MP’S SELECTED BY CHRISTIANS 61 MUSLIM MP’S ELECTED BY MUSLIMS

30%

41%

56%

44%

95.5%

28 CHRISTIAN MP’S SELECTED BY MUSLIMS

THE SELECTION OF “SEAT-FILLER” MP’S ARE AN ADDED NUMBER IN THE PARLIAMENT FOR THOSE MP’S WHO SELECTED THEM; THEY ARE AN ADDED VOTE IN THE PARLIAMENT FOR THE MP WHO ENLISTED THEM. SIMULTANEOUSLY, THEY BLOCK THE VOTING PROCESS FOR THE POPULATION WHO WAS SUPPOSED TO ELECT THEM.

70%

59%

IN CONCLUSION, NEITHER THE SYMBOLIC RELIGIOUS DISTRIBUTION (50:50), NOR THE EFFECTIVE RELIGIOUS REPRESENTATION IN THE PARLIAMENT (30:70) REFLECT THE RELIGIOUS DEMOGRAPHICS OF LEBANON (40:60)

31 MP’S ARE NON-REPRESENTATIVES, UNDER ELECTIONS LAW 2000, AND THAT IS EVEN BEFORE STARTING THE ELECTIONS PROCESS. ALL DISTRICTS ARE PRE-NEGOTIATED, EXCEPT FOR NORTH (DISTRICT I) AND ALEYBAABDA IN MOUNT LEBANON; THE VOTE THERE WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE.

ALTHOUGH POPULATION RATIO IS 40:60 (CHRISTIANS:MUSLIMS) AND ELECTIONS LAW 2000 ASSIGNED 50:50 RATIO, THE EFFECTIVE REPRESENTATION IS 30:70. THE FAILURE OF THE LAW IS NOT THE PLUS OR MINUS 10 PERCENT DISCREPANCY BETWEEN ASPIRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION, BUT RATHER THE ABSENTING OF ALMOST HALF OF THE CHRISTIAN POPULATION FROM ELECTING THEIR REPRESENTATIVES. THE REPRESENTATION OF THE PARLIAMENT HAS ALMOST ONE QUARTER OF IT REDUNDANT ON THE LEVELS OF REPRESENTATION. THESE NON-REPRESENTATIVES IN RETURN ABSENT THE REPRESENTATION OF ONE QUARTER OF THE LEBANESE POPULATION.


THE PARLIAMENTARY SEATS BASED ON RELIGIOUS REPRESENTATION UNDER THE 2000 ELECTIONS LAW WITH THE RHETORIC OF “NATIONAL UNITY” CREATE AN IDEAL SITUATION TO ABSENT NEW REPRESENTATIVES FROM BEING ELECTED, AND OTHERS FOR BEING AUTOMATICALLY SELECTED. FOR A PARLIAMENT BASED ON RELIGIOUS REPRESENTATION, A RHETORIC OF “RELIGIOUS MIX” MIGHT GET THE VOTER TO ELECT HIS “RELIGIOUS” REPRESENTATIVE. OTHERWISE, AND IDEALLY, THE “NATIONAL UNITY” RHETORIC SHOULD MOVE UP IN PRIORITIES TO ASSIGN THE PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION BASED ON POLITICAL AND SOCIAL AGENDAS EMBODIED IN POLITICAL PARTIES. CATCH 22 IN LEBANON, IS THAT THE POLITICAL PARTIES, WITH SOCIO-POLITICAL IDEALS EMBEDDED IN THEIR NAMES, COME WITH RELIGIOUS AND FEUDAL UNDERTONES. IN WHATEVER WAY THE PENDULUM SWAYS, IT NEEDS TO STAY IN ONE PLACE ALL THROUGH ELECTIONS: FROM LAW DOWN TO IMPLEMENTATION.

Mar-13

Sep-03

Sep-93

Sep-83

Mar-13

Sep-03

Sep-93

Sep-83

Sep-73 Sep-73

Sep-63

Sep-53

MICHEL SULEI EIMAN

UD EMILE LAHOUD

ELIAS HRAWI MICHEL AOUN N

YEL AMINE GEMAY

ELIAS SARKIS S

RANGIEH SULEIMAN FRA

CHARLES HELLOU

FOUAD CHEHA AB

CAMILLE CHAM AMOUN

BECHARA KHO OURY

Sep-43

Sep-63

Sep-53

REPUBLIC OF LEBANON (SEP 1943-PRESENT) PRESIDENT

Sep-43

THE ELECTIONS MAP, WHEN ANALYZED, CUTS LEBANON INTO DOMAINS OF INFLUENCE THAT DATE BACK PRIOR TO THE 1920’S; THE FEUDAL ERA, WITH INFLUENTIAL FAMILIES AS PROXIES TO GOVERNMENTS, OTHER THAN THE LEBANESE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT. THIS WILL NOT GENERATE AND IS NOT CAPABLE TO LEAD TO A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE. AN ALTERNATE SYSTEM TO ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES IN THE EXISTING ELECTIONS LAW, SOCIAL INGREDIENTS AND THEIR DEMOCRATIC REPRESENTATION WILL NOT ONLY DETERIORATE THE OLD DRAPERY OF FEUDALISM/”MAHSOOBIYEH”, BUT CREATE AN AUTO-CRITICAL DEMOCRACY, INCREMENTALLY GROWING, WITH NO NEED TO PERIODIC REVOLUTIONS OR GROWING REPRESSION.

