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GENERATIVE ALGORITHMS CONCEPTS and EXPERIMENTS: Strip Morphologies

ZUBIN KHABAZI


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Generative Algorithms Concepts and Experiments

3_Strip Morphologies

Zubin Khabazi

Š 2011 Zubin M Khabazi This book produced and published digitally for public use. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without permission from the author, except in the context of reviews. To see the latest updates visit my website or for enquiries contact me at:

www.MORPHOGENESISM.com zubin.khabazi@gmail.com


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Generative Algorithms, Concepts and Experiments

We all are witnessing a rapid growth of digital design tools which are pushing the boundaries of design in any possible way. Parametric Softwares, Plug-ins, Add-ons, Scripts and Toolsets are developing so fast and designers add them into their available catalogue of tools every day, simple and sweet! At the same time, there is a growing interest between architects and designers to use new concepts in their projects to leave the notion of postmodern ‘concept’ and pursue a new line of form generation through application of material systems, bottom-up design methods, bio-informed structures, etc. Here, search for new possibilities, new material systems, new algorithms, and generally new methods of design and fabrication is in the front line of researchers and designers. MORPHOGENESISM, looks for such new design methods, new material systems / organizations and new algorithms of design, in ‘Generative Algorithms’, as a representative of current researches in the studio considering physical experiments in combination with digital algorithms. It is believed here that the circulation of ideas would help the community of designers to explore more and more, and feedback of this circulation will again reshape the studio in a ‘connected network of minds’. After Weaving structures and Porous Shell Systems as generative design experiments, the third of the series ‘Generative Algorithms, Concepts and Experiments’ focused on Strip morphologies as a light weight material system for design. I hope this topic would be useful as a technique / system and be ‘Generative’ for your design purposes.

Zubin Khabazi MORPHOGENESISM Master of Architecture / AA


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Contents 1_Generatice Algorithms, Concepts and Experiments_3_Strip Morphologies ....................... 5 1_1_Introduction................................................................................................................................... 5 1_2_Strip Morphologies ....................................................................................................................... 5 2_A Design Experiment: AA Terrace Canopy ................................................................................ 10 2_1_EmTech Construction Projects ............................................................................................... 10 2_2_Design Agenda .......................................................................................................................... 11 2_3_System Development ............................................................................................................... 11 2_4_Design Development: Physical / Digital Experiments of the System ........................... 13 2_5_Detail / Fabrication Technique Elaboration ...................................................................... 15 2_6_Design Finalization: Output ..................................................................................................... 18 3_Algorithm .............................................................................................................................................. 19 3_1_Design Algorithm ........................................................................................................................... 19 3_2_Fabrication Algorithm................................................................................................................... 30 4_ Outlook : Further development and other applications ....................................................... 44 _Bibliography........................................................................................................................................... 49 _Notes ....................................................................................................................................................... 50


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1_Generatice Algorithms, Concepts and Experiments_3_Strip Morphologies

1_1_Introduction

Building Industry always looks for technological advances to speed up the construction process, to increase the quality and to implement new features that come up with such technologies in buildings. Flat-sheet materials are among those materials that their use largely increases, due to the fact that in terms of material and also fabrication necessities they are widely available in the market, and in terms of design tendencies they are compatible with the current digital and parametric approaches for designer. Metal-sheet in different types, shapes, patterns and thicknesses, aluminum and copper sheets, different veneer, MDF, HDF and wooden sheets are some of the Flat-sheet materials which are widely available in the market. There are composite sheets, plastic, poly carbonated, plexiglass, fiberglass and other types of artificial materials which are also available in sheets as well. On the other hand, machineries which are able to fabricate design products by these sheet materials, like Laser cutters, CNC machines or Water-jets, are also become available almost everywhere, and economically reasonable to hire as fabrication tools. Not only availability of the Flat-sheet materials caused a growth in their usage in the industry, but also architects like to design projects with thin and highly flexible envelopes and with controllable flexibility to generate free form architecture. This tendency to design free form architecture instrumentalized by advanced design methods using different parametric software packages, dominantly affected the new age designers. This design tendency highly adapted to the use of flat sheet materials which materialize the free form surfaces in digital design space. Considering both tendency and availability, Flat-sheet materials seem to be the representative of freeform surfaces in digital design which are widely used in current design agendas worldwide.

