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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Health Impacts of Proposed Power Plants in Eastern Contra Costa County Executive Summary In September 2009, Pacific Gas & Electric Company  (PG&E)  filed  an  application  with  the  California  Public  Utilities  Commission  (CPUC)  for  two  new  large natural gas power plants. These plants are to  be  sited  near  Antioch  (called  Marsh  Landing)  and  in  Oakley,  both  in  Contra  Costa  County.  In  addition,  PG&E  requested  that  two  outdated  power plants1, scheduled to be shut down due to  their  use  of  harmful  once  through  cooling  (OTC) 

Natural gas power plants are known to emit all six EPA “criteria pollutants”  systems, remain open for eighteen months longer.   Even  if  the  best  available  technologies  are  used,  the pollutants from these new large power plants  are  likely  to  worsen  air  quality‐related  health  problems  for  Contra  Costa  County  communities.  Natural gas power plants are known to emit all six  “criteria  pollutants”  listed  by  the  United  States  Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), as well  as  many  other  toxic  chemicals.  Contra  Costa  County is already known for its high levels of toxic  emissions,  and  adding  more  polluting  industries  will only increase current public health risks.   PG&E’s proposed power plants are not only costly  and polluting, but they are also unnecessary. PG&E  already  has  the  potential  to  generate  over  30%  more power than it supplies in a typical year, even  during peak times, and projections show that this  will  continue  to  be  the  case  even  when  the  two  existing  OTC  plants2  are  taken  offline.  Therefore,  www.pacificenvironment.org

Photo: LA Times

adding  two  new  large  power  plants  (totaling  over  1,300 megawatts) is simply unnecessary.   Additionally,  although  PG&E  has  promised  jobs  related to the construction and operation of the two  proposed  plants,  those  jobs  would  largely  be  temporary.  The  unemployment  crisis  has  reached  a  critical point in Contra Costa County, but California is  currently  undergoing  a  “green”  boom,  with  “green  collar”  jobs  increasing  in  many  Bay  Area  counties. 

PG&E already has the potential to generate over 30% more power than it supplies in a typical year, even during peak times Local  officials  should  work  to  attract  sustainable  companies  that  will  create  long  term  jobs,  such  as  those  found  in  the  “clean‐tech”  sector—renewable  energy,  energy  efficiency,  and  other  related  industries. This is the key to creating sustainable jobs  for our local communities without adversely affecting  human health.  1


Pacific Environment

April 2010

Air Pollution in Contra Costa County: Cumulative Effects Contra  Costa  County  already  suffers  the  highest  levels  of  toxic  emissions  of  any  Bay  Area  county,  and  ranks  second  only  to  Los  Angeles  in  the  state.  PG&E’s  proposed  projects  will  increase  toxic  emissions  in  Contra  Costa  County,  potentially  leading  to  increased  health  problems  for  county  residents.  Emissions  from  vehicles,  major  industry,  and other activities are already creating unhealthful  air in Contra Costa County that frequently exceeds  the  set  standards  for  “acceptable”  air  quality.3  Therefore,  when  considering  the  effects  of  PG&E’s  proposed  plants,  it  is  important  to  remember  that  the pollution emitted by these new projects, as well  as  their  related  health  effects,  will  be  in  addition  (cumulative)  to  the  emissions  from  the  polluting  industries already in operation.  

These  new  power  plants  are  not  only  unnecessary,  but  they  are  proposed  to  be  built  in  a  county  that  already  bears  more  than  its  fair  share  of  polluting  industries. Natural gas power plants in the nine Bay  Area counties have the capacity to generate a total  of  over  10,000  Megawatts  (MW)  of  electricity,  however Contra Costa on its own accounts for over  half  of  that  total.4  According  to  information  submitted  to  the  California  Energy  Commission  (CEC),  the  two  proposed  new  plants  would  emit  a  combined 170.81 tons per year of oxides of nitrogen  (NOx)  and  75.1  tons  per  year  of  particulate  matter  (PM).  These  are  toxic,  polluting  substances,  which  would  further  impact  the  health  of  local  communities.    