PRIME MINISTER

NABIH H BERRI

HUSSE SEIN EL-HUSSEINI

KAMEEL AL-ASAAD

Below is an examination how each confession dealt with the responsibility they were handed to ensure a democratic turn-

SABRI RI HAMADI KAMEEL AL ASAAD

After all the different confessions are given space and place of representation, each confession’s mission is to practice democracy within its bounds ensuring democratic coexistence of the different confessions side by side.

SABRI RI HAMADI KAMEEL AL ASAAD

Lebanon is the only confessional democracy in the world. Confessional democracy was drafted by the national pact, ‘al-meethaq al-watani’, in which three confessional pillars of the Lebanese society are secured representation through power sharing, whereby the president is Christian Maronite, the prime minister is Muslim Sunnite, and the speaker of parliament is Muslim Shiite. The members of parliament are elected by the Lebanese citizens of 10 confessions and the remaining minorities, whereby seats are assigned to these specific confessions representative of the electoral districts’ demographics communities; the different confessions mosaic in Lebanon divides the parliamentary seats in half between Christians and Muslims with the idea of ‘al-ta’ayosh al-moshtarak’, mutual coexistence. Not that this representation of the citizens’ aspirations is satisfactory for their national conscience, but it was one way to surface the cultural mosaic ensuring multi-confessional representations then.

SABRI RI HAMADI

ADEL OSSEIRAN

AHMEED AL-ASAAD

SABRI RI HAMADI HABIB B ABOU CHAHLA

SABRI RI HAMADI

70 years of Lebanese ‘National Pact’ Malpractices in Hindsight

over through the past 70 years, since 1943 independence.

(6 years), and Hussein al-Husseini (8 years).

The Sunnite Prime Minister Cycle

The Maronite President Cycle

Over the past seventy years, the premiership has had the most turbulent shifts and swaps, whereby 52 times the prime minister position was changed, among 23 prime ministers, 13 of who occupied this position somewhere in the range of 3 days to no more than 3 years. There were three family dynasties who occupied this position for 47 years total out of the 70 years, namely al-Solh family (19 years), Karami family (16 years), and Hariri family (12 years). Additionally, Abdallah Yafi came in and out 6 times, with duration of approximately 4 years, and Salim al-Hoss 4 times with duration of approximately 9 years. Only Saeb Salam, Shafik Wazzan, and Fouad Siniora (pending future re-assignments) were prime ministers once for 4 years, the expected premiership duration.

The presidency over the past 70 years has had 12 presidents, 2 of which were assassinated prior to serving (Bashir Gemayel and Rene Mouawad). Camille Chamoun, Fouad Chehab, Charle Helou, Suleiman Franjieh, Elias Sarkis, and Amine Gemayel served each full 6 years term, while Bechara al-Khoury, Elias Hraoui, and Emile Lahoud, had extended stays, each serving 9 years.

The Shiite Speaker of Parliament Cycle The speaker of parliament position has been less turbulent and most stagnant in rotation when examining the past 70 years; 13 times with 6 speakers, 3 of which constitute 53 years out of the 70 past years; namely Sabri Hamadeh (18 years), Kamel al-Asaad (14 years), and Nabih Berri (21 years). Others are Ahmad al-Asaad (Kamel’s father) (2 years), Adel Osseiran

Conclusion By examining the 3 pillars of governance over the past 70 years, it is essential to note that confessional democracy has hope only when democracy is practiced within the bounds of the different confessions, buttressing the other positions without encroaching or hegemonizing them. In hindsight, malpractice has occurred within the system, which has been crippled by cronyism and nepotism, reducing it into confessional dictatorships. Either, the belief should shift into the institutions without institutionalizing the candidates themselves by ensuring rotation of the latter as essential to the whole democratic process, or the whole system should be overhauled, whereby the vibrancy and rotation in the presidential seats, over the past 70 years, is not paralyzed by the quasi- permanence in taking over the parliament and premiership by the few.

Mar-13 M

Sep-03 S

Sep-93 S

Sep-83 S

Sep-73 S

Sep-63 S

Sep-53 S

Sep-43 S

NAJIB MIKA KATI

SAAD HAR RIRI

FOUAD SIN NIORA OMAR KAR RAMI

RAFIC HAR RIRI

SELIM HOS SS

RAFIC HAR RIRI RACHID SO OLH

OMAR KAR RAMI

SELIM HOS SS

RACHID KA ARAMI

B WAZZAN SHEFIC DIB

SELIM HOS SS

RACHID KA ARAMI RACHID SO OLH

TAKIEDDIN NE SOLH

SAEB SALA AM

RACHID KA ARAMI ABDALLAH H YAFI RACHID KA ARAMI ABDALLAH H YAFI RACHID KA ARAMI

HUSSEIN OWEINI O

RACHID KA ARAMI SAEB SALA AM

RACHID KA ARAMI

SAMI SOLH H ABDALLAH H YAFI RACHID KA ARAMI SAMI SOLH H ABDALLAH H YAFI KHALED CH HEHAB SAMI SOLH H ABDALLAH H YAFI

RIAD SOLH H SAADI MUN NLA SAMI SOLH H ABDUL HAM AMID KARAMI

RIAD SOLH H

SPEAKER OF PARLIAMENT


‫لقد صار قلبي قابالً كل صورة‬ ‫لرهبان‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ودي‬ ‫لغزالن‬ ‫فمرعى‬ ٌ ٍ ٍ ٌ ‫طائف‬ ‫ألوثان وكعبة‬ ‫وبعث‬ ٍ ٍ ‫قرآن‬ ‫ومصحف‬ ‫ة‬ ‫تورا‬ ‫وألواح‬ ٍ ٍ ‫ادين بدين احلب أنى توجهت‬ ‫ركائبه فاحلب ديني وإمياني‬ ‫محيي الدين إبن العربي‬

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