1_2_Strip Morphologies

Strips are long, narrow pieces of thin sheet materials. They can be cut out of a sheet material like pieces with small width and long length. Mobius strip is a well-known form of strip. By themselves, strips do not usually bear any load, get any desired shape or show noticeable consistency. Strips are light weight and easy to shape. In so many cases they seem to be useless, like shredded papers which sound useful only for protection of goods in boxes. As contemporary architecture looks for new and creative material systems, strips show themselves among the catalogue of possible options for more explorations. Looking at different potentials of strips, especially considering them in large accumulations, they seem to be interesting for more studies and


6 experiments for use in architecture and built environment. While any one piece of strip by itself might be too weak, a crucial assembly and set up of multiple strip geometries might be a solution for some design problems of today’s multi-purpose architecture. ‘Generative Algorithms’ is a platform for research by design and experiment. Through Generative Algorithms, it is aimed to look into such systems more in depth, with especial methods, algorithms and physical and digital experiments needed to realize some of the potentials of such systems for further development and use in design issues.

Fig.1.1. A simple inter-connected paper strip


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Fig.1.2. Accumulation, interconnection and generally Experiments with paper strips.


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Fig.1.3. Accumulation of paper strips.

Strips have some properties and potentials which worth to have a look briefly before any experiment. Properties_Based on their geometry, size and material, they are: _light weight, not bear load, flexible shape, have a bit elasticity (based on the thickness), easily bent but with a degree of bending based on its material, non stiff, not same behavior in all directions Potentials_Based on their geometry, size and material, they are: _Capable of attachment together and generate pre-tensioned or pre-shaped modules, Capable of generating load bearing modules based on their bending properties in certain geometries and combinations, Capable of generating 3D geometries based on multiple attachments.


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Fig.1.4. A curved surface made by multiple attachments of flat piece paper-strips.


10 2_A Design Experiment: AA Terrace Canopy

2_1_EmTech Construction Projects

Emergent Technologies and Design (EmTech) master program at Architectural Association, (AA) School of Architecture, London, is a Research by Design course, each year tests its achievements of its general objectives throughout a middle scale, one to one construction project. In 2007 and 2009, the subject was a canopy for the AA terrace. These projects help students to utilize all their understandings in a real design-fabrication experience, work with professionals and collaborate together in large work groups. Projects are collaborated with Buro Happold Engineers, London led by Wolf Mangelsdorf. New experimentations with material systems, digital design and fabrication techniques, consideration of environmental factors, construction necessities and ups and downs are the list of issues should be met at the scale of these projects.

Fig.2.1. AA_EmTech_2007 membrane canopy


11 2_2_Design Agenda

Fig.2.2. AA Terrace (Architectural Association, 36, Bedford Square, London)

Since the AA Terrace is a public space that all students gather for refresh, for informal meetings or a coffee, the idea was to create a canopy to provide a shelter, to create shadow as a factor of comfort, channel down the rain, but at the same time, be porous to let the wind go through and does not obstruct the wind path and generally convert the terrace into a cozy place. The canopy should be light weight to avoid excessive load for the structure of the terrace and limited to three columns as already existing connections possibilities. There are fabrication and assembly considerations and limitations as well. Most of the fabrication process should be done in the school and by the students so it should be considered in the design and its associate fabrication method. It is also important to consider that AA Terrace would be closed not more than two days so time limitation for assembly is an important factor as well. The budget is also limited and should be controlled.

2_3_System Development

In parallel design groups, EmTech students started to develop various material and design systems to check their viability. Several systems were developed, evaluated and tested to see how they could be possible options for design development. These systems included Aggregate systems, double layered grid shell, component based systems and strip morphologies.


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Fig.2.3. A system comprised of strips was selected to elaborate. Early tests and mock ups by Ittai Frank and Feng Shuai and further developed by, Sara Pezeshk, Sakthivel Ramaswamy and Zubin Khabazi.