Current facts • Contra Costa County already hosts more than a dozen power plants, five oil refineries, several chemical plants, and many other industrial facilities. • Within an approximate six-mile radius of the proposed Marsh Landing facility near Antioch, in 2002 there were at least ten facilities on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) list of major polluting facilities.5 • The most recent Toxic Release Inventory data shows that in 2007 the Bay Area’s top four toxic emitters were in Contra Costa County.6 • The location of the proposed plants is already in the top tenth percentile in the nation for emissions of US EPA “criteria pollutants” (see pollutant chart below).7 • According to California Air Resources Board (CARB) data, Contra Costa County has five times the number of facilities that emit “criteria” air pollutants per square mile than the California average.8 • According to air samples collected in Concord, frequent violations of the Bay Area’s ozone and particulate matter standards are already occurring in the region.9 • The natural geography of the region does not allow for effective pollution dispersal. This results in elevated levels of pollutants on hot summer days or very cold winter nights.10

www.pacificenvironment.org

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Health Impacts Linked to Power Plant Emissions The  U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency  (EPA)  has  found  that  air  pollutants  emitted  from  industrial  sources, such as power plants, increase the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular and respiratory impacts,  as  well  as  cause  and  worsen  chronic  health  conditions,  such  as  asthma.11  (A  detailed  description  of  the  chemicals and their potential health effects can be found on pages 6‐8). These pollutants have also been  linked to more serious health effects, such as cancer, permanent respiratory damage, and birth defects.  These  health  impacts  are  made  worse  by  the  fact  that  43%  of  low‐income  residents  in  Contra  Costa  County do not have health insurance.12 

ASTHMA According  to  Contra  Costa  Health  Services,  asthma  is  the  number  one  cause  of  school  absenteeism  for  children  in  the  country,  which  leads  to  missed  workdays  and  financial  loss  for  parents.13  Some facts about asthma: • Asthma is a potentially fatal, chronic disease responsible for over 1.8 million emergency room visits per year, over 460,000 hospitalizations and over 5,000 deaths per year.14 Photo: Family Education

Asthma  is  a  respiratory  disease  that  constricts  the  lungs  and  causes  extreme  breathing  difficulties.  In  most cases, prescription inhalers are necessary to help  clear  the  airways  in  the  event  of  an  asthma  attack.  Lack  of  medical  intervention  for  asthma  attacks  can  lead  to  hospitalization,  emergency  room  visits,  and  even death.  Respiratory diseases, such as asthma, can be triggered  by,  and  may  even  be  caused  by,  exposure  to  ground‐ level  ozone  (smog),  and  particulate  matter.  Emissions  from the proposed projects will increase local levels of  particulate  matter  and  volatile  organic  compounds  (VOCs ‐ smog causing chemicals), which may lead to an  increase in childhood asthma in those communities.  

www.pacificenvironment.org

• Asthma in children is the cause of almost five million physician visits and more than 200,000 hospitalizations per year.15 • Childhood asthma rates for children ages 5-17 in Contra Costa County is 23.7%, while the national average is 14.2%.16 • As of 2005, for a child without asthma, the cost of medical expenses averages $618 per year; the annual cost of medical expenses for a child with asthma averages $1,047.17

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)

Donec interdum According to the US EPA : 18

CANCER Although  there  are  many  factors  that  contribute  to  cancer  (genetics,  diet,  lifestyle,  environment,  etc),  certain  carcinogenic  pollutants  are  known  to  contribute  to,  and  perhaps  even  cause  certain  types  of  cancers.  Several  of  the  compounds  emitted  by  power  plants  are  known carcinogens, or have been linked to  increased cancer  levels  in certain areas. It  should be mentioned that much of the air  pollution‐related  cancer  risk  in  Contra  Costa  County  is  from  diesel  and  other  sources of mobile emissions. However, the  proposed  power  plants  will  contribute  additional  cancer‐causing  chemicals  to  an  area  already  high  in  carcinogenic  emissions.   Lung cancer has been linked to breathing polluted air, in addition to other factors. In fact, it has been shown that air pollution, mainly from vehicles, industries, and power plants, raises the chances of lung cancer and heart disease in people exposed to it long term.21 www.pacificenvironment.org

