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CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)


1.- SPANISH POPULATION. Spain has got 46 million people. At the beginning of XX century Spain had 19 million inhabitants, so it was a great increase. It’s the 5th population in Europe, and people are irregularly distributed: Madrid is densely populated, sparsely populated around it, and near the coasts is highly populated again.

1.1.- BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION: A.- Population Density: is the number of people per square kilometer. The population density in Spain is about 92 inhabitants per km2. The European population density is about 115 inhabitants/ km2. B.- Rural population: (people who live in towns). In Spain 22% of people live in towns under 10.000 inhabitants. Last century in the sixties the population in little towns was higher, but many people migrated to big cities (Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao…) looking for a job and better conditions, so many villages in the interior lost a lot of people. C.- Urban population: about 78% of people live in cities (bigger than 10.000 inhabitants). This rate has been increasing during last century because there were more jobs in cities, than in little towns. D.- Total population: is the number of people who live in a territory (city, country…). The Population census is a document that tells us the number of people who live in a place. We have to fill it out every 10 years. Every town has a population registry where it registers all the births and deaths from that place.


CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

1.2.- EVOLUTION OF THE SPANISH POPULATION. 1.- Birth rate (natality): is the number of childbirths per 1,000 people per year. Nowadays, in our country the number of child for every woman is about 1.4. It’s very low compared with the one at the beginning of XX century (about 4.7). It indicates that the population doesn’t grow despite the better living conditions, and this is because of the women’s entry into the job market. 2.- Death rate (mortality): is the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year. It has decreased (mostly child mortality) if we compare it with many years ago. This decrease is a result of the better health and food conditions. Nowadays there are lots of hospitals and labor care. 3.- Life expectancy: is the average age that a person lives for. The decrease of the child death rate and the increase of the number of years that people lives for, is the reason that the life expectancy is higher and higher. In Spain, the life expectancy is 78 years for men and 84 years for women. This is the for the population’s grown older and older. There are more people over 65 and less of a young population. 4.- Population movements: are movements of people from their hometowns to other cities or countries. They are looking for better living conditions (better jobs, education, safety…). Two movements: a.- Emigration: When a person goes to another place to find a better job. b.- Immigration: When a person comes from another place. Till sixties, in the last century, many people from Spain migrated to other countries (emigrants), but from the seventies there were lots of people who came here looking for jobs (immigrants). Now things are changing because of the financial crisis, and many immigrants are returning back to their countries, and many Spanish young people are migrating to other countries looking for a living. 5.- Population Pyramid: is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups and sex in a population of a country or city, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. In the lower part is the number of children, in the middle part is the number of adults, and the older population is represented at the top. Looking at its shape we can analyze the evolution or births, women and men ages, population longevity, and other information. The current population pyramid in Spain shows a base narrower and narrower because of the decrease of the birth rate, and its very high because our life expectancy is very long. It has got a pear-shape. Old people Adults Children


CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

2.- ECONOMICAL ACTIVITIES IN SPAIN. Children under 16 and students, people older than 65 (retired people) and people with some special problems or needs (disabled people) form what we can call ‘non working population’ (inactive population). People who are between 16 and 65 years old are called ‘working population’ (active population). In Spain there are 22 million people who are in the working population. Here we find two groups: .- Employed: people who have a job. .- Unemployed: people who haven’t got a job. Nowadays with this financial crisis, more than 5 million people are unemployed, that is more than 20% of working population is looking for a job. People who had a job but now they are unemployed, receive an unemployment benefit during a period of time that help them till they find another job. When this help finishes they can receive another compensation (about 480 €) for some months more. Economical activities are for getting natural resources, these resources are manufactured, distributed, sold and consumed. We divide these economical activities into three sectors: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors.

3.- SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY. 3.1.- PRIMARY SECTOR: Primary sector are activities in order to obtain natural products from nature. These activities are agriculture, cattle farming, fishing, hunting, forest exploitation and mining. We can consume many products directly (fruit…), but we have to manufacture others. All these resources are called raw material. Only a few people work in this sector, because of the mechanization. 1.- Agriculture: was a very important sector because many people worked on it. The main crops are cereals, potatoes, olives, fruit and vegetables. Nowadays there are different types (apart of the traditional ones: dry land and irrigated land), greenhouse land, ecological agriculture, transgenic agriculture… 2.- Cattle farming: is very mechanized. There are farming of sheep, cows, poultry, and pigs.


CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

3.- Fishing: There are two types: .- Coastal fishing: when they fish near the coasts with little ships. .- Deep-sea fishing: They are fishing during some months very far away from home. 4.- Mining: its importance is declining (coal, iron…)

3.2.- SECONDARY SECTOR: Secondary Sector includes activities are dedicated to transforming natural products into manufactured ones. We can include industry, construction, and energy production. There are different kinds of industries: 3.2.1.- Heavy industry, chemical and energy: iron and steel industry, energy, chemical industry… 3.2.2.- Manufacturing industry: produce finished goods: cars, tools, machines, TVs, computers… 3.2.3.- Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients into food, or of food into other forms (drinks, canned food, milky food… 3.2.4.- Construction industry: homebuilding (to build houses, flats…) and public works (roads, bridges, railways…). Nowadays this kind o construction industry is on a really hard crisis. 3.3.- TERTIARY SECTOR: Tertiary sector includes activities dedicated to provide different services like transport, trade, tourism… 3.3.1.- Trade: can be inside the country or with other countries. In this case we can speak about importation and exportation. 3.3.2.- Tourism: is very important in our country. We receive people mainly from Europe but people from all over the world as well. There are many people working in hotels, restaurants, bars… 3.3.3.-Public Administration and Social Services: like education, Health Care, police, fire department. 3.- Transport: has been improving during last years. There are terrestrial transport (railways, and transport by roads), sea transport, and by air. 4.- Other services: There are also other necessary services like banks, lawyers…


CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

GLOSARY-VOCABULARY: at the beginning: al principio

century: siglo

inhabitants: habitants

increase: incremento

densely: densamente

sparsely populated: poco poblado

to migrate: emigrar

to look for: buscar

square kilometer: km. cuadrado

job: trabajo

rate: índice (estadístico)

living conditions: condiciones de vida

population census: censo de población

population registry: padrón (registro de población)

birth rate: natalidad

death rate: mortalidad

nowadays: en nuestros dias

low: bajo

to grow: crecer

despite: a pesar de

job market: Mercado del trabajo

to decrease: descender

labor care: atención en el parto

life expectancy: esperanza de vida

average: media estadística

movement: movimiento

safety: seguridad

emigration: emigración

immigration: inmigración

the sixties: los años sesenta

financial crisis: crisis económica

to return back: regresar

looking for a living: buscando un medio de vida.

Population pyramid: pirámide de población

graphical illustration: ilustración gráfica

Age groups: grupos de edad

shape: forma

sex groups: grupos por sexos

At the top: en la parte de arriba

to analyze: analizar

longevity: longevidad

To show: enseñar, mostrar

pear-shape: forma de pera

Current population: población actual

Narrower and narrower: cada vez más estrecho

retired people: jubilados

Disabled people: discapacitados

working population: población active

needs: necesidades

Non working population: población no activa Unemployed: desempleados

employed: empleados

unemployment benefit: subsidio de desempleo

Compensation: compensación, ayuda

natural resources: recursos naturales

Manufactured: manufacturados

sold: vendidos

nature: naturaleza

Cattle farming: ganadería

fishing: pesca

hunting: caza

Mining: minería

Forest exploitation: explotación forestal

Raw material: materias primas

mechanization: mecanización main crops: principales cosechas

Dry land: secano

irrigated land: regadío

Ecological agriculture: agricultura ecológica

greenhouse invernadero

transgenic agriculture: agricultura transgénica

Cows: vacuno (vacas)

poultry: aves (avicultura)

coastal fisihing: pesca de bajura

Deep-sea fishing: pesca de altura

declining: descendiendo

iron and steel: hierro y acero

Chemical industry: industria química

consumer products: bienes de consumo (coches, tv,…)


CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

Prívate building: construcción privada

public Works: trabajos de obras públicas

To provide: proveer, suministrar

trade: comercio

importation: importación

Exportation: exportación

to improve: mejorar

terrestrial transport: transporte terreste

Sea transport: transporte marítimo

to receive: recibir

all over the world: todo el mundo

Also: también

paid by the state: pagado por el estado

Health service: servicio de sanidad

fire department: bomberos


Notes about population and economical activities in Spain.