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NUTRITION

C.E.I.P. Santa Ana (Madridejos)

A.- HUMAN BEING VITAL FUNCTIONS: 1.- Nutrition: gives you energy and materials necessary for life. There are some systems for doing this function: .- Digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, and excretory system. 2.- Interaction: permits you to interact with the environment. Your body gives different responses to different stimulus . To do this function we have: .- Sense organs, nervous system, the skeleton and muscles. 3.- Reproduction: all living beings can create new beings similar to them. The organisms that reproduce are called progenitors, and the new ones are called descendents. For this reason every person has got reproductive organs (male or female reproductive system).

A.- NUTRITION. Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented with a healthy diet. Nutrients are useful substances we can get from food, air, water‌ We need them for our lives. Nutrition consist of extracting nutrients and oxygen, distributing them around the body and excreting the residues. .-TYPES OF NUTRIENTS: .- Proteins: Proteins are found in everybody cells, they help us grow and are essential for many body functions. Proteins are made up of amino acids that the body uses to develop bone, muscle, skin, and blood. We can find them in fish, meat and milk products, eggs... .- Carbohydrates: give the body energy. We can find them in cereals, potatoes (starches), and sugar (in fruits). .- Fat: supply lots of energy, more than twice as much as the same weight in proteins or carbohydrates. They are animal and vegetable fats.


NUTRITION

C.E.I.P. Santa Ana (Madridejos)

The Food Pyramid.

.- Minerals: minerals help the body in many ways. They help build bones and teeth… Minerals help muscles work the way they should. We can find them in fruit and vegetables… .- Vitamins: Vitamins do many things to help the body grow and stay healthy. We can also find them in fruit and vegetables. .- Water Much of the body is water. It carries the other nutrients to all parts of the body. It carries waste from all parts of the body. We can also get it from any liquid and fruit... A HEALTHY DIET. A diet is the amount and variety of food that we eat. We must eat a balanced diet (with lots of different types of food and nutrients on it). We can follow the ‘Food Pyramid’.

A.1.- DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller units called nutrients that are more easily absorbed into a bloodstream and give material and energy to our body.

The digestive system is formed the digestive tract, and the digestive glands. .- The Digestive tract what is a muscular tube formed by mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. .- The Digestive glands are salivary glands, liver and pancreas.

THE DIGESTION PROCESS: .- The mouth is a cavity with the tongue at its base, and teeth. They break the food into smaller pieces creates a larger surface area for the action of enzymes in saliva; these begin to digest the food. There are salivary glands that produce saliva, that moistens food and so helps form it into a ball, called a bolus, that is easily swallowed. .- The bolus passes down the pharynx, through the oesophagus into the stomach. .- The stomach is a muscular bag that continues the digestive process. The food is mixed with gastric juices by contractions of muscles in the stomach wall. By that time, the food has become a semi-liquid (called chyme) that can be released into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). . The intestines form a continuous tube that is about 8 m long in adults. In the small intestine, muscle contractions mix chyme with enzymes produced by the pancreas and the bile from the liver and form a paste called chyle. It is here that nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream by the veins and capillaries.


NUTRITION

C.E.I.P. Santa Ana (Madridejos)

In the large intestine, water is absorbed from the digestive waste, and the faeces are excreted through the anus.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM GLOSARY-VOCABULARY: Nutrition: nutrición

interaction: interacción, relación.

Descendent: descendiente

Nutrients: nutrientes

excrete: excretar, expulsar

proteins: proteínas

Fat: grasa, lípidos

Carbohydrates: carbohidratos

Vitamins: vitaminas.

Healthy diet: dieta sana

food pyramid: pirámide alimenticia Digestion: digestion

Glands: glándulas

Digestive tract: tubo digestive

Pharynx: faringe

salivary glands: glándulas salivares oesophagus: esófago.

Stomach: stómago

gastric juices: jugo gastric

chime: quimo

Chyle: quilo

duodenum: duodeno

liver: hígado

Large intestine: intes. grueso small intestine: intestino delgado Gall bladder: vesícula biliar WRITE YOUR OWN WORDS:

bolus: bolo alimenticio

faeces: heces, caca.


NUTRITION. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. English