Photo: Living Well, Northern Nevada Medical Center 

Like  asthma,  chronic  obstructive  pulmonary  disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease  aggravated by high levels of smog pollution and  poor  air  quality.  COPD  encompasses  a  group  of  respiratory  diseases  that  includes  chronic  obstructive  bronchitis  and  emphysema.  People  suffering from COPD typically experience varying  levels  of  airflow  obstruction  and  breathing  difficulties. 

• COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S., the leading cause of hospitalization in adults, particularly in older adults, and is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability.19 • Air pollution may be an important contributor to COPD.20 Pellentesque:

RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS Exposure  to  smog  can  not  only  aggravate  exi‐ sting  conditions  (such  as  asthma),  but  it  also  may  increase  suscept‐ ibility  to  respiratory  illnesses,  such  as  pneu‐ monia  and  bronchitis.  Numerous  scientific  stu‐dies  have  linked  ground  level  ozone to a variety of serious respiratory and pulmonary  problems, including:  • Airway  irritation,  coughing,  and  pain  when  taking  a  deep breath;  • Wheezing  and  breathing  difficulties  during  exercise  or outdoor activities; and  • Inflammation  of  the  lungs,  which  is  much  like  a  sunburn on the skin.22  Repeated exposure to certain pollutants, such as ozone,  can cause permanent lung damage in some cases. 

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Pacific Environment

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (HEART DISEASE) Like  cancer,  cardiovascular  disease  is  caused  by  many  factors,  most  of  which  are  influenced  by  the  patient  (diet,  exercise,  lifestyle,  smoking,  high  stress  occupation,  etc),  but  some  are  less  easily controlled, such as environmental  pollution.  

April 2010

• Particulate matter (PM) has been demonstrated to be a likely causal factor in both cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.23 • Studies suggest short-term exposures to particulate matter may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hospital admissions or emergency department visits for cardiovascular symptoms.24 • Each year, heart disease kills more Americans than cancer.25

REPRODUCTIVE ISSUES AND BIRTH DEFECTS Natural  gas  power  plants  are  known  to  emit  pollutants  that  have  been  linked  to  various  reproductive  issues,  including  decreased  fertility,  miscarriage,  premature  birth,  low  birth‐weight,  infant  and  fetal  mortality,  defective  organs,  and  neurological  issues.  Risks  of  several  other  common  birth  defects,  including  neural  tube defects, oral clefts, and cardiovascular  defects,  may  also  be  influenced  by  exposure to environmental contaminants.  Photo: The Mothering Coach

• Low birth-weight and preterm birth are important risk factors for infant mortality and birth defects. Low birth-weight infants have a significantly increased risk of infant death, and those who survive are more likely to experience long-term developmental disabilities.26 • Increased levels of ozone and carbon monoxide have been shown to elevated the risk of having a child with serious heart defects.27 • Recent studies report significant associations between particulate matter concentration and the risk of intra-uterine growth reduction and low birth-weight.28 • Growing evidence shows correlations between maternal exposures to air pollutants (e.g., sulfur dioxide and particulates) and preterm birth.29

www.pacificenvironment.org

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Natural Gas Power Plants Emit Dangerous Pollutants Although  natural  gas  is  often  promoted  as  a  “clean”  fossil  fuel,  power  plants  that  generate  electricity  from  natural  gas  also  create  emissions  that  can  lead  to  adverse  environmental  impacts,  as  well  as  exacerbate  health  problems  for  local  communities.  According  to  the  US  EPA,  air  pollutants  are  considered “toxic” when they have the potential to cause serious adverse health effects. The following  toxic  compounds  are  commonly  found  in  natural  gas  power  plant  emissions  and  have  been  linked  to  various  health  impacts,  including  asthma,  cancer,  stroke,  lung  disease,  and  birth  defects.  These  compounds are already present in East Contra Costa County’s air; adding more would only elevate the  threat to public health.  