After several tests and discussions, the project made by strips was selected for further development. The concept of the system was simple; wooden strips are corrugated and connected together from their tip points. When layers of strips mount in top of each other, because of interactions and interconnections between individuals, the system behaves in a load bearing way, stands on its own, while the desired factors of the canopy are met.

Fig.2.4. Further development of the system which is comprised of continuous strip systems and their inter connections (in this experiment with cables).


13 2_4_Design Development: Physical / Digital Experiments of the System

Fig.2.5. Tests on fabrication techniques through real material experiments to inform the design (by Ittai Frank and Feng Shuai).

In order to develop the design for the specific location (AA Terrace) and based on the material system that was chosen (wooden strips), several physical and digital experiments were done through group works, each concentrated on one aspect of the project. While one developed the way strips should be made, the other worked on the connections and joints; one on the method of fabrication and the other one on the digital modeling of the whole system for final fabrication.

Fig.2.6. One-to-one mock up of a small part of the design (by Ittai Frank and Feng Shuai).


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Fig.2.7. Digital Development of the system

Fig.2.8. Early design outcomes

This part of the project focused on physical tests hand in hand with digital ones. At any stage of this part, in fact physical tests should inform digital development of the project and its modeling issues, and based on the digital modeling and its overall view, again physical tests should be derived to check the possibility and viability of each proposal to inform and manipulate the design. From this part of the project, the development of the design was accomplished by collaboration with a group of engineers from Buro Happold Engineers, London.


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2_5_Detail / Fabrication Technique Elaboration

When the first cycle of design and experiments finished, the design product was visualized and modeled, become close to the end product, so it was time to elaborate every detail of the project and decide the way the whole system wanted to be fabricated and assembled for final decisions.

Fig.2.9. Fabrication detail development in AA workshop. Each part of the strip was made by two layers of veneers and a layer of glass fiber and resin in between.


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Fig.2.10. Strip interconnection test with a real one to one model.

The group ended up in design and fabrication of almost 5 meter long strips of plywood enriched with a layer of resin and fiberglass. Although all pieces cut and provided separately for each strip, they all assembled in workshop on a jig together to make one strip parallel to the one which was the mirrored strip of the first. All strips are slided into three fins which were connected to the existing columns of the terrace. Fins made out of MDF sheets and reinforced in connection parts with steel pieces. The fabrication process scheduled to be happen in a week with final two days for assembling the whole canopy on-site.


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Fig.2.11. Material elasticity test (Tests by Ittai Frank and Feng Shuai at AA_Hook Park workshop).

Fig.2.12. Structural Detail Development with Buro Happold Engineers.


18 2_6_Design Finalization: Output

After several tests, discussions, meetings and evaluations, based on the multiple criteria that should be met (environmental, structural, material, ‌) and various aspects of the projects which realized and modeled, structural analysis that agreed by engineers, and environmental analysis that modeled by proper softwares, material support, and budget control, the design product finalized. By finalizing the design, several files with different formats were created, drawings provided in order to send them all for fabrication and manufacturing and final assembly. Material provided and shipped to the ‘Unto This Last’ company to use their CNC machine to cut pieces and then shipped back to the school for final fabrication. All wooden strips made one by one in studio, using a big 5 meter jig and clamping all pieces onto it and layering with fiber composite. All strips then sanded and varnished and finally transferred to the AA terrace in the assembly day. It took two complete days to attach fins to the columns and slide in strips, layer by layer to finally screw and fix all parts and finish the fabrication phase again all by EmTech students. The AA Terrace Canopy stood up for the End of the year AA Exhibition 2009.

Fig.2.13. Strip canopy, without fins, final version.


19 3_Algorithm

In order to build up the canopy, two main algorithms were needed: Design Algorithm and Fabrication Algorithm. The Design Algorithm is the gist of all studies, analysis and observations plus ambitions and ideas. Here, the desired canopy based on the developed material system’s properties, specifications and limitations, and by consideration of the specific site of installation is designed and developed. In order to fabricate the canopy, the Fabrication Algorithm also developed separately to convert the designed product into codes which makes is possible to digitally cut pieces for further fabrication process.