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Description: • The most harmful NOx is nitrogen dioxide (NO2). • NOx react with ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form small particles that penetrate deeply into the lungs. • NOx is a primary ingredient in the creation of ozone (smog). • NOx are listed as a “criteria pollutant” by the US EPA.30 Health Effects: Lung irritation, aggravates asthma or chronic bronchitis, bronchitis and emphysema-like conditions, increases susceptibility to respiratory infections.

Ground Level Ozone (smog) Description • Gas made up of three oxygen atoms (O3). • Ozone is not emitted directly from power plants, but rather is formed by other emitted pollutants (NOx and VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. • Ozone is the primary component in smog. • More visible in summer when hot weather makes ozone levels worse. • According to US EPA, ozone can be dangerous even at low levels. • Ozone is listed as a “criteria pollutant” by the US EPA.31 Health Effects: Coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, eye, nose, and throat irritation; aggravates asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and heart disease. www.pacificenvironment.org

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Description • Colorless, odorless gas. • Created when carbon dioxide (CO2) is not burned completely. • The highest levels of CO in the outside air typically occur during the colder months of the year when inversion conditions are more frequent, and air pollution becomes trapped near the ground beneath a layer of warm air. • Carbon Monoxide is listed as a “criteria pollutant” by the US EPA.32 Health Effects: At high levels, causes death. At low levels, fetal exposure results in underweight birth. Low birth-weight is linked to lifelong health effects like obesity and diabetes.

Particulate Matter (PM) Description • Made up of a number of components, including acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. • Can be formed in the atmosphere from sulfur dioxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). • Particles can get deep into lungs, and even the bloodstream. • Particulate matter is listed as a “criteria pollutant” by the US EPA.33 Health Effects: Premature death, chronic irritation that can trigger asthma attacks. Known to aggravate other lung diseases, cause lung cancer, interfere with blood gas exchange, and increase risk of death from heart disease.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Description • Important greenhouse gas. • Widely known as a pollutant responsible for global warming. • New research suggests that CO2 forms “domes” over areas of mass pollution. These concentrated pockets elevate local levels of CO2, creating warming conditions that increase ozone formation.34 • CO2 domes thus worsen the effects of localized air pollution (pollution from ozone or particulates). Health Effects: Most of the effects from CO2 pollution are global, but localized CO2 domes worsen air quality in urban areas, causing respiratory problems, increasing rates of cancer, asthma, respiratory disease, hospitalizations, ER visit, and premature death in those areas. www.pacificenvironment.org

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Toxic Air Contaminants (TAC) Description • VOCs are a large class of carbon-containing chemicals that evaporate readily into the air. Some VOCs, referred to as “Reactive Organic Gases,” are a primary ingredient in the creation of ozone (smog). • Some VOCs are toxic, some are carcinogenic, and some are both toxic and carcinogenic. • Toxic Air Contaminants is a class of chemicals that includes toxic VOCs and other kinds of toxic air pollutants. Examples of Toxic Air Contaminants emitted from natural gas power plants include: Ammonia, cyanide, arsenic, formaldehyde, chlorine, lead, mercury, cadmium, and benzene.35 Health Effects: Toxic Air Contaminants can cause a variety of health problems, including organ damage, genetic mutations, reproductive problems, and cancer.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Description •

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as “oxides of sulfur” (SOx).

The largest sources of SO2 emissions are from power plant fossil fuel combustion.

SO2 is one of the causes of localized “acid rain”.

SO2 can react with other compounds in the atmosphere to form small particles which are easily inhaled.

Sulfur Dioxide is listed as a “criteria pollutant” by the US EPA.36

Health Effects: Constriction of the airways (more severe in people with asthma); bronchitis-like conditions from chronic exposure. Particles created by SO2 emissions can cause or worsen respiratory disease, such as emphysema and bronchitis. They can also aggravate existing heart disease, leading to increased hospital admissions and premature death.

*Note: Information and data taken from the EPA website (unless otherwise noted). More information  can be found at http://www.epa.gov.   

www.pacificenvironment.org

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Don’t Become a Statistic: Protect Your Community

Photo: University of Pittsburg

It  has  been  shown  that  there  are  links  between  socio‐economic  factors  (ex:  edu‐ cation,  income,  occupation)  and  people’s  health. This may be due to the fact that, in  general, people with lower incomes tend to  live in more environmentally polluted areas,  have  reduced  access  to  health  care,  and  in  some  cases,  suffer  a  language  barrier  that  puts  them  at  a  disadvantage  for  receiving  services.  In  Contra  Costa  County,  working  class  communities  of  color,  in  particular,  bear a disproportionate share of health risk  due to environmental factors. Increased health risks may include elevated instances of cancer, asthma,  heart attacks and other serious health problems related to higher exposures to toxic air contaminants.  Here are some statistics: • According to Contra Costa Health Services, the hospitalization rate for asthma in African American children in Contra Costa County is four times higher than that for Caucasian children.37 • Residents of Bay Point can expect on average to die 11 years sooner than those living in Orinda.38 • Chronic diseases like asthma, heart disease, and diabetes have become the leading causes of death and disability, disproportionately impacting low-income and minority communities.39 • In a recent UCLA study, women who live in areas with the highest levels of air pollutants have three times the risk of having babies with birth defects than those living in areas with the cleanest air.40 • Estimated toxic air pollution related cancer risk in the Antioch area is 30-60 times higher than the level commonly deemed acceptable in California (assuming lifetime exposure).41 • The incidence of stroke and cancer related deaths in Contra Costa County are both significantly higher than the state average.42 • Rates of breast cancer are more disproportionate for women in Contra Costa County over other women in the state, and especially amongst African-American women.43

The bottom line is that Contra Costa County residents are already exposed to some of the highest levels  of  toxic  emissions  in  the  entire  state  of  California,  and  often  suffer  poor  air  quality  as  a  result.  In  addition, although only one out of nine Bay Area counties, Contra Costa is forced to bear over half of  the electricity generation, along with the associated environmental and health effects.   www.pacificenvironment.org

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Photo: Renewable Energy Center