3_1_Design Algorithm

Since the algorithm by itself is not complicated, here the concept of algorithm is described, and then a brief description of the Grasshopper definition would be followed.

It is aimed to parametrically design strips which stack in top of each other in a way that corresponds to the desired general shape of the canopy (provide shade, channel down the rain, let the wind go throw, meet the veneer properties, etc, etc). Here in this algorithm, several couples of Sine-Graph like curves generated in order to extrude and create strips. The main point is to posit all these curves in a place that makes all strips slightly shifting from each other, making a cantilever structure. The height of corrugation of strips is limited to the bending properties of the veneer sheets and the size of their openings has relations with environmental factors. Each couple of strips has two mirrored strips and the total number of strips reflects the weight of the structure and budget!!!

Fig.3.1. Model of the AA Terrace where the canopy should install. The terrace has three existing columns which are going to be used for connections. Two rail curves are drawn as borders of the canopy on terrace with an initial curvature to follow.


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Fig.3.2. The overall view and flow of information in the Design Algorithm. The algorithm developed in two main parts: first generation of strips and then manipulation of them. There are several controlling factors, translated into numerical values.

Fig.3.3. The algorithm is informed by site situations by introducing two rail curves into the canvas.


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Fig.3.4. The method of curve generation (base geometry of strips) is to provide groups of points which are positioned up and down to create interpolated curves out of them. Since strips are mirrored one after each other, there should be two lists of points one to generate a Sine-Graph, and another, a literally Minus (-) Sine-Graph.

Fig.3.5. Two separate lists of points, yet without any support for corrugation.


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Fig.3.6. Generation of points in a way that provides the corrugation for the curves and also a section deviation of the edge of the strips also implemented in the algorithm. The result is visualized in the following illustrations.

Fig.3.7. Basic curves for strip generation. Here zero and 0.0920 !!! section deviation also visualized to show the difference which would result in sharper tip points for strips and potentials to manipulate overlapping later on.


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Fig.3.8. While base curves are ready, it is time to extrude them and generate strips. The angle of extrusion corresponds to the rain path in order to prevent drop of water inside the canopy. The strip width is set by an average value which is manipulated by a point attractor to maximize the width of those strips which go farther.

Fig.3.9. Extruded strips which are stacked in top of each other, making a porous canopy by continuous wavy strips.


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Fig.3.10. Further to the initial design, there are some manipulations needed for strips to finalize the design product. These include the amount of overlapping between strips, and general canopy rotation and movement factors.

Fig.3.11 The overlapping range of strips which is distributed between them based on their position in the canopy is set here. Generally for those strips which are in top of the canopy, strips are wider with more space available to slide over each other.

Fig.3.12. After all manipulations, the resulted geometry is ready to finalize the design.


25 _ Design Variations :

Fig.3.13. Design Variations: providing several manipulating factors for the model, it is time to generate different results based on various structural, environmental, material and site condition factors and test and analyze which one has the optimum quality for the final production.


26 _ Analysis :

Fig.3.14. In this stage, models which were developed with various factors are being tested and analyzed to check which one performs in a more desirable way and corresponds to the predefined criteria of design for a canopy system. These include structural analysis which was done by Buro Happold Engineers and environmental analysis like wind, shadow, and rain as micro climatic factors. The final factors of design should be set after all these analyzing processes.


27 _ Design Finalization :

Fig.3.15. Final Algorithm / Product view


28 _ Final Outcome :


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30 3_2_Fabrication Algorithm

As discussed earlier, the material system which was developed for the real design product was two layers of veneer sheets with a layer of fiber glass in between, to retain the wavy shape and be lightweight enough to be acceptable for the structure of the terrace.

Fig.3.16. The Material system developed for canopy using two layers of veneer strips, hardened with fiber glass in between and connected to each other by simply screwing together in AA workshop. Jheny and Ittai, cutting strips in workshop. Zubin, Sakti and Ittai, are screwing strips.


31 Now in order to fabricate the design product, all needed is to cut strips out of veneer sheets and add the fiber glass between layers with the desired form of the strip and mount them in top of each other.

Fig.3.17. First of all, each strip separated, labeled and then unrolled on a flat sheet.

Fig.3.18. Since veneer sheets provided for this project had certain size, and strips are much longer than each sheet, all strips were divided in order to fit into the sheet boundaries. And because there are two layers of each strip, projection doubled, but it is considered that cut lines do not overlap each other.


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Fig.3.19. Each part of the divided strip which is projected into the sheet boundary, again labeled and now is ready to cut. Points for screws also added to the piece in order to drill through. They used to connect strips together.

Fig.3.20. The veneer sheets were decided to be cut by CNC machine. The important algorithmic step in this part is to provide CNC machine the proper code for cutting. Although CNC machines are equipped with software which can convert the geometry into code but there are always mismatch between different softwares and this particular piece of design needed customized code as well. Here a specific algorithm developed to convert each piece to the code that machine needed with its syntax and prerequisites.


33 _ Sample code of one piece in plain text to feed the specific CNC machine we worked on:

G90 M90 G71 M25 G75 G00 T06 (T6 - Drill 6mm) G97 S16000 G00 Z-15. G00 X1320.91113615407 Y802.699090544653 M12 G83 R-12. Z.5 Q30. F33.333 M22 G00 X1116.47551205445 Y184.732218768453 M12 G83 R-12. Z.5 Q30. F33.333 M22 G00 X1321.24050180083 Y907.442130630205 M12 G83 R-12. Z.5 Q30. F33.333 M22 G00 X1117.94405798136 Y326.197097499249 M12 G83 R-12. Z.5 Q30. F33.333 M22

Z-15. G00 T21 (T21 - 9.52 mm Compression) G97 S18000 G00 Z-6. G00 X901.405383689264 Y1075.41494420684 M12 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1070.84152948897 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1066.26811080545 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1061.69471010118 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1057.12128803136 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1052.54784912739 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1047.97442740396 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1043.40100407348 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1038.82757419349 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1034.2541436389 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1029.68073970358 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1025.10732899766 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1020.53392198443 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1015.96050134597 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1011.38705692534 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1006.81360909516 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y1002.24018478125 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y997.666815805629 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y993.09334712571 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y988.519982321196 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y983.946545180658 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y979.373091506638 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y974.799720749348 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y970.226295512421 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y965.652840891273 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y961.079434356485 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y956.506023410795 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y951.932599507352 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X901.405383689264 Y947.359197829373 Z.1 F166.667 ‌ G01 X921.704946569614 Y1066.33913582898 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X918.240147897138 Y1069.32146044257 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X914.462692710226 Y1071.89408450926 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X910.355318909163 Y1073.89401903309 Z.1 F166.667 G01 X905.960065352433 Y1075.13154984192 Z.1 F166.667 G00 Z-6. M22 G00 Z-15. M22 (End) G00 X2440 Y1220 Z-200 M02


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Fig.3.21. Based on the above syntax of the CNC machine we used, here the Fabrication Algorithm should provide these codes for each piece to send to machine.


35 Generally this algorithm should extract coordinates of points and by using the syntax of the machine, tell him where to go and drill. For lines it is like a series of points which drill-bit moves between them one after each other. It is again worth mentioning that after several tests with the software of the machine, it was even the CNC operator’s choice to work with customized algorithms to provide the code.

Fig.3.22. This is the sample piece to cut.

Fig.3.23. In the Fabrication Algorithm, the very first step is to implement constant parts of the code into <String> components through their â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Manage String collectionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; part. These texts are going to be copied in the final output file.


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Fig.3.24. To provide code for drilling holes, these points are introduced to the canvas, their coordinates extracted and combined with the predefined syntax as strings.

Fig.3.25. All parts of the coordinates merged together using concatenate function (&).


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Fig.3.26. Since a constant string should be added after coordinates, first this constant text populated by the same amount of data branches that coordinates have, using <Replace String>.

Fig.3.27. Now both coordinates and constants have the same amount of data branch, they are <Merge>ed together and <Flatten> to provide the list of points for drilling.


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Fig.3.28. Constant part again.