Pacific Environment

April 2010

Take  Action  Today!  Everyone  has  the  right  to  breathe  clean  air,  and  now  is  the  time  for  Contra  Costa  County  residents  to  demand  this  right.  Good  jobs  do  not  have  to  come  at  the  price  of  your  family’s  health;  there  is  another  way  to  create  jobs  in  the  energy  sector  without relying on polluting fossil fuels.   According  to  a  recent  study,  while  overall  employment  fell  by  one  percent  in  California  from  2007  to  2008,  growth  in  green  businesses  grew  by  5  percent,  and  the  Bay  Area  led  the  rest  of  the  State  in  the  creation of clean energy jobs.44 This is an emerging field that promises  future  growth,  as  we  are  inevitably  heading  towards  a  renewable  energy  future,  and  California’s  utilities  will  be  forced  to  comply  with  the State’s renewable portfolio standard (33% of the State’s energy must be renewable by 2020). In order  to  provide  quality  “green”  jobs  for  Contra  Costa  County  community  members,  local  leaders  should  be  working to attract the type of “clean tech” companies that are currently being created in California.  Contact  your  state  and  federal  representatives!  Tell  them  you  oppose  these  two  new  facilities  in  Contra  Costa County, and that you want to see incentives to attract green businesses to Contra Costa County:  Assemblywoman Joan Buchanan: 916‐319‐2015 (Oakley)  Assemblyman Tom Torlakson: 916‐319‐2011 (Antioch)  Senator Mark De Saulnier: 916‐651‐4007  Congressman John Garamendi: 202‐225‐1880  Glossary of Terms Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD): Regional agency charged with planning, regulatory authority and  enforcement to achieve air quality standards in the nine‐county Bay Area.  California Air Resources Board (CARB): is the "clean air agency" of the California State Government, and part of the California  Environmental  Protection  Agency.  Goals  include  attaining  and  maintaining  healthy  air  quality,  protecting  the  public  from  exposure to toxic air contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations.  California  Energy  Commission  (CEC):  California’s  primary  energy  policy  and  planning  agency,  responsible  for  deciding  future  energy needs, promoting energy efficiency, and supporting renewable energy technologies.  California  Public  Utilities  Commission  (CPUC  or  PUC):  commission  that  regulates  privately‐owned  utilities  in  the  state  of  California including electric power, telecommunication, natural gas, and water companies. Headquarters are in San Francisco.  Criteria  pollutant  (criteria  air  contaminant):  air  pollutants  listed  by  the  US  EPA  as  especially  harmful  to  air  quality,  and  must  adhere to national regulation standards for air quality. These compounds are known to cause smog, acid rain, and human and  environmental health hazards.  Megawatt (MW): Measurement for energy production. A megawatt is equal to 1000 watts.   Once through cooling (OTC): System of cooling industrial facilities, such as power plants. Pulls water directly from a water source  (river,  lake,  ocean),  runs  it  though  the  facility,  and  ejects  it  back  where  it  came  from.  Thermal  pollution  from  OTC  causes  environmental effects, such as changes in habitat, loss of biodiversity, and other ecological impacts.  Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) list: Available from the US EPA, the TRI is a publicly available database containing information on  toxic releases and other waste management activities in the United States.  United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA, or EPA): Federal government agency responsible for the protection of  human health and the environment. Writes and enforces regulations based on laws passed by Congress. 

www.pacificenvironment.org

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Endnotes: 1. The power plants referred to here are Contra Costa 6 & 7. 2. The two existing OTC plants, Contra Costa 6 &7, ran less than four percent of the time in 2006 according to the California Energy Commission. http://www.energy.ca.gov/siting/documents/2008-05-20_CHAIRMAN_SWRCB.PDF 3. See: www.co.contra-costa.ca.us/depart/cd/transportation/cleanairplan.pdf 4. http://energyalmanac.ca.gov/powerplants/POWER_PLANTS.XLS 5. For more information, visit http://www.scorecard.org/env-releases/county.tcl?fips_county_code=06013#maps.) 6. See: http://www.epa.gov/region09/toxic/tri/report/07/tri-ca.html 7. Scorecard: The Pollution Information Website, Criteria Air Pollutant Report for Contra Costa County, available at http://www.scorecard.org/envreleases/cap/county.tcl?fips_county_code=06013 8. See Air Resources Board, Facility Search Engine, available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/ei/disclaim.htm 9. See www.co.contra-costa.ca.us/depart/cd/transportation/cleanairplan.pdf 10. Ibid. 11. See, e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cleaning Up Common Pollutants, available at http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/peg/cleanup.html; California Air Resources Board, Asthma and Air Pollution, available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/asthma/asthma.htm 12. “Low income” is here defined as earning less than 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). In 2005, 200% of the FPL was around 19K/year for individuals and 32K for a family of three. See Community Health Indicator for Contra Costa County, Community Health Assessment, Planning and Evaluation Group Executive Report (June 2007), available at http://cchealth.org/health_data/hospital_council_2007 13. See Contra Costa Health Services, Blueprint for Asthma Action: A Report for Awareness and Advocacy in Contra Costa County, available at www.cchealth.org/topics/asthma/pdf/blueprint_for_asthma_cover.pdf) 14. See Department of Health and Human Services, 2002 15. Ibid 16. See Contra Costa Asthma Coalition, available at http://www.calendow.org/uploadedFiles/CAFA3_CCscreen.pdf 17. http://www.pediatricasthma.org/about/asthma_burden, citing Wang LY, Zhong Y, Wheeler L. “Direct and Indirect Costs of Asthma in School-Age Children.” Preventing Chronic Disease , 2(1): [serial online], January 2005 18. See EPA report of the environment- human disease and condition: http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=list.listBySubTopic&lv=list.listByChapter&ch=49&s=381 19. American Lung Association. 2008. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fact sheet. Accessed February 2009. http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=9oICLOOxGrF&b=1541153 20. EPA report of the environment- human disease and condition: http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=list.listBySubTopic&lv=list.listByChapter&ch=49&s=381 21. Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution, Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. 287, No. 9: 1132-1141) 22. EPA report of the environment- human disease and condition: http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=list.listBySubTopic&lv=list.listByChapter&ch=49&s=381 23. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2004. Air quality criteria for particulate matter. Volumes I (EPA/600/P-99/002aF) and II (EPA/600/P99/002bF). National Center for Environmental Assessment—RTP Office, Office of Research and Development. 24. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Public Health and the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBCMP) http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/155/1/17.pdf 25. United States (1999). “Chronic Disease Overview” US Government. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/overview_text.htm. 26. National Center for Health Statistics. 2001. Healthy people 2000 final review. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service. p. 208. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hp2000/hp2k01-acc.pdf 27. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Public Health and the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBCMP)http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/155/1/17.pdf 28. Behrman, R.E., and A. Stith Butler, eds. 2007. Preterm birth: Causes, consequences, and prevention. Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Washington, DC: National Academic Press. 29. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Public Health and the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBCMP) http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/155/1/17.pdf 30. For more information on the health effects of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), see http://www.epa.gov/air/nitrogenoxides/health.html 31. For more information on the dangers and health effects of ozone, see “Smog - Who Does it Hurt?”, downloadable at http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/health.html 32. For more information on the health effects of Carbon Monoxide (CO), see http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/co/hlth1.html 33. For more information on health effects from particulate matter pollution, see http://www.epa.gov/air/particlepollution/health.html 34. For more information on CO2 domes, see Mark Jacobson’s research “Enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO2 domes” http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es903018m?cookieSet=1&journalCode=esthag 35. To see exactly which Toxic Air Contaminants are coming out of industries in your area, please refer to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District’s reports on Toxic Air Contaminant inventories: http://www.baaqmd.gov/Divisions/Engineering/Air-Toxics/Toxic-Air-ContaminantControl-Program-Annual-Report.aspx 36. For more information on the health effects of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), see http://www.epa.gov/air/sulfurdioxide/health.html 37. Contra Costa Health Services, Health Disparities in Contra Costa, available at http://cchealth.org/groups/rhdi/pdf/health_disparities_in_cc.pdf 38. Community Health Indicators for Contra Costa County, 2007. Prepared by the Community Health Assessment, Planning and Evaluation Group (CHAPE), Public Health Division, Contra Costa Health Services. 39. Contra Costa Health Services, Health Disparities in Contra Costa, available at http://cchealth.org/groups/rhdi/pdf/health_disparities_in_cc.pdf 40. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Public Health and the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBCMP) http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/155/1/17.pdf 41. Bay Area Air Quality Management District, Regional Toxics Modeling and Cancer Risk Evaluation, CARE Task Force Meeting, Staff Power Point Presentation (Sept. 17, 2008). See U.S. EPA, Cleaning Up Common Pollutants, available at http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/peg/cleanup.html 42 & 43 Ibid  44. http://www.nextten.org/next10/pdf/NT_state_Release_FINAL.pdf

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Pacific Environment

April 2010

Written by: Andrea Barnetche, Pacific Environment Andrea is currently a volunteer with the California Energy Program at Pacific Environment. She has a Masters Degree in Environmental Management from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, and a B.S. in Evolution, Ecology, and Biodiversity from the University of California, Davis. Edited by: Rory Cox, California Energy Program Director, Pacific Environment

PACIFIC ENVIRONMENT protects the living environment of the Pacific Rim by promoting grassroots activism, strengthening communities, and reforming international policies.

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