Fig.3.29. In order to cut pieces, several points across cutting curve should be generated and their coordinates should be transferred to the machine using predefined syntax.

Fig.3.30. To provide the code, first point is separated from the others to locate the drill and then tell the machine to drill down and then continue drilling/cutting while following the coordinates from the list of points. If drill is not located each time, it would cut through the material to locate which is disaster.


39 Fig.3.31. All separate pieces of the code are merged together to provide one list. All data lists are <flatten> with same amount of data branch otherwise they would not merge together properly.

Fig.3.32. Using â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Stream Contentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the <Param>, it is possible to save the code as a plain *.txt file which is what CNC machine needs. Now it is time to send the file to CNC machine for cutting. In order to prevent engraving lot of text on the material, we wrote on them by pencils and after fabrication we erased them.


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Pieces are cut â&#x20AC;Ś remainder of the sheet should be stuffed somewhere !!!

Guys are preparing pieces to make strips on the jig â&#x20AC;Ś a tricky dirty business !!!

Strips became ready and lifted up from the basement with Modern Technologies !!!

Everything is ready on the AA terrace, time for assembly !!!


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Me and Ittai discussing … I don’t know what !!!

Mike checks how to solve little mismatches and Michael controls the orientation of canopy !!!

Guys keep screwing …. And keep screwing !!!

AA Terrace in mess … but midnight time … finally signs of happiness !!!


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And finally AA Terrace Canopy !!!!!

AA Terrace _ life under Emtech canopy


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AA Terrace canopy

AA Terrace Canopy was designed, fabricated and assembled by AA_Emtech 08-09 students while generally guided by course directors and studio masters Michael Weinstock, Michael Hensel, Achim Menges and Wolf Mangelsdorf (From Buro Happold Eng.) in collaboration with other EmTech Tutors, AA Staff and general support of AA Director, Brett Steel.

_EmTech Students (2008): Selim Bayer, Stephanie Chaltiel, Kunkun Chen, Shuai Feng, Ittai Frank, Utssav Gupta, Konstantinos Karatzas, Zubin Mohamad Khabazi, Tamara Lavrovskaya, Mohammed Makki, Maria Mingallon, Michel Moukarzel, Sara Pezeshk, Sakthivel Ramaswamy, Jheny Nieto Ropero, Revano Satria, Kyle Schertzing, Pavlos Schizas, Xia Su, Ioanna Symeonidou.


44 4_ Outlook : Further development and other applications

In order to develop a system for architectural design there are always different approaches available. It is important to look at the potentials, combine ideas and not to stock in any stage of design or research. While the AA-Canopy project utilized corrugated wooden strips, here as an example, the idea of strip morphologies mixed with a tube assembly system, and a free-form surface covered by small scale tubes which are aimed to fabricate from strips somehow.

Fig.4.1. Initial surface and two options of modelling with tubes.

Fig.4.2. Tublar free-form surface.

Fig.4.3. Observation of deformations of cells (tubes) and implementation of controlling factors inside the algorithms in order to prevent those deformations which might cause damage and collapse of the system.


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Fig.4.4. Paper-cut simply fabricated model to check the process viability.


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Fig.4.5. Physical model made by simple paper strips. Each cell is a differentiated tube which is labeled and assembled in its exact position. The general form corresponds to the form of generic NURBS surface as the input of the algorithm but cells are all made by paper strips.

Strip Morphologies / Systems as very lightweight structures seem to be useful in design for building industry. Using flat sheet materials which are widely used in contemporary architecture is a great potential since design and fabrication of these sheet materials are becoming common and machines available in the industry and softwares and plug-ins in digital world are pushing it even more. Although this paper example here is very simple in design and fabrication, here the idea is to see how different concepts and techniques could be combined to generate new design systems.

Although the current available catalogue of parametric and digital design tools, Plug-ins, Add-ons, Scripts, etc, are growing so fast and this development of digital tools enriches architectural design with so many productive tools, it is yet the duty of researchers and designers to work parallel on material / physical systems and develop the way digital and physical world should meet to actually use all these potentials and bond digital design tools and techniques with possible physical material systems; The task that is in the front line of experiments and research-by-designs of the ‘GENERATIVE ALGORITHMS’ in the ‘MORPHOGENESISM’ experimental studio of architecture.


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Fig.4.6. Final Assembled model.


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Fig.4.7. Tube assemblies made by strips.


49 _Bibliography

1. Michael Hensel, Achim Menges: ‘Morpho-Ecologies’, Architectural Association, 2008 2. Helmut Pottman, Andreas Asperl, Michael Hofer, Axel Kilian: ‘Architectural Geometry’, Bently Institute Press, 2007. 3. Mark De Berg, Marc Van Kreveld, Mark Overmars: ‘Computational Geometry’, Springer, 2000. 4. Zubin Khabazi: ‘Generative Algorithms (Using Grasshopper)’, On-line publication by www.Grasshopper3d.com, 2010. 5. Hensel, Michael and Menges, Achim and Weinstock, Michael, (Editors), 2004: “Emergence, Morphogenetic Design Strategies”, Architectural Design (AD) Journal of Architecture, Wiley Academy, London. 6. Hensel, Michael and Menges, Achim and Weinstock, Michael, (Editors), 2006: “Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design”, Architectural Design (AD) Journal of Architecture, Wiley Academy, London. 7. Hensel, Michael and Menges, Achim and Weinstock, Michael, (Editors), 2008: “Versatility and Vicissitude”, Architectural Design (AD) Journal of Architecture, Wiley Academy, London.


50 _Notes

Generative Algorithms (Using Grasshopper) Published on-line by www.Grasshopper3d.com, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Generative Algorithmsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as a mixed tutorial on geometry and grasshopper was the first of these design experiments series which focused on basic topics of computational geometry and pursued in algorithmic space of Grasshopper. These topics gathered together various fields of Generative Algorithms and Parametric Geometries include: 1. Generative Algorithms 2. The Very Beginning 3. Data sets and Math 4. Transformations 5. Parametric Space 6. Deformations and Morphing 7. NURBS Surfaces and Meshes 8. Fabrication 9. Design Strategy

The book comprised of design experiments and examples in order to open up subjects of geometry with generative design techniques from basics up to complicated algorithmic issues.


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Generative Algorithms_Concepts and Experiments_Weaving From the Introduction of the book: “In this series, ‘Generative Algorithms, Concepts and Experiments’, I am trying to search for concepts and methods, combine physical and digital experiments on topics that seem ‘Generative’ as prototypes for possible applications in architecture, to extend the catalogue of available systems and methods in design. I hope these experiments benefit your design issues or line of research, as mine.”

The first one of the series was focused on the Weaving structures and two main algorithms developed through experiments. First one was a simple weaving pattern called simple Loom while in the second experiment, a more advanced and complex pattern system of fabrics called Jacquard, developed through experiments again, and the algorithm called Jacquard Loom. The book is available to download as an on-line publication (PDF format) at www.morphogenesism.com in the Grasshopper tutorial section and in Grasshopper website.


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Generative Algorithms_Concepts and Experiments_Porous Shell Second of the series, ‘Porous Shell’ explores the development of a shell system based on a formation process of a shell of a marine micro-organism called ‘Radiolaria’. After careful study of the shell of the organism from different aspects like geometry, topology, formation process, etc, … algorithmic methods developed in order to design such shells and later on fabricate the shell from flat sheet materials. It is believed that research, design and development of systems and ideas to be generative for the design of future architecture is an important task for current researches which ‘MORPHOGENESISM’ carries on in its very core of systemic progress of its agenda.

Each book of Generative Algorithms explores some of the techniques needed for the development of parametric design in Grasshopper which corresponds to the system which is developed on that specific research. The book is available to download as an on-line publication (PDF format) at www.morphogenesism.com in the Grasshopper tutorial section and in Grasshopper website.


Generative Algorithms Concepts and Experiments 3 _ Strip Morphologies By Zubin Khabazi

www.MORPHOGENESISM.com zubin.khabazi@gmail.com

Strip Morphologies by Zubin Khabazi  

After Weaving structures and Porous Shell Systems as generative design experiments, the third of the series ‘Generative Algorithms, Concepts